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Изобретение языка: концепции возникновения языка от Демокрита до А. Смита

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IINEIANEEE IAAeAAIAE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

? A O A ? A O

ia oaio

ECIA?AOAIEA ssCUEA:

EIIOeAIOeEE AICIEEIIAAIEss ssCUEA

IO AeAIIE?EOA AeI A. NIEOA

Ninoaaeea: O?ioeiiaa TH. A.,

a?. 21A7

1998 a.

2

Iaeaaeaiea

Iiiyoea ycuea. Ia?aiia/aeueiua oi?iu aai au?aaeaiey

Aeaiie?eo e yieeo?aeoeu

Aeo?oaee

I?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea a naaoa yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey

Oai?ey iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a O. Aiaana

Yoaiu noaiiaeaiey ?a/e (Iuea? Eoe Iiia?othe). Eiioeaioeey
Y. Eiiaeeeueyea

Noeoeeiinoy aicieeiiaaiey ycuea (AE.-AE. ?onni)

“Niia?aaeaiey i i?ienoiaeaeaiee e oi?iaoeee ycueia” A. Nieoa

Eiioeaioeey A. Aoiaeoa

Ei?ie ycuea a oece/aneeo aeaenoaeyo

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Iiiyoea ycuea. Ia?aiia/aeueiua oi?iu aai au?aaeaiey

sscue – iaeaieaa iauaiethuaa e iaeaieaa aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiia n?aaenoai
au?aaeaiey, eioi?ui aeaaeaao /aeiaae, e iaeiia?aiaiii aunoay oi?ia
i?iyaeaiey iauaeoeaiiai aeooa. sscue ?iaeeeny ec anoanoaaiiuo caoeia.
Oaea eaaeaeue e?ee – naiaai ?iaea ycue. *aeiaae o?oaeeeny iaae
niaa?oainoaiaaieai yoiai aaaeiiai, oioy aua e aanueia i?eieoeaiiai
n?aaenoaa iauaiey, no?aiynue i?eaeaoue e?eeo iaeoth oi?io. E?ee i?e yoii
?aniaaeaeny ia naie ninoaaiua /anoe; oae iiyaeeny ?yae caoeia, eioi?ua
nia/aea yaeyeenue oieueei iniauie caoeiauie iooaieaie e?eea. Caoee
iainiaeyeenue io e?eea, iiyoue n?anoaeenue a caoeiaua ia?aciaaiey e
i?aa?auaeenue a iniiau neia, i?e yoii iaioiieie/aneee oa?aeoa? caoeia
ea?ae ?aoathuoth ?ieue. Oaeie caoeiaie eiiieaen, eae, iai?eia?, “oi”,
iia oaea noieue io/aoeeai ioee/aoueny io ae?oaeo caoeiauo eiiieaenia
(“oa”, “oa” e o.ae.), /oi aicieeaea i?eau/ea naycuaaoue aai n iaee/eai e
iiyaeaieai eaeiai-oi ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?aaeiaoa. Iiyoiio, eiaaea iiyaeyeny
yoio i?aaeiao, iiyaeyeny eae au nai ii naaa e a iaeiie e oie aea oi?ia
yoio caoeiaie eiiieaen. Aeaiiue i?ioeann ia?aoei: aini?eyoea caoeiaiai
eiiieaena aea/ao ca niaie aicieeiiaaiea i?aaenoaaeaiey i i?aaeiaoa.
Caoeiaie eiiieaen i?aa?auaaony a iaae/aneia neiai, iaeaaeathuaa
niiniaiinoueth niaa?oaoue eieaeianoai n i?aaeiaoii (a iuoeaiee
ia?aiauoiuo ia?iaeia i?aaenoaaeaiey e ?aaeueiinoue aua aanueia e aanueia
?acee/athony). sscue aua e naaiaeiy ?anniao?eaaaony a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo
eae iaeaaeathuee iaae/aneie neeie (“caaiaa?eaaiea”, caeeeiaiea, iieeoau
e o.ae.).

Aeaiie?eo e yieeo?aeoeu

Aeaiie?eo naycuaae aicieeiiaaiea ycuea n ia?acii aeecie ia?aiauoiuo
ethaeae e n eo ioaeaeaie. Ii oae i?aaenoaaeye naaa aicieeiiaaiea
/aeiaa/anoaa. Nia/aea o ethaeae auea aeeciue, iioiaeay ia caa?eioth. Iie
a?aca?iae auoiaeeee ia ianoaeua e ieoaeenue o?aaie e ieiaeaie
aea?aaueaa. No?ao ia?aae caa?yie canoaaee eo iauaaeeieoueny e iiiiaaoue
ae?oa ae?oao. Aiein eo ia?aiia/aeueii aue ia/eaii?acaeaeueiui e
aanniuneaiiui, ii iinoaiaiii iie ia?aoee e /eaii?acaeaeueiui neiaai,
onoaiiaea ae?oa n ae?oaii neiaieu aeey eaaeaeie aaue, e oai naiui
nicaeaee n?aaenoai aeey ecuyniaiey ioiineoaeueii anaai. Oioy, eae iu
iiiiei, Ieaoii onoaie Nie?aoa iacaae a?oaui niia?aaeaiea i aeiaiai?a
iaaeaeo ethaeueie eiaiiaaoue oae eee eia/a aaue. Aeey Ieaoiia,
nicaeaoaey ie?a eaeae e ainoaea?noaa oeeinioia, ae?aaiea ethaee auee
ie/oiaeiuie e ianiiniaiuie ie i?eaeoiaoue eiaia, ie aeiaiai?eoueny ia eo
cia/aiee. Aeiaiai?iay aeiioaca, i?aaeiieaaathuay anoanoaaiiia, ia iniiaa
/aeiaa/aneeo iio?aaiinoae iiyaeaiea eiai, aieaa nicao/ia
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiio ie?iaicc?aieth. E aia?aua iia auea noi?ioee?iaaia ca
aae aei ieaoiiianeiai “E?aoeea” ciaiaieoui oeeinioii-iaoa?eaeenoii
aioe/iinoe Aeaiie?eoii (V—IV aa. aei i. y.). Aai yioeeeeiiaaee/aneea
ciaiey, aeoaeia iuoeaiey, oe?ioa oeeinioneiai ioaaoa aii?inia (ii neiaai
A?enoioaey, ii “?aciuoeye iai anai”) nicaeaee aio aieueoie iao/iue
aaoi?eoao n?aaee oeeinioia. Aianoa ni naiei o/eoaeai Eaaeeiiii ii
yaeyaony iniiaiiieiaeieeii oeeinioee aoiiecia e aeaoa?ieiecia.

A yoii ?annoaeaeaiee iao?oaeii oniio?aoue iinoaiiaeo iao/iie caaea/e:
eae i?iecioae ia?aoiae io ia/eaii?acaeaeueiuo, iainiuneaiiuo caa?eiuo
caoeia e /eaii?acaeaeueiiio ecuyniaieth neiaa. Iu ia ciaai, iuoaeny ee
Aeaiie?eo ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, ii oi, /oi ii naeaeae aai
i/aaeaeiui. aeey ian aia niiiaiee.

I?eaaaeaiiua ?annoaeaeaiey Aeaiie?eoa eaaei iauyniytho ?aciiia?acea
ycueia e ieaiai. Iineieueeo ethaee ninoaaeyee neiaa neo/aeiui ia?acii (a
ia “ii i?e?iaea aauae”), iinoieueeo a ?aciuo /aeiaa/aneeo iauaaeeiaieyo
nicaeaaaeenue ?aciua ycuee. Iauaaeeiaiey ethaeae, ?aca?inaiiua ii anaio
ie?o, iieiaeeee ia/aei ?aciui ieaiaiai n eo “?aciicao/iuie” ycueaie.

Yieeo? e yieeo?aeoeu, i?iaeieaeay o?aaeeoeeth Aeaiie?eoa, aianee naie
aeiaaaeaiey e ooi/iaiey a aeiaiai?ioth oai?eth. Yieeo?, iai?eia?,
iieaaae, /oi i?aaeaea, /ai ieaiaia onoaiiaeee iaicia/aiey aauae, o ieo
?acaeeenue iniaua niiniau auaeuoaiey aicaeooa. Aeaei a oii, /oi
/aeiaa/aneay i?e?iaea aiiaua e aia/aoeaiey ethaeae a iniaaiiinoe
eniuouaatho neeueiia aicaeaenoaea ie?oaeathueo aauae e ianoiinoe, aaea
aeeaao ieaiy. Iniaaiiua aia/aoeaiey, eniuouaaaiua ethaeueie ?aciuo
ieaiai, aucuaatho iniaia auaeuoaiea aicaeooa, /oi e i?eaaei
aiineaaenoaee e iiyaeaieth ?acee/iuo ycueia, a ia i?inoi neo/aeiinoue
onoaiiaeaiey eiai, eae iieaaae Aeaiie?eo.

Iaeiaei i?inoia auaeuoaiea aicaeooa ieacaeinue ieioei n?aaenoaii
“acaeiiniiauaiey”, oae eae iii auei aeaoniuneaiiui e iaaeinoaoi/ii
naeaoui. *oiau ioaeaeaoueny io yoeo iaaeinoaoeia, ethaee ieaiai “niiaua
onoaiiaeee iniaua iaicia/aiey” (caaea?aeei aieiaiea ia yoie
a?aoiaioaoeee Yieeo?a: ethaee niiaua e niciaoaeueii — oioy, n
nia?aiaiiie oi/ee c?aiey, iineaaeiaa ia i?eioeeieaeueii — ecaaaeyeenue
io oiai, /oi iaoaei ei a iauaiee, a ia oieueei a “ecuyniaiee” naay eee
aauae: aeaoniuneaiiinoue i?eaiaeeo e iaiiieiaieth niaanaaeieea,
aeeeiiiou — e iayeiiiiiiio ?anoiaeo yia?aee aiai?yuaai e ooiieaieth
neooathuaai, /oi au?aaeaaony a iaeiii ec i?eioeeiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
ycuea — naeaoeai caoeiaie e niuneiaie noi?iiu ycueiauo au?aaeaiee;
a?aoiaioaoeeth Yieeo?a iiaeii iacaaoue ia?aui a enoi?ee oeeinioee
ia?auaieai e i?ioeanno eiiioieeaoeee).

E?iia neia, onoaiiaeaiiuo aeey aauae, ethaee ecia?aee neiaa aeey
aano?aeoiuo iiiyoee eee oaeeo aauae, eioi?ua iaeuecy aini?eiyoue,
iai?eia? aoiiu. Yoi yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii oiai, /oi ?acoi ooi/iee
ia?aaeaiiia /aeiaaeo i?e?iaeie e “ioe?ue eia-/oi naa?o yoiai”.

Oaea yieeo?aaoe Aeeiaai ec Yiiaiaeu (II a. i.y.) aunooiee n ?aceie
e?eoeeie eaeae “onoaiiaeoaey eiai”. Oio aeiaiae, eioi?ue Ieaoii ne?uoii
iiae?acoiaaae a ?annoaeaeaieyo Nie?aoa (onoaiiaeoaeue eiai aeieaeai aue
au nia/aea iiciaoue nouiinoue anao aauae, a caoai nicaeaoue ana eiaia,
/oi iaaiciiaeii), Aeeiaai auneacae yaii: ai-ia?auo, aei onoaiiaeaiey
eiai ia auei ie caoeia, ie aoea e nicaeaaaoue eiaia auei ia ec /aai;
ai-aoi?uo, iaaiciiaeii iaeiiio nia?aoue oaeia iiiaeanoai eiai, a anee ii
e niaa?ao, oi “niaoiaa anaai niaoiiai iao/aoue ethaeae neiaai,
i?eeanaynue oeaceie e eaaeaeie aaue, e i?eaiaa?eaaoue, /oi yoi ionoue
iacuaaaony eaiaiue, yoi — aea?aai e o. ae.”.

Aeoaieea iunee auneacuaaao e ae?oaie yieeo?aaoe — Eoe?aoeee Ea? (ie.
98—55 aei i.y.), iiyo e oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno, aaoi? ciaiaieoie iiyiu “I
i?e?iaea aauae”, aaea eceaaaaony aoiienoe/aneia o/aiea. Ii, eae e
Aeeiaai, e?eoeeoao “onoaiiaeoaey eiai”. Eae iiaeii i?aaeiieaaaoue,
?eoi?e/anee noaaeo aii?in Eoe?aoeee, /oi eaeie-oi iaeei /aeiaae aue
niiniaai “iaicia/eoue aaue ana aieinii” e “?an/eaiyoue ycueii naiei
caoee”, a inoaeueiua ethaee yoiai aeaeaoue ia oiaee? Ioeoaea iia ociaoue
onoaiiaeoaeue neiaa, eioi?uo ethaee aua ia i?eiaiyee? Ethaee au i?inoi
ia iioa?iaee /aeiaaea, iio/athuaai eo iaiiiyoiui caoeai.

Eae aea, ii iiaieth Eoe?aoeey, iia aicieeiooue ycue? Caeanue ii,
aiciiaeii, ia?aui auaeaeaaao aeiioaco, eioi?ay aiineaaenoaee auea
iacaaia yiioeeiiaeueiie. Au?aaeaoue iacaaiey i?aaeiaoia canoaaeea
/aeiaaea ioaeaea a iauaiee, oaeiaeaoai?aieth eioi?ie iineoaeeee ycue e
aiein. Aia/aoeaiey /aeiaaea io aaue aucuaathony ia i?inoi /ai-oi
oaeaeaiiui ei, a “iniciaieai naienoa, aio a iieueco neoaeaueo” (i/aiue
aaaeiia ooaa?aeaeaiea, aei neo ii? eiiaaea ieioi iiieiaaiia oeeinioaie e
eeiaaenoaie). Ionthaea iiiyoii, /oi /aeiaae yiioeeiiaeueii aini?eieiae
iieaciua (eee a?aaeiua) naienoaa. Iieacaa ia i?eia?ao, eaeea
?aciiia?aciua caoee, naycaiiua n ia?aaeeaaieyie, iiaoo i?ieciineoue
aeeaioiua, Eoe?aoeee caeeth/aao:

Noaei auoue, anee ?acee/iua /oanoaa eaaei iiaoo aucuaaoue

O aanneiaaniuo caa?ae ecaeaaaiea caoeia ?acee/iuo,

Oi oae oai aieaa ?iaeo ethaeae iiaeiaaei a oo ii?o Caoeaie iaicia/aoue
ana ianoiaeea, ?aciua aaue Aioe/iua oai?ee ycuea e noeey. I.; E., 1936,
n. 68..

Eae e o Yieeo?a, o Eoe?aoeey /aeiaa/aneay ?a/ue, i?aaeaea /ai auoue
nicaeaiiie ethaeueie, i?ioea iaeioi?ue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiue,
“oeceieiae/aneee” yoai – yoai yiioeeiiaeueiuo e?eeia, eioi?ua
naycuaaeenue n aia/aoeaieyie io aicaeaenoaothueo ia /aeiaaea aauae e
noaiiaeeenue eo iaicia/aieyie. A aeaeueiaeoai ethaee naie noaee
“eiino?oe?iaaoue” eiaia niioaaonoaaiii aia/aoeaieyi, eioi?ua
i?iecaiaeeee ia ieo aaue. Iaoiaeu oaeiai “eiino?oe?iaaiey” eceaaaao
Nie?ao a “E?aoeea”, eiaaea no?ieo naie yoeiieiaee e auaiaeeo ia?aua
eiaia. Aeaeeii, eae ?ac aoiienou—eeiey Aeaiie?eoa—Yieeo?a — caeanue e
eiathony a aeaeo.

Iineieueeo ?a/ue — iaoa?eaeueiua caoee, ia?aianoe ia eo no?iaiea
i?eioeei nicaeaiey ec iaeue/aeoeo oae (aoiiia) ana aieaa e aieaa e?oiiuo
auei au anoanoaaiii. Eae e aoiiu, aoeau ?acee/athony oi?iie (A e ?),
iieiaeaieai (? e Ue) e ii?yaeeii (A? e ?A). Iiaeiaii oiio eae eciaiaiea
yoeo naienoa aoiiia i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth anae aaue, ec ieo ninoiyuae,
oae e eciaiaiea a aoeaao i?eaiaeeo e iiaui neiaai. Aio eae Eoe?aoeee
eeethno?e?oao yoio aoiienoe/aneee oacen:

Iiiai eiaao cia/aiey, eae ni/aoathony oaeueoea Yoe ia?ae/iua e a
iieiaeaiuee eaeii i?aauaatho, Oaeaea eaeia aeaeaeaiea ae?oa ae?oao
aeatho e i?eaietho, Oae /oi, /ooue-/ooue eciaiea ni/aoaiuey, iie
ia?acotho Ieaiy ec aea?aaa. Yoi e a naieo neiaao iu caiaoei. Caoeaie iu
ioee/aai iiiyoey ligna (ae?iaa) io ignes (iaie), A aoeaao ii/oe
iaeeiaeeo neaaea eciaieaoe ii?yaeie Oai aea, n. 66..

Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi eoi-oi ec aoiienoia i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi aeey
ioaeaeueiuo iuouaiee io aauae — aoi?e/iuo ea/anoa — iiaeii iiaeia?aoue
oaeea caoee (aoeau), eioi?ua aieaa anaai iiaeoiaeyo ii aucuaaaiui eie
iuouaieyi e oai, eioi?ua aucuaathony aauaie. Ionthaea nie?aoianeea
i?eia?u a “E?aoeea”; r () “iiae?aaeaao” aeaeaeaieth e ii?uao, i () —
anaio oiieiio, 1 () — neieueceiio e aeaaeeiio e o. ae.

Iiaeia?aa aoeau aeey aaue, ethaee niaaeeiyee eo a neiae e neiaa, iiaeao
auoue, ii i?eioeeio iiaeiaey, eae aoiiu niaaeeiythony a aieaa neiaeiua
oaea. Anoanoaaiii, /oi neiae e neiaa ?acee/athony eee oi?iie aoea, eee
eo iieiaeaieai, eee ii?yaeeii. Ec neia ia?acothony neiaini/aoaiey e
caoai i?aaeeiaeaiey — iaoaie/aneia “nieaoaiea eiai”. Oaeei ia?acii,
neiaa i?eia?aoatho e “nio?aiytho naie neeaae, nio?aiytho oeao?o”, eae
au?aaeaaony Eoe?aoeee.

Aeo?oaee

E oi/ea c?aiey yieeo?aeoeaa ia i?ienoiaeaeaiea ycuea i?eiueatho
auneacuaaiey ?eineiai a?oeoaeoi?a, ni?aoieea THeey Oeaca?y, Aeo?oaey (1
a. aei i.y.). A o?aeoaoa “Ia a?oeoaeoo?a” Aeo?oaee, eae e iiiaea
aioe/iua oeeiniou, i?eaea?aeeaaeny eaeae iauanoaaiiiai i?ia?anna.
I?ioeaiiieiaeiia iiaiea ninoiyei a oii, /oi ae?aaiea ethaee aeeee a
cieioii aaea, e iineaaeothuaa eo nouanoaiaaiea oieueei oooaeoaeinue.

Ae?aaiea ethaee, ii iiaieth Aeo?oaey, aeeee, eae caa?e a eanao e
iaua?ao, ieoaynue aeeeie ioeoeae. Ii iaeiaaeaeu aaoa? ?anea/ae
aea?aauey, e io o?aiey eo no/ueaa ?acai?aeny iaiiue. I?eaueioa e iaio,
ethaee iiiyee aai iieueco: ii aeaaae oaiei eo oaeo. Nia?aaoenue o iaiy,
iie iiaeaea?aeeaaee aai e ciaeaie i?eaeaoaee ae?oaeo iia?aoueny. Oae
aicieeee ia?aua “nai?eua” ethaeae. Naiei aeuoaieai iie i?iecaiaeeee
?acee/iua caoee, ec eioi?uo iiae aicaeaenoaeai aaeaaeiaaiie i?aeoeee
oiio?aaeaiey auee onoaiiaeaiu “eaeea i?eoeinue” neiaa, a caoai /anoia
oiio?aaeaiea aauae iio?aaiaaei e oiio?aaeaiey neia, o.a. ethaee
“naiii?iecaieueii” ia/aee aiai?eoue. Oaeei ia?acii, Aeo?oaee ?acee/aao
aeaa yoaia: onoaiiaeaiea neia ethaeueie e oiio?aaeaiea eo a ?a/e,
eioi?ay aicieeea “naiii?iecaieueii”, noeoeeii, ec iio?aaiinoe a iauaiee.

I?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea a naaoa yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey

Iinea ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee eioa?an iuneeoaeae e i?iaeaia
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea ?acei oiae ec-ca ainiiaenoaa a iaoea aiaineianeeo,
a /anoiinoe aeaeaeneeo, i?aaenoaaeaiee. Iaeiaei yiioa I?inaauaiey,
?anoeaao eioi?ie i?eoiaeeony ia XVIII a., aic?iaeeea aiiaue yoo
i?iaeaiaoeeo. Iniaaiii iiiai aieiaiey oaeaeeee ae o?aioeocneea
i?inaaoeoaee. Iooiae io oaieiae/aneiai iiiyoey i aiaiaeaiiinoe ycuea
i?ienoiaeee iinoaiaiii. A XVII — ia/aea XVIII a., eiaaea a Aa?iaiee a
ioaao ia aii?in Aa?eeineie aeaaeaiee i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ycuea iiiaea
iuneeoaee aua ionoaeaaee eaeath /oaea, ai O?aioeee ia/aee ?acaeaaaoueny
aieina iaoa?eaeenoe/anee iuneyueo o/aiuo a iieueco /aeiaa/aneiai,
anoanoaaiiiai ia/aea ?a/e.

Yoi auea yiioa ia?aie i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee, ?ani?ino?aiaiey
eieaiia/aoaiey (ia?aue ia/aoiue noaiie E. Aooaiaa?aa — XV a.),
iaoaie/aneiai oeaoeeiai noaiea e ia?iaie iaoeiu (XVIII a.), yoi auea
yiioa aioeoaiaeaeueiiai, ao?aeoaciiai i?inaauaiey n aai neeueiui
anieaneii eioa?ana e /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaea, e anoanoaaiiui aiciiaeiinoyi
e i?aaai /aeiaaea.

Eaeaieiaey n?aaeieo aaeia, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aicaaee/eaaea
ainiiaenoaothuoth aeanoue, naaoneoth e aeooiaioth, eai aeanoue io aiaa,
n ae?oaie — i?eieaeaea iecoea e n?aaeiea neie iauanoaa (o?oaeiaie ethae,
?aianeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu), eai /aeiaae ?iaeaeai ai a?aoa. I?inaaoeoaee
/ooei oeiaeee iac?aaoea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea iio?aaiinoe yoeo neiaa
e a i?ioeaiaan n?aaeiaaaeiaie eaeaieiaee auaeaeioee i?eioeei
niciaoaeueiie i?aaieciaaiiinoe i?inouo ethaeae, aeathuee, ii eo iiaieth,
iauyniaiea e ?acoiiiio nioeeaeueiiio ono?ienoao iauanoaa e aai
i?ienoiaeaeaieth. Yoio i?eioeei ioi?ieeny a aeaea oai?ee iauanoaaiiiai
aeiaiai?a, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie e caeiiu onoaiaaeeaathony ethaeueie,
aea?oaothueie eiiaaea ee/iuie eioa?anaie ?aaee iauaai aeaaininoiyiey, e
ycue oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa iauanoaaiiiai niaeaoaiey.

A yoeo oneiaeyo anoanoaaiiie ?aaeoeeae ia eaeath /oaeaniiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea noaea eaeay ecia?aoaiey aai ethaeueie. Iiaeiaii
oiio eae iie i?eaeoiaee eieani e ii?io, ia/aoiue noaiie e ia?iaoth
iaoeio, iie ecia?aee ycue.

Oai?ey iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a O. Aiaana

Ii iiaieth O. Aiaana, ia?aiia/aeueiia anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea ethaeae —
?acae?iaeaiiinoue e ?aciauaiiinoue. Eaaeaeay naiuey aeeea naia ii naaa e
naiinoiyoaeueii aeiauaaea ieuo, noa?aynue oeoe iiaeaeueoa io ae?oaeo,
/oiau nia?aoue aieueoa ieiaeia. Ethaee ia oieueei iaei iauaeenue ae?oa n
ae?oaii, ii e “aaee aieio anao i?ioea anao”. E /oiau eaa/a auaeeoue,
/oiau inouanoaeoue naie anoanoaaiiua i?aaa ia aeeciue e naiaiaeo, ethaee
?aoeee iauaaeeieoueny e aeiaiai?eoueny i nicaeaiee ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia
au iaania/eei ei aaciianiinoue e aeaaininoiyiea. Ii aeey yoiai
iio?aaiaaeny ycue, e iie ecia?aee aai.

Iaeei ec i?aaeoanoaaiieeia i?inaaoeoaeae XVIII a., Oiian Aiaan
(1588—1679), aiaeeeneee oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno, aieueoie iiai?iee oai?ee
iauanoaaiiiai aeiaiai?a, oae ?annoaeaeae i cia/aiee ycuea: cia/aiea
eieaiia/aoaiey — yoiai ino?ioiiiai ecia?aoaiey — ai?acaei iaiueoa, /ai
cia/aiea ienueiaiiinoe. Ii naiia “aeaai?iaeiia e auaiaeiia” ecia?aoaiea
— yoi ecia?aoaiea ?a/e. N aa iiiiuueth ethaee ?aaeno?e?otho a iaiyoe
naie iunee e niiauatho eo ae?oa ae?oao aeey acaeiiie iieuecu e i?eyoiiai
iauaiey. Oiio?aaeyy ia?aua iacaaiey, ethaee iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue
oi?ioee?iaaoue ia?aua enoeiu. Oae, eiaaea ei “i?eoei a aieiao” aeaaaoue
?aciua iacaaiey iaeiie e oie aea aaue, iie iiaee oaea auneacaoue
enoeiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea: “/aeiaae anoue aeeaia nouanoai”.

O. Aiaan, i?aaaea, ia ianoaeaeaao aii?ina, eae iiaee auoue ecia?aoaiu
ia?aua eiaia, eee iacaaiey, iieaaay, aeaeeii, /oi yoi i?ienoiaeeei oae
aea, eae e anyeia ae?oaia ecia?aoaoaeuenoai. Ii naia yoa eaeay,
auneacaiiay a 1651 a. a aai iniiaiii o?oaea “Eaaeaoai, eee iaoa?ey,
oi?ia e aeanoue ainoaea?noaa oea?eiaiiai e a?aaeaeaineiai” e
iai?aaeaiiay i?ioea oaieiaee, auea niaeie e i?ia?anneaiie aeey oiai
a?aiaie.

Yoaiu noaiiaeaiey ?a/e (Iuea? Eoe Iiia?othe). Eiioeaioeey
Y. Eiiaeeeueyea

Iuea? Eoe Iiia?othe, o?aioeocneee iaoaiaoee, oecee e oeeinio (ia?aay
iieiaeia XVIII a.), aieaa ?acaa?iooi, /ai O. Aiaan, ?ac?aaioae eaeath
i?eaeoiuaaiey ycuea ethaeueie. A “Aeenna?oaoeee i ycueao” ii iaia/aao
o?e yoaia noaiiaeaiey ?a/e.

Ia?aua ethaee au?aaeaee naie i?inoua e ianoiyoaeueiua ioaeaeu n
iiiiuueth ianeieueeeo aeanoia e e?eeia, eioi?uo auei aeinoaoi/ii aeey
iauaiey. Caoai n oaaee/aieai ?aciiia?acey ioaeae e yoei i?e?iaeiui
aeanoai e e?eoeeai ethaee iaaeoiaee i?eniaaeeieoue oneiaiua e?eee e
aeanou, /oi naeaeaei ia?aue ycue aieaa iiiaiiauaiethuei. I?ioei iiiai
a?aiaie, i?aaeaea /ai ianooiee o?aoee yoai oi?ie?iaaiey ycuea, eiaaea
niiniau au?aaeaiey noaee iacaaeneiuie io aeanoia e oiiia e?eeia. Ethaee
caiaoeee, /oi iiaeii iaieoenue i?e iauaiee aac aeaeaeaiee oaea e
oneeaiey ai?oaie, /oi yoe neiaeiua aeaenoaey iiaoo auoue caiaiaiu
i?inouie “oaea?aieyie” ycuea e aoa. Ia?yaeo n yoei i?aeiouanoaii iiaue
niinia aeaaae ia?iiiia /enei a?oeeoeyoeee, “eiiaeie?oaiuo aei
aaneiia/iinoe”. Ii/oanoaiaaa auaiaeo yoiai ycuea, ia?iaeu nio?aieee aai,
e oae aicieeei neiai.

O?aioeocneee oeeinio-i?inaaoeoaeue Youeai Eiiaeeeueye (1715—1780)
iieiaeee a iniiao naiae oi/ee c?aiey ia i?ienoiaeaeaiea ycuea eaeath
acaeiiiiiiue ethaeae e aicieeiiaaiey neia ec eo anoanoaaiiuo e?eeia.
Ethaee, eae au caa?ioaiiua a ie? (Eiiaeeeueye a naiai “Iiuoa i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee /aeiaa/aneeo iiciaiee” (1746) iaua?uaaao neooaoeeth
auaeeaoeo iinea anaie?iiai iioiia aeaoae), nino?aaeaee ae?oa ae?oao e
/anoi ia?auaeenue e acaeiiiiiiue. I?ecuau i iiiiue eee i?aaeeiaeaiey aa
au?aaeaeenue e?eeaie, eioi?ua naycuaaeenue n aini?eyoeyie i?aaeiaoia,
aucuaaaoeie yoe e?eee. E?eee nii?iaiaeaeaeenue aeanoii eee aeaenoaeai,
eioi?ua ooi/iyee aini?eyoea e cia/aiea e?eea.

Ia?aciaaaoayny i?eau/ea naycuaaoue eaeae n i?iecaieueiuie ciaeaie
ni/aoaeanue n oai, /oi noaee eniieueciaaoue anoanoaaiiua e?eee a
ea/anoaa yeaiaioia iiaiai oneiaiiai ycuea. Oae, iie ia/aee
a?oeeoee?iaaoue iiaua caoee, eioi?ua naycuaaeenue n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i
i?aaeiaoao, e, /oiau auoue eo/oa iiiyouie, iie nii?iaiaeaeaee yoe caoee
aeanoii, oeacuaathuei ia i?aaeiaou, eioi?ua iie oioaee ioiaoeoue. Oae
ethaee iao/eeenue aeaaaoue iaeiaiiaaiey aauai.

I?eciaaay nouanoaiaaiea “eaeae /oanoaaiiuo” e “eaeae aano?aeoiuo”, ii
iineaaeiea n/eoae ?acoeueoaoii “noiie?iaaiey” ia?auo,– oii?yaei/aiey eo.
Ia i?eia?a aan/oanoaaiiie noaooe, iinoaiaiii iaaeaeyaiie iuneeoaeai
iuouaieyie. ii iieacuaaao, eae ec ieo aicieeatho aieiaiea, iaiyoue,
?acoi. Eaeae /oanoaaiiua ia?acotho i?aeoe/aneia ciaiea, a aano?aeoiua —
oai?aoe/aneia. Ia?aia aanniciaoaeueii e aicieeaao aia ycuea. Aoi?ia
iaaiciiaeii aac iaai. Neiaa, aoaeo/e ciaeaie eaeae, yaeythony i?oaeeai
oai?aoe/aneiai ciaiey, n iiiiuueth eo i?ienoiaeeo eeanneoeeaoeey e
oii?yaei/aiea /oanoaaiiuo eaeae. E?iia neia, iuoeaiea eiaao aeaei e n
ae?oaeie ciaeaie. A?aiiaoeeie anao aiciiaeiuo ciaeia, a oii /enea e
iaoaiaoe/aneeo, yaeyaony eiaeea — naiay iauay iaoea i iuoeaiee.

Noeoeeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey ycuea (AE.-AE. ?onni)

Enoiee ycuea, ii iiaieth AE.-AE. ?onni, auaeathuaainy o?aioeocneiai
ienaoaey e oeeinioa XVIII a.. eaaeao a aanniciaoaeueiuo, noeoeeiuo
aeaenoaeyo ethaeae, i?aaeaea anaai a yiioeeiiaeueii-ynoaoe/aneeo
ia?aaeeaaieyo e eo au?aaeaiee aieinii. ?acaeaeyy iio?aaiinoe ia
ia?ae/iua (iai?eia?, a aaea) e i?aanoaaiiua, aucuaathuea ?acee/iua
no?anoe. AE.-AE. ?onni iieaaae, /oi ia?aua ?acuaaeeiytho ia?aiauoiuo
ethaeae (niae?ay ieiaeu iie eae au eiieo?e?otho iaaeaeo niaie), a aoi?ua
niaaeeiytho. Yoe i?aanoaaiiua no?anoe — ethaiaue, iaiaaenoue,
nino?aaeaiea, aiaa — e aucuaatho ia?aua iai?iecaieueiua caoee —
“i?e?iaeiua aiiee”.

I?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, /oi ia?aua ethaee aeeee ?ac?iciaiii, a iaeeii/eo
eee naiueyie, auei oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaii n?aaee oeeinioia. Iiyoiio iie e
aeiioneaee iaee/ea ia?eiaea “aacuycueiai” nouanoaiaaiey ethaeae. Nae/an
iu, eiia/ii, ia iiaeai i?eiyoue yoie oi/ee c?aiey: “aeeeea” ethaee, eae
e ana noaaeiua aeeaioiua, aeeee a oaniii niiauanoaa e o ieo, eae e o
aeeaioiuo, auee naie n?aaenoaa iauaiey, naie “ycue”.

Caoai, ?annoaeaeaao AE.-AE. ?onni, ii ia?a oiai, eae ethaee ana aieaa
naeeaeaeenue iaaeaeo niaie, e ia iniiaa iniaie “niiniaiinoe e
niaa?oainoaiaaieth” eo iiiyoey noaee ?anoe?youeny e oiiiaeaoueny, iie
ia/aee eneaoue ae?oaea ciaee, aieaa oe?ieea e iiiai/eneaiiua, /ai
“aiiee”. Oaeeie ciaeaie aeey i?aaeiaoia, aeaeeiuo aeacii e i?inouo aeey
ecia?aaeaiey, noaee aeanou, a aeey oao, eioi?ua “ii?aaeaee” neoo, —
iiae?aaeaoaeueiua caoee. Caeanue aieueooth ?ieue nua?aea
iiae?aaeaoaeueiay aeaoneay ?a/ue. Aieaa oiai, ?aaaiie, no?aieaoeeny
auneacaoue iaoa?e naie aeaeaiey, aue nicaeaoaeai ycuea, i?eiaiyy aeanou
e caoeiiiae?aaeaiey. Neaaeothuee yoai — caiaia aeanoa a?oeeoeyoeeae
aieina.

Eae iu iiiiei, Nie?ao a aeeaeiaa “E?aoee” ioaa?a eaeath iiae?aaeaiey
neiaaie i?e?iaeiui caoeai, e o ae?aaieo a?aeia iia oae e ia
?anniao?eaaeanue eae na?ueaciay (eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho noieee). ?onni
aea, aeaeeii, aia?aua a iiaia a?aiy i?eiye aa eae iaeei ec niiniaia
ia?aiia/aeueiiai neiaiia?aciaaiey.

Anee yiioeeiiaeueiua aue?eee — io i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea, a caoeiiiae?aaeaiey
— io i?e?iaeu aauae, oi aieiniaua a?oeeoeyoeee — /enoay oneiaiinoue. Iie
ia iiaee aicieeiooue, n/eoaao AE.-AE. ?onni, aac iauaai niaeaney. Ii a
oi aea a?aiy caiaia aeanoia ia a?oeeoee?iaaiiua caoee o?aaiaaea ia
oieueei aaeeiiaeooiiai niaeaney ia?auo ethaeae, ii e neia, /oiau
aeiaiai?eoueny i cia/aiee iiauo neia e aaanoe eo a oiio?aaeaiea.
Iiyoiio, i?eciaaony AE.-AE. ?onni, iiiyoue oaeoth caiaio i/aiue o?oaeii.
Iaeiaei, neaaeai iu, /oi aea iaoaei ?onni ouaoaeueiaa i?iaeoiaoue yoio
ia?aoiae? Ii/aio ii ia iia i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ia?auo ethaeae,
aeiaiaa?eaathueony i cia/aiee neia n iiiiuueth aeanoia, eioi?ua au
oeacuaaee, eaeea caoeiiiae?aaeaiey iaicia/atho oa eee eiua i?aaeiaou?
Aaaeue Y. Eiiaeeeueye niia iaeioi?ui ia?acii oaycaoue caoe n ooi/iythuei
aai cia/aiea aeanoii. Aeaeeii, aeaei a oii, /oi ?onni aoi?ie yoai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea (aeanou e caoeiiiae?aaeaiey) ia ?anniao?eaae eae
yoai, ia eioi?ii oaea i?ienoiaeeo iauaiea, a aeano e caoeiiiae?aaeaiea o
iaai — n?aaenoaa naiiau?aaeaiey, a ia ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee.

Iaeiaei, anoanoaaiii-iao/iay iinoaiiaea aii?ina, /oi i?aaeoanoaiaaei
/eaii?acaeaeueiie ?a/e a /aeiaa/aneii iiaaaeaiee e eae i?iecioae
ia?aoiae e iae, yaeyaony ianiiiaiii caneoaie AE.-AE. ?onni. Eiaiii a
oaeii aeaea a aeaeueiaeoai aoaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny yoa i?iaeaiaoeea
oeeinioaie e eeiaaenoaie.

Eceiaeea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue noaiiaeaiey ycuea a “?annoaeaeaiee i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee iniiaiuo caeiiia” (1754), i?aaaea, ia cao?aaeaay eee ia
aeaey i?e/ei nioeeaeueiie iaiaoiaeeiinoe a ia?aoiaeao io “i?e?iaeiuo
aiieae” e ycueo aeanoia e io iaai e a?oeeoee?iaaiiie ?a/e, AE.-AE. ?onni
a “O?aeoaoa i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ycuea” (1761) iiae?iaii eceaaaao naie
i?aaenoaaeaiey i oa?aeoa?a ia?aiauoiie ?a/e. Yoi i?aaeaea anaai ycue
ia?aciue, iiyoe/aneee, ia?auie au?aaeaieyie auee o?iiu, a nianoaaiiua
niuneu neia auee iaeaeaiu aiineaaenoaee. Ethaee nia/aea aiai?eee, nei?aa
iaee a iiyoe/aneie oi?ia, a iioii oaea iao/eeenue iuneeoue. Yoeie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie AE.-AE. ?onni aua aieaa ineiaeiee naith caaea/o —
auynieoue, eae ethaee aeiaiai?eeenue i cia/aiee neia, oae eae
oneiaeoueny ia ia?aciii, ia?aiiniii oiio?aaeaiee neia ana aea o?oaeiaa,
/ai ia eo i?yiuo cia/aieyo.

Eaeae AE.-AE. ?onni, eioa?aniua e ?aciiia?aciua, eiaee aieueoia aeeyiea
ia nia?aiaiieeia, ?annoaeaeaaoeo i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ycuea, e ia aaoi?ia
iineaaeothueo aeiioac. Ii ia?aue, eoi ?acaee eaeath yoaiiinoe
i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea, auneacae iuneue i oii, /oi ia?aua neiaa eiaee
niune i?aaeeiaeaiee, o.a. /oi ia?auie neiaaie auee ?a/aiey —
eiiioieeaoeaiua aaeeieoeu, e iinoaaee aii?in i niiniaao ia?aoiaea io
aeanoa e /eaii?acaeaeueiiio caoeo; ii oaeoe/anee ia?aue ?anniio?ae
“i?e?iaeiue aiieue” eae enoi/iee. iaoa?eae aeey aoaeouaai,
/eaii?acaeaeueiiai ycuea.

Aua iaeio i?eaeiaeueioth, ii ia nianai aa?ioth iuneue auneacae ?onni, ia
eioi?ie oioaeinue au inoaiiaeoueny e ii nouanoao aa aaaeiinoe, e iioiio,
/oi iia aucaaea ?aciiain o nia?aiaiieeia, a /anoiinoe auea aini?eiyoa
A. Nieoii, iu eiaai a aeaeo iuneue i oii, /oi ia?aua neiaa iaicia/aee
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?aaeiaou, auee eiaiaie nianoaaiiuie. Iaeei aeoa,
?annoaeaeae ?onni, iieo/ee naia iacaaiea, a ae?oaie — naia, e aeieaeii
auei i?ieoe iiiai a?aiaie, i?aaeaea /ai ethaee caiaoeee ia/oi iauaa
iaaeaeo ieie. Yoi e yaeeinue enoi/ieeii iaeeiaeiauo eiai — neiiieiee.

“Niia?aaeaiey i i?ienoiaeaeaiee e oi?iaoeee ycueia” A. Nieoa

Eaeath ?onni iiaeoaaoee e ?acaee A. Nieo. A naiae ?aaioa “Niia?aaeaiey i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee e oi?iaoeee ycueia” (1759) ii iienuaaao aeiioaoe/aneoth
neooaoeeth, a eioi?ie o/anoaotho aeaa aeeea?y, ioi?aaiiuo io naiaai
ieaiaie e auioaeaeaiiuo nicaeaoue ycue aeey iauaiey ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iie
noaee au niioiineoue i?ieciineiua caoee n ie?oaeathueie eo i?aaeiaoaie.
Ii i?aaeiaou yoe aaeeie/iu: iaua?a, a eioi?ie iie i?yoaeenue io oieiaea;
aea?aai, aeaaaaoaa ei ieiaeu; enoi/iee aiaeu e o.ae. Iiyoiio e neiaa
ia?aiia/aeueii auee eiaiaie nianoaaiiuie.

Aii?in, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ninoieo a oii, eaeeie ii noaiaie iauiinoe iiaee
auoue ia?aua neiaa? Iiaee au iie auoue nianoaaiiuie eiaiaie, o.a.
aaeeie/iuie? Aoaeai ?annoaeaeaoue oae. A neooaoeee aeaoo aeeea?ae
A. Nieoa ia auei iaiaoiaeeiinoe a ecia?aoaiee iacaaiee: aeeea?e aiieia
iiaee iauaoueny aeanoaie eee “aiieyie”. Ae?oaia aeaei, anee ia?aae eo
aeacaie ?inei ianeieueei aea?aaueaa. Ioaeii ee auei aeaaaoue eaaeaeiio
naia eiy eee eo/oa i?eaeoiaoue iauaa? Caeanue iu aeieaeiu enoiaeeoue ec
oiai, /oi ycue /ooei ?aaae?oao ia iio?aaiinoe iauaiey. Anee iaeioi?ue
iauaeo (i?aaeiao, yaeaiea, /aeiaae) cia/ei aeey iauaiey, oi ?aii eee
iicaeii iuoeaiea au?aaaouaaao aeey iaai niaoeeaeueiia iaicia/aiea. A
i?ioeaiii neo/aa ii eeai nianai ia iaicia/aaony, eeai iaicia/aaony
iienaoaeueii, o.a. eiiaeiaoeeae ?acee/iuo neia.

Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi ia?aua eiaia (au/eaieaoeany ec neia-i?aaeeiaeaiee)
auee eiaiaie nianoaaiiuie, ii iaicia/aee iie ia i?aaeiaou, a ethaeae eee
eo niiauanoaa, iineieueeo ?acee/aoue e niiauaoue /oi-eeai ei e i ieo
auei aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeii. Iacaaiey aea i?aaeiaoia, iaeeiaeiauo n oi/ee
c?aiey iio?aaiinoae ethaeae, nei?aa anaai, auee n?aco aea iaiauaiiuie e
ii?aaeaeaiiuie /oiau ioaeaeyoue eo io ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia.

Iiyoiio eaoaai?e/aneea ooaa?aeaeaiey AE.-AE. ?onni e A. Nieoa i
aaeeie/iinoe ia?auo eiai ioaeaeathony a ii?aaeaeaiiii ooi/iaiee.

Eiioeaioeey A. Aoiaeoa

Auaeathueeny oeeinio e ineoieia aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a. A. Aoiaeo a
naiae no?ieiie aeoaiei oaycaiiie eiioeaioeee o/ae ia?aaeiaua aayiey e
oaeoe/aneea aeaiiua ycueiciaiey, ineoieiaee e yoiieiaee.

Ii Aoiaeoo, ycue ia?acoaony ia i?iecaieueii e aanniciaoaeueii. Neiai,
eae e ethaia ae?oaia einoeieoeaiia aeaenoaea, aicieeaao ec
“einoeieoeaiiai iiaoaeaeaiey”. Ia?aiia/aeueiia neiai – noauaeoeaiue
i?iaeoeo aioo?aiiaai aeaeaeaiey, e au?aaeaao iii ia naii i?aaenoaaeaiea
i i?aaeiaoa, a oi, eae yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea aanniciaoaeueii aeaenoaoao ia
aioo?aiiee ie? /aeiaaea.

A. Aoiaeo iinoaaee ia?aae niaie caaea/o niiinoaaeoue e oaycaoue o?e
ieaia /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey: oece/aneea aeaenoaey (iaioiieia),
ineoe/aneea aeaeaeaiey (/oanoaa e iunee) e ycueiaia iiaaaeaiea,
iineieueeo “ycue anoue anyeia au?aaeaiea /oanoa, i?aaenoaaeaiee, iiiyoee
iin?aaenoaii aeaeaeaiee” Aoiaeo A. Aeooa /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo. NIa.,
1866, o.2, n. 484..

“Ieie/aneea aeaeaeaiey” iiaoo auoue o?ao aeaeia: ?aoeaeoi?iua,
oeacaoaeueiua e ecia?aceoaeueiua. ?aoeaeoi?iua aeaeaeaiey au?aaeatho
/oanoaa, e a ycuea ei niioaaonoaotho ia?aua neiaa – iaaeaeiiaoey;
oeacaoaeueiua aeanou ia?aaeatho i?aaenoaaeaiey i iaee/iuo i?aaeiaoao;
ecia?aceoaeueiua aeaenoaey aini?iecaiaeyo i/a?oaiey ionoonoaothueo
i?aaeiaoia. Aoi?ie e o?aoee oeiu iaioiieiu eaaeao a iniiaa ia?auo
neiaaniuo ei?iae. N ?acaeoeai ycuea ?ieue iaioiieie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee a
iauaiee oiaiueoaaony, inoaaaynue, iaeiaei, cia/eoaeueiie a neo/aa
oeacaoaeueiuo aeanoia, iineieueeo oeacaoaeueiua ianoieiaiey, ii
A. Aoiaeoo, iiyaeythony a ycuea a iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue, e
ii?iaeaeathuee eo ineoieiae/aneee caeii eiaao naiaia?acioth (aieaa
i?iecaieueioth) i?e?iaeo.

Ii Aoiaeo aeaeae io iiieiaiey oiai, /oi ycue aiciee a ioaao ia
iio?aaiinoue a iauaiee, aucaaiioth aiaoieie oaeoi?aie. Ii
nin?aaeioa/eaaao naia aieiaiea ia ineoe/aneeo aeaeaeaieyo aioo?aiiaai
ie?a eiaeeaeaea.

Enoiee ycuea eaaeao a y?eeo, a?inathueony a aeaca i?eciaeao
(i?aaeeeaoao) i?aaeiaoia. Oaeeie i?eciaeaie yaeythony i?aaeaea anaai
ea/anoaa, aini?eieiaaiua i?aaiaie /oanoa. Oae, nieioea iiaeao auoue
ia?aiia/aeueii oieueei oaieui e aeanoyuei, e yoe “iaoe?iua”
i?aaenoaaeaiey – i?aaeeeaou – e eiaeaony a iniiao aai iacaaiey – ei?iy.
Eae oieueei aicieeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea – i?aaeeeao, n?aco aea einoeieoeaii
iiyaeyaony caoe, aai iaicia/athuee. Ia?aua noaeaeaiey iaoiaeeeenue aac
iiaeeaaeaueo, iie i?aaenoaaeyee niaie iaeie i?aaeeeaou (yoi auee eae au
aacee/iua i?aaeeiaeaiey): “ia/oi naaoeo”, “ia/oi ecaeaao caoe” (iuneue
Aoiaeoa i i?aaeeeaoiuo noaeaeaieyo a aeaeueiaeoai iaeaeao naaa ooi/iaiea
e ?acaeoea a o?oaeao iiiaeo eeiaaenoia e noaiao iniiaie oie neiaeeaoaeny
eiioeaioeee ecia?aoaiey ycuea ethaeueie, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie
ia?aiia/aeueii auei ia eiy e ia neiai, a neiai – i?aaeeiaeaiea).

Caoe, eioi?ui au?aaeaeinue ia ia?aii yoaia iiyaeaiey ycuea
i?aaeeeaoeaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea, iia auoue e yiioeeiiaeueiui aue?eeii
(iaaeaeiiaoeai), aucaaiiui yoei i?aaenoaaeaieai e iiae?aaeaieai
cao/aieth niioaaonoaothuaai i?aaeiaoa. Eiia/ii, ia?aiia/aeueii
anoanoaaiii cao/aaoea ei?ie ?aaeeeaeueiiai ycuea a i?ioeanna noeoeeiiai
aai ?acaeoey cia/eoaeueii eciaiythony – e Aoiaeo iuoaaony aeieacaoue yoi
ia aieueoii ycueiaii iaoa?eaea.

Ia?aua ei?ie auee naycaiu n oeacaoaeueiie e ecia?aceoaeueiie iaioiieiie
e niioaaonoaaiii aeaeeeenue ia oeacaoaeueiua (caeanue, eioi?ue, yoio,
oai) e i?aaeeeaoeaiua (nieioea, /aeiaae, ethaiaue). ?acieoea iaaeaeo
ieie ninoieo a oii, /oi anee oeacaoaeueiay iaioiieia e ei?aiue eiatho
iaeii e oi aea iacia/aiea, aeaaiaea?y /aio ei?aiue i?inoi “ia?auaao”
iaioiieio a caoe, oi ecia?aceoaeueiay iaioiieia e i?aaeeeaoeaiue ei?aiue
oieueei “ia?aaiaeeo” iaioiieio a caoe.

A ?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey /oanoaaiiuo i?eciaeia, i?aaeeeaoia e
caoeia ia?acoaony ?aaeeeaeueiue ycue, a eioi?ii iao a?aiiaoeee e
i?aaeeiaeaiey no?iyony eae naiaiaeiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ei?iae,
niioaaonoaothuay oiaeo iuneae aiai?yuaai. I?eia?ii oaeiai ycuea Aoiaeo
n/eoaao eeoaeneee, eioi?ue ?acaeaaeny ca n/ao aiaaonoaa ei?iae: /oiau
neacaoue “a aeiia”, eeoaaoe oiio?aaeo aeaa ei?iy – aeii e aioo?aiiinoue.

Ii ia?a oiai eae “iaoe?iua”, iauea, oeaeinoiua (niciaiey niaiaaeatho n
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui iauaeoii) i?aaenoaaeaiey ia/eiatho ?an/eaiyoueny ia
ninoaaeythuea eo i?eciaee, ia?acothony aa?aaaou i?eciaeia, ninoiyuea ec
niaieoiiinoae ioaeaeueiuo i?eciaeia. Yoei niaieoiiinoyi niioaaonoaotho
iaai?u ei?iae, ec eioi?uo iaeei noaiiaeony iniiaiui, a inoaeueiua –
ooi/iythueie. Ia yoie nooiaie oi?ie?othony aaaethoeiaoeaiua ycuee, a
eioi?uo neiaa “neeaeaathony” ec ianeieueeeo ei?iae. Aoiaeo i?eaiaeeo
i?eia?: a aeaeaaa?neii ycuea anoue neiai nadholineen, ia?aciaaiiia ec
ei?iae naten “aeinoaoue”, hol (io amohol “eiaeea”) e ineen “ian” e
icia/athuaa “aeinoaoue-ia-eiaeea-ian” (oa?ica iai?eyoaey ia?aieuoue e
iai ia eiaeea.

E iaeiiaoe, eiaaea ?acaeaathony e auaeaeythony a iuoeaiee iauea
i?aaenoaaeaiey e aano?aeoiua i?eciaee, neiai i?aa?auaaony a neiaie, e
cia/aiey aai ninoaaiuo yeaiaioia oaea ia i?eieiathony ai aieiaiea. Ec
oaeeo neia–neiaieia e ia?acothony eioeaeoeeiiiua ycuee ni neiaeiie
a?aiiaoeeie.

Iineieueeo ia?aua yoaiu ycuea neeueii caaenyo io oneiaee aeecie
ia?iaea, iinoieueeo /enei ia?aiia/aeueiuo ycueia auei aaneiia/iui.
Aeaeueiaeoaa aea eo ?acaeoea e canouaaiea naycaii ni naienoaaie eo
ia?iaeia.

Ei?ie ycuea a oece/aneeo aeaenoaeyo

XIX a. — aae ao?iiai ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee eaieoaeecia n aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeeciii e i?aaiaoeciii, iiaeao auoue, einaaiii, ii ieacae
aeeyiea ia oa?aeoa? ?annoaeaeaiee oeeinioia e oeeieiaia i
i?ienoiaeaeaiee ycuea. Anee A. Aoiaieueae, A. Aoiaeo e A.A. Iioaaiy
iie?aeenue a naieo aeiioacao ia aioo?aiiea niiniaiinoe eiaeeaeaea, aai
aeooa eee einoeieoia, oi ae?oaay na?ey aeiioac, a eioi?ie auaeaeyaony
eiioeaioeey E. Ioa?a, ia?auaia e aiaoiae, oece/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
ethaeae, i?eoii niaianoiie.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia yoie eeiee yaeeny ecaanoiue iaiaoeeee
oeeieia E. Aaeaa? (1829—1870). Aai aieueoie eioa?an e aicieeiiaaieth e
?acaeoeth ycuea au?aceeny a aeaoo ?aaioao: “I?ienoiaeaeaiea ycuea” e
“I?ienoiaeaeaiea e ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneiai ycuea e ?acoia” Geiger L.
Urspung der Sprache. Stutgart, 1869; Jdem. Urspung und Entwickelung der
menschlichen Sprachen und vernunft. Stutgart, 1862, T. 1; 1872, T. 2..

A iniiaa oi?ie?iaaiey ycuea eaaeao ia /oanoaa, naycuaathuea ia?ac
i?aaeiaoa e enoi?aaaiue /aeiaaeii caoe (oai?ey iaaeaeiiaoee), e ia
caoeiaua aia/aoeaiey io i?aaeiaoia (iiiiaoiiiyoe/aneay oai?ey), a
c?eoaeueiua aini?eyoey, eae iieaaaao E. Aaeaa?. Ec anao c?eoaeueiuo
aini?eyoee iaeaieaa neeueiuie auee aini?eyoey /aeiaa/aneeo aeaeaeaiee. N
ae?oaie noi?iiu, i?iecianaiea /aeiaaeii eaeiai-eeai caoea iaycaoaeueii
naycaii n ieieeie eeoea, ii e?aeiae ia?a n “aeanoii” ?oa, e eaaei
iaaethaeaaony niaanaaeieeii. Yoio “aeano” ecia?aaeaao caoe, a caoe —
naie aeano. Yoio aeaoaaeeiue iauaeo ycuea naycuaaaony n aia/aoeaieai io
aeaenoaee (iaieie/aneeo) e ia/eiaao eo iaicia/aoue. Iinoaiaiii caoe
inaiaiaeaeaaony io ieieee e oaea naiinoiyoaeueii iaicia/aao aeaenoaea.

Yoio ia?aiia/aeueii ieie/aneee ycue aue aeinoaoi/ii au?aceoaeueiui,
/oiau ethaee iiaee aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai niaeaoaiey iiieiaoue ae?oa
ae?oaa.

Eiia/ii, neaaeai iu, aeooea iiaoo “/eoaoue” cao/auoth ?a/ue ii
aeaeaeaieyi aoa aiai?yuaai, ii aeey yoiai iie aeieaeiu i?ieoe aieueooth
oeieo iao/aiey. Ieieea — aeinoaoi/ii au?aceoaeueiia n?aaenoai aeey
yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee, ii iaaeinoaoi/iia aeey iienaiey aiaoieo
yaeaiee, a oii /enea e aeaenoaee.

Iinoieueeo enoiaeiua aia/aoeaiey aucuaaeenue aeaenoaeyie ethaeae,
iinoieueeo ia?auie ei?iyie yaeeenue aeaaieueiua, iieaaae E. Aaeaa?. Oae,
a iniiao iacaaiee oeaaoa eaaee ia aia/aoeaiey io ?aciuo e?anie, a
“aeaenoaea iaiacuaaiey e?aneie i?aaeiaoa”. Aaeaa? iuoaaony, ii
iaeioniaoii, iieacaoue, /oi iacaaiey i?aaeiaoia i?iecaiaeiu io iacaaiee
aeaenoaee. Oae, aea?aai, i?ienoiaeeo io eeoaiiue ei?u, caiey — io
?anoa?oia, ca?ii — io ?anoouaa e o. ae.

Naia ii naaa eaeay aeaenoaey, eaaeauaai a iniiaa i?ienoiaeaeaiey ycuea,
cao/eo aiieia nia?aiaiii, ii ?acaa?ouaaaony iia o Aaeaa?a iaeiinoi?iiia
e i?yiieeiaeii.

Iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ii?aaeaeaiiie ?iee ?ioiaiai “aeanoa” aeeai e a
iaoa a?aiy. Oae, a aeo?iaea “Oao?aaee ii ie?iaie enoi?ee” a 1956 a. auea
iioaeeeiaaia noaouey ?. Iyaeaeaoa “I?ienoiaeaeaiea ycuea e yiioa
iaeaieeoa” Paget R.A.S. The origins of language with special reference
to the Paleolitnic age. – Cahiers d’histoire mondiale, 1956, t. 1, N2,
p. 399–426., a eioi?ie aaoi? ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ycue aicieeaao ec
iaioiieie/aneeo aeaeaeaiee ?oe, eioi?ui aanniciaoaeueii iiae?aaeaao ?io,
a aeaeaeaiey iineaaeiaai ei??aee?otho n ai?eiauie caoeaie. Aeoiaaony,
/oi “oaoieea” aeaeaeaiee ?oe e ?oa ianoieueei ?acii?iaeia, /oi
i?iaaaeaiea iaaeaeo ieie aiaeiaee — neeoeii niaeay aeiioaca.

Caeeth/aiea

Niiauanoaa ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae anaaaea aeaaeaee iaeioi?uie n?aaenoaaie
iauaiey. Anoanoaaiiaa anaai i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi nia/aea yoi auea
iaioiieia, nii?iaiaeaeaaiay ia/eaii?acaeaeueiuie caoeaie (n?. n?aaenoaa
iauaiey iaacueyi). Ii/aio e eae i?iecioae ia?aoiae io iaioiieiu e
/eaii?acaeaeueiie ?a/e?

Iiaeii iaiaoeoue neaaeothuaa ioee/ea caoeiaie ?a/e io iaioiieiu:

a) aieueoay iaiauaiiinoue ycueiauo aaeeieoe, iaania/eaathuay eo
iiauoaiiua eiiaeiaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey iienaiey ?aciiia?aciuo
neooaoeee;

b) eaaeinoue eo aini?iecaiaeeiinoe, ioaa/athuay yeiiiiee yia?aee i?e
iauaiee;

c) eaeiieci eiioaenoa, niioaaonoaothuaai neooaoeee, /oi niinianoaoao
iia?aoeaiinoe iauaiey.

Yoe iniaaiiinoe caoeiaie ?a/e auee aucaaiu e aeecie, iaaei iieaaaoue,
iaoeeiiiui ?inoii iiuiinoe iioieia eioi?iaoeee, oee?eoee?othuae eae
aioo?e ia?aiauoiiai niiauanoaa (aioo?aiiea iioiee), oae e iaaeaeo iei e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie (aiaoiea iioiee).

Oneiaeiythueany oi?iu o?oaea e ai?ueau, acaeiiaeaenoaothuea n
?acaeaathueiny iuoeaieai, o?aaiaaee aieaa oiieiai e eioi?ie?iaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey.

Oaaee/aiea oi?i acaeiiaeaenoaey /eaiia niiauanoaa, a anaai niiauanoaa –
n aiaoiae n?aaeie o?aaiaaei caiaiu iaaeyaeii-ia?aciuo, naycaiiuo n
aieueoeie cao?aoaie yia?aee e a?aiaie n?aaenoa iauaiey (iaioiieia) ia
aieaa aeaeea, ?aciiia?aciua e yeiiiie/iua n?aaenoaa, eaeiaua niaea?aeae
caoeiaie ycue.

Auiieiyy iaeio e oo aea ciaeiaoth ooieoeeth, iaioiieia e caoe eae au
eiieo?e?iaaee iaaeaeo niaie, e a yoie eiieo?aioeee iiaaaeee aieaa
yeiiiie/iue e iia?aoeaiue caoe. Ia/eaii?acaeaeueiue caoe, noaiiaynue
iiiaicia/iui, ia/ae aa?uee?iaaoueny e noyaeaaoueny aei oao i?aaeae, a
eioi?uo ii inoaaaeny ioee/eiui io ae?oaeo caoeia. Eaaeaeue oaeie caoe
eiae naia cia/aiea – ia?ac io?acea iaioiieie/aneiai aeaenoaey. Yoi oaea
auee neiaa – i?aaeeiaeaiey, iia?e?oy eioi?uie /aeiaae iiaeao aueoe ca
a?aieoeu einoeieoia e au?aaioaoue iaia?aie/aiiua ii iauaio e
?aciiia?aceth ciaiey.

Eioa?anii, /oi ana iiiuoee iao/eoue /aeiaaeiia?aciuo iaacueyi caoeiaiio
ycueo auee aaconiaoiu, oae eae caoeiaie aiia?ao aeeaioiuo ia a ninoiyiee
aini?iecaiaeeoue ?aciiia?aciua /eaii?acaeaeueiua caoee /aeiaa/aneie
?a/e, iaeiaei oaeaeinue iao/eoue ianeieueeeo oeiiaica iieueciaaoueny
?yaeii aeanoia ycuea aeooiiaiuo. Iiaeiaiua iiuou eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeatho
oio oaeo, /oi /aeiaa/aneay ?a/ue a aa nia?aiaiiii aeaea iiyaeeanue ia
n?aco, a i?ioea aeeeiiue e o?oaeiue iooue noaiiaeaiey eoeueoo?u,
nii?iaiaeaeay yoio i?ioeann, ?acaeaaynue aianoa n iei.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Geiger L. Urspung der Sprache. Stutgart, 1869; Jdem. Urspung und
Entwickelung der menschlichen Sprachen und vernunft. Stutgart, 1862, T.
1; 1872, T. 2.

2. Paget R.A.S. The origins of language with special reference to the
Paleolitnic age. – Cahiers d’histoire mondiale, 1956, t. 1, N2.

3. Aioe/iua oai?ee ycuea e noeey. I.; E., 1936.

4. Aoiaeo A. Aeooa /aeiaaea e aeeaioiuo. NIa., 1866, o.2.

5. E?aoeay oeeinioneay yioeeeeiiaaeey. I., 1994.

6. Iieeaaiia A. Ae. Noaouee ii iauaio ycueiciaieth. I., 1968.

7. sseooei A. A. Aeiioacu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ycuea. I., 1985.

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