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А.К. Гастев и альтернативная педагогика 20-х гг. XX века

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?aoa?ao ii iaaeaaiaeea

nooaeaioee III eo?na IAEO

304 a/a oaeoeueoaoa AII

ssioeiie Ia?ee

Aeaenae Eaieoiiiae/ Aanoaa

e aeueoa?iaoeaiay iaaeaaiaeea

20-o aiaeia XX a.

A o?aaeeoeeiiiie enoi?ee iaaeaaiaeee niaaoneiai ia?eiaea neiaeeeinue
i?aaenoaaeaiea i “iiiieeoiii”, eaeaieiae/anee oeaeueiii ?acaeoee
eiiioienoe/aneie ioeoeeaeueiie iaaeaaiaeee. Anyeiai aea ?iaea niiiaiey,
auneacuaaiey e oai aieaa iiaeoiaeu, ioee/aaoeany io ioeoeeaeueiie,
caoeene?iaaiiie i?ia?aiiiuie aeieoiaioaie AEI(a), ?anniao?eaaeenue eae
“?aaeceiienoneea” e caaaaeiii ioeai/iua. ?a/ue ioithaeue ia eaeao i oao
eiioeaioeeyo, eioi?ua ionoaeaaee o?aaeeoeee ioa/anoaaiiie e ie?iaie
iaaeaaiaeee, aunooiaee i?ioea ia?oeeiie i?eno?anoiinoe e eeanniaiai
iiaeoiaea, a caueoo iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae e oeeinioneiai
ieth?aeecia (I.O. Eaioa?aa, A.I. Aaooa?ia, N.E. Aannai e ae?.). ?a/ue
eaeao i iaee/ee aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeoiaeia e e?eoe/aneiai aiaeeca
ioeoeeaeueiie oai?ee e i?aeoeee aioo?e eiiioienoe/aneie eiioeaioeee
ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey. N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoi i?iyaeeinue a
i?ieaoeoeueoianeii, “eaaaoeeii” ioeaca io i?aainoaaiiinoe iiaie oeieu n
o?aaeeoeeyie ?inneeneiai ia?aciaaiey (I.I. Eaiaoeineee, C.E. Eeeeia,
A.I. Iicia? e ae?.), /oi, a eiia/iii n/aoa, i?eaaei e ?ac?ooaieth
enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny a ?innee nenoaiu iecoaai e n?aaeiaai
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey e ia ii?aaaeaaoae naay iiiuoea
aa caiaiu aaeeiie o?oaeiaie, o.a. iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie, oeieie, yeiau
niiniaiie acyoue ia naay yoe caaea/e.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eae ?aaeoeey ia ioeai/ioth iieeoeeo Ia?eiii?ina a
aeaea iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo a 1919-1921 aa. aicieeea
eiioeaioeey iiiioaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey. Iia i?ioeainoiyea
iaaeaaiae/aneiio ?iiaioecio ioeoeeaeueiie iieeoeee caaaaaiey aia?aae,
oaoeoecaoeee iaeioi?uo ioieoia I?ia?aiiu AEI(a) ii ia?iaeiiio
ia?aciaaieth, anooieaoeo a i?ioeai?a/ea n nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie
?aaeeyie, /?acia?iie iieeoecaoeee e eaeaieiaecaoeee ia?aciaaiey. Ia
ieaooi?ia iiiioaoiecia ia neo/aeii ieacaeenue “?aaeenou” ( aeayoaee
i?ionithcia, i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?aaiecaoi?u i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey
?innee e Oe?aeiu (I.TH. Oieaeo, A.A. Eicaeaa, O.A. Aeaiaiee, ss.I.
?yiii, A.O. A?eiueei e ae?.). A i?ioeaiaan eaeaa oioaeueiie
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu aei 17 eao iie auaeaeaaee i?eiao
i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey iaae iauei, i?ioanneiiaeecaoeeth noa?oae
nooiaie n?aaeiae oeieu, o?aaiaaee ainnoaiiaeaiey i?ioanneiiaeueiie
oeieu. Aiaeece?oy i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo “iieeoaoienoaie” (I.E. E?oineie,
A.A. Eoia/a?neei e ae?.) e “iiiioaoienoaie” ?onneee iaaeaaia-yiea?aio
N.E. Aannai iaiaeiie?aoii ienae, /oi a aeeeaiia “iieeoaoie/aneia eee
iiiioaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea” au?aaeaiu i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo
eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oeae e ainoaea?noaii ( ia?oee ioaeia “niaia”, a
ainoaea?noao “niaoeu”. Oioy ioeoeeaeueii “iiiioaoieci” aue ?anoeaiai eae
iooiae io ia?oeeiie ieaooi?iu, iiiaea eaeae iiiioaoienoia a neeo naiaai
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?aaeecia iaoee aiieiuaiea a ?acaeoee nenoaiu
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey ?innee e Oe?aeiu. Ii io o/anoey a i?aaiecaoeee
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiioaoiecia a 1921 a. auee
iono?aiaiu.

Aeey iiieiaiey iineaaeothuaai ?acaeoey oai?ee e i?aeoeee aeueoa?iaoeaiie
iaaeaaiaeee aaaeii neacaoue, /oi, aicieeioa a iaae?ao yeiiiieee e
i?iecaiaenoaa, iiiioaoie/aneay ieaooi?ia ianea a naaa ia oieueei
?aaeeci, ii e oaiaeaioeee oaoiie?aoe/aneiai iiaeoiaea, eioi?iai
iianaeenue i?aaenoaaeoaee ioeoeeaeueiie iaaeaaiaeee (I.E. E?oineay e
ae?.). Enoi?e/aneay cia/eiinoue iiiioaoiecia a oii, /oi ii ?anoaoae
“aeaeaciaaoiiiinoue” aano?aeoiuo ?iiaioeei-iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeieo?ei
ia?auo iinea?aaiethoeeiiiuo eao, ii, i?ecuaay e o/aoo
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo ?aaeee, aai i?aaenoaaeoaee a oi aea a?aiy
aiaaeaee a /?acia?iue i?aaiaoeci. A /enea oao, eoi naieie ?aaioaie e
iao/iie i?aeoeeie niinianoaiaae noaiiaeaieth iiiioaoiecia e ii nouanoao
a iiauo oi?iao oaea i?iaeieaeee yoi iai?aaeaiea aeueoa?iaoeaiie
iaaeaaiaeee, aue Aeaenae Eaieoiiiae/ Aanoaa e nicaeaiiue ei
Oeaio?aeueiue einoeooo o?oaea (OeEO).

Aicieeioa a ia/aea 20-o aiaeia, caoai a oa/aiea ii/oe 20 eao a oeaio?a
iaaeaaiae/aneeo aeeneonnee iaoiaeeeanue iaaeaaiae/aneay eiioeaioeey
OeEOa. Ino?ay iieaieea oea ii i?iaeaiai o?oaeiaie iaaeaaiaeee,
iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo, iiaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
eoeueoo?u e nioeeaeecaoeee ee/iinoe, iaoiaeia i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
iao/aiey e ae?. Oeaio?aeueiie oeao?ie e aaeioiiaeoaeai yoie eiioeaioeee
aue aeaeiue aeayoaeue aeaeaeaiey IIO, i?ieaoa?neee iiyo,
?aai/ee-iaoaeeeno Aeaenae Eaieoiiiae/ Aanoaa (1882-1941), iauaaeeieaoee
aieueooth a?oiio aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia a OeEOa e aeoeeiia?iii iauanoaa
“Onoaiiaea”.

A iieaieeo aie?oa eaeae e i?aeoeee OeEOa auee aoyioou ainoaea?noaaiiua e
ia?oeeiua aeayoaee, ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaei?eyoee e ?aai/ea, iaaeaaiae e
ineoieiae. Iieaieea n?aco auieanioeanue ca i?aaeaeu “/enoie” iaaeaaiaeee
e i?eia?aea iieeoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, io?acea ?acee/iua acaeyaeu ia oeaee e
caaea/e ainieoaiey, ia oei ee/iinoe, ioaeiue nioeeaeenoe/aneiio
ainoaea?noao a ia?eiae IYIa, ia iooe aai ainieoaiey e i?aeoe/aneie
iiaeaioiaee. Iaoeaeaiiay ia ?aoaiea “caiiuo” caaea/ iiaeaioiaee
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo a oneiaeyo aic?iaeaeaiey yeiiiieee e e?ecena
?aai/ae neeu, eiioeaioeey OeEOa aucaaea aaciaiai?i/ioth iiaeaea?aeeo ni
noi?iiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?ionithcia, i?aaiia o?oaea (O.Y.
Aeca?aeeineee, A.A. Eoeauoaa, I.I. Oiineee, A.A. Oieaeo e ae?.).

Eiioeaioeey OeEOa auea ianoi?iaeaiii ano?a/aia a iaaeaaiae/aneie ia/aoe,
n?aaee o/aiuo-iaaeaaiaia. Yoi auei aucaaii, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, oai,
/oi iia oea ia io eaeaieiaee, ia io eaeaaea “ananoi?iiia ?acaeoie
ee/iinoe”, a io iio?aaiinoae yeiiiieee, ineoioeceieiaee o?oaea,
aeeiaieee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaoiaeieiaeth iaaeaaiaeee OeEO auaiaeee ia ec eaeaieiaee e iieeoeee
(oioy ei yaii ia i?ioeai?a/ee), a “iaiin?aaenoaaiii ec aiaeeca iiaaeoeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oi?i”, ?anniao?eaay naith iaaeaaiaeeo eae
“i?iecaiaenoaaiioth oi?io i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea”.

Aeey iaaeaaiae/aneie eiioeaioeee OeEOa e aeey A.E. Aanoaaa oa?aeoa?ii ai
iiiaii eiia, aeueoa?iaoeaiia iiieiaiea oeaeae e caaea/ iaaeaaiaeee e
naiiai ia?aciaaiey.

I?aaeaea anaai, a i?ioeaiaan “oeieueiie eeanne/aneie iaaeaaiaee” Aanoaa
aeaeae caaea/o nicaeaiey iiaie eiaeono?eaeueiie iaaeaaiaeee a oe?ieii
niunea neiaa, iai?aaeaiiie ia ainieoaiea i?ioanneiiaeueii ono?aieaiiie
ee/iinoe, ?ac?aaioeo nioeeaeueiie e o?oaeiaie oaoiieiaee ainieoaiey,
oi?ie?iaaiea iiaie o?oaeiaie eoeueoo?u e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iiaaaeaiey.
Ii aunooiae i?ioea iaii?aaaeaiiie eaeaieiaecaoeee ainieoaiey, ca
iaua/aeiaa/aneee oei o?oaeiaie ee/iinoe.

O?oaeiaiio oeio ee/iinoe aeieaeiu auoue i?enoue oaeea ea/anoaa:
iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, ecia?aceoaeueiinoue (oiaiea ecia?aaeaoue,
ioia?aaeaoue e oeene?iaaoue a neiaa, a ienueia, a a?aoeea e oioia?aoee),
aiey (aioiaiinoue e aeaenoaeth, niiniaiinoue e ia?aeeth/aieth),
aeaeaaoaeueiay eoeueoo?a (eoeueoo?a oaea, o?oaeiauo, nii?oeaiuo, auoiauo
aeaeaeaiee), aeaaeaiea ?aaeeiii (a?aiaie, aeecie, o?oaea), eneonnoai
ioaeuoa e ainnoaiiaeaiey nee, oiaiey e eoeueoo?a i?aaiecaoi?a,
iieeoaoieci.

O Aanoaaa ?a/ue oea ia i?inoi i iaaeaaiaeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey
(oioy e i iae oiaea), ii i?aaeaea anaai i ainieoaiee /aeiaaea aeey
eiaeono?ee e n iiiiuueth eiaeono?ee, i oi?ie?iaaiee “ineoieiaee
?aaioathuaai /aeiaaea”. Iiciaeiieaoenue n aeinoeaeaieyie
oeeaeeeciaaiiiai ie?a a iaeanoe oaoieee e o?oaea, Aanoaa aue oaaaeaeai,
/oi iiaeii eiii?oe?iaaoue iai?oaeiaaiea, ii iaeuecy eiii?oe?iaaoue
i?ioanneiiaeueioth, i?aaiecaoi?neoth e o?oaeiaoth eoeueoo?o aai
ianeoaeeaaiey.

I?ioanneiiaeecaoeey ee/iinoe eae nioeeaeece?iaaiiue i?ioeann aeey A.E.
Aanoaaa ( yoi aeaaeaiea o?oaeiaie (a oe?ieii niunea neiaa) e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eoeueoo?ie, “iiaay eoeueoo?iay onoaiiaea”. I?e anai
?acii?a/ee o?aeoiaee oa?ieia “eoeueoo?a”, aeey Aanoaaa yoi i?aaeaea
anaai “oaoie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay nii?iaea”, eioi?ay noaiiaeony
?aaeueiinoueth ia /a?ac oeieo e ia?iaeiia i?inaauaiea, a /a?ac “iiauo
aaaioia eoeueoo?u”, eioi?uie aunooiatho eae o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaiecaoeee
(caaiaeu, eaai?aoi?ee, a?iey, neaoou, ieeeoeey, nii?o…), oae e ethaee
“aeaeaaoaeueiie eoeueoo?u” ( i?aaiecaoi?u, iaaethaeaoaee (nuueee,
aeo?iaeenou e o.i.), iiioaaea?u (no?ieoaee, a?a/e e ae?.). Aeey Aanoaaa
eoeueoo?a ( yoi ia iaeaaeaiea aunioaie oeeaeeecaoeee, a o?aie?iaea,
o?aiaae, nii?iaea, /oi oaeaea noaei iauaeoii na?ueaciie e?eoeee.

Naith eiioeaioeeth A.E. Aanoaa iacuaae “iaaeaaiaeeie o?aie?iaee”. Aa
iiaeii ioianoe e ?aoeaenieiae/aneiio iai?aaeaieth iaaeaaiaeee 20-o
aiaeia (O.A. O?aaeeei). Aeey aa iainiiaaiey, iiieii aeinoeaeaiee ie?iaie
e ioa/anoaaiiie iaoee e i?aeoeee a iaeanoe i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea e
i?iecaiaenoaa, oaoiieiaee e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey (O. Oaeei?, A.
O?eae?eo, A. Oi?ae, O. Aeaeeea?ao, A.E. Aeaeea-Ain, A.I. Aaa?eeaiei e
ae?.), OeEOii aue aiaea/ai a iao/iue iai?io ia?iiiue iaoa?eae ii
ineoieiaee, oeceieiaee, ineoioeceieiaee, aeieiaee, ?aoeaenieiaee,
aeiiaoaieea, ineoioaoieea, iaaeieiaee, anoanoaaiii o?oaeiaie iaaeaaiaeea
(AE. Aia?, A. Iaaea, I. Eeiiaii, E.I. Na/aiia, E.I. Iaaeia, A.I.
Aaooa?aa, I.I. Aeiineee, A.I. A?aai?ia, TH.I. O?ieia, E.I. Oieeue?aei,
A.A. Eaeaoieeia, E.E. Caeaeaeue e ae?.).

Nioeeaeueii-iaaeiaiae/aneay oaoiieiaey OeEOa auea ?ac?aaioaia a eiioea
20-o aa. aeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey ?aai/aai ninoaaa e?oiiaeoeo
caaiaeia-iiaino?iae (O?aeiaono?iy, Noaeeia?aaeneiai e ae?oaeo o?aeoi?iuo
caaiaeia, Ieaeaai?iaeneiai aaoicaaiaea e ae?.). A OeEOa ia?yaeo n iauae
iaoiaeieiaeae i?iaeoe?iaaiey aue ninoaaeai oieaa?naeueiue aeai?eoi
nai?a, aiaeeca e ioai?a enoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia ii eco/aieth i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ii aeeth/ae a naay oa?aeoa?enoeeo caaiaea, ea?ou i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea ii
oeaoai, noaiu ?aai/eo oeiia, eaaeeoeeaoeeiiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?niiaea,
iaoiaeeeo iiaeaioiaee e ?annoaiiaee ?aai/eo ii ?aai/ei ianoai, iaoa?eaeu
ii i?aaiecaoeee o/aaii-onoaiiai/iuo oeaoia, nenoaio iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo
e eo i?iecaiaenoaaiiue eino?oeoaae ia ?aai/eo ianoao, nenoaio yenia?oecu
e naea/o i?iaeoeoeee caeac/eeo. Any nenoaia OeEOa iiae/eiyeanue
oieaa?naeueiie oi?ioea: ?an/ao ( onoaiiaea ( ia?aaioea ( eiio?ieue (
ianeoaeeaaiea (?-O-I-E-I). Aoaeo/e oieaa?naeueiie e ooieoeeiiaeueiie,
oi?ioea a ?aciuo oneiaeyo iaiieiyeanue ?acee/iui niaea?aeaieai (iiae
ia?aaioeie, iai?eia?, iiieiaeenue e i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa e i?ioeann
iao/aiey). Oaeei ia?acii, ?aaeeciauaaeanue eaeay iiaeaioiaee e
aaeaioaoeee ii?aaeaeaiiuo, caaeaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaii ?aai/eo. OeEO
i?eioeeieaeueii ioaa?aae eaeath i?eniiniaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e ee/iinoe,
y?aiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae. Aio auee /oaeaeu eaeae nioeeaeueiie io?aiu
ee/iinoe io aa?annee oaoieee.

Iaaeaaiae/aneay eiioeaioeey oaoiieiaecaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey
auea naycaia e n iauae iaoiaeieiaeae OeEOa, e n aa
nioeeaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneeie aniaeoaie. Caeanue iaoea
ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneoth eioa?i?aoaoeeth oai?ey “o?oaeiauo onoaiiaie”,
“onoaiiai/iue iaoiae” Aanoaaa, eioi?ue aia?aua aaae iiiyoea “onoaiiaee”.
Ii auaeaeye eoeueoo?iua, aeieiae/aneea (ineoioeceieiae/aneea) e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-aauaaua onoaiiaee, eiay a aeaeo oeaiiinoiua i?eaioaoeee
ee/iinoe, nenoaio “i?aaeienaiee”, niinianoaothueo nicaeaieth iooai
o?aiaaea onoie/eauo eiiieaenia aeaeaeaiee, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneea
oaeoi?u (“i?aonoaiiaee”) e caaiaeneoth n?aaeo, nicaeathuea nenoaio
iauaeoeaiuo i?aaeienaiee. I/aaeaeii, /oi yoi iiiyoea ia ianei a naaa
i?eiyoiai a nia?aiaiiie ineoieiaee niunea, iaeiaei aeeth/aei
aeoaaei?enoneee, ?aoeaenieiae/aneee iiaeoiae e oi?ie?iaaieth iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea.

Iaaeaaiae/aneay oaoiieiaey OeEOa iie?aeanue ia aiieia ii?aaeaeaiioth
eiioeaioeeth ia?aciaaiey e ainieoaiey. Ioe?uoey eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX
a. a iaeanoe aeieiaee e ineoioeceieiaee (ieanoe/iinoue ia?aiie nenoaiu,
oi?aaeiyaiinoue, oai?ey oneiaiuo ?aoeaenia, ae?anno?a e ae?.), ane?uaay
aeaenoaeoaeueiua ?aca?au ee/iinoe, i?eaaee Aanoaaa e auaiaeo i
aiciiaeiinoe eo eniieueciaaiey aeey ?aaeeeaeueiiai iiauoaiey o?oaeiauo
iioaioeee, aieioue aei aaiaoe/aneiai, aeioeie/aneiai e oe?o?ae/aneiai
aiaoaoaeuenoaa a i?e?iaeo /aeiaaea… I aini?eyoee /aeiaaea eae iauaeoa
aicaeaenoaey aiai?eo oaeo ioiaeaeanoaeaiey iaaeaaiaeee a
“/aeiaaeiaiaenoaii”.

A naiai no?aieaiee aeanoei aeaoa?ieie?iaaoue e oaoiieiaece?iaaoue
i?ioeann i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey Aanoaa i?eoae e eaeaa
i?ia?aiie?iaaiiiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iao/aiey, a eioi?ii noauaeoeaiia
eneonnoai eino?oeoi?a caiaiyaony iauaeoeaiuie aicaeaenoaeyie aauiie
n?aaeu e i?aaeienaiee, nicaeathueo e ei??aeoe?othueo oi?ie?iaaiea
“oeaiae” ?aaeoeee ?aaioieea. Eaeay iaoeiecaoeee ainieoaiey iooai
aeaoa?ieiaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe n iiiiuueth eino?oeoeee, aiaeeoaeae,
oaaeiiia, iai?aaeoaeae, o?aiaaea?ia iieo/eea ieii/aoaeueiia caaa?oaiea a
eiino?oeoeee “nioeeaeueii-eiaeaia?iie iaoeiu”, auno?iaiiie a OeEOa.
?a/ue oea ia iao/aiee o/aieea “a iniaie iaoeia, aaea ana onoaiiaee
o/aieea ii?aaeaeythony ia ie?eeaie e oeacaieyie eino?oeoi?a, a
aeaeaciuie e aea?aayiiuie aeaoaeyie iaoeiu”. O/aiee a iae cae?aieai eae
iauaeo iao/aiey, eae “yeaiaio” naiie iaoeiu. Yoi aua ?ac
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi eiioeaioeey auea eiioeaioeeae eae aaciaoeiiiai, oae
e iaoeiiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiiiai iao/aiey, iniiaaiiiai ia eaeayo “ia?aoiie
nayce”, aeai?eoiecaoeee e i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.

Iaaeaaiae/aneay eiioeaioeey OeEOa a nia?aiaiiii eeth/a iiaeao auoue
?anniio?aia eae ainieoaoaeueiay nenoaia, eioaa?aoeaiui oeaio?ii eioi?ie
yaeyaony onoaiiai/iay aeieo?eia. A iae neioace?iaaiu
eiaeaia?ii-oaoiieiae/aneee, i?aaiecaoeeiiiue e ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneee
eiiiiiaiou, a aeanoeie acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoe no?oeoo?e?iaaiu
iaiaoiaeeiua yeaiaiou ainieoaoaeueiie nenoaiu: eiioeaioeey (oeaee,
caaea/e, iaoiaeieiaey), niaea?aeaiea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu, iaoiaeeea
iao/aiey, n?aaenoaa iao/aiey, yenia?oeca ea/anoaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

1. O.A. O?aaeeei, I.A. Ieioiaa, A.A. Inianeee. Eaeoeee ii enoi?ee
ioa/anoaaiiie iaaeaaiaeee. I., 1995

2. A.E. Aanoaa. O?oaeiaua onoaiiaee. I., 1973

3. A.E. Aanoaa. Iiycey ?aai/aai oaea?a. I., 1971

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