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Управление промышленной фирмой

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Eaoaae?a yeiiiieee e i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

ia oaio: Oi?aaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iie:

nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou.

Auiieieea:

Nooaeaioea 4-ai eo?na oaeoeueoaoa nioeeaeueiie ?aaiou e iaiaaeaeiaioa,
a?oiiu 406, niaoeeaeecaoeey “Iaiaaeaeiaio” Eo?iaiaaaaa Aeaeaieey.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue: i?io. Aoaianueaa A.N.

Ieai aeeieiiiie ?aaiou:

1. Aaaaeaiea.

2. Oi?aaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iie

a) iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey;

a) nenoaia aioo?eoe?iaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey;

a) i?aaiecaoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea e eiio?ieue;

a) iioeaaoeey eae eeth/ e oniaoo.

3. Oi?aaeaiea o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie – nioeeaeueiue aniaeo a oai?ee
iaiaaeaeiaioa.

4. Oe?ia “AAA” – e?oiiaeoee yeaeo?ioaoie/aneee eiioea?i ie?a ( ii
?acoeueoaoai nooaeai/aneie i?aeoeee).

5. Caeeth/aiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Aaaaeaiea

Aeooaeueiinoue enneaaeiaaiey ii oi?aaeaieth i?iiuoeaiiui i?aaei?eyoeai e
aai nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneei aniaeoai a iiauo oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie
?aoi?iu ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai i?iaeieaeathueiny noaiiaeaieai
?uii/iie yeiiiieee, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue o?aaoao ia?ano?ieee ia oieueei
oi?i e iaoiaeia oicyenoaiaaiey, ii e iuoeaiey anao eaoaai?ee
o?oaeyueony, o/anoaothueo a i?ioeanna oi?aeaiey oicyenoaii. Cia/aiea
yoie i?iaeaiu auoiaeeo e a oai?aoe/aneii, e a i?aeoe/aneii aniaeoao ia
ia?aue ieai ia oieueei iioiio, /oi nauoa 70% anao o?oaeyueony
iauaaeeiaiu a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eieeaeoeau, aaea nicaeaaony i?eia?ii 90%
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea, ii e aeinoaoi/ii neiaeiui, iaonoie/eaui
iieiaeaieai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eieeaeoeaia a iuiaoiai ninoiyiee
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee.

O?aaoaony ei?aiiay ?aoi?ia oi?aaeaiey ia oieueei ia
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiii o?iaia, ii e a iniiaiii caaia yeiiiieee –
i?aaei?eyoee. Ianiio?y ia i?iaeieaeathueeny yoai i?eaaoecaoeee iiiaeo
e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo iauaeoia, eciaiaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i,
iiea aua ia oaeaeinue aeeth/eoue i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey a ?uii/iue
iaoaieci a ea/anoaa iieiioeaiiiai aai iaoaiecia. Ia?aoiae e ?uieo
iaaiciiaeai oaeaea aac nicaeaiey iiaiai iaoaiecia oicyenoaiaaiey ia
o?iaia i?aaei?eyoey, iaania/eaathuaai eae aai onoie/eainoue, oae e
aeaeinoue, aai aini?eei/eainoue e eciaiaieyi eiiuthieoo?u ?uiea e
?acee/iui iiaiaaaaeaieyi. Oi?ie?iaaiea oaeiai iaoaiecia iaoiaeii i?ia e
ioeaie – i?ioeann neeoeii aei?iaie e caoyaeiie. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeiui
oneiaeai ?ac?aoaiey iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ yaeyaony iao/iue iiene, aiaeec,
iaiauaiea i?aeoeee e iainiiaaiea oaeie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai,
eioi?ay iiaea au iaania/eoue iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa e
ianuuaiea ?uiea aunieiea/anoaaiiuie oiaa?aie, aeinooiiuie aeey ianniaiai
iio?aaeoaey.

Oeaeueth aeaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony ciaeiinoai n iauai?eciaiiie a
ie?a i?aeoeeie oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iie e ?anniio?aiea aa
nioeeaeueiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo aniaeoia.

Aeinoeaeaiea aeaiiie oeaee, ii iiaieth aaoi?a, inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
?aoaiea neaaeothueo caaea/:

– ?anniio?aiey iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey eae
ioe?uoie nenoaiu, auyaeaiey iaeaieaa oaeiaiie ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue a
oneiaeyo auno?uo oaiiia i?eaaoecaoeee i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaie oi?iu;

– eco/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iiuoa ?acaeoey nenoaiu aioo?eoe?iaiiiai
ieaie?iaaiey, au?aaioee iniiaiuo oeaeae e no?aoaaee oe?iu;

– iciaeiieaiea n iniiaiuie ooieoeeyie e yoaiaie i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, a oaeaea n caaea/aie i?iaaaeaiey e iaania/aiey eiio?iey
ia i?aaei?eyoee;

– iciaeiieaiea e ioeaiea iaeiie ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa –
iioeaaoeee e aa ?ieue a iiauoaiee yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa.

– eco/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iiuoa oi?aaeaiey o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie,
enneaaeiaaiea e ?ac?aaioea ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaiee a ?aaioa n eaae?aie eae
iaeaieaa aaaeiiai nioeeaeueiiai aniaeoa a oi?aaeaiee i?iiuoeaiiie
oe?iie.

– ciaeiinoai ia iniiaa i?ioaaeoae a Oaaeoea?ee nooaeai/aneie noaaee?iaee
n iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a yeaeo?ioaoie/aneei eiioea?iii “AAA”,
i?aaenoaaeaiea iniiaiuo aai aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e iieiaeaiee, eioi?ui
ii neaaeoao.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo yeaiaioia ?uii/iiai oicyenoaa yaeyaony oe?ia
(i?aaei?eyoea). Iiae oe?iie iiieiaaony yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo, eioi?ue
caieiaaony i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoueth e iaeaaeaao oicyenoaaiiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth ( a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee i oii, /oi, eae e a eaeeo
?acia?ao i?iecaiaeeoue , aaea, eiio e ii eaeie oeaia i?iaeaaaoue naith
i?iaeoeoeeth). Oe?ia iauaaeeiyao ?ano?nu aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
ii?aaeaeaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo aeaa n oeaeueth iaeneiecaoeee i?eauee. A
ioee/ee io anoanoaaiiui ia?acii neiaeeaoaainy ?uii/iiai ii?yaeea oe?iu
aace?othony ia ea?a?oe/aneii i?eioeeia i?aaiecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe. ?uiie i?aaeiieaaaao iainiaeaiea n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
oe?ia – eo eiioeaio?aoeeth. Ia ?uiea ainiiaenoaotho einaaiiua iaoiaeu
eiio?iey, aioo?e oe?iu – i?yiua. ?uiie eneeth/aao aeeeoao, ii
iniiauaaaony ia yeiiiie/aneeo noeioeao, oe?ia, iaiai?io, i?aaeiieaaaao
aaeeiiia/aeea, iniiauaaaony ia aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oi?iao oi?aaeaiey.

*oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?iiuoeaiiay oe?ia?

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiui oeiii yaeythony aeaa
oeia i?aaei?eyoee – yoi ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey e
i?aaei?eyoey-ei?ii?aoeee. Ei?ii?aoeey – yoi oe?ia, eiathuay oi?io
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea, aaea ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai nianoaaiieea
ia?aie/aia aai aeeaaeii a aeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea.

Ei?ii?aoeey – iauanoai, iniiaaiiia ia iayo. Iieoiay oeaiiua aoiaae
(aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee),eiaeeaeaeu (aeiiioicyenoaa) noaiiayony
nianoaaiieeaie ei?ii?aoeee. *a?ac ?uiie oeaiiuo aoiaa aiciiaeii auno?ia
i?eaea/aiea oeiainiauo n?aaenoa ia?iiiiai /enea ethaeae. Aea?aeaoaee
aeoeee iieo/atho /anoue aeioiaea (aeeaeaeaiae) e ?eneotho oieueei oie
noiiie, eioi?oth iie caieaoeee i?e iieoiea aeoeee (iaeeaaoeee).
E?aaeeoi?u i?aaeuyaeytho ene e ei?ii?aoeee a oeaeii, ii ia e aeoeeiia?ai
eae /anoiui eeoeai (i?aai ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe).

Ei?ii?aoeey nouanoaoao iacaaeneii io aa aeaaeaeueoeaa-aeoeeiia?ia. Anee
ei ia i?aaeony i?iaiaeeiay ei?ii?aoeeae iieeoeea, iie ai?aaa i?iaeaoue
naie iae, ii, eae i?aaeei, ia a ninoiyiee eeeaeaee?iaaoue eiiiaieth eae
oaeiaoth. Iiyoiio nia?aiaiiua ei?ii?aoeee oa?aeoa?ecothony ecaanoiie
noaaeeueiinoueth. Iie nio?aiytho naie niaoeeoe/aneea ?ano?nu iacaaeneii
io aiee e aeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeoeeiia?ia.

Ia?yaeo n ianiiiaiiuie aeinoieinoaaie ei?ii?aoeee iaeaaeatho e aiieia
iuooeiuie iaaeinoaoeaie.

Ei?ii?aoeee ioe?uaatho oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acee/iuo
ceioiio?aaeaiee. Aicieeaao ?ac?ua iaaeaeo ooieoeeae nianoaaiiinoe e
ooieoeeae oi?aaeaiey. Iaeeea e n?aaeiea aea?aeaoaee iau/ii ia iaeaaeatho
iaiaoiaeeiie e aeinoaoi/iie eioi?iaoeeae aeey inouanoaeaiey
aeaenoaaiiiai eiio?iey. A ei?ii?aoeee i?ienoiaeeo ?aciuaaiea i?aa
nianoaaiiinoe, iineieueeo aiciiaeiinoe eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
“eiiaiaeu” ineaaeythony. Aea?aeaoaee eiio?ieueiiai iaeaoa aeoeee iiaoo
inouanoaeyoue eiio?ieue eeoue ca aunoeie oi?aaeythueie. Aiciiaeiinoe
“iiii?ooienoe/aneiai iiaaaeaiey” ?anoe?ythony. No?aiynue e ee/iiio
iaiaauaieth, aunoea iaiaaeaea?u o/anoaotho a /?acau/aeii ?eneiaaiiuo
iia?aoeeyo, a eiiaaea eaeoo e ia i?yiua ceioiio?aaeaiey aeanoueth
(iaoeiaoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie, ia?aeea eaieoaea a aei/a?iea eiiiaiee,
niiieoaeueiay i?iecaiaenoaaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue e o.ae.).

Iaeiaei, eae i?aaeei, oaeea ceioiio?aaeaiey aiciiaeiu eeoue a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaeaeao. Naea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ii aunooiaao nai ?uiie.
Aicieeaao oa?ica “iiaeiuaiey” aeaiiie oe?iu ae?oaie e iieiie niaiu
eiiaiaeu ( ai anyeii neo/aa, aai aa?oiaai yoaeiia). E oiio aea iaaeaao
i?anoeae iaiaaeaea?ia eiiiaiee ia ?uiea o?oaea, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe a
ia?niaeoeaa e ?aceiio nie?auaieth eo aeioiaeia.

Nae/an a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie nenoaia oicyenoaiaaiey iiiaea
ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey i?aoa?iaaatho cia/eoaeueioth
?aoi?iaoeeth e eciaiytho naith i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaoth oi?io,
i?aa?auaynue a aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa ioe?uoiai eee cae?uoiai oeia e
oiaa?euanoaa (ia?oia?noaa).

Nia?aiaiiia e?oiiia i?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
neiaeioth i?iecaiaenoaaiioth nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio, eioi?ie
i?enoue ana oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu: aoiae, auoiae, i?ioeann, oeaeue,
ia?aoiay naycue e o.ae.

I?aaei?eyoea i?eia?aoaao o iinoaaueeia ?ano?nu (oiieeai, yia?aeth,
iai?oaeiaaiea, iaoa?eaeu, eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey), inouanoaeyao
aeaaiaea?y o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe eieeaeoeaa i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann, iieo/aao aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth e iinoaaeyao aa iio?aaeoaeyi.

E?iia iinoaaueeia e iio?aaeoaeae aiaoiae n?aaeie ii ioiioaieth e
i?aaei?eyoeth yaeythony auoanoiyuay i?aaiecaoeey ( ?acee/iua i?aaiu,
ieienoa?noaa), aaie, /a?ac eioi?ue inouanoaeythony ana oeiainiaua
iia?aoeee n iinoaaueeaie e iio?aaeoaeyie.

I?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea, eae e anyeay neiaeiay nenoaia, ninoieo ec
eiiieaena aieaa i?inouo nenoai, auiieiythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee.

A i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneii ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneee eiiieaen, nenoaio ?aai/eo iaoei e
iaoaieciia, iiaeia?aiiuo i?iii?oeeiiaeueii ii eiee/anoao e iiuiinoe a
niioaaonoaee n aeaeaie auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee ( auiieiyaiuo ?aaio,
oneoa), oaoiieiaeae aa ecaioiaeaiey e iauaiaie auionea.

I?aaiecaoeeiiii i?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?ae/iia caaii
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aaeeieoeo ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa n
ii?aaeaeaiiie aioo?aiiae no?oeoo?ie, aiaoiae n?aaeie, caeiiiia?iinoyie
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey. I?aaiecaoeeiiiay nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey
aeeth/aao aai i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o
oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai e oeaoaie, a oaeaea nayce iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaenoaii e oi?aaeaieai, iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeai e aiaoieie
i?aaiecaoeeyie.

A nioeeaeueiii ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoea aunooiaao a ea/anoaa nioeeaeueiie
iiaenenoaiu iauanoaa, eiaiii ia iai inouanoaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaea
iauanoaaiiuo, eieeaeoeaiuo e ee/iuo eioa?ania, neeaaeuaathony ioiioaiey
ae?oaeaneie acaeiiiiiiue.

Yeiiiie/anee i?aaei?eyoea yaeyaony iainiaeaiiui caaiii i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iaeaaeathuei ii?aaeaeaiiie iia?aoeaii-oicyenoaaiiie
naiinoiyoaeueiinoueth e inouanoaeythuei naith aeayoaeueiinoue ia iniiaa
iieiiai oicyenoaaiiiai ?an/aoa. Yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey
aeeth/aao yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey i?aaei?eyoey n ainoaea?noaii,
auoanoiyuae i?aaiecaoeeae, iinoaaueeaie e iio?aaeoaeyie, oeiainiauie
i?aaiecaoeeyie.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoea – neiaeiay aeeiaie/iay nenoaia,
oa?aeoa?ecothuayny aieueoei iauaiii, eioaineaiinoueth e
?aciiiai?aaeaiiinoueth eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naycae iaaeaeo iiaenenoaiaie e
yeaiaioaie, iinoiyiii iaiaieaathuayny n aiaoiae n?aaeie ?acee/iiai ?iaea
eioi?iaoeeae. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia i?aaei?eyoey aeeth/aao io/aoioth e
ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneoth aeieoiaioaoeeth, a oaeaea ?acee/ioth
eioi?iaoeeth, oa?aeoa?ecothuoth ninoiyiea e aeaeaeaiea eiiiiiaioia
i?aaei?eyoey.

A yeieiae/aneii ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth nenoaio, acaeiiaeaenoaothuoth n aiaoiae n?aaeie iooai
iaoa?eaeueii-yia?aaoe/aneiai iaiaia.

A aaeieieno?aoeaii-i?aaiaii ioiioaiee i?aaei?eyoea aunooiaao a ea/anoaa
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea n onoaiiaeaiiuie ainoaea?noaii a caeiiiaeaoaeueiii
ii?yaeea i?aaaie e iaycaiiinoyie.

I?iiuoeaiiia i?aaei?eyoea, eae e ethaay nenoaia, iiaeao iaoiaeeony a
aeaoo ninoiyieyo: onoie/eaii e iaonoie/eaii.

Onoie/eaia ninoiyiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?eoie/iui auioneii
aunieiea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e aieueoei ni?inii ia iaa, ?aaiiia?iui
oiaeii i?iecaiaenoaa ai anao iiae?acaeaeaieyo, oi?ioei
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei e eaae?iaui iaania/aieai, ii?iaeueiui
ineoieiae/aneei eeeiaoii a eieeaeoeaa.

Iaonoie/eaia i?aaei?eyoea oa?aeoa?ecoaony naiyie a oiaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna, ia?eoie/iui auioneii i?iaeoeoeee e
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui ni?inii ia iaa, ianaiaa?aiaiiui
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei iaania/aieai, iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui
ineoieiae/aneei eeeiaoii. Oaeia ninoiyiea iiaeao auoue ?acoeueoaoii eae
aiaoieo, oae e aioo?aiieo aicaeaenoaee e iineoue a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa?.

I?aaei?eyoeyi ?acee/iuo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe i?enoua naiy niaoeeoeea.
Iaeiaei ia?yaeo n iniaaiiinoyie eiaaony e ?yae iaueo i?eciaeia, eioi?ua
iicaieytho eo eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii ianeieueeei iai?aaeaieyi.

Ii oa?aeoa?o iio?aaeyaiiai nu?uey ana i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey aeaeyony
ia i?aaei?eyoey aeiauaathuae e ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Ii iacia/aieth aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey a?oiie?othony ia
i?iecaiaeyuea n?aaenoaa e i?aaeiaou iio?aaeaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io oa?aeoa?a i?ioaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna ai
a?aiaie i?aaei?eyoey auaatho n i?a?uaiui e iai?a?uaiui (aeene?aoiui)
i?iecaiaenoaii.

Ai a?aiaie ?aaiou a oa/aiea aiaea ?acee/atho i?aaei?eyoey naciiiiai e
e?oaeiaiaeiaiai aeaenoaey. Niaieoiiinoue ia?a/eneaiiuo
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia oa?aeoa?ecoao io?aneaaoth i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey.

Ii ?acia?ai i?aaei?eyoey aeaeyony ia e?oiiua, n?aaeiea e iaeeea, a a
iaeioi?uo io?aneyo ia a?oiiu. Oae, a iaoeiino?iaiee onoaiiaeaii
ianeieueei a?oii i?aaei?eyoee. A eaaeaeie io?anee onoaiaaeeaathony naie
ia?aiao?u aeey ioianaiey i?aaei?eyoey e ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiia. Iau/ii yoi
iauai auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia, /eneaiiinoue
i?iiuoeaiii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea, o?iaaiue e oaiiu ?inoa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea.

Ii noaiaie iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/atho
i?aaei?eyoey n aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui, eiiieaen-iaoaiece?iaaiiui,
/anoe/ii-iaoaiece?iaaiiui e ?o/iui i?iecaiaenoaii.

Eiathony e ae?oaea iai?aaeaiey eeanneoeeaoeee i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

A i?iiuoeaiiie noa?a a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ei anai i?aaei?eyoeyi
i?aaeuyaeythony neaaeothuea aaaeiaeoea o?aaiaaiey:

1) eniieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e
iaania/aiea ia yoie iniiaa aunieiai oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai o?iaiy
i?iecaiaenoaa e auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee;

2) iaiaa?aiiinoue e iiaeeueiinoue, o.a. niiniaiinoue a ei?ioeea n?iee
ia?aeeth/aoueny n i?iecaiaenoaa iaeieo aeaeia ecaeaeee ia ae?oaea eee
auioneaoue eo ia?aeeaeueii a ioaeiuo iauanoao eiee/anoaao;

3) ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea anao aeaeia ?ano?nia, iaania/aiea
aunieie yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa;

4) iaania/aiea iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee o?oaea e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
eieeaeoeaa i?aaei?eyoey;

5) yeieiae/iinoue anao aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nenoaia aioo?eoe?iaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey

Eae ecaanoii, i?ioeann oi?aaeaiey caeeth/aaony a
ieaie?iaaiee,i?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaee ii auiieiaieth ieaiia e eiio?iea ca
eiia/iuie ?acoeueoaoaie. *ai eo/oa io?aaioaiu e oaniaa acaeiinaycaiu yoe
aaaeiaeoea ooieoeee, ii?aaeaeythuea a niaieoiiinoe nouanoai i?aaeiaoa
oi?aaeaiey, oai ?acoeueoaoeaiaa oi?aaeaiea. Iiiaea i?iiuoeaiiua oe?iu ia
nianoaaiiii iiuoa oaaaeeeenue, /oi ieaie?iaaiea yaeyaony n?aaenoaii,
iicaieythuei ei ii?aaeaeyoue oa?aeoa?, oi?iu e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
aoaeoueo aeaenoaee ia i?ioyaeaiee i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea.

A iaueo /a?oao a ieaie?iaaiea aoiaeyo: auyaeaiey ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey
aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey, oi?ioee?iaaiea oeaeae e aa?iyoiuo no?aoaaee,
onoaiiaeaiea ia?ainoaiaiiuo caaea/ e ii?aaeaeaiea eo?nia aeaenoaee aeey
eo aeinoeaeaiey. I?iaeoeoeeae ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony nenoaia ieaiia –
aeieain?i/iuo, n?aaeian?i/iuo e iia?aoeaiuo. I?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey
ioaaouaaao ana o?iaie oi?aaeaiey e nicaeaao iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee
aeey iaania/aiey a i?eioeeia a oe?ia oi/iiai niioaaonoaey
i?aaei?eieiaaiuo aeaenoaee o?aaiaaieyi iaueo oeaeae. A ?aaioa ii
aioo?eoe?iaiiiio ieaie?iaaieth i?aaeaea anaai o/anoaotho aunoea
?oeiaiaeeoaee, eioi?ua oi?ie?otho enoiaeiua iieiaeaiey aeey aeinoeaeaiey
iioeiaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey aioo?eoe?iaiiuo ?ano?nia, aeaeaae?otho
iieiiii/ey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey yoeo ?ano?nia.
Io eeoe, eioi?ui aeaeaae?iaaiu iieiiii/ey e i?eaeaiu ?ano?nu, o?aaoaony
oai?/aneee iiaeoiae e eniieueciaaieth ?ano?nia. I?ia?ann a yoii
iai?aaeaiee caaeneo io oiaiey iaiaaeaea?ia eniieueciaaoue iiaaeoea
oai?aoe/aneea iieiaeaiey, ?acee/iua aiaeeoe/aneea eino?oiaioa?ee aeey
iouneaiey iaeeo/oeo naycae ianoiyuaai n aoaeouei, aeey ?aoaiey caaea/
ii?aaeaeaiey oeaeae. I?iiuoeaiiua oe?iu anaia?ii no?aiyony iiauoaoue
iainiiaaiiinoue ieaiia, aeaey a yoii aeiiieieoaeueiue enoi/iee naiaai
?inoa. E?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee eniieuecotho naie neoaeau ieaie?iaaiey e aeey
eiio?iey auiieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa iinoaaueeaie.

Iiiaea ca?oaaaeiua niaoeeaeenou iai?a?uaii iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi niune
aioo?eoe?iaiiiai ieaie?iaaiey a eiia/iii n/aoa naiaeeony e ii?aaeaeaieth
?aoaiee, eioi?ua o?aaoaony i?eiyoue naaiaeiy aeey iaania/aiey
yooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu, aa ?inoa a aoaeouai. Niune
ieaie?iaaiey aeiaieueii oi/ii ii?aaeaeyaony i?ioanni?ii Ae.Naiaea?nii ec
Oaoanneiai oieaa?neoaoa: “Ooieoeey ieaie?iaaiey – niio?aoue a aoaeouaa;
ieaie?iaaoue – cia/eo ii?aaeaeyoue ca?aiaa aoaeouee eo?n aeaenoaee”(1).
Ii aai ii?aaeaeaieth, ieaie?iaaiea aeeth/aao i?eiyoea ?aoaiee a
ioiioaiee:

– auai?a eae e?aoein?i/iuo, oae e aeieain?i/iuo no?aoaaee oe?iu;

– au?aaioee i?eaioe?othueo eeiee e aeaenoaee, eioi?ua iiiiaatho
auiieiyoue iinoaaeaiiua oeaee eee i?aiaeieaaaoue oa?iaeathuea neooaoeee;

– onoaiiaeaiey noaiaea?oia iia?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony eae aaca aeey inouanoaeaiey eiio?iey;

– ia?aniio?a aieaa ?aiieo ieaiia a naaoa iaiythueony oneiaee.

Iaeaieaa aaaeiuie oeaeyie ?aciuo oe?i yaeythony: iaania/aiea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy i?eaueae, iauaia i?iaeaae,auno?ay ?aaeecaoeey
oiaa?ia, i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?uiie, oniaa?oainoaiaaiea ecaeaeee, iiauoaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea, aieaa iieiia eniieueciaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, aeinoeaeaiea ?eoie/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii?yaeie onoaiiaeaiey oeaeae (iai?eia?, ?ino i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/aiea
noaaeeueiinoe, caoaao aaaeoueo iiceoeee ia ?uiea, oaaee/aiea i?eaueae,
iaania/aiea ieoiaaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee) iau/ii i?ienoiaeeo a
neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:

_ iiae?iaiia eceiaeaiea iaueo oeaeoee, iaania/eaathueo iieo/aiea
iaia/aiiie i?eauee;

– oi?ie?iaaiea eaaeaeie oeaee aeey anao e?oiiuo noa? aeayoaeueiinoe;

– onoaiiaeaiea eiee/anoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eee iieacaoaeae, ii eioi?ui
iiaeii noaeeoue i auiieiaiee iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae (iai?eia?, iai?io
oe?iu);

– onoaiiaeaiea ii?iaoeaia ii auiieiaieth ?aaiou a oeaoao.

I?e oi?ioee?iaaiee aeaaiie oeaee ?oeiaiaenoaothony o?aaiaaieai iieo/aiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai iauaia i?eauee, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa
e?eoe/aneiai aiaeeca neeueiuo e neaauo noi?ii aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiaiee n
o/aoii iaiaeeaeaiiinoae, oayueony a iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe aiaoiae
ianoaiiaee. A yoie ?aaioa eniieuecoaony iaoiae iino?iaiey “aea?aaa
oeaeae”. Iniiaaieai “aea?aaa” neoaeao aeaaiua no?aoaae/aneea eiioeaioeee
oe?iu. Iie iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?acaaoaeythony, ii?aaeaeyy aieaa /anoiua e
aianoa n oai aieaa eiie?aoiua oeaee aeey eaaeaeiai ieaeanoiyuaai caaia
oi?aaeaiey. Enoiaey ec yoiai, eaaeaeue iaiaaeaea? aeieaeai ii?aaeaeeoue
naie eiie?aoiua oeaee. Eiaaea oeaee noi?ioee?iaaiu, nicaeathony oneiaey
aeey ioeaiee ?aaiou iaiaaeaea?ia – ii oniaoai a auiieiaiee iinoaaeaiiuo
caaea/. *ai ieaea nooiaie ea?a?oee, oai aieaa eiie?aoiuie noaiiayony
oeaee ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o, iai?aaeaiiinoe, ioaaouaaaiiio ia?eiaeo. Aeey
iaiaaeaea?a eaaeaeay eiie?aoiay oeaeue ioe?uaaao aiciiaeiinoue aeey aai
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai oai?/anoaa, ?acaeoeth eioi?iai aeieaeia
niinianoaiaaoue aeinoaoi/iay i?aaiecaoi?neay naiinoiyoaeueiinoue.

Yooaeoeaiia auiieiaiea ooieoeee ieaie?iaaiey i?aaeiieaaaao:

– iinooieaiea naaaeaiee ia iniiaiuo iauayeiiiie/aneeo e ?uii/iuo
oneiaeyo, aeeyiee ia ?uiie naiie oe?iu e aa eiieo?aioia, i i?ioeuo
i?iaeaaeao e i?eaueyo;

– ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiie oiaa?iie no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa a eaaeaeue
aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie n o/aoii iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna;

– iia?aoeaiue o/ao iaee/iuo ?ano?nia e aeaeia iaiaa?e?iaaiea eie;

– onoaiiaeaiea eiio?iey ca auiieiaieai ieaiia e naiaa?aiaiiie eo
ei??aeoe?iaee a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Iiiaea o/aiua e yeiiiienou ?aciuo no?ai enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi
ieaie?iaaiea – iaeaieaa o?oaeiue e ioaaonoaaiiue o/anoie ai anae ?aaioa
ii i?aaiecaoeee yooaeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey ia oieueei iioiio, /oi
eneeth/eoaeueii neiaeai i?ioeann ii?aaeaeaiey oeaeae, ieii/aoaeueiiai
auai?a iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe e ?ac?aaioee niioaaonoaothuae
i?ia?aiiu a oneiaeyo ?uiea, ii e aneaaenoaee neiaeiinoe anae
iineaaeothuae ?aaiou ii auiieiaieth ieaiia ec-ca eciai/eainoe
eiiuthieoo?u e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ooi/iaiey e ei??aeoe?iaee ieaiia. Iie
i?aaeinoa?aaatho i?iiuoeaiiua oe?iu i?ioea oi?iuai/anoaa e ?aeiiaiaeotho
i?e i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiu ieaie?iaaiey, n iaeiie noi?iiu, ii?aaeaeyoue
acaeiinaycue caaea/ e oaaia ii nicaeaieth ea?a?oee ieaiia, a n ae?oaie –
i?aaeoniio?aoue nenoaio eiio?iey ?aaiou oe?iu e iaiaoiaeeiuo
ei??aeoeaia.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea e eiio?ieue

*oiau ieaiu auee ?aaeeciaaiu, eoi-oi, i/aaeaeii, aeieaeai oaeoe/anee
auiieieoue eaaeaeoth ec caaea/, auoaeathueo ec oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey
yoiai ?oeiaiaenoai iaycaii iaeoe yooaeoeaiue niinia ni/aoaiey eeth/aauo
ia?aiaiiuo, oa?aeoa?ecothueo caaea/e e ethaeae. Iinoaiiaea oeaeae e
iaania/aiea eo iieeoeeie, no?aoaaeae, i?ioeaaeo?aie e i?aaeeaie
niinianoaoao ?aoaieth yoie caaea/e. Iioeaaoeey e eiio?ieue oaeaea
ea?atho nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a iaania/aiee yooaeoeaiinoe auiieiaiey
caaeaiee. Iaeiaei I?aaiecaoeey eae i?ioeann i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
ooieoeeth, eioi?ay iaeaieaa i/aaeaeii e iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaia n
nenoaiaoe/aneie eii?aeeiaoeeae iiiaeo caaea/ e,niioaaonoaaiii,
oi?iaeueiuo acaeiiioiioaiee ethaeae, eo auiieiythueo.

I?AAIECAOeEss – yoi i?ioeann nicaeaiey no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey, eioi?ay
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ethaeyi yooaeoeaii ?aaioaoue aianoa aeey
aeinoeaeaiey aai oeaeae.

Eiaaony aeaa iniiaiuo aniaeoa i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Iaeiei ec ieo
yaeyaony aeaeaiea i?aaiecaoeee ia iiae?acaeaeaiey niioaaonoaaiii oeaeyi
e no?aoaaeyi. Yoi oi, /oi iiiaea ioeai/ii i?eieiatho ca aanue
i?aaiecaoeeiiiue i?ioeann. Aoi?ie aniaeo iniiaai ia acaeiiioiioaieyo
iieiiii/ee, eioi?ua naycuaatho aunoaa i?iecaiaenoai n iecoeie o?iaiyie
?aaioathueo e iaania/eaatho aiciiaeiinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey e eii?aeeiaoeee
caaea/.

Yoaiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey:

1. Inouanoaeaiea aeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee ii ai?eciioaee ia oe?ieea aeiee,
niioaaonoaothuea aaaeiaeoei iai?aaeaieyi aeayoaeueiinoe ii ?aaeecaoeee
no?aoaaee.

2. Onoaiiaeaiea niioiioaiey iieiiii/ee ?acee/iuo aeieaeiinoae. I?e yoii
?oeiaiaenoai onoaiaaeeaaao oeaiue eiiaiae, anee iaiaoiaeeii, i?iecaiaeeo
aeaeueiaeoaa aeaeaiea ia aieaa iaeeea i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iiae?acaeaeaiey,
/oiau aieaa yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue niaoeeaeecaoeeth e ecaaaeaoue
ia?aa?ocee ?oeiaiaenoaa.

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae eae niaieoiiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiuo caaea/ e ooieoeee e ii?o/aiea eo auiieiaiey eiie?aoiui
eeoeai. A i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo, ?oeiaiaenoai ?ac?aaaouaaao aeaaea
eiie?aoiua caaea/e e cae?aieyao eo ca iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie eniieieoaeyie,
eioi?ua e ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eo oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia auiieiaiea.

Aaaeii iiiyoue, /oi iiyaeaoayny a eoiaa ?ac?aaioee i?aaiecaoeeiiiay
no?oeoo?a – yoi ia canouaoay oi?ia, iiaeiaiay ea?eano caeaiey.
Iineieueeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u iniiauaathony ia ieaiao, oi
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a ieaiao iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue niioaaonoaothueo
eciaiaiee a no?oeoo?a. E a naiii aeaea, a aeaenoaothueo i?aaiecaoeeyo e
i?ioeanno eciaiaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u neaaeoao ioiineony eae e
?ai?aaiecaoeee, o.e. yoio i?ioeann, eae e ana ooieoeee i?aaiecaoeee
aaneiia/ai. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oniaoii ooieoeeiie?othuea i?aaiecaoeee
?aaoey?ii ioeaieaatho noaiaiue aaeaeaaoiinoe naieo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
no?oeoo? e eciaiytho eo oae, eae yoiai o?aaotho aiaoiea oneiaey.
O?aaiaaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu ii?aaeaeythony a oiaea ieaie?iaaiey e
eiio?iey.

Eaeia aea ianoi a oai?ee iaiaaeaeiaioa caieiaao eiio?ieue?

Yooaeoeaiue eiio?ieue i?aaeiieaaaao iinoiyiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea ni anaie
ae?oaeie ooieoeeyie oi?aaeaiey – ieaie?iaaieai, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoueth, ?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ano?nia e ?oeiaiaenoaii ethaeueie.

I?aaiecaoeey eiio?iey n/eoaaony iaeiie ec naiuo neiaeiuo caaea/, noiyueo
ia?aae nia?aiaiiui oi?aaeaieai. Yoi naycaii n ?anoe?aieai e oneiaeiaieai
aeayoaeueiinoe e?oiiuo eiioea?iia, eiioeaio?aoeeae e aeeaa?neoeeaoeeae.

Oi?aaeai/aneee eiio?ieue, yaeythueeny iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey anyeiai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, a nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo iieo/aao naia aeaeueiaeoaa oai?aoe/aneia ?acaeoea e
i?aeoe/aneia niaa?oainoaiaaiea ia iniiaa oeo/oaiey iaoiaeia
oi?aaeai/aneiai o/aoa e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee,
i?eiaiaiey aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, nenoaiiiai aiaeeca.

Ii nouanoao a ethaie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iu, aeeth/ay
oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii, nauoii, oeiainaie, eaae?aie e o.ae.,iiaoo
auoue iaeaeaiu iauea e niaoeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu e i?ioeaaeo?u eiio?iey. A
oi aea a?aiy ?acee/iua o?iaie oi?aaeaiey eiatho niaa?oaiii ?acee/iua
iio?aaiinoe a eioi?iaoeee.

Yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey ea?aao aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a
iaania/aiee aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iu. Caaea/a
oi?aaeai/aneiai eiio?iey ninoieo a iaania/aiee aeinoeaeaiey iaia/aiiuo
oeaeae, ?aaeecaoeee ieaiiauo ?aoaiee iooai i?aaiecaoeee iioieia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee. Eiio?ieue aeeth/aao a naay nai?,
ia?aaioeo e ioeaieo eioi?iaoeee i ?acoeueoaoao aeayoaeueiinoe ?acee/iuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee, ninoaaeaiea io/aoiinoe, auyaeaiea
ioeeiiaiee io onoaiiaeaiiuo oeaeae e i?e/ei yoeo ioeeiiaiee e
ii?aaeaeaiea aeaenoaee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae.

Iioeaaoeey eae eeth/ e oniaoo

I?e ieaie?iaaiee e i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ii?aaeaeyao, /oi
eiie?aoii aeieaeia auiieieoue aeaiiay i?aaiecaoeey, eiaaea, eae e eoi,ii
aai iiaieth aeieaeai yoi naeaeaoue. Anee auai? yoeo ?aoaiee naeaeai
yooaeoeaii, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao aiciiaeiinoue eii?aeeie?iaaoue
oneeey iiiaeo ethaeae e niiaua ?aaeeciauaaoue iioaioeeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe a?oiiu ?aaioieeia. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, /oiau yooaeoeaii
aeaeaaoueny iaano?a/o oeaee, aeieaeai eii?aeeie?iaaoue ?aaioo e
canoaaeyoue ethaeae auiieiyoue aa. Iaiaaeaea?ia /anoi iacuaatho
eniieieoaeueiuie ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie, iioiio /oi aeaaiue niune eo
aeayoaeueiinoe ninoieo a oii, /oiau iaania/eoue eniieiaiea ?aaiou
aeaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.

?oeiaiaeeoaee aiieiuatho naie ?aoaiey a aeaea, i?eiaiyy ia i?aeoeea
iniiaiua i?eioeeiu iioeaaoeee. A ioiioaiee oi?aaeaiey iiaeii aeaoue
oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea:

IIOEAAOeEss – yoi i?ioeann iiaoaeaeaiey naay e ae?oaeo e aeayoaeueiinoe
aeey aeinoeaeaiey ee/iuo oeaeae eee oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue nouanoaotho ?acee/iua oai?ee iioeaaoeee. Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiua ec ieo – yoi oai?ee Aa?aoaia Ianeio, Aeyaeaea IaeEeaeaiaea E
O?aaea?eea Aa?oeaa?aa, iniiauaathueany ia eaeaioeoeeaoeee aioo?aiieo
iiaoaeaeaiee, eioi?ua iu iacuaaai iio?aaiinoyie. Iio?aaiinoyie iu
iacuaaai iniciaiiia ionoonoaea /aai-eeai, aucuaathuaa iiaoaeaeaiea e
aeaenoaeth. Iio?aaiinoe iiaeii oaeiaeaoai?eoue aiciaa?aaeaeaieyie.
Aiciaa?aaeaeaiea – yoi oi, /oi /aeiaae n/eoaao aeey naay oeaiiui.
Iaiaaeaea?u eniieuecotho aiaoiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (aeaiaaeiua auieaou,
i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa) e aioo?aiiea aiciaa?aaeaeaiey (/oanoai oniaoa
i?e aeinoeaeaiee oeaee), iieo/aaiua iin?aaenoaii naiie ?aaiou.

I?iaeieaeay ?acaiai? i iioeaaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, ia?aoeiny e
?inneeneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Aeieaia a?aiy nouanoaiaaei o?aaeeoeeiiiia
io/oaeaeaiea ?aaioieea io oeaeae, caaea/, eioa?ania i?aaei?eyoey,
io/oaeaeaiea eioi?ia yaeyeinue iniiaiie i?aa?aaeie ia iooe e
aeia?iniaanoiiio, eieoeeaoeaiiio, oai?/aneiio o?oaeo. Eaeiau aea
iniiaiua i?e/eiu yoiai io/oaeaeaiey?

– ionoonoaea nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii iioeaaoeee nianoaaiieea, oicyeia;

– ianiaa?oaiiay nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo ioiioaiee, iieo/aiea
iaoa?eaeueiuo e eoeueoo?iuo aeaa;

– iono?aiaiiinoue io oi?aaeai/aneiai i?ioeanna, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie
?aaioiee auiieiyao /oaeea eiiaiaeu, ia anaaaea ei iiieiaaiua e aeey iaai
i?eaieaiua;

– iaaaeiaiea niaea?aeaiey o?oaea, aai iiiioiiiinoue, iaeiiia?acea,
ioi?aaiiinoue io eiia/iiai ?acoeueoaoa;

– iaaeaaii?eyoiue “eeeiao” i?aaei?eyoey, nenoaia eueaio e i?eaeeaaee,
ii?iaeaeathuay iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeueiinoue, caaenoue, ionoonoaea iauiinoe
eioa?ania.

Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa i?e/eiu io/oaeaeaiey ia?niiaea yaeythony neaaenoaeai
nenoaiu aaoi?eoa?iuo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey, /oi cao?oaeiyao aeinoeaeaiea
aunieeo iieacaoaeae aeayoaeueiinoe i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Nae/an ?ac?aaioaii o?e iioeaaoeeiiiuo aa?eaioa – yoi o/anoea ia?niiaea a
nianoaaiiinoe, o/anoea a i?eaueyo e o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee. E, oieueei
?aoea i?iaeaio io/oaeaeaiey ia?niiaea, iiaeii iaeeaeaoue i?aa?auaiey
ianneaiiai ?aai/aai-nianoaaiieea, aeaaininoiyiea eioi?iai a eaeie-oi
ia?a caaeneo io i?eaueueiinoe oe?iu, ii eioi?ue nai ia eiia/iua
?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?aaei?eyoey ia aeeyao, a aeoeaiiai e
caeioa?aniaaiiiai /eaia “aaeeiie eiiaiaeu”, no?aiyuaainy e i?ioeaaoaieth
oe?iu. Oieueei ia yoie aaca iiaeii aoaeao ?acaeaaoue oai?/aneea
niiniaiinoe ia?niiaea a oie ia?a, eioi?ay iaania/eo
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoue i?eaaoece?iaaiiuo ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee ia
ie?iaii ?uiea.

OI?AAEAIEA O?OAeIAUIE ?ANO?NAIE – nioeeaeueiue aniaeo a oai?ee
iaiaaeaeiaioa

Aeey anao i?aaiecaoeee – aieueoeo e iaeuo, eiiia?/aneeo e
iaeiiia?/aneeo, i?iiuoeaiiuo e aeaenoaothueo a noa?a oneoa oi?aaeaiea
ethaeueie eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea. Aac ethaeae iao i?aaiecaoeee. Aac
ioaeiuo ethaeae ie iaeia i?aaiecaoeey ia niiaeao aeinoe/ue naieo oeaeae
e auaeeoue. Ianiiiaiii, /oi oi?aaeaiea o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie yaeyaony
iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo aniaeoia oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey.

Eiie?aoiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iauaa ?oeiaiaenoai o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie a
e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo iau/ii aiceiaeaia ia i?ioanneiiaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiuo ?aaioieeia ioaeaeia eaae?ia. Aeey oiai, /oiau oaeea
niaoeeaeenou iiaee aeoeaii niaeaenoaiaaoue ?aaeecaoeee oeaeae
i?aaiecaoeee, ei ioaeiu ia oieueei ciaiey e eiiiaoaioeey a naiae
eiie?aoiie iaeanoe, ii e inaaaeiieaiiinoue i ioaeaeao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
iecoaai caaia. Aianoa n oai, anee ?oeiaiaeeoaee ?ecoaai caaia ia
iiieiatho niaoeeoeee oi?aaeaiey o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie, aai iaoaiecia,
aiciiaeiinoae e iaaeinoaoeia, oi iie ia iiaoo a iieiie ia?a
ainiieueciaaoueny oneoaaie niaoeeaeenoia-eaae?iaeeia. Iiyoiio aaaeii,
/oiau ana ?oeiaiaeeoaee ciaee e iiieiaee niiniau e iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey
ethaeueie.

Oi?aaeaiea o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie aeeth/aao a naay neaaeothuea yoaiu:

1. Ieaie?iaaiea ?ano?nia: ?ac?aaioea ieaia oaeiaeaoai?aiey aoaeoueo
iio?aaiinoae a ethaeneeo ?ano?nao.

2. Iaai? ia?niiaea: nicaeaiea ?aca?aa iioaioeeaeueiuo eaiaeeaeaoia ii
anai aeieaeiinoyi.

3. Ioai?: ioeaiea eaiaeeaeaoia ia ?aai/ea ianoa e ioai? eo/oeo ec
?aca?aa, nicaeaiiiai a oiaea iaai?a.

4. Ii?aaeaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e eueaio: ?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?u
ca?aaioiie ieaou e eueaio a oeaeyo i?eaea/aiey, iaeia e nio?aiaiey
neoaeaueo.

5. I?ioi?eaioaoeey e aaeaioaoeey: aaaaeaiea iaiyouo ?aaioieeia a
i?aaiecaoeeth e aa iiae?acaeaeaiey, ?acaeoea o ?aaioieeia iiieiaiey
oiai, /oi iaeeaeaao io iaai i?aaiecaoeey e eaeie o?oae a iae iieo/aao
caneoaeaiioth ioeaieo.

6. Iao/aiea: ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii aeey iao/aiey o?oaeiaui iaaueai,
o?aaothueiny aeey yooaeoeaiiai auiieiaiey ?aaiou.

7. Ioeaiea o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe: ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeee ioeaiee
o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe e aeiaaaeaiey aa aei ?aaioieea.

8. Iiauoaiea, iiieaeaiea, ia?aaiae, oaieueiaiea: ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia
ia?aiauaiey ?aaioieeia ia aeieaeiinoe n aieueoae eee iaiueoae
ioaaonoaaiiinoueth, ?acaeoey eo i?ioanneiiaeueiiai iiuoa iooai
ia?aiauaiey ia ae?oaea aeieaeiinoe eee o/anoee ?aaiou, a oaeaea
i?ioeaaeo? i?ae?auaiey aeiaiai?a iaeia.

9. Iiaeaioiaea ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia, oi?aaeaiea i?iaeaeaeaieai ii
neoaeaa: ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aii, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?acaeoea niiniaiinoae e
iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe o?oaea ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia.

?anniio?ei oaia?ue yoe yoaiu aieaa iiae?iaii.

Ieaie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoe a o?oaeiauo ?ano?nao

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee oeaeae naiae i?aaiecaoeee ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii oaeaea
ii?aaeaeeoue iaiaoiaeeiua aeey eo aeinoeaeaiey ?ano?nu. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a aeaiueaao, iai?oaeiaaiee e iaoa?eaeao yaeyaony aiieia i/aaeaeiie.
?aaeei eoi ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae oionoeo yoe iiiaiou i?e ieaie?iaaiee.
Iio?aaiinoue a ethaeyo – oiaea eaaeaony aiieia i/aaeaeiie. E
niaeaeaieth, ca/anooth ieaie?iaaiea ethaeneeo ?ano?nia aaaeaony
iaiaaeeaaeauei ia?acii eee aea aio ia oaeaeyaony oiai aieiaiey, eioi?iai
iii caneoaeeaaao.

Ieaie?iaaiea ethaeneeo ?ano?nia ii nouanoao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?eiaiaiea i?ioeaaeo? ieaie?iaaiey aeey eii?eaeoaoeee ooaoia e
ia?niiaea. I?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey aeeth/aao a naay o?e yoaia:

1. Ioeaiea iaee/iuo ?ano?nia.

2. Ioeaiea aoaeoueo iio?aaiinoae.

3. ?ac?aaioea i?ia?aiiu oaeiaeaoai?aiey aoaeoueo iio?aaiinoae.

Iaai?

Iaai? caeeth/aaony a nicaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aca?aa eaiaeeaeaoia ia ana
aeieaeiinoe e niaoeeaeueiinoe, ec eioi?iai i?aaiecaoeey ioae?aao
iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueo aeey iaa ?aaioieeia. Yoa ?aaioa aeieaeia
i?iaiaeeoueny aoeaaeueii ii anai niaoeeaeueiinoyi – eiioi?neei,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiui, oaoie/aneei, aaeieieno?aoeaiui. Iaiaoiaeeiue iauai
?aaiou ii iaai?o a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeyaony ?acieoeae iaaeaeo
iaee/iie ?aai/ae neeie e aoaeouae iio?aaiinoueth a iae. I?e yoii
o/eouaathony oaeea oaeoi?u, eae auoiae ia iaineth, oaeo/anoue,
oaieueiaiey a nayce n enoa/aieai n?iea aeiaiai?a iaeia, ?anoe?aiea noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. Iaai? iau/ii aaaeoo ec aiaoieo e aioo?aiieo
enoi/ieeia.

E n?aaenoaai aiaoiaai iaai?a ioiinyony: ioaeeeaoeey iauyaeaiee a aacaoao
e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo aeo?iaeao, ia?auaiea e aaainoaai ii o?oaeiono?ienoao
e e oe?iai, iinoaaeythuei ?oeiaiaeyuea eaae?u, iai?aaeaiea caeeth/eaoeo
eiio?aeo ethaeae ia niaoeeaeueiua eo?nu i?e eieeaaeaeao. Iaeioi?ua
i?aaiecaoeee i?eaeaoatho ianoiia ianaeaiea iiaeaaaoue a ioaeae eaae?ia
cayaeaiey ia aiciiaeiua a aoaeouai aaeainee.

Aieueoeinoai i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeii/eoatho i?iaiaeeoue iaai? a iniiaiii
aioo?e naiae i?aaiecaoeee. I?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa naieo ?aaioieeia
iaoiaeeony aeaoaaea. E?iia oiai, yoi iiauoaao eo caeioa?aniaaiiinoue,
oeo/oaao ii?aeueiue eeeiao e oneeeaaao i?eaycaiiinoue ?aaioieeia e
oe?ia. Niaeanii oai?ee iaeeaeaiee a ioiioaiee iioeaaoeee iiaeii
iieaaaoue, /oi anee ?aaioieee aa?yo a nouanoaiaaiea caaeneiinoe eo
neoaeaaiiai ?inoa io noaiaie yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiou, oi iie aoaeoo
caeioa?aniaaiu a aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiii o?oaea. Aiciiaeiui
iaaeinoaoeii iiaeoiaea e ?aoaieth i?iaeaiu eneeth/eoaeueii ca n/ao
aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia yaeyaony oi, /oi a i?aaiecaoeeth ia i?eoiaeyo iiaua
ethaee ni naaaeeie acaeyaeaie, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e canoith.

Iiioey?iui iaoiaeii iaai?a ca n/ao aioo?aiieo ?aca?aia yaeyaony ?annueea
eioi?iaoeee ia ioe?uaathuaeny aaeainee n i?eaeaoaieai eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
?aaioieeia. Iaeioi?ua i?aaiecaoeee i?aeoeeotho oaaaeiieaiea anao
naieo neoaeaueo i ethaie ioe?uaathuaeny aaeainee, /oi aeaao ei
aiciiaeiinoue iiaeaoue cayaeaiea aei oiai, eae aoaeoo ?anniao?eaaoueny
cayaeaiey ethaeae ni noi?iiu. Aaeeeieaiiui iaoiaeii yaeyaony e
ia?auaiea e naiei ?aaioieeai n i?inueaie ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue ia ?aaioo eo
ae?ocae eee ciaeiiuo.

Ioai? eaae?ia

Ia yoii yoaia i?e oi?aaeaiee ieaie?iaaieai eaae?ia ?oeiaiaenoai
ioae?aao iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueo eaiaeeaeaoia ec ?aca?aa, nicaeaiiiai a
oiaea iaai?a. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa auae?aoue neaaeoao /aeiaaea,
eiathuaai iaeeo/ooth eaaeeoeeaoeeth aeey auiieiaiey oaeoe/aneie ?aaiou
ia caieiaaiie aeieaeiinoe, a ia eaiaeeaeaoa, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuei aeey i?iaeaeaeaiey ii neoaeaa. Iauaeoeaiia ?aoaiea
i auai?a,a caaeneiinoe io ianoiyoaeuenoa, iiaeao iniiauaaoueny ia
ia?aciaaiee eaiaeeaeaoa, o?iaia aai i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia, iiuoa
i?aaeoanoaothuae ?aaiou, ee/iuo ea/anoaao. Anee aeieaeiinoue ioiineony e
?ac?yaeo oaeeo, aaea ii?aaeaeythuei oaeoi?ii yaeythony oaoie/aneea
ciaiey (iai?eia?, iao/iue ?aaioiee), oi iaeaieaa aaaeiia cia/aiea,
aeaeeii, aoaeoo eiaoue ia?aciaaiea e i?aaeoanoaothuay iao/iay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Aeey ?oeiaiaeyueo aeieaeiinoae, iniaaiii aieaa aunieiai
o?iaiy, aeaaiia cia/aiea eiatho iaauee iaeaaeeaaiey iaae?aaeiiaeueiuo
ioiioaiee, a oaeaea niaianoeiinoue eaiaeeaeaoa n auoanoiyueie
ia/aeueieeaie e n aai iiae/eiaiiuie. Yooaeoeaiue ioai? eaae?ia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeio ec oi?i i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai eiio?iey ea/anoaa
/aeiaa/aneeo ?ano?nia.

E o?ai iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaiui iaoiaeai nai?a eioi?iaoeee,
o?aaothuaeny aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiey i?e ioai?a, ioiinyony eniuoaiey,
niaanaaeiaaiey e oeaio?u ioeaiee.

Ii?aaeaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou e eueaio

Aeae e eiee/anoai aiciaa?aaeaeaiee, i?aaeeaaaaiuo i?aaiecaoeeae, eiatho
aaaeiia cia/aiea aeey ioeaiee ea/anoaa o?oaeiaie aeecie. ?acee/iua
enneaaeiaaiey iieacuaatho, /oi aiciaa?aaeaeaiey aeeytho ia ?aoaiey
ethaeae i iinooieaiee ia ?aaioo, ia i?iaoeu, ia ?aoaiey i oii, neieueei
iie aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoue, eiaaea e noieo ee aiiaua oeoe ec
i?aaiecaoeee. I?e oi?ioae ?aaioa, eioi?ay aeaao /oanoai oaeiaeaoai?aiey,
eiee/anoai i?iaoeia eiaao oaiaeaioeeth e nieaeaieth. Eiaaea aea ?aaioa
iai?eyoia, /enei i?iaoeia cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaao.

Oa?iei “CA?AAIOIAss IEAOA” ioiineony e aeaiaaeiiio aiciaa?aaeaeaieth,
auiea/eaaaiiio i?aaiecaoeeae ?aaioieeo ca auiieiaiioth ?aaioo.
I?aaiecaoeey ia iiaeao iaa?aoue e oaea?aeaoue ?aai/oth neeo, anee iia ia
auiea/eaaao aiciaa?aaeaeaiea ii eiieo?aioiiniiniaiui noaaeai e ia eiaao
oeaeu iieaou, noeioee?othuae ethaeae e ?aaioa a aeaiiii ianoa.

?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?u ca?aaioiie ieaou yaeyaony iaycaiiinoueth ioaeaeia
eaae?ia eee o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. No?oeoo?a ca?aaioiie ieaou a
i?aaiecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony n iiiiuueth aiaeeca ianeaaeiaaiey o?iaiy
ca?aaioiie ieaou, oneiaee ia ?uiea o?oaea, a oaeaea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
e i?eaueueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee. ?ac?aaioea no?oeoo?u aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
aaeieieno?aoeaii-oi?aaeai/aneiai ia?niiaea aieaa neiaeia, iineieueeo
iiieii naiie ca?ieaou a iaa /anoi aoiaeyo ?acee/iua eueaiou, noaiu
o/anoey a i?eaueyo e iieaoa aeoeeyie.

Iiieii ca?aaioiie ieaou i?aaiecaoeey i?aaeinoaaeyao naiei ?aaioieeai
?acee/iua AeIIIEIEOAEUeIUA EUeAIOU. Eiia/ii, oaeea eueaiou eae
iiea/aiiua ioionea, iieaoa aieueie/iuo, no?aoiaaiea caei?iauey e aeecie,
a oaeaea iaineiiiia iaania/aiea, yaeythony ninoaaiie /anoueth ethaie
iinoiyiiie ?aaiou. E i?i/ei aeaeai eueaio ioiinyony noaneaee?oaiua
i?aaei?eyoeai noieiaua e eaoaoa?ee, nnoaeu n iiieaeaiiie i?ioeaioiie
noaaeie ia iieo/aiea ia?aciaaiey aeaoae nio?oaeieeia, aeaoneea
o/?aaeaeaiey, i?ia?aiiu oece/aneiai icaei?iaeaiey e ae?.

I?ioanneiiaeueiay i?eaioaoeey e nioeeaeueiay aaeaioaoeey a
eieeaeoeaa

Ia?aui oaaii e oiio, /oiau naeaeaoue o?oae ?aaioieea eae iiaeii aieaa
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiui, yaeyaony i?ioanneiiaeueiay i?eaioaoeey e
nioeeaeueiay aaeaioaoeey a eieeaeoeaa. Anee ?oeiaiaenoai caeioa?aniaaii
a oniaoa ?aaioieea ia iiaii ianoa, iii aeieaeii anaaaea iiiieoue, /oi
i?aaiecaoeey – yoi iauanoaaiiay nenoaia, a eaaeaeue ?aaioiee – yoi
ee/iinoue.

Ai iiiaeo ca?oaaaeiuo o/aaieeao ii iaiaaeaeiaioo “NIOeEAEUeIAss
AAeAIOAOeEss” ii?aaeaeyaony “eae i?ioeann iiciaiey ieoae aeanoe,
i?ioeann iinoeaeaiey aeieo?ei, i?eiyouo a i?aaiecaoeee, i?ioeann
iao/aiey, iniciaiey oiai, /oi yaeyaony aaaeiui a yoie i?aaiecaoeee eee
aa iiae?acaeaeaieyo”.

I?aaiecaoeee eniieuecotho oeaeue ?yae niiniaia, eae ioeoeeaeueiuo, oae e
iaioeoeeaeueiuo, aeey oiai, /oiau aaanoe /aeiaaea a naia iauanoai.
Oi?iaeueii, ai a?aiy iaeia ia ?aaioo i?aaiecaoeey aeaao /aeiaaeo
eioi?iaoeeth i naaa n oai, /oiau iaeeaeaiey eaiaeeaeaoa aueu au
?aaeenoe/iu. Ca yoei iau/ii eaeao iao/aiea niaoeeaeueiui o?oaeiaui
iaaueai e niaanaaeiaaiea ia oaio, /oi n/eoaaony yooaeoeaiie ?aaioie.

A oiaea iaioeoeeaeueiiai iauaiey, iiaua ?aaioieee ociatho iaienaiiua
i?aaeea i?aaiecaoeee, eoi iaeaaeaao ?aaeueiie aeanoueth, eaeiau
?aaeueiua oainu ia i?iaeaeaeaiea ii neoaeaa e ?ino aiciaa?aaeaeaiey,
eaeie o?iaaiue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe n/eoatho aeinoaoi/iui eieeaae ii
?aaioa. Ii?iu, ioiioaiea e ?aaioa e oeaiiinoe, i?eiyoua a iaoi?iaeueiuo
a?oiiao, iiaoo ?aaioaoue eeai a iiaeaea?aeeo, eeai i?ioea ioeoeeaeueiuo
oeaeae e onoaiiaie i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia

I?aaiecaoeee eiatho iinoiyiioth iio?aaiinoue a iaania/aiee aunieie
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ?aaioieeia. Iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee i?e yoii
caaioyony e ia iauai ea/anoaa o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia. Iaeiei ec niiniaia
aeinoeaeaiey yoie oeaee yaeyaony iaai? e ioai? iaeaieaa
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo e niiniaiuo iiauo ?aaioieeia. Iaeiaei yoiai ia
aeinoaoi/ii. ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii oaeaea i?iaiaeeoue i?ia?aiiu
nenoaiaoe/aneiai iao/aiey e iiaeaioiaee ?aaioieeia, iiiiaay iieiiio
?ane?uoeth eo aiciiaeiinoae a i?aaiecaoeee.

Iiaeaioiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iao/aiea ?aaioieeia iaaueai,
iicaieythuei iiaeiyoue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eo o?oaea. Eiia/iay oeaeue
iao/aiey caeeth/aaony a iaania/aiee naiae i?aaiecaoeee aeinoaoi/iui
eiee/anoaii ethaeae n iaaueaie e niiniaiinoyie, iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee.

Iao/aiea iieacii e o?aaoaony a o?ao iniiaiuo neo/ayo. Ai-ia?auo, eiaaea
/aeiaae iinooiaao a i?aaiecaoeeth. Ai-aoi?uo, eiaaea neoaeauaai
iacia/atho ia iiaoth aeieaeiinoue eee eiaaea aio ii?o/atho iiaoth
?aaioo. A-o?aoueeo, eiaaea i?iaa?ea onoaiiaeo, /oi o /aeiaaea ia oaaoaao
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaaueia aeey yooaeoeaiiai auiieiaiey naiae ?aaiou.

Iao/aiea – yoi aieueoay, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay iaeanoue. Niaoeeoe/aneea
iaoiaeu iao/aiey aanueia iiiai/eneaiiu, i?e/ai eo ioaeii
i?eniinaaeeaaoue e o?aaiaaieyi i?ioannee e i?aaiecaoeee. Iaeioi?ua
iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey, iaania/eaathuea yooaeoeaiinoue i?ia?aii iao/aiey,
naiaeyony e neaaeothuaio:

1. Aeey iao/aiey ioaeia iioeaaoeey. Ethaee aeieaeiu iiieiaoue oeaee
i?ia?aiiu, eaeei ia?acii iao/aiea iiauneo eo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e,
oai naiui, eo nianoaaiiia oaeiaeaai?aiea naiae ?aaioie.

2. ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii nicaeaoue eeeiao, aeaaii?eyonoaothuee
iao/aieth. Yoi iiae?acoiaaaao iiiu?aiea o/aueony, eo aeoeaiia o/anoea a
i?ioeanna iao/aiey, iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu i?aiiaeaaaoaeae, aeaeaiea
ioaa/aoue ia aii?inu.

3. Anee iaauee, i?eia?aoaaiua iin?aaenoaii iao/aiey, yaeythony
neiaeiuie, oi i?ioeann iao/aiey neaaeoao ?acaeoue ia iineaaeiaaoaeueiua
yoaiu.O/anoiee i?ia?aiiu aeieaeai eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue io?aaioaoue ia
i?aeoeea iaauee, i?eia?aoaiiua ia eaaeaeii yoaia eao/aiey, e oaea
oieueei caoai aeaeaaoueny aeaeueoa.

4. O/aueany aeieaeiu ii/oanoaiaaoue ia?aoioth naycue ii ioiioaieth e
?acoeueoaoai iao/aiey, iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue iieiaeeoaeueiia
cae?aieaiea i?ieaeaiiiai iaoa?eaea.

Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe

Neaaeothuei oaaii iinea oiai, eae ?aaioiee aaeaioe?iaaeny a eieeaeoeaa e
iieo/ee iaiaoiaeeioth iiaeaioiaeo aeey yooaeoeaiiai auiieiaiey naiae
?aaiou, aoaeao ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie yooaeoeaiinoe aai o?oaea. A yoii
caeeth/aaony oeaeue ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?oth iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa eae i?iaeieaeaiea ooieoeee eiio?iey. Ioeaiea
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe o?aaoao, /oiau ?oeiaiaeeoaee niae?aee
eioi?iaoeeth i oii, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii eaaeaeue ?aaioiee auiieiyao
aeaeaae?iaaiiua aio iaycaiiinoe. Niiauay yoe naaaeaiey naiei
iiae/eiaiiui, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue eioi?ie?oao eo i oii, eae oi?ioi iie
ni?aaeythony ni naiae ?aaioie e aeaao ei aiciiaeiinoue eni?aaeoue naia
iiaaaeaiea, anee iii ia niioaaonoaoao i?eiyoiio. Aianoa n oai, ioeaiea
?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieyao ?oeiaiaenoao ii?aaeaeeoue iaeaieaa
auaeathueony ?aaioieeia e ?aaeueii iiaeiyoue o?iaaiue eo aeinoeaeaiee,
ia?aaiaey eo ia aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiua aeieaeiinoe.

A iniiaiii, ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe neoaeeo o?ai oeaeyi:
aaeieieno?aoeaiie, eioi?iaoeeiiiie e iioeaaoeeiiiie.

AAeIEIENO?AOEAIUA OOIEOeEE: iiauoaiea ii neoaeaa, iiieaeaiea, ia?aaiae,
i?ae?auaiea o?oaeiaiai aeiaiai?a.

EIOI?IAOeEIIIUA OOIEOeEE: Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe ioaeia e
aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii auei eioi?ie?iaaoue ethaeae ia ioiineoaeueiii
o?iaia eo ?aaiou. I?e aeieiie iinoaiiaea yoiai aeaea ?aaioiee ociaao ia
oieueei aeinoaoi/ii ee oi?ioi ii eee iia ?aaioaao, ii e /oi eiie?aoii
yaeyaony aai neeie eee neaainoueth e a eaeii iai?aaeaiee ii iiaeao
niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

IIOEAAOeEIIIUA OOIEOeEE: Ioeaiea ?acoeueoaoia o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaaeiia n?aaenoai iioeaaoeee iiaaaeaiey ethaeae.
Ii?aaeaeea neeueiuo ?aaioieeia, aaeieieno?aoeey iiaeao aeieaeiui ia?acii
aiciaa?aaeeoue eo aeaaiaea?iinoueth, ca?ieaoie eee iiauoaieai a
aeieaeiinoe.

Iiaeaioiaea ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia

Iiaeaioiaea naiaeeony e ?acaeoeth iaaueia e oiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo
neoaeauei aeey yooaeoeaiiai auiieiaiey naieo aeieaeiinoiuo iaycaiiinoae
eee i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaeaiee a aoaeouai. Ia i?aeoeea nenoaiaoe/aneea
i?ia?aiiu iiaeaioiaee iaeaieaa /anoi eniieuecotho aeey oiai, /oiau
aioiaeoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e i?iaeaeaeaieth ii neoaeaa. Aeey oniaoiie
iiaeaioiaee ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia, eae e aeey iao/aiey aiiaua, ioaeiu
ouaoaeueiue aiaeec e ieaie?iaaiea.

Iin?aaenoaii ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoia aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeey i?aaeaea
anaai aeieaeia ii?aaeaeeoue niiniaiinoe naieo iaiaaeaea?ia. Caoai, ia
iniiaa aiaeeca niaea?aeaiey ?aaiou, ?oeiaiaenoai aeieaeii onoaiiaeoue –
eaeea niiniaiinoe e iaauee o?aaothony aeey auiieiaiey iaycaiiinoae ia
anao eeiaeiuo e ooaaiuo aeieaeiinoyo a i?aaiecaoeee. Yoi iicaieyao
i?aaiecaoeee auynieoue, eoi ec ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iaeaaeaao iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyuae eaaeeoeeaoeeae aeey caiyoey oao eee eiuo aeieaeiinoae, a
eoi ioaeaeaaony a iao/aiee e ia?aiiaeaioiaea.

Iiaeaioiaea ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia a iniiaiii aaaeaony aeey oiai, /oiau
?oeiaiaeyuea ?aaioieee iaeaaeaee oiaieyie e iaaueaie, o?aaothueieny aeey
?aaeecaoeee oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee. Ae?oaei niia?aaeaieai, iaioaeaeeiui io
i?aaeuaeouaai, yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy: i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ?inoa, oniaoa, eniuoaiey naieo
nee.

Iiaeaioiaea oi?aaeai/aneeo eaae?ia iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny iooai
i?aaiecaoeee eaeoeee, aeeneonnee a ninoaaa iaaieueoeo a?oii, ?acai?a
eiie?aoiuo aeaeiauo neooaoeee, /oaiey eeoa?aoo?u, aeaeiauo ea? e
?ieaaiai o?aieiaa. Aa?eaioaie yoeo iaoiaeia yaeythony i?aaiecoaiua
aaeaaiaeii eo?nu e naieia?u ii i?iaeaiai oi?aaeaiey. Ae?oaei oe?iei
i?eiaiyaiui iaoiaeii yaeyaony ?ioaoeey ii neoaeaa. Ia?aiauay
?oeiaiaeeoaey ieciaiai caaia ec ioaeaea a ioaeae ia n?ie io o?ao
ianyoeaa aei iaeiiai aiaea, i?aaiecaoeey ciaeiieo iiaiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey
ni iiiaeie noi?iiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. A ?acoeueoaoa, iaiaaeaea? iiciaao
?aciiia?aciua i?iaeaiu ?acee/iuo ioaeaeia, oyniyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
eii?aeeiaoeee, iaoi?iaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth e acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
oeaeyie ?acee/iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee. Oaeea ciaiey aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeiu e
aeey oniaoiie ?aaiou ia aieaa aunieeo aeieaeiinoyo. ii iniaaiii iieaciu
aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iecoeo o?iaiae oi?aaeai/aneie ea?a?oee.

Oi?aaeaiea i?iaeaeaeaieai ii neoaeaa

A ?acaeoea i?ia?aii ii iiaeaioiaea ?oeiaiaeyueo eaae?ia a ia/aea 70-o
aiaeia iiiaea eiiiaiee e eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oe?iu ?ac?aaioaee i?ia?aiiu
ii oi?aaeaieth ea?uea?ie, o.a. i?iaeaeaeaieai ii neoaeaa. I?ia?aiiu
oi?aaeaiey i?iaeaeaeaieai ii neoaeaa iiiiaatho i?aaiecaoeeyi
eniieueciaaoue niiniaiinoe naieo ?aaioieeia a iieiie ia?a, a naiei
?aaioieeai aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iaeaieaa iieii i?eiaieoue naie
niiniaiinoe.

Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa o?oaeiaie aeecie

Iaeia ec iineaaeieo aaaeiuo ?ac?aaioie a iaeanoe oi?aaeaiey
/aeiaa/aneeie ?ano?naie ia i?aaei?eyoee naycaia n nicaeaieai i?ia?aii e
iaoiaeia iiauoaiey EA*ANOAA O?OAeIAIE AEECIE.

Nae/an eioa?an e ea/anoao o?oaeiaie aeecie ?ani?ino?aieeny ai iiiaeo
i?iiuoeaiiuo no?aiao Caiaaea e iaae?aao iiioey?iinoue e a iaoae no?aia.

Aunieia ea/anoai o?oaeiaie aeecie aeieaeii oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny
neaaeothuei:

1. ?aaioa aeieaeia auoue eioa?aniie.

2. ?aai/ea aeieaeiu iieo/aoue ni?aaaaeeeaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea e i?eciaiea
naiaai o?oaea.

3. ?aai/ay n?aaea aeieaeia auoue /enoie, n ieceei o?iaiai ooia e oi?ioae
inaauaiiinoueth.

4. Iaaeci? ni noi?iiu ?oeiaiaenoaa aeieaeai auoue ieieiaeueiui, ii
inouanoaeyoueny anaaaea, eiaaea a iai aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue.

5. ?aai/ea aeieaeiu i?eieiaoue o/anoea a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee,
cao?aaeaathueo eo e ?aaioo.

6. Aeieaeiu auoue iaania/aiu aa?aioey ?aaiou e ?acaeoea ae?oaeaneeo
acaeiiioiioaiee n eieeaaaie.

7. Aeieaeiu auoue iaania/aiu n?aaenoaa auoiaiai e iaaeeoeeineiai
ianeoaeeaaiey.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea

?ANOE?AIEA IAUAIA E IAIAAUAIEA NIAeA?AEAIEss ?AAIOU.

Aeaa iaeaieaa oe?iei i?eiaiyaiuo iaoiaea ?aiaaiecaoeee o?oaea – yoi
?anoe?aiea iauaia ?aaiou e iaiaauaiea aa niaea?aeaiey.

Iauai ?aaiou – yoi eiee/anoai ?acee/iuo iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo ?aai/ei e
/anoioa eo iiaoi?aiey. Iauai iacuaatho oceei, anee ?aai/ee auiieiyao
eeoue ianeieueei iia?aoeee e iiaoi?yao eo /anoi. Oeie/iui i?eia?ii
iiaeao neoaeeoue ?aaioa ia nai?i/iii eiiaaea?a. Iauai ?aaiou iacuaatho
oe?ieei, anee /aeiaae auiieiyao iiiai ?acee/iuo iia?aoeee e iiaoi?yao eo
?aaeei.

Niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue ?aaio – yoi ioiineoaeueiay noaiaiue oiai aeeyiey,
eioi?ia ?aai/ee iiaeao ieacaoue ia naio ?aaioo e ?aai/oth n?aaeo. Nthaea
ioiinyony oaeea oaeoi?u, eae naiinoiyoaeueiinoue a ieaie?iaaiee e
auiieiaiee ?aaiou, ii?aaeaeaiee ?eoia ?aaiou e o/anoea a i?eiyoee
?aoaiee. ?aaioo iiaeii ?ai?aaieciaaoue, eciaiea aa iauai eee
niaea?aeaoaeueiinoue. OE?OIIAIEA ?AAIOU ioiineony e niaa?oainoaiaaieth
i?aaiecaoeee ca n/ao oaaee/aiey aa iauaia. IAIAAUAIEA AA NIAeA?AEAIEss
i?aaeoniao?eaaao eciaiaiey ca n/ao iiauoaiey niaea?aeaoaeueiinoe.

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee e oneiaee o?oaea i?aaeoniao?eaaao
iiauoaiea aioo?aiiae oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe ?aaioie iooai ?anoe?aiey e?oaa
?aoaaiuo caaea/, i?aaeinoaaeaiey aieueoae naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, aieaa
neeueiie ?aaeoeee ia ?acoeueoaou o?oaea, eeai nicaeaiey oneiaee aeey
i?iau ?aaioieeii naieo nee. ?ai?aaiecaoeey oneiaee o?oaea i?eaiaeeo e
oniaoo, ii iia iiaeoiaeeo eeoue aeey ii?aaeaeaiiuo ethaeae e a
ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo. Iniaaiii o?oaeii aa ?aaeeciaaoue a oneiaeyo
aeanoeie oaoiieiaee. ?aiaaiecaoeey iiaeao ieacaoueny iaoaea/iie, anee
?oeiaiaenoai ia ii?aaeaeeo aia/aea, iieiaeeoaeueii ee ioiinyony e iae
?aaioieee i?aaiecaoeee.

Oe?ia”AAA” – e?oiiaeoee yeaeo?ioaoie/aneee eiioea?i ie?a (ii
?acoeueoaoai nooaeai/aneie i?aeoeee)

Oe?ia “AAA” – yoi, ai-ia?auo, “ANAA” – noa?aeoay yeaeo?ioaoie/aneay
oe?ia Oaaoeee, ciaeiiay ?inneeneei i?iiuoeaiieeai aua a i?ioeii aaea, e,
ai-aoi?uo, yoi ciaiaieoay oaaeoea?neay eiiiaiey “A?aoi Aiaa?e”,
iauaaeeiaiea eioi?uo e i?eaaei e ia?aciaaieth eiioea?ia “AAA”. Naaiaeiy
“AAA” – yoi e?oiiaeoee yeaeo?ioaoie/aneee eiioea?i ie?a, noaaoee
i?eciaiiui eeaea?ii a iaeanoe i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaee e iai?oaeiaaiey
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa, ia?aaea/e e ?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee. A 140
no?aiao iia iauaaeeiyao aieaa 1300 eiiiaiee n ia?niiaeii 213 ouny/
/aeiaae. A 1992 aiaeo eo iauea iinooieaiey ninoaaeee ii/oe 30
ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia i?eauee. Anaie?iay i?aaiecaoeey oaeiai ianooaaa
iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue cia/eoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa a ieaia oe?iou ecuneaiee
e enneaaeiaaiee, ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, nieaeaiey naaanoieiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee e iiaaeoaai iiuoa oi?aaeaiey. Aeayoaeueiinoue AAA
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia 5 iniiaiuo noa? (aeeth/ay oeiainiaua e ae?oaea
oneoae), eioi?ua aeaeaa aeaeyony ia 50 iaeanoae ?aaiou, i?e/ai eaaeaeay
ec ieo ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ana no?aiu ie?a. Yoe aeaeiaua iiae?acaeaeaiey
eiatho naiaiaeo aeaenoaee – eie aeaeaatho eo nianoaaiiua iioeau e
noeioeu i?e iieiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca naia aeaei. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
oa?aeoa? yoie i?aaiecaoeee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiie ia?aaea/e
iiauo oaoiieiaee /a?ac ethaua a?aieoeu. E ana aea a eaaeaeie no?aia
aeayoaeueiinoue AAA neeaaeuaaaony ii-naiaio, n o/aoii ianoiuo oneiaee. A
cia/eo, yoi auno?ay ?aaeoeey ia eciaiaiea ?uiea e ?aaioa a oaniii
eiioaeoa n caeac/eeaie.

Aea?aeaoaee aeoeee ANAA Aea?aeaoaee aeoeee AAN

ANAA AA Oaaoeey A?aoi Aiaa?e Ltd.Oaaeoea?ey

1883 50% 1891 50%

AAA ANAA A?aoi Aiaa?e Ltd.

Oeth?eo, Oaaoea?ey, 1988

1300 eiiiaiee

50 aecian-?aeiiia

i?aaiecaoeey a 5 aeian-naaiaioao

Enoi?ey eiiiaiee

ANAA/AAN

1883 – Ethaeaea O?aaeoieuei ia?aciauaaao yeaeo?ioaoie/aneia i?aaei?eyoea
a Noieaieueia (ANAA – Elektriska Aktiebolaget).

1891 – *a?euec A?aoi e Aieueoa? Aiaa?e Ia?aciauaatho A?aoi Aiaa?e E
Ne,Ltd., Aaaeai, Oaaeoea?ey.

1932 – Iinoaaea e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a aaioeeyoeeiiiuo o?aooaciuo
o?ainoi?iaoi?ia (ANAA).

1939 – I?eaaaeaia a aeaenoaea ia?aay a ie?a i?iiuoeaiiay a?oiia ii
aaciaui oo?aeiai (AAN).

1956 – Iinoaaea e?oiiaeoeo a ie?a aeae?iyeaeo?e/aneeo yia?aaoe/aneeo
aaia?aoi?ia – 150 Iaaoo (ANAA).

1972 – Iino?iaia e?oiiaeoay a ie?a a?oiia ia?iauo oo?aei (AAN).

1988 – AAN e ANAA ia?acotho AAA.

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe oe?iu.

1. Yeaeo?inoaioeee

Iaeia ec noa? ?aaiou: Yooaeoeaiua e yeieiae/anee /enoua
nenoaiu-aaia?aoi?u yeaeo?ioiea aeey auoiaiai e i?iiuoeaiiiai
eniieueciaaiey.

Iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe: Aaciaua oo?aeiu e yeaeo?inoaioeee
eiiaeie?iaaiiiai oeeeea, auoiaua noaioeee ia?iaiai oaieiniaaaeaiey,
yia?aiiaoeiino?iaiea, aeae?iyeaeo?inoaioeee, i?iecaiaenoai neeiaiai
iai?oaeiaaiey, nenoaiu naeeaaiey a inaaaeinaeeaeaiiii neia iiae
aeaaeaieai, nenoaiu aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey ia eneiiaaiii oiieeaa e eo
ianeoaeeaaiea, aoiiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee, nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
yeaeo?inoaioeeyie, ooeeecaoeey ?ano?nia, eiio?ieue /enoiou aicaeooa.
Aeayoaeueiinoue: Nicaeaiea “iiae eeth/” yeaeo?inoaioeee ia eneiiaaiii
oiieeaa e i?iecaiaenoai iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ieo (ia?iauo eioeia, oo?aei,
aaia?aoi?ia). Aacioo?aeiiua e eiiaeie?iaaiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee.
Nia?aiaiiua aunieioaiia?aoo?iua yaea?iua ?aaeoi?u n aaciaui
ioeaaeaeaieai ia “eaaeie” aiaea e oiieeai e iei. Yeieiae/anee /enoua
oaieueiua nenoaiu, nioaaonoaothuea naiui no?iaei yeieiae/aneei
noaiaea?oai. Nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, iiuo iiaea?iecaoeee e ianeoaeeaaiey n
oeaeueth iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe yeaeo?inoaioeee ai anai ie?a. Eiio?ieue
o?iaiy caa?yciaiey aicaeooa e nenoaiu ooeeecaoeee ?ano?nia.

2. Ia?aaea/a e ?ani?aaeaeaiea yia?aee

Iaeia ec noa? ?aaiou: I?iecaiaenoai anaai niaeo?a e ecaeaeee aeey naoae
yia?ainiaaaeaiey e ianoiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey, a oaeaea aeey o?iaiy
oi?aaeaiey yoeie naoyie.

Iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe : Eaaaee, ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua o?ainoi?iaoi?u,
ia?aeeth/aoaee aunieiai iai?yaeaiey, nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e caueou naoae,
yia?ainenoaiu, neeiaua o?ainoi?iaoi?u, iai?oaeiaaiea n?aaeiaai
iai?yaeaiey, eeiee yeaeo?iia?aaea/, yia?aaoe/aneea i?iaeou.

Aeayoaeueiinoue : Eaaaee e i?iaiaea ieceiai e aunieiai iai?yaeaiey.
Ianeyiua e nooea ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua o?ainoi?iaoi?u. Aaoiiaoe/aneea
aueeth/aoaee e eiua i?eai?u aunieiai iai?yaeaiey. ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua
ueou n?aaeiaai iai?yaeaiey, i?eai?u e nenoaiu (aeey naoae n iai?yaeaieai
io 1 aei 44 eeeiaieueo). Iau/iua iiaenoaioeee e iiaenoaioeee n aaciaie
ecieyoeeae, ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua noaioeee. Nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey
aeey neeiauo naoae e iiaenoaioeee. I?eai?u e nenoaiu aeey caueou e
ecia?aiey ea/anoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee. Nenoaiu ia?aaea/e iinoiyiiiai oiea
aunieiai iai?yaeaiey e eiiiainaoeee ?aaeoeaiie iiuiinoe. Eiiaeainaoi?u
aunieiai e ieceiai iai?yaeaiey. Neeiaua e i?iiuoeaiiua o?ainoi?iaoi?u,
i?ioiaeiua ecieyoi?u e ia?aeeth/aoaee.

3. I?iiuoeaiiua e no?ieoaeueiua nenoaiu

Iaeia ec noa? ?aaiou: Ecaeaeey, nenoaiu e oneoae ii iioeiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia e nenoai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe: Aaoiiaoecaoeey e nenoaiu i?eaiaeia,
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ia?a?aaioee, aaia?aeueiua iiae?yaeu, ?ac?aaioea
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?ioeannia, iaooue e aac, i?eai?u, ?iaioioaoieea,
ie?ani/iua ?aaiou, aeaeaaoaee, aiia?aoo?a ieceiai iai?yaeaiey, nenoaiu
ieceiai iai?yaeaiey, onoaiiaea, iiioaaeiua iaoa?eaeu, aaioeeyoeey,
aaioeeyoi?u e ciaaaeee, no?ieoaeueiua oneoae, oieiaeeeueiia
iai?oaeiaaiea, ianeoaeeaaiea.

Aeayoaeueiinoue: I?eaiaeu iinoiyiiiai e ia?aiaiiiai oiea. Aieueoea
iioi?u e i?eaiaeiua nenoaiu. Nenoaiu aaoiiaoecaoeee e niioaaonoaothuaa
eiaeaia?iia ianeoaeeaaiea. Ia/e, i?annu, i?iiuoeaiiia nooeeueiia
iai?oaeiaaiea. Oaoiieiaey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?ioeannia, eiaeaia?iua oneoae,
caeoiea iai?oaeiaaiey e no?ieoaeueiua oneoae. Iaooaaaciaay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue – eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae e ianeoaeeaaiea.
Ecia?eoaeueiua i?eai?u e aiaeecaoi?u. I?iiuoeaiiua ?iaiou e nenoaiu
aaoiiaoecaoeee. Yeaeo?iiiioaae. Yeaeo?iiiia iai?oaeiaaiea aeey caeaiee,
inaauaiey e nenoai aaciianiinoe. ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoia eio?ano?oeoo?u,
caeeth/aiea eiio?aeoia. ?aaioa e ianeoaeeaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey a
caeaieyo. I?iiuoeaiiua, eiiia?/aneea e ii?neea oieiaeeeueiua nenoaiu.

4. O?ainii?o

Iaeia ec noa? ?aaiou: ?aeueniaua o?ainii?oiua nenoaiu.

Iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe: Eieiiioeau, iiacaea, iao?i, eaaeea ?aeueniaua
o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa, i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa, iiioaae
?aeueniauo iooae, ianeoaeeaaiea iio?aaeoaey, neaiaeueiua nenoaiu.

Aeayoaeueiinoue: Aeecaeueyeaeo?e/aneea iiacaea, ii?ieeaeuaathueany
ieaooi?iu, aunieinei?inoiua iiacaea. Eaaeea e oyaeaeua o?ainii?oiua
n?aaenoaa aeey nenoai ianniauo ia?aaicie. Nenoaiu nayce e oi?aaeaiey.
Iaoaie/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea, aeeth/ay ei?iona aaaiiia e eieiiioeaia,
aioo?aiiaa iai?oaeiaaiea e oaeaaeee. Nenoaiu i?eaia oiea e neaiaeueiua
nenoaiu. Iieiua eiiieaeou ?aeueniauo nenoai, aeeth/ay nenoaiu
a?aaeaeaineiai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

5.Oeiainiaia ianeoaeeaaiea

Iaeia ec noa? ?aaiou: Oeiainiaia ianeoaeeaaiea AAA e iinoi?iiieo
eeeaioia.

Iaeanoe aeayoaeueiinoe: Oeiainiaua oeaio?u, eeceia e oeiaine?iaaiea,
oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia e oi?aiauo iia?aoeee, ae?aeaaua a?iea?neea
oneoae, oi?aaeaiea eiaanoeoeeyie.

Aeayoaeueiinoue: Oeiainiaua oeaio?u oi?aaeytho eeeaeaeiuie aeoeaaie,
aaaeoo iaiai eiino?aiiie aaethou e auaeytho caeiu. Ioaeae eeceiaa e
oeiaine?iaaiey i?iecaiaeeo iia?aoeee n nouanoaothueie aeoeaaie,
oeiaine?oao e?oiiaa i?iaeou e eiaanoeoeee. No?aoiaaiea aeeth/aao a nauey
ia?ano?aoiaaiea, no?aoiaaiea oeiainiauo iia?aoeee e no?aoiaua iaeea?neea
iia?aoeee. Oeiaine?iaaiea i?iaeoia e oi?aiauo iia?aoeee aeeth/aao a naay
eiinoeueoaoeee ii oeiaine?iaaieth i?iaeoia e yenii?oiuo iia?aoeee e
aeaonoi?iiiae oi?aiaee. Ae?aeaaua a?iea?neea oneoae e oi?aaeaiea
eiaanoeoeeyie aeeth/atho a naay oi?aaeaiea ii?ooaeai aeoeee, iia?aoeee
eoiee-i?iaeaaee aeoeee, iaeeaaoeee e iioeeiiia, enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe
eiaanoeoeee, oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa e
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a ioaeaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia naaiaeiy AAA auno?i aeaeaeaony e oiio, /oiau iaoiaeeoue aiciiaeiinoe
aeey ?inoa a yeiiiieeao Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e auaoaai Niaaoneiai Nithca.
*a?ac i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa e Niaianoiua I?aaei?eyoey a Iieueoa, *aoee,
?innee, I?eaaeoeeneeo ?anioaeeeao, iai?eia?, AAA oe?aieyao naith iniiao
aeey aoaeouaai ?inoa a yoeo aaaeiuo ?uieao.

Iaaeaaii iiaeienaiiia Naaa?iaia?eeaineia Niaeaoaiea i Naiaiaeiie
Oi?aiaea iaaeaeo NOA, Eaiaaeie e Iaeneeie, aic?anoathuay oi?aiaey n
?acaeaathueieny yeiiiieeaie a Eaoeineie Aia?eea iaania/eaaao AAA
aeaeueiaeoeie aiciiaeiinoyie ?inoa a THaeiie e Naaa?iie Aia?eea.

A Aceaonei-Oeoiieaaineii ?aaeiia iaeeaeaaony neeueiue eiaeono?eaeueiue
?ino a iaania/aiee ni?ina ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth ia iineaaeothuea 30 eao. N
iaoeaeaiiie i?ia?aiiie ia i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa, NI, iethn aieueoea
eieoeeaoeau a iaai?a ianoiiai ia?niiaea e ia?aaea/a oaoiieiaee, AAA
/aoei au?aaioaei iiceoeeth a iaania/aiee auaiaeu ec aieueoiai
iioaioeeaea a yoii ?aaeiia. Eiiiaiey oaea eiaao oaa?aeia i?enoonoaea a
Eoeaa, Iaeaecee, Oaeeaiaea, ssiiiee e ae?.

AAA oaeaea i?iaeieaeaao ?anoe?youeny ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea, a Ao?eea e
Eiaeee, aaea iia i?eieiaao o/anoea a ianeieueeeo aieueoeo i?ieoao ii
yia?aaoe/aneie e o?ainii?oiie eio?ano?oeoo?a.

Oeeo?u:

Iauea iinooieaiey: 1992 aiae – $ 29,6 ieeeea?aea.

Iinooieaiey ii noa?ai aeayoaeueiinoe:

Yeaeo?inoaioeee – 21%

Ia?aaea/a e ?ani?aaeaeaiea yeaeo?iyiaaee – 22%

I?iiuoeaiiua e no?ieoaeueiua nenoaiu – 39%

O?ainii?o – 8%

Oeiainiaua oneoae _ 2%

Ae?oaea – 8%

Aeioiaeu ii ?aaeiiai:

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia AN – 37%

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia AANO – 21%

Naaa?iay Aia?eea AANO – 17%

Acey e Aano?aeey – 17%

Ao?eea, Ainoi/iay Aa?iia, THaeiay Aia?eea – 8%

Ia?niiae ai anao no?aiao ie?a: 213.407 /aeiaae.

Ia?niiae ii ?aaeiiai:

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia AN – 37%

Caiaaeiay Aa?iia AANO – 28%

Naaa?iay Aia?eea – 14%

Acey e Aano?aeey – 10%

Ao?eea, Ainoi/iay Aa?iia, THaeiay Aia?eea – 11%

Naiay aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue aeinoeaaaony oiaaea, eiaaea oeo/oaaony
acaeiiaeaenoaea ethaeae, ?aaioathueo aianoa. Aeey oiai, /oiau
eniieueciaaoue yoio iioaioeeae, AAA eciaieei iuoeaiea naiae eiiiaiee.
Aeaaec yoio iacuaaaony “aieiaiea caeac/eeo” – ii?aaeaeyaony, /oi aio
ioaeii i?aaeaea anaai, caoai aiaeece?othony aai o?aaiaaiey e i?e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?aaeeaaaaony iiiiuue ii aianaieth a ieo eciaiaiee. I?e
yoii AAA i?eia?aoaao iiaue iiuo, iiaua noeioeu a ?aaioa e iiauoaao
ee/ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue eaaeaeiai. Oaeie iiaeoiae cia/eoaeueii iiaunee
e yooaeoeaiinoue naiae nianoaaiiie ?aaiou.

Ia?aaea/a oaoiieiaee: Ni/aoaiea aeiaaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae e
aeayoaeueiinoe ia ianoao aeaao AAA ?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaaaoue
aieaa yooaeoeaiua oaoiieiaee ai anao no?aiao ie?a. E ia nianoaaiiuo, e
ia niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo Oeaeue AAA – i?iecaiaeeoue naith
i?iaeoeoeeth a oao no?aiao, aaea iia aoaeao i?iaeaaaoueny, niae?aoue o
naay naiuo oaeaioeeauo auioneieeia ianoiuo oieaa?neoaoia, aa?a/ue naie
eaae?u e nio?oaeie/aoue n ianoiuie i?aaeoaeuenoaaie n oeaeueth iiii/ue
ei oaaee/eoue yenii?o e iinooieaiey eiino?aiiie aaethou.

IEIE?: No?aieaiea anaaaea auioneaoue i?iaeoeoeeth aunieiai ea/anoaa
aeeth/aao a naay aeaeaiea iinoaaeyoue caeac/eeo naiua iiaaeoea,
yooaeoeaiua, yia?ainaa?aaathuea, iaaeaaeiua aeaeu iai?oaeiaaiey e oneoa.
17 ouny/ aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eiaeaia?ia eiiiaiee eiatho a naiai
?anii?yaeaiee athaeaeao a 2,4 ieeeea?aea aeieea?ia ia aaaeaiea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio. Eo oeaeue –
oaeiaeaoai?eoue ana iuiaoiea e aoaeouea o?aaiaaiey caeac/eeia. 90
i?ioeaioia yoiai athaeaeaoa iaoiaeeo iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?aeoe/aneia
i?eiaiaiea ia ianoiii o?iaia. Oaeea e?oiiua eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey
iaania/eaatho nicaeaiea i?iaeoeoeee neaaeothuaai iieieaiey ai iiiaeo
noa?ao aeayoaeueiinoe AAA.

O?oaeiaua ?ano?nu: Iaeiie ec naiuo aeaaiuo i?ia?aii naiaai ?acaeoey
eiiiaiey AAA oaeaeyao oi?aaeaieth o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie. Caaioa i
ia?niiaea, nicaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee o?oaea, ?ac?aaioea aeaeiai
?aai/aai a?aiaie, no?oeoo?u ca?aaioiie ieaou, nenoaiu ?acee/iuo eueaio,
nicaeaiea ?acee/iuo oeaio?ia iao/aiey, o?aieiaia e ia?ai?eaioaoeee,
noaaee?iaee aeey nooaeaioia ?aciuo no?ai e iiiaia ae?oaia – ana yoi aua
ia iieiue ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo aeaenoaee eiiiaiee a yoii iai?aaeaiee.

Caeeth/aiea

Oaeei ia?acii, a aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee iu ?anniio?aee iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey ie?iaie i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiuie oe?iaie, a oaeaea
a yoie nayce aai nioeeaeueiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo aniaeoia.

Iiae?iaii auei inaauaii iiiyoea i?iiuoeaiiie oe?iu eae ioe?uoie
nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu, aeaia eeanneoeeaoeey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

I/aiue aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony a enneaaeiaaiee eeanne/aneei
ooieoeeyi iaiaaeaeiaioa – ieaie?iaaiee, i?aaiecaoeee, iioeaaoeee e
eiio?ieth. I?e ianoaeaeaiee no?aoaae/aneiai ieaie?iaaiey aue ?anniio?ai
i?ioeann auai?a oeaeae i?aaiecaoeee e iooae eo aeinoeaeaiey.

A ?aaioa ooieoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa ?anniao?eaathony ia oieueei eae
yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo a oi?aaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaii, ii e nioeeaeueiue,
o.e. oi?aaeaiea a i?iiuoeaiiinoe – yoi ia oieueei oi?aaeaiea
iia?aoeeiiiiuie nenoaiaie, ii e naiia aeaaiia – oi?aaeaiea ethaeueie. A
eae aoaeao iii i?ioiaeeoue caaeneo oaea io ?oeiaiaenoaa eiiiaiee, io eo
iiuoa, ciaiee, aeaeinoe.

I/aiue aieueoie ?acaeae iinayuai oi?aaeaieth o?oaeiauie ?ano?naie –
nioeeaeueiiio oi?aaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaii, caaea/a eioi?iai caeeth/aaony,
ii nouanoao, a iiauoaiee nioeeaeueiie c?aeinoe eieeaeoeaa.
Oaeiaeaoai?aiiinoue ?aaioie /eaiia eieeaeoeaa, o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
aioo?eeieeaeoeaiuo ioiioaiee, ii?aeueii-ineoieiae/aneay aoiinoa?a
eieeaeoeaa, noaiaiue aiaea/aiey ?aaioieeia a oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii,
iinoiyiiay caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iiauoaiee aai yooaeoeaiinoe, o?iaaiue
oaeo/anoe eaae?ia, oai?/aneay aeoeaiinoue o?oaeyueony – yoe iieacaoaee a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie io?aaeatho o?iaaiue nioeeaeueiie c?aeinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eieeaeoeaa. E i?e iiiiue yoeo iieacaoaeae iau/ii
oi?ie?oaony ioeaiea yooaeoeaiinoe nioeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
?oeiaiaeeoaey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eieeaeoeaa.

E iaeiiaoe, a iineaaeiae aeaaa i?aaenoaaeaii e?aoeia iienaiea e
iciaeiieaiea iaeiiai ec naiuo e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo eiioea?iia ie?a, iiuo
eioi?iai iiaee au iicaeinoaiaaoue e iaoe ioa/anoaaiiua oe?iu. Aeaeinoue,
aioiaiinoue anaaaea eaeoe iaano?a/o caeac/eeo, i?eiaiaiea e iiene
iiaaeoeo oaoiieiaee, iinoiyiiay caaioa i ia?niiaea – ana yoi aeaeaei ia
iieiua oa?aeoa?enoeee yoiai eiioea?ia. Eiiiaiey AAA oaea aeaenoaoao ia
?uieao ?innee e ae?oaeo ?anioaeee auaoaai nithca, e, eiia/ii, nouanoaoao
iaiaei i?iaeai e a i?aaiecaoeee ieaie?iaaiey e a niaianoiuo ?aaioao, ii
oi/aony iaaeayoueny, /oi i?eioeeiu ie?iaie i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiee oe?iaie
ieii/aoaeueii i?eaeeaoony e o ian.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaaei A.I., Ieoe?ei A.E., Iiaeei A.A., Oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii a
oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee (iiuo O?A) – I: “Aeaei”, 1992.

2. A?a/aa I.A., Noia?eaae?u – I: “Aeaei”, 1993.

3. A?a/aa I.A., Oi?aaeaiea o?oaeii – I: “Iaoea”, 1990.

4. Aeyaeae Ia?na?, EAI: Oi?aaeaiea a naiie i?aoniaaathuae ei?ii?aoeee
ie?a – I: “I?ia?ann”, 1991.

5. Aeaeaenii A?aenii, Ea?e I’Aeaee, Aia?eeaineee iaiaaeaeaiaio ia ii?iaa
OO1 aaea – I: “Yeiiiieea”, 1991.

6. Aeii Ooeea?, Oi?aaeye eee iiae/eiyeny – I:1992.

7. Ceaa?o A., Eaia E., ?oeiaiaeeoue aac eiioeeeoia – I:”Yeiiiieea”,
1990.

8. Eaaioeaae/ Ae., Eiaaiia A., *aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu oi?aaeaiey – I:
“Aeaei”, 1993.

9. Eioii I. e ae?., Iaiaaeaeiaio – I: “Oeiainu e noaoenoeea”, 1993.

10. Eaaeaiia E.Ae., I?aeoe/aneee iaiaaeaeiaio – I: “Ieea”, 1992.

11. Iaeeae O., Eae ooeaeaoue n?aaee aeoe – I: “Yeiiiieea”, 1993.

12. Iaiaaeaeiaio ia?niiaea: ooieoeee e iaoiaeu, I: “IAE”- 1993.

13. Ianeii I., O. Oaaeio?e, “Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa”, I: “Aeaei”, 1993.

14. Ii?eoa A., Naeaeaii a ssiiiee – I:1993.

15. Ieeeoi?iaa A. ?uiie o?oaea: caiyoinoue e aac?aaioeoea – I:”II”,
1991.

16. Iio?oaa/ I.I., Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu niaa?oainoaiaaiey
nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie ?aoi?iu, I:
1992.

17. Iio?oaa/ I.I., Oi?ie?iaaiea e ?acaeoea iaoaiecia oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uieo – Na?ao. Oi-o: 1993.

18. ?thooeiaa? ?., Eoeueoo?a i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, I:YEII-1992.

19. N.I. Aooaei, A.A.Aioiiaoe, I?aaiecaoeey, ieaie?iaaiea e oi?aaeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoueth i?iiuoeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (O/aue. aeey yeii. niaoe.
AOCia), Eeaa:”Auua oeiea”, 1989.

20. Oaoina?ae ?., Nae?aou oi?aaeaiey, I:1991.

21. O?aene Ae., Iaiaaeaeiaio n oi/ee c?aiey cae?aaiai niunea, I:
“AAOI”-1993.

22. Oi?aaeaiea ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaa a i?iiuoeaiiuo eiioea?iao NOA, I:
“Iuneue”, 1977.

23. Oeaiaea? Y?ino, I?aeoeea oi?aaeaiey, Oeooe,1992.

24. Uaaei A.A., Eae ?aaioatho n ethaeueie ca ?oaaaeii, Eeaa:1992.

25. Ua?aaeia A.E., Iiaue iiaeoiae e oi?aaeaieth: e?oiiua iauaaeeiaiey,
I:”Yeiiiieea”, 1990.

26.//I?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee oi?aaeaiey 1-12,94

27.//Eaae?u, §1-12 -92,93.

28.//Aii?inu yeiiiieee, §1-12, 1994, §1-5, 1995.

29.//*aeiaae e o?oae, §1-12 -1992,1993.

30. //Aanoiee IAO,Yeiiiieea, 1-12, 1994

31.//Aeaeiaua ethaee, §1-12, 1994, §1-5 1995.

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