.

Сутність та зміст сучасного менеджменту

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1533
Скачать документ

Ieai.

Anooi…………………………………….3

1. ?icaeoie oa ?noi??y iaiaaeaeiaioo………….4

1.1. Aeneo?n a ?noi??th iaiaaeaeiaioo…………..4

1.2. Oeiee oa i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy……………6

2. Nooi?noue oa ci?no iaiaaeaeiaioo……………10

Caaaeuei? iiiyooy……………………..10

Caaea/? ? oe?e? oi?aae?iiy………………11

2.3. Iaoiae? ? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy…………….12

No/ani? i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy………….13

Iniiai? eaoaai??? oai??? oi?aae?iiy…..15

Oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy……………….16

Iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei iaiaaeaeiaioo……….16

Oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy………………..19

Aeaee iaiaaeaeiaioo……………………..20

Iaiaaeaeiaio a i?e?i- ? iae?iaeiiii?oe?……22

I?eioeeie iaiaaeaeiaioo………………….23

Ooieoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo…………………..24

Ieaioaaiiy…………………………24

I?aai?caoe?y………………………..28

Iioeaaoe?y………………………….33

Eiio?ieue…………………………..37

3. Iaiaaeaeiaio ii-yiiinuee? aai ye oea ?iaeyoue a «Iaoeon?oa
aeaie?»………………………….40

Aeniiaie…………………………………47

Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e……………..48

Anooi.

O iao /an aaaeei iacaaoe a?eueo aaaeeeao ? aaaaoia?aiio noa?o
ae?yeueiino?, /ei oi?aae?iiy, aai iaiaaeaeiaio, a?ae yeiai a
cia/i?e i??? caeaaeaoue ? aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa, ? ye?noue
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy.

O ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao iaeiie/aiee cia/iee aeina?ae oi?aae?iiy a
iaeano? i?iieneiaino?, oi?a?ae?, eiiia?aoe??, n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? o.i. aiane?aeie aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? ethaeae a
oi?aae?inuee?e ae?yeueiino?. A?i caaaa/o?oueny ca ?aooiie ciaiue
iniia iaoee oi?aae?iiy, na?oiaeo aeinyaiaiue a i?aeoe/i?e
i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a.

O Oe?a?ii iiee ua ia aeinyaioo? cia/i? oni?oe a oai?aoe/iiio
? i?aeoe/iiio inai?ii? iaiaaeaeiaioo.

?ai?aai?ciaothoueny noa?? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy ? aeaaee a
?in?enuee?e aeiiii?oe?, i?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaothoueny cao?aei?
iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy. Iaeiae iaoai?/ia ia?aianaiiy eiioeaioe??
oi?aae?iiy c iaei??? nioeiieoeueoo?ii? na?aaee a ?ioo, ne?ia
eii?thaaiiy aeina?aeo o??? aai ?ioi? aea?aeaae i?aeoe/ia
iaiiaeeeaa ? aaaea aei aaaeeeo aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo
iane?aee?a. Iaiaaeaeiaio coiiaeaiee oaeeie aacenieie /eiieeaie,
ye oei aeaniino?, oi?ia aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, i??a
?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oiio ?icaeoie no/aniiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?i? aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oeeo /eiiee?a.

1. ?icaeoie oa ?noi??y iaiaaeaeiaioo.

1.1. Aeneo?n a ?noi??th iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Iiiyooy a?ciano ca?iaeeeiny ?acii c iiiyooyi oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei,
oiaoi ia a?iiaaenueeiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa. Eiee iniiaiith
oi?iith “oi?a?ae?” i?ae iaueiaie aoa iaoo?aeueiee iai?i, c’yaeeeny
i?iyeea-ei/iaeee, ui ei/oaaee c iaei??? iaueie a ?ioo ? ??ci? oiaa?e,
ui aei?ithaaee c aeaiaeith aeey nia?. Oea ? iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaeiei c
ia?oeo aeya?a aeooa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

Iinooiiai c ?icaeoeii oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo a?aeiinei ?icaeaaany ? a?cian. O
/ane ?aaiaieiae?iiy i?ioea?oaea oi?a?aey; i?ci?oa, o /ane oaiaeae?cio ?
i?ioea?oaiiy iaoo?aeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa cia/aiiy oi?a?ae? a nae? o?ioe
iiiaioaei, aea c ?icaeoeii i?no ? ?aianea aiia ciiao i?eaeaaea nai?
ia?aeiia cia/aiiy. O /ane noaiiaeaiiy eai?oae?cio ? ia?aeiiiai
iaeiie/aiiy eai?oaeo i?ioea?oaei o?iainiaa i?aei?e?iieoeoai, a i?ci?oa
– i?iieneiaa. O na?aaeei? O1O noie?ooy a?cian i?eaeaaa iia? oi?ie. sseui
aei oeueiai iaeiiin?aiei oi?aae?ioeai aoa ainiiaea?, oi o /ane
ao?oeeaiai i?iieneiaiai c?inoaiiy no?oeoo?a cia/ii ci?ieeany.

Naia ia oeueiio aoai? ? ii/aa ?icaeaaoeny iaiaaeaeiaio a oiio aeaeyae?,
a yeiio i? caeeee ni?eeiaoe oea neiai. Ia iiaeia neacaoe, ui a?i
c’yaeany ?aioiai naia c ?icaeoeii eai?oae?cio, a?i ?nioaaa ? ?ai?oa. O
/ane ?aaiaieiae?iiy aoee ea??aieee ia ieaioaoe?yo, ye? noaaeeee ca
i?aaeeuei?noth aeeiiaiiy ?ia?o, aea oea i?aaeeuei?oa aoei a iacaaoe
iaaeyaeii, /ei oi?aae?iiyi. O /ane oaiaeae?cio ? i?ioea?oaiiy
iaoo?aeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, oaeiae ?nioaaee ea??aieee, iii?/ieee
ainiiaea?y, oea, ni?ao/a, iiaeia aaaaeaoe iaeiei c ia?oeo aeya?a naia
oi?aae?iiy, a ia o?eueee iaaeyaeo iaae i?aoethth/eie, ine?eueee o
ea??aieea aoea iiaeeea?noue iaiaa?o: a?i i?a cai?ieoe aeaeyae ?ia?o o
aeaeyae? caioi/aiiy aai iiea?aiiy naeyi, i?a cieceoe iiaeaoie (i?aaaea,
eeoa ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeaoeo aeey ?ioeo). Oea aoei oaiaa, aea
ana ae aeya oi?aae?iiy. Aea ii-ni?aaaeiueiio iaiaaeaeiaio ii/aa
?icaeaaoeny o?eueee c ?icaeoeii eai?oae?cio, naia oiae? c’yaeeany
iio?aaa a oaeaiiaeoeo oi?aae?ioeyo, ye? iiaee a ae?iaeoe naith
no?aoaa?th oi?aae?iiy o??iith ? ?icaeoeo a?ciano ? i?eaanoe o??io aei
Oni?oo, aai a e?aeiueiio aeiaaeeo, a?yooaaoe ?? a?ae aaie?oonoaa.

ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii ? Aia?eea: aace?/ eiioi?, i?aoethth/eo a ??cieo
iaeanoyo. Eiaeia c ieo ia? naith oi?aae?inueeo no?oeoo?o, aea e??i
i?aceaeaioa (ainiiaea?y) ? ua ? ea??aiee, o?iainenoe ? aiae?oeee, ui
caeia?oueny ?ic?iaeith iie?oeee o??ie. O? c ieo, /e? oao?aoe? aeyaeeeny
iaea?eueo oaeaiiaeoeie, aeina?ae/aieie ? a?aiioieie aeaeeee a ii??
aeeei? eiieo?aioe??. An? nai? ciaiaieo? aia?eeainuee? a?cianiaie: Aai??
Oi?ae, ?ieoaeea? ? ?io? ii/eiaee c iaeiai, aea oaeaeei ci???iooaaaoenue
a neooaoe??, ui neeaeany ia ?eieo, nii??aeo ciiaee iaa?aoe eiiaiaeo ?
c?iaeoe naith ?iaioo iaeneiaeueii aoaeoeaii?; i?aoethth/e oaeaeoa ?
e?aua ?ioeo, nii??aeo ciiaee noao? e?aea?aie a nai?e iaeano?.

Iniiaia iaoa ?nioaaiiy aoaeue-yeiai a?ciano ? noai?aiiy aoaeue-yei?
o??ie – i?eaanoe o??io aei aa?oeie Oni?oo, cae??ieoe ?? oai ? aeaoe
?e iiaeeea?noue ni?eeai aeeaeoeny a iaeaooi?, aa/a/e oai iia?
ia?niaeoeae ?? ?icaeoeo. Nooue a?ciano neeaaea?oueny a iino?eiiio
aaeineiiaeaii? naii? o??ie, ?? no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee a ai?iouea? ca
i?noea ia ?eieo, a i?aaiaii? aei aeineiiaeino?. I?eiiiaeaiiy eai?oaeo,
io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo ? ?icaeoie o??ie, iaae?y ia iaeaooi? – a?nue o?
neeaaeia?, aac yeeo a?cian iaieneeiee. Oae naia a?i iaieneeiee aac
oaeaiiaeoeo iaiaaeaea??a, ye? iiaeooue iia?no? ca niaith ethaeae ?
?aae?coaaoe ana caaeoiaia.

1.2. Oeiee oa i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy.

Aeey iiaiioe?iiiai ? aa?iii?eiiai ?icaeoeo o??ie ? ?? a?ciano
iaiao?aeiee nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei oi?aae?iiy ?? ia?niiaeii ?
ae?yeuei?noth. Iaiaaeaeiaio, ye nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ? oai??y
iaiaaeaeiaioo ca?iaeeeeny a oiio aeaeyae?, a yeiio nii??ae?
ooieoe?iiothoue ca?ac, a XIX a?oe?. Ca?ac ?niothoue ??ci? oeiee
oi?aae?iiy c? nai?ie i?eioeeiaie ? oaeoeeith oi?aae?iiy, a?nue aeaye? c
ieo:

? Oeiea Aianie a ?icaeoie iaoee A?aeaoi? i?aaenoaaieee

1 Eeane/ia oeiea 1860-ii iei?oi?e aiaeeio 1. Iaoeiaa oi?aae?iiy.

2. O?iiiiao?aae.

3. Ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy.

4. Aaei?i?no?ao?aia oi?aae?iiy. Aaio – 1900

Aeaa?n – 1935

Oaeei? – 1911

Aeeaa?o -1911

O?a?e – 1943

*a?/ – 1914

Oaeieue – 1916

?aee? – 1931

2 Iiaaae?i/anueea oeiea (a?oaa?io?enonueea).

ssiii?y 1940 – ii i. aiaeeia. 1. I??eeaaeia iioeaaoe?y.

2. I?ioan?ei? iaiaaeaea?e.

3. Oi?aae?iiy caaaeii. Iiei – 1945

Aa?ia?ae- 1940

I?oa? Ae?oea?-1954

Iaea?aia? – 1960

*a?iai – 1957

Oi??anoi? – 1961

3 Oeiea oi?aae?inueei? iaoee.

?a?iia. 1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aoe?e.

2. Iiaeaethaaiiy.

3. Oai??y A??.

4. Oai??y ??oaiue.

5. Iaoaiaoeea iiaeaeae. ?aeoa – 1911

Ianeio – 1965

Oaeei? – 1911

O eiaei?e c aeuaia?ae?/aieo oe?e ?niothoue nai? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy
? iaiaaeaeiaioo ye nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, eiaeia c ieo aea? nai?
aecia/aiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo ? noiy/ei ia?aae iei caaea/ai. O eiaeii? c ieo
nai? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy.

Iai? iieacaeeny iniaeeai oe?eaaeie i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy Ai?? Oaeiey.

1. ?iciiae?e i?aoe? aai niaoe?ae?caoe?y.

? i?e?iaeiei ii?yaeeii iia. Iaoith ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? ? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe,
a?eueoi? ii ia’?io ? e?aui? ca ye?noth i?e oeoee aea oiiaao.

2. Iiaiiaaaeaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy – i?aa?oa a?aeaeaaaoe iaeace. A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue – ??
neeaaeiaa i?ioeeaaei?noue.

Aea aeathoueny iiaiiaaaeaiiy, oai iaiaei?iii aeieea?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue.

3. Ae?noeeie?ia.

Ia?aaeaa/a? neooiyi?noue ? iiaaao aei aeinyaiooeo aeiaiaee i?ae o??iith
? ?? ni?a?ia?oieeaie.

4. ?aeeiiia/aeuei?noue.

I?aoe?aiee iiaeiai aeeiioaaoe iaeac o?eueee iaei??? ethaeeie.

5. ?aei?noue iai?yio.

Eiaeia a?oia i?aoe?aiee?a, ae?th/a a ?aieao iaei??? iaoe, iiaeiia aooe
ia’?aeiaia ?aeeiei ieaiii ? iaoe ?aeeiiai ea??aieea.

6. I?aeeaae?noue iniaenoeo ?ioa?an?a caaaeueiei.

?ioa?ane iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea aai a?oie i?aoe?aiee?a ia iiaeii?
ia?aaaaeaoe iaae ?ioa?anaie eiiiai?? aai i?aai?caoe?? a?eueoiai
ianooaao.

7. Aeiaai?iaea ia?niiaeo.

Uia caaacia/eoe a??i?noue ? i?aeo?eieo ia?niiaeo, nii??aeo iiaeii?
io?eioaaoe a?aeio aeiaai?iaeo ca naith ?iaioo.

8. Oeaio?ae?caoe?y.

sse ? ?iciiae?e i?aoe?, oeaio?ae?caoe?y ? i?e?iaeiei ii?yaeeii iia,
iaeiae i??a oeaio?ae?caoe?? aoaea aa??thaaoeny a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiie?aoieo ?icoi?a o?oaea. C’yaey?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy i??e,
ui caaacia/o? e?au? iiaeeea? ?acoeueoaoe.

9. Neaey?i?e eaioetha.

Neaey?iee eaioetha – ?yae in?a, ui noiyoe ia ea??aieo iinaaeao,
ii/eiath/e a?ae ?iai?, ui caeia? naia aeniea iieiaeaiiy aei ea??aieea
ieciai? eaiee.

10. Ii?yaeie.

Iiaeiia aooe i?noea aeey anueiai ? ana ia nai?io i?noe?.

11. Ni?aaaaee?a?noue.

Ii?aeiaiiy aeia?ioe ? i?aainoaeaey.

12. Noaa?euei?noue ?iai/iai i?noey aeey ia?niiaeo.

13. ?i?oe?aoeaa.

Icia/a? ?ic?iaeo ieaio ? caaacia/aiiy eiai oni?oii? ?aae?caoe??. Oea
aeiaea? Eiiiai?? neeo ? aia?a?th.

14. Ei?ii?aoeaiee aeoo.

Aoaeue-yea eiiaiaea iiaeiia i?aoethaaoe ?acii. Eiaeiee iiaeiai aiineoe
no?eueee, ne?eueee a?i iiaea.

Aeey /iai ae noai?thaaa Oaeieue nai? i?eioeeie, ye?e iao? nii??aeo
iieeeeai? neoaeeoe?

sse iaaaaeei iii?oeoe c eiiaioa??a, ye? y iaaienii i?ea?a, nii??aeo
iai?aaeai? ia iie?ioaiiy aca?iia?aeiinei ea?oth/iai ia?niiaeo ?
i?aoe?aiee?a. Aeey /iai ae, a naith /a?ao, iaiao?aeia aoaeoeaia
aca?iiae?y aa?oiuei? ? ieaeiuei? /anoei Eiiiai??, aaeaea ?nio? aeoiea,
ui eaaoa aeaiaoe iaoaiaeiiai i?aoe?aieea, ine?eueee iacai?iieo ethaeae
ia aoaa? ? ia eiai i?noea i?eeaeooue ?io?. I?aai?o/ a oiio, ui i?aeoeea
iieaco?, ui iayai?noue aca?ii?icoi?iiy ? noaa?euei?noue eieaeoeao
caaaeaee iiceoeaia iicia/a?oueny ia i?iaeoeoeaiino? o?oaea, a iayai?noue
ei?ii?aoeaiiai aeooa ? aeieaoa a?aeii? aeiaai?iaee ia?niiaeo
caiia?aathoue i?iieneiaiio oieaoinoao, ui i?eiineoe iaaaaaoi aaeee?
caeoee. Ana oea ni?ey? aa?iii?eiiio ?icaeoeo o??ie ? iaeneiaeuei?e
aoaeoeaiino? ?? ?iaioe, a, ioaea, aiia oaeaeoa ca ?ioeo iiceoe? “i?oo
?eieo ? ciaeaea nai? i?noea i?ae niioeai”, aiia i?eeaea aei aa?oeie
oni?oo ? ciiaea ao?eiaoe oo?eiaoeny ia i?e, ui ? iaoa ?nioaaiiy
aoaeue-yei? o??ie.

?nio? oaeiae aace?/ ?ioeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy, y aeoiath, ui ia aa?oi
ia?ae?/oaaoe ?o ana, oio?einy a oi?eiooeny o?eueee ua iaeiiai aniaeoo
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?. O i?eioeeiao oi?aae?iiy Ai?? Oaeiey
a?aeia?aaeai? ia o?eueee aeiiii?/i? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy, aea ?
ineoieia?/i? i?eioeeie aieeao ia ia?niiae ? aca?iiae?? c iei. O oeueiio
aniaeo? iai? iieacaeeny iaea?eueo oe?eaaeie 6 iniiaieo caiia?aeae Oa?a?
Iae Eay, ui aecia/athoue aeiiae aei naiiai oi?aae?ioey, i?e iayaiino?
yeeo a?i iiaea i?iaeoeoeaia oi?aaeyoe o??iith.

1. A?cianiai iiaeiai caaaeaee aooe a oi?i?.

2. Ae?eiaa aeeooy ia oa?ieoue coieiee.

3. Ciaiiy ia noa? neeith, yeui eiai ia canoiniaoaaoe.

4. A?? a nia?, ? Oni?o i?eeaea aei oia?.

5. Ia a??oa oiio, ooi neaaea, ui ae??aieoe? aeey iaiaaeaea?a i?/iai ia
icia/athoue. Ae??ai?oe? – oea ana.

Ae aoaeaoa aaeaeoae? ethaeyi aeioe, iiee ia aeyaeoa oo?aioo i?i ieo.

2. Nooi?noue oa ci?no iaiaaeaeiaioo.

2.1. Caaaeuei? iiiyooy.

Iaiaaeaeiaio (aiae. management — oi?aae?iiy, caa?aeoaaiiy,
i?aai?caoe?y) oea oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii aai eiia?oe??th;
noeoii?noue i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a, eioo?a ? oi?i oi?aae?iiy, ui
?ic?iaeythoueny ? ui canoiniaothoueny c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ca?eueoaiiy i?eaooeo.

No/aniee iaiaaeaeiaio aeeth/a? aea? iaa?ae’?ii? /anoeie:

oai??th ea??aieoeoaa;

i?aeoe/i? niiniae aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aai ienoaoeoai
oi?aae?iiy.

Iiiyooy « iaiaaeaeiaio « i?oeii oa?eoei a iaoa iianyeaeaiia
aeeooy ? noaei cae/iei aeey ae?eiaiai oe?a?inueeiai aeeooy. Iaeiae
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui iiaa eaea i?i iiao o?einio?th,
aea ae?thoue ?io? nenoaie oe?iiinoae ? i??i?eoao?a.

O ca’yceo c oeei iio??aii aeaoaeueia coieieoeny ia cia/aii?
oa?i?io «iaiaaeaeiaio «. Oe?a?inueea neiai

«oi?aae?iiy « ? aiae?enueea neiai «iaiaaeaeiaio « aaaaeathoueny
neiii?iaie, iaeiae iani?aaae? ?o ?noeiiee ci?no aaeueie
?ic??cith?oueny. Aaeeaath/e oa?i?i «iaiaaeaeiaio «, i? ne?aeo?ii
noae?e a i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe? o?aaeeoe??, ca?aeii c yeith
i?ae iei ia?oueny ia oaac? oe?eeii iaaia eiei yaeu ? i?ioean?a.
Iani?aaae? oa?i?i « oi?aae?iiy « ia ? caaeia?eueiei canooiieeii
oa?i?io «iaiaaeaeiaio « oiio, ui a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo iiaa
eaea eeoa i?i iaeio c oi?i oi?aae?iiy, a naia i?i oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueii – aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie ca aeiiiiiaith ? a ?aieao
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? no?oeoo?e, aeoe?iia?ii? eiiiai??. I?e/iio
aaeaeaaoiith aeiiii?/iith iniiaith iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ?eieiaee oei
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, cae?enithaaiee ia aac? ?iaeono??aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa aai eiia?oe??.

Oaeei /eiii, oa?i?i «iaiaaeaeiaio « aaeeaa?oueny canoiniaii aei
oi?aae?iiy ainiiaea?nueeith ae?yeuei?noth, oiae? ye o ?ioeo
oe?eae aeei?enoiaothoueny ?io? oa?i?ie.

O iaoeo oiiaao iio??aii aaeeaaoe oa?i?ie « i?aai?caoe?y «, «
oi?aae?iiy « ? « aaei?i?no?oaaiiy». I?ioa, aea?aeaai?,
a?iiaaenuee? ? ?io? i?aai?caoe?? oaeiae iiaeii? aeei?enoaoe
i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee iaiaaeaeiaioo, yeui oi/ooue aeinyaiooe nai?o
oe?eae i?e i?i?ioi? aeo?ao.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeeeaaeaiiai a ?iaio? oa?i?i « oi?aae?iiy «
iaaeae? aoaea aaeeaaoeny, c iaaiith i??ith oiiaiino?, a oiio
ae cia/aii?, ui ? oa?i?i «iaiaaeaeiaio «.

Aeey oiai uia aecia/eoe iiiyooy iaiaaeaeiaioo, aaaeeeai ooi/ieoe
aeaye? ao?aei? a iueiai iieiaeaiiy, ia?aaeon?i oe?eueiaee
ci?no.

2.2. Caaea/? ? oe?e? iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Caaea/aie iaiaaeaeiaioo ye iaoee ? ?ic?iaea, aenia?eiaioaeueia
ia?aa??ea ? canoinoaaiiy ia i?aeoeoe? iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a,
i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue no?eeo, iaae?eio,
ia?niaeoeaio ? aoaeoeaio ?iaioo eieaeoeao (?iaeea?aeooia) oeyoii
aeioneo eiieo?aioicaeaoiiai oiaa?o.

O o??? ae aiaeeia e?ioeaaith iaoith iaiaaeaeiaioo ye i?aeoeee
aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? caaacia/aiiy i?eaooeiaino? i?aei?e?inoaa
oeyoii ?aoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaie/iai (oi?aiaiai)
i?ioeano, aeeth/ath/e oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii (eiia?oe??th) ?
?icaeoie oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ii? aace.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai iaeaaaeeea?oith caaea/ath iaiaaeaeiaioo ?
i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a ? iineoa c o?aooaaiiyi iiieoo
niiaeeaa/?a ia iniia? ?ano?n?a, ui ?. I?e oeueiio aei caaea/
iaiaaeaeiaioo oaeiae a?aeiinyoueny:

ia?ao?ae aei aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a, ui aieiae?thoue aenieith
eaae?o?eaoe??th;

noeioethaaiiy ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?aai?caoe?? oeyoii noai?aiiy aeey
ieo a?aeiia?aeieo ?icoi?a o?oaea ? nenoaie eiai nieaoe;

aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeieo ?ano?n?a ? aeaea?ae ?o caaacia/aiiy;

?ic?iaea no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?? ? ?aae?caoe?y;

aecia/aiiy eiie?aoieo oe?eae ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe??;

iino?eiee iiooe ? inai?iiy iiaeo ?eie?a;

ae?iaeaiiy nenoaie caoiae?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy iai?/aieo oe?eae;

cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth ca aoaeoeai?noth ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe??,
ca aeeiiaiiyi iinoaaeaieo caaea/.

Caaea/? iaiaaeaeiaioo aacia?a?aii oneeaaeiththoueny ii i???
c?inoaiiy ianooaa?a ? ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa ? eiia?oe??. A?eiiai?
caaea/? ? aeinyaioo? iai?/ai? oe?e? ioe?iththoueny ia ?eieo.

?icaeoie oai??? oi?aae?iiy, ?ic?iaea aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoiae?a aeicaieeee aaaaoi ye? ye?ni? ??oaiiy caaea/ aeiiiaieoe
aai cai?ieoe oi/ieie e?euee?nieie ioe?ieaie aai ??oaiiyie, a
?icaeoie eioo?a ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee ? eiioi?eaoe?e ni?eya
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy. Aaaaoi ye? caaea/?, ye?
?ai?oa ia iiaee ae??ooaaoeny a ?aaeuei?e aai aeiionoei?e
ianooaa? aiaeei? ?c – ca o?oaeii?noe?noue ?ic?aooie?a, noaee
iianyeaeaiiith ?aaeuei?noth.

2.3. Iaoiae? ? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy.

O no/aniiio iaiaaeaeiaio? ?niothoue ??ci? niiniae ??oaiiy caaea/:
eiie?aoi? iaoiaee ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy, iiaeaethaaiiy
oi?aae?inueeeo i?ioean?a, ?ioi?iaoe?eia ? oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ? ?io.

O Oe?a?i? oai?aoe/ia ? i?eeeaaeia noaoenoee, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/i?
iiaeae? ??oaiiy caaea/, ?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a ? o.i.
?ic?iaeai? aeineoue aeia??. Iaio ?icaeiaia aaoiiaoecaoe?y
i?ioean?a ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe??, oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii,
i?eeiyooy ??oaiue.

Iaeiae aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?iiy caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae
niinia?a ??oaiiy caaea/, aea o aaee/aci?e i??? ? a?ae
ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio ? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.
Oiio aaaaoi ye? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ( no?aoaa?/iiai ? iia?aoeaiiai
), ui oni?oii aeei?enoiaothoueny ca ?oaaaeai, ia caaaeaee
iiaeooue aooe aoaeoeaii canoiniaai? a Oe?a?i?, ui iiynith?oueny
??ciith i??ith c??eino? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

sseui ?icaeyaeaoe niiniae iaiaaeaeiaioo c iiceoe?e iae?iaeiiii?ee
oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?yie, oi iiaeia iii?oeoe, ui ia?aaeia?
iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy iaea?eueo aeoeaia ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a ?aieao
ae?th/iai ? ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio, ui ci?ith?oueny.

2.3.1. No/ani? i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy.

No/aniee iaiaaeaeiaio, a?aoiaoth/e aeinyaiaiiy an?o oe?e ?
iai?yi?a, ?ioaa?o? ?o a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy.

No/aniee iaiaaeaeiaio oa?aeoa?ecothoue ianooii? iieiaeaiiy:

a?aeiiaa a?ae i??i?eoaoo eeane/ieo i?eioeei?a oe?e iaiaaeaeiaioo,
ca?aeii c yeeie oni?o i?aei?e?inoaa aecia/a?oueny ia?aaeon?i
?aoe?iiaeueiith i?aai?caoe??th ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe??,
cieaeaiiyi aeo?ao, ?icaeoeii niaoe?ae?caoe??, oiaoi aieeaii
oi?aae?iiy ia aioo??oi? /eiieee ae?iaieoeoaa. Cai?noue oeueiai
ia?oi?yaeiith noa? i?iaeaia aio/eino? ? aaeaioiaaiino? aei
iino?eieo ci?i ciai?oiuei? na?aaee. Cia/aiiy /eiiee?a
ciai?oiuei? na?aaee ??cei i?aeaeuo?oueny a ca’yceo c
oneeaaeiaiiyi an??? nenoaie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ( a oiio /ene?
iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo), ui neeaaeathoue na?aaeo
iaiaaeaeiaioo i?aai?caoe??.

aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aae?ii? oai??? nenoai, ui iieaaoo? caaea/o
?icaeyaeo i?aai?caoe?? a ?aeiino? ?? neeaaeiaeo /anoei, ye?
ia?ic?eaii iia’ycai? ?c ciai?oi?i na?oii. Aieiai? ia?aaeoiiae
oni?oo i?aei?e?inoaa ciaoiaeyoueny o ciai?oi?e na?aae?,
i?e/iio ei?aeiie c iath ? a?aee?eoeie, oiaoi i?aei?e?inoai
caeaaeeoue a nai?e ae?yeueiino? a?ae aia?a??, ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
?ioeo ?ano?n?a, ui iinooia? cciai?. Uia ooieoe?iioaaoe,
nenoaia iiaeiia i?enoiniaoaaoeny aei ci?i o ciai?oi?e na?aae?.

canoinoaaiiy aei oi?aae?iiy neooaoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo, ca?aeii c
yeei ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa iaoiiaeth?oueny ?aaeoe?yie ia
??ci? ca nai?e i?e?iaeith aieeae cciai?. Oeaio?aeueiee iiiaio
ooo — neooaoe?y, oiaoi eiie?aoiee iaa?? ianoaaei, ye?
aieeaathoue ?noioiee /eiii ia ?iaioo i?aai?caoe?? a aeai??
ia??iae aiaeei?. Ca?aene aeo?ea? aeciaiiy aaaeeeaino?
niaoeeo?/ieo i?eeii?a aeae?eaiiy iaea?eueo cia/oueo /eiiee?a,
aieeaath/e ia ye?, iiaeia aoaeoeaii aeinyaaoe iaoe.

iiaa oi?aae?inueea ia?aaeeaia i?eae?ey? aaee/acio oaaao oaeei
/eiieeai, ye e?aea?noai ? noeeue ea??aieoeoaa, eaae?o?eaoe?th
? eoeueoo?o i?aoethth/eo, iioeaaoe?y iiaaae?iee,
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy a eieaeoea? ? ?aaeoe?y ethaeae ia ci?ie.

I???ioaoe?y ia iia? oiiae ? /eiieee ?icaeoeo ciaeoea
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?eioeeiao iaiaaeaeiaioo, oi?ioethaaiiy yeeo
iieaco? ?ieue ethaeeie, ui c?inea, eiai i?ioan?iiae?cio,
iniaenoeo yeinoae, a oaeiae an??? nenoaie aca?iia?aeiinei
ethaeae a i?aai?caoe?yo. Iai?eeeaae, a neeaae? iaeaaaeeea?oeo
i?eioeei?a, yeeie ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ei?enooaaoeny iaiaaeaea?ai a
inoaiiueiio aeanyoe??//? iioieiaiai a?eo, ia??aeei iaceaathoueny
ianooii?:

aeia?ice/eeaa a?aeiioaiiy iaiaaeaea??a aei an?o i?aoethth/eo a
i?aai?caoe??;

a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iaiaaeaea??a an?o ??ai?a ca oni?oio
ae?yeuei?noue i?aai?caoe??;

eiioi?eaoe?? ( ai?eciioaeuei? ? aa?oeeaeuei?) ye ana?aaeei?, oae
? ca iaaeaie i?aai?caoe??;

noai?aiiy aoiinoa?e a?aeaa?oino?, /aniino?, aeia??’y ethaeyi;

ni?eyiiy ?aae?caoe?? ?o oaeaio?a ? i?aaiaiiy aei iino?eiiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy, ye iniaenoi? ?iaioe, oae ? ?iaioe i?aai?caoe??.

I?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy iiaeo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy aaeueie neeaaeia
? aeiaaa? ?aaeeeaeueiiai ia?aaeyaeo an??? o?einio?? a?ciano,
ci?ie ineoieia?? i?aoethth/eo ( a oiio /ene? iaiaaeaea??a ),
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o eaae?o?eaoe?? ? c?inoaiiy iniaenoiai iioaioe?aeo.

2.3.2. Iniiai? eaoaai??? oai??? oi?aae?iiy.

Oai??th oi?aae?iiy i?eeiyoi ?icaeyaeaoe ye eiiieaenio iaoeo aai
iaoeiaee iai?yi, ui nie?a?oueny ia aaaaoi ye? oai?aoe/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? ciaiiy. Oea iiynith?oueny aaaaoia?aii?noth i?iaeaie
oi?aae?iiy ? aaaaoiianiaeoi?noth oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?,
caniiaaiith ia na?aeiiiio aeei?enoaii? aeiiii?/ieo, i?e?iaeii –
oaoi?/ieo i?aai?caoe?eieo, nioe?aeueii – ineoieia?/ieo caeii?a ?
caeiiii??iinoae, aeanoeaeo ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy. Oai??y oi?aae?iiy
i/aaeaeii iiaeiia aooe i???ioiaaia ia ??oaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaea/.

Aeaiaioaie oi?aae?iiy ye caaaeueiiai aeaeyaeo ethaenueei?
ae?yeueiino? ? iaoa oi?aae?iiy ? niin?a aeinyaiaiiy iaoe,
ia’?eo ? noa’?eo oi?aae?iiy, aca?iiae?th/a a iaaiiio
iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?.

I?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaeo oai??? oi?aae?iiy ? oi?aae?inuee?
(i?aai?caoe?eii – oi?aae?inuee?, i?aai?caoe?eii – aeiiii?/i?)
a?aeiineie, ui ?aae?ciaothoueny ye ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ca’ycee i?e
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa ? oi?aae?ii? ?i.

I?ioean oi?aae?iiy aeeth/a? ca??, ia?a?iaeo ? ia?aaea/o
?ioi?iaoe?? (i?aaeiao oi?aae?inueeiai o?oaea), ui aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeey ae?iaeaiiy ??oaiue (i?iaeoeo oi?aae?inueeiai o?oaea).

Eiooe o?oaea a oi?aae?inuee?e ae?yeueiino? – iaoiaee ? caniao
ia?iaee ? aiae?co ?ioi?iaoe?? ? i?eeiyooy ia oe?e iniia?
eiie?aoieo ??oaiue.

Ci?no oi?aae?inueeiai o?oaea ?ice?eaa?oueny a i?ioean?
oi?aae?iiy, ui neeaaea?oueny c oeeee?/iiai iiaoi?aiiy ooieoe?e
oi?aae?iiy aai eiie?aoieo aeae?a oi?aae?inueeeo ?ia?o, ui
aeeiiothoueny o an?o aeaeao ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?:

iaoeiai – oaoi?/ii?;

oaoiieia?/ii?;

iae?eiai?;

o?iainiai?;

? ?io.

2.3.3. Oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy.

Oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy — oea i?eeiie, niiniae ? ii?yaeie (
iine?aeiai?noue, ?aaeaiaio ) aeeiiaiiy i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy
caaaeii ? neeaaeath/eo eiai ooieoe?e. O i?ioean? aoaeue-yei?
oaoiieia?? i?aaeiao o?oaea ia?aoai?th?oueny a i?iaeoeo o?oaea.

I?aei???inoai ea?iaaia, yeui ae?iaeaiiy ? i?eeiyooy an?o
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue cae?eniyoueny ?ai?oa, i?ae cae?i/aoueny
aeieeath/? a aeai?? iiiaio i?ioeane, ui ?aae?ciaothoue ?ai?oa
i?eeiyo? oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy.

Oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy iiaeiia a?aoiaoaaoe aiaeeia oi?aae?inueeeo
oeeee?a ? ?o ?aoe?iiaeueio aca?iiae?th c ae?iaie/eie oeeeeaie ?
aeeoo?aeie oeeeeaie oiaa??a.

Oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy iiaeiia a?aeiia?aeaoe oaoiieia??
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?aae?caoe?yi oiaa??a (iineoa), caaacia/oth/e
aacia?a?ai?noue ? ea?iaai?noue ?o i?ioean?a.

Iine?aeiai?noue aeeiiaiiy aca?iiiia’ycaieo ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy —
oea nooue, oaoiieia?y oi?aae?inueeiai o?oaea.

2.3.4. Iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Aoaeo?ai?noue iaiaaeaeiaioo aecia/a?oueny, ia?aaeon?i,
iaa?oioiaai?noth i?aeoiae?a ? iaoiae?a.

Aiae?c oai??? ? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy ??cieie ia’?eoaie aeicaiey?
anoaiiaeoe iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy aei iaiaaeaeiaioo 13
iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a (oaaeeoey 1):

Oaaeeoey 1.

IACAA EI?IOEEE CI?NO

Aaei?i?no?ao?aiee I?e aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio i?aeoiae? ?aaeaiaioothoueny
ooieoe??, i?aaa, iaia’ycee, aeaiaioe nenoaie iaiaaeaeiaioo a
ii?iaoeaieo aeoao.

A?aeoai?thaaeueiee A?aeoai?thaaeuei?e i?aeo?ae i???ioiaaiee ia
iino?eia iiiiaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa?o aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa
?eieo c iaioeie aeo?aoaie.

Ae?iai?/iee I?e aeeiai?/iiio i?aeoiae? ia’?eo oi?aae?iiy
?icaeyaea?oueny a ae?aeaeoe/iiio ?icaeoeo, a i?e/eiii – ne?ae/eo
ca’yceao.

?ioaa?aoe?eiee I?e ?ioaa?aoe?eiiio i?aeoiae? anoaiiaeththoueny
aca?iica’ycee i?ae ie?aieie i?aenenoaiaie ? aeaiaioaie nenoaie
iaiaaeaeiaioo, ??aiyie, noa’?eoaie oi?aae?iiy.

E?euee?niee Nooue e?euee?niiai i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii?
e?euee?nieo ioe?iie i?e aeiiiiic? iaoaiaoe/ieo, noaoenoe/ieo,
?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooieao ? o.ae.

Eiiieaeniee I?e eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae? a?aoiaothoueny oaoi?/i?,
aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei? ? ?io? aniaeoe iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Ia?eao?iaiaee Ia?eaoeiaiaee i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a? i???ioaoe?th
ea?oth/i? i?aenenoaie ia niiaeeaa/a

Ii?iao?aiee I?e ii?iaoeaiiio i?aeoiae? anoaiiaeththoueny ii?iaoeae
a oi?aae?ii?

Iiaaae?i/anueeee Iiaaae?i/anueeee i?aeo?ae iieyaa? a oiio, uia
aeiiiiiaoe i?aoe?aieeo ona?aeiieoe aeani? iiaeeeaino?.

I?ioeaniee I?e i?ioeaniiio i?aeoiae? oi?aae?iiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo ooieoe?e.

Nenoaiiee I?e nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae? aoaeue-yea nenoaia
?icaeyaea?oueny ye noeoii?noue aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaiaio?a.

Neooaoe?eiee Neooaoe?ei?e i?aeo?ae ia?aaeaa/a?, ui canoinoaaiiy
??cieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy aecia/a?oueny eiie?aoiith neooaoe??th.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee Nooue ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? a oiio,
ui iio?aaa ?icaeyaea?oueny ye noeoii?noue ooieoe?e, ye? o?aaa
aeeiioaaoe aeey ?? caaeiaieaiiy.

Aeai? i?aeoiaee iio??aii a?aeianoe aei aieiaieo i?eioeei?a
oi?aae?iiy. Oia?oa oa?i?i « i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy « aa?a
?iaeaia? – oaoiieia O.Oaeei?, yeee a 1911 ?ioe? iioae?eoaaa
?iaioo i?ae iacaith

« I?eioeeie iaoeiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo «.

2.3.5. Oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy.

??oaiiy — oea nioe?aeueii ineoieia?/iee aeo aeai?o iaeiiai aai
aeae?eueeio aa??aio?a c aace?/? iiaeeeaeo.

Oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy eeaneo?eothoueny ii ianooiieo iciaeao:

noaae?y aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo oiaa?o;

i?aenenoaia nenoaie iaiaaeaeiaioo;

noa?a ae??;

iaoa;

ianooaai?noue;

I?aai?caoe?y ae?iaeaiiy;

o?eaae?noue ae??;

ia’?eo aieeao;

iaoiaee oi?iae?caoe??;

oi?ie a?aeia?aaeaiiy;

niin?a ia?aaea/?;

??aaiue oi?aae?iiy.

Iieacieeai? yeino? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ?:

aio?ii?y, oiaoi e?euee?nia aecia/ai?noue ca’yce?a i?ae
aeaiaioaie nenoaie iaiaaeaeiaioo ? ??oaiiy;

?iia??i?noue ?eceeo aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae;

e?euee?noue caae?yieo i?e oi?ioaaii? ??oaiiy ??ai?a ???a?o??;

??oaiiy, ui canoiniaothoueny i?e i?eeiyoo? no/ani? iaoiaee;

aeo?aoe ia i?eeiyooy ? ?aae?caoe?th ??oaiiy;

aoaeoeai?noue ??oaiiy.

2.4. Aeaee iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Iaiaaeaeiaio i?iieco? anth i?aai?caoe?th, oi?ea?oueny i?aeoe/ia
an? noa?e ?? ae?yeueiino?. Iaeiae i?e anueiio ??ciiiai?oo?
aca?iiae?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ? i?aai?caoe?? iiaeia aeineoue /?oei
aecia/eoe ei?aeiie ae?yeueiino?, yea neeaaea? ci?no
iaiaaeaeiaioo, a oaeiae aeae?eeoe eiai ie?ai? aeaee:

Ae?iaie/ee iaiaaeaeiaio — oea eiiieaenia nenoaia caaacia/aiiy
eiieo?aioicaeaoiino? oiaa?o, ui aeionea?oueny ia eiieo?aioiiio
?eieo. Aiia aeeth/a? ieoaiiy iiaoaeiae ae?iaie/eo ?
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, aeai?o i?aai?caoe?eii i?aaiai? oi?ie
oi?aae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaii, caooo ? o??iiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
oiaa?o a?aeiia?aeii aei iiia?aaei?o noaae?e aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo.

O?iainia?e iaiaaeaeiaio – oea eiiieaenia nenoaia no?eeino?,
iaae?eiino? ? aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy o?iainaie. Aiia aeeth/a?
oi?ioaaiiy ? ieaioaaiiy o?iainiaeo iieaciee?a c aeio?eiaiiyi
iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a ? i?eioeei?a iaiaaeaeiaioo, aaeaino
i?eaooe?a ? aeo?ao, iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
?ano?n?a, ?aioaaaeueiino? ?iaioe ? oiaa??a.

?iiiaaoe?eiee iaiaaeaeiaio — oea eiiieaenia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy
?iaanoeoe?yie, ui aeeaaeathoueny aeanieeaie a ?icaeoie an?o
aeae?a ?iiiaaoe?e. Aiia aeeth/a? iiaoaeiao i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo?, aea?? iai?yi?a ?iiiaaoe?e, iioei?caoe?th
?iaanoeoe?e, ??ci? aniaeoe oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii.

E??i i?eaaaeaieo aeae?a niaoe?aeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oeae
aiaeeio ?ic?iaeythoueny ?io? aeaee:

iaiaaeaeiaio nioe?aeueii? noa?e;

aaie?anueeee iaiaaeaeiaio;

iiaeaoeiaee iaiaaeaeiaio;

i?aai?caoe?eiee iaiaaeaeiaio;

i?aeia?iaeiee iaiaaeaeiaio;

? ?io.

Iaiaaeaeiaio ye noeoii?noue i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a, eioo?a ?
oi?i oi?aae?iiy o??iaie ia Caoiae? a?aeiiee a iao?e e?a?i?
aeaaii. Iaeiae ua aeanyoue ?ie?a iacaae iao? oao?aoe?
aaaaeaee, ui eiai iniiaieie oe?eyie ? io?eiaiiy aenieiai
i?eaooeo ? iino?eia aeia?aaeaeaiiy e?a?i nioe?ae?cio ii
i?iaeoeoeaiino? o?oaea a ?ioa?anao ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?e
?iia??ae?cio.

Aeaiie?ao?caoe?y noni?eueiiai aeeooy e?a?ie aeicaieeea oe?ieei
aa?noaai ianaeaiiy, i?aeoe/iei i?aoe?aieeai iciaeiieoeny c
iaeiie/aiei aaaaoei na?oiaei aeina?aeii oai??? ? i?aeoeee
iaiaaeaeiaioo, a i???ioaoe?y oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee ia ?eieia?
a?aeiineie c?iaeea i?inoi iaiao?aeieie aea/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy
aeina?aeo ia?aaeiaeo aea?aeaa.

O ca’yceo c oeei a?aeiioaiiy aei iaiaaeaeiaioo a Oe?a?i? a
inoaii? ?iee cia/ii ci?ieeiny. Iioae?eiaai? o?oaee aeaeieo
oai?aoee?a ? i?aeoee?a iaiaaeaeiaioo. Ii/aeany aeoeaia
i?aeaioiaea ea?oth/eo iaiaaeaea??a.

2.5. Iaiaaeaeiaio a i?e?i – ? iae?iaeiiii?oe?.

Oi?aae?iiy ? aeiiii?ea ye noa?e ae?yeueiino? ? ye iaoeia?
aeenoeeie?ie ia?ic?eai?. O oi?aae?inuee?e ae?yeueiino?
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ciai? aeiiii?/iith iaoeith caeiie ?
caeiiii??iino? iiaaae?iee ethaeae i?e ae?iaieoeoa?, iai?i?,
?iciiae?e? ? niiaeeaaii? iaoa??aeueieo aeaa. O o??? ae /an
iianyeaeaiia i?aai?caoe?eia ? oi?aae?inueea ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae,
?acoeueoaoe oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, a?aeia?aaeath/? ia’?eoeai?
oiiae aeiiii?ee, ui ?icaeaa?oueny, neoaeaoue iniiaith aeey
?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii? iaoee.

A???oaeuei?i /eiieeii ae?iaieoeoaa noathoue ?ioi?iaoe?y,
iaoeiaa ciaiiy, aoaeoeaiee ?icaeoie ? aeei?enoaiiy yeeo
aeiaaathoue caaacia/aiiy aei ieo oe?ieiai aeinooio.

Ci?io ?ie? /eiiee?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? iia? oi?aae?inuee? i?aeoiaee
iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaeyaeo ci?noo ? ?ie? oaeeo
aeiiii?/ieo eaoaai??e, ye ca?ia?oia ieaoa, i?eaooie, eai?oae ?
?io.

Iia? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaii, ni?eyth/? oni?oo a
eiieo?aioe??, ia?aaeaa/athoue noeioethaaiiy oai?/i? aia?a??
i?aoe?aiee?a, caeo/aiiy ?o aei i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ia ??cieo
??aiyo oi?aae?iiy. Aieiai?i noa? ethaenueeee eai?oae.

Oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie (iaiaaeaeiaio a i?e?iaeiiii?oe?) ii
i??? ?icaeoeo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee an? a a?eueo?e i??? caeaaeeoue
a?ae aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae (iaiaaeaeiaio a
iae?iaeiiii?oe?).

O oi?aae?ii? aieiaiei /eiieeii noathoue no?aoaa?/i? ??oaiiy,
i?aeaeuo?oueny nioe?aeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue oi?aaeaioeaa an?o
??ai?a ia?aae noni?euenoaii ? i?aoe?aieeaie ea?iaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa.

No/aniee iaiaaeaeiaio noa? iaoei?ieith noa?ith ae?yeueiino?, ?
ana a a?eueo?e i??? aeiaaa? aenieiai i?ioan?iiae?cio ?
??ciinoi?iii?o ciaiue.

2.6. I?eioeeie iaiaaeaeiaioo.

I?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy a?aeia?aaeathoue oai?aoe/iee ?aeaae
oi?aae?iiy, aei aeinyaiaiiy yeiai iaiao?aeii i?aaiooe.
?aae?caoe?y oeeo i?eioeei?a ? e?eoa???i aoaeoeaiino? ? iaoeiaino?
oi?aae?iiy ia an?o eiai ??aiyo.

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo nenoaie
iaiaaeaeiaioo aeio?eioaaoe i?eioeeie, ye? ? caaaeueieie aeey an?o
i?aenenoai nenoaie oi?aae?iiy:

ii?aeiaiiy niaoe?ae?caoe?? ? oi?aa?nae?caoe?y a oi?aae?ii? (i?e
aeeiiaii? oi?aae?inueeeo ?ia?o iiaeiii caaacia/oaaoeny iioeiaeueia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae niaoe?ae?caoe??th ? oi?aa?nae?caoe?y);

no?ee?noue aei ciai?oiuei? na?aaee (i?e ci?i? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
i?e?i – ? iae?ina?aaeiaeua i?aei?e?inoaa nenoaia oi?aae?iiy
iiaeiia i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ooieoe?iioaaoe ? aeeiioaaoe iinoaaeai?
oe?e?);

aeiiii?/i?noue oi?aae?iiy (i?e aeai?? niinia?a ? eioo?a aeey
cae?eniaiiy oi?aae?iiy ? aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iaiao?aeii iaiaaeoaaoe
aeo?aoe:

o?oaeia?;

iaoa??aeuei?;

oei/ania?;

o?iainia?;

ii?aeuei?.

aoaeoeai?noue oi?aae?iiy;

ii?aeiaiiy oeaio?ae?caoe?? ? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? a oi?aae?ii? (a
eiaei?e eiie?aoi?e nenoai? oi?aae?iiy iiaeiai aooe iioeiaeueiee
??aaiue oeaio?ae?caoe?? (aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y) aeeiiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo
ooieoe?e).

I??aaaeai? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy oa?aeoa?i? aeey aoaeue-yei?
i?aenenoaie. ?acii c oei eiaeia i?aenenoaia nenoaie iiaeiia
oi?ioaaoeny ? ooieoe?iioaaoe ia iniia? ua ? niaoeeo?/ieo
i?eioeei?a. Oae niaoeeo?/ieie i?eioeeiaie oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii
?:

?iciiae?e i?aoe?;

?aeeiiia/aeuei?noue;

i?aeeaae?noue iniaenoeo ?ioa?an?a caaaeueiei;

? o.ae.

2.7. Ooieoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Oi?aae?iiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean, oiio ui ?iaioa ii aeinyaiaiith
oe?eae ca aeiiiiiaith ?ioeo – oea ia yeanue iaeii?aciaa ae?y, a na??y
aacia?a?aieo aca?iiiia’ycaieo ae?e. Oe? ae??, eiaeia c yeeo naia ii
nia? ? i?ioeanii, aeoaea aaaeeea? aeey oni?oo i?aai?caoe??. ?o
iaceaathoue oi?aae?inueeeie ooieoe?yie. Eiaeia oi?aae?inueea ooieoe?y
oaeiae yaey? niaith i?ioean, oiio ui oaeiae neeaaea?oueny c na???
aca?iiiia’ycaieo ae?e. I?ioean oi?aae?iiy ? caaaeueiith oi?aith an?o
ooieoe?e.

I?ioean oi?aae?iiy (iaiaaeaeiaio) ia? /ioe?e aca?iiiia’ycai? ooieoe??:
ieaioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y, iioeaaoe?y ? eiio?ieue.

2.7.1. Ieaioaaiiy.

Ooieoe?y ieaioaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? ??oaiiy i?i o?, yeeie iiaeii? aooe oe?e?
i?aai?caoe?? ? ui iiaeii? ?iaeoe /eaie i?aai?caoe??, uia aeinyaiooe oeeo
oe?eae.

No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy yaey? niaith iaa?? ae?e ? ??oaiue, c?iaeaieo
ea??aieoeoaii, ye? aaaeooue aei ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?/ieo no?aoaa?e,
i?ecia/aieo aeey oiai, uia aeiiiiiaoe i?aai?caoe?? aeinyaiooe nai?o
oe?eae.

I?ioean no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ? ?ino?oiaioii, ui aeiiiiaaa? a
i?eeiyoo? oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Eiai caaea/a – caaacia/eoe
iiaiaaaaeaiiy ? ci?io a i?aai?caoe?? a aeinoaoi?e i???. Oi/i?oa eaaeo/e,
i?ioean no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy ? o??th ia?anieueeith, i?ae yeith
oiaathoueny an? oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe??.

Nooue no?aoaa??. Neiai “no?aoaa?y” noaeiny a?ae a?aoeueeiai strategos,
“ienoaoeoai aaia?aea”.

No?aoaa?y yaey? niaith aeaoaeueiee anaa?/iee eiiieaeniee ieai,
i?ecia/aiee aeey oiai, uia caaacia/eoe cae?eniaiiy i?n?? i?aai?caoe?? ?
aeinyaiaiiy ?? oe?eae.

No?aoaa?/i?e ieai iiaeiai ?ic?iaeyoeny oaeaeoa c oi/ee ci?o ia?niaeoeae
an??? ei?ii?aoe??, a ia eiie?aoiiai ?iaeea?aea. Oi/, ia iniaenoeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ooiaeaoi? i?aei?e?inoaa iiaea aeicaieeoe nia? a?aeiinio
?ice?o ii?aeioaaoe iniaeno? ieaie c? no?aoaa??th i?aai?caoe??.

No?aoaa?/i?e ieai iiaeiai aeaooiaoaaoeny iaoe?ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?
oaeoe/ieie aeaieie. Uia aoaeoeaii eiieo?oaaoe a nueiaiaei?oiueiio na?o?
a?ciano, o??ia iiaeiia iino?eii caeiaoeny cai?ii ? aiae?cii aaee/acii?
e?eueeino? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aaeocue, ?eiie, eiieo?aioe?th ? ?io? /eiieee.

No?aoaa?/i?e ieai aeiaea? o??i? aecia/ai?noue, ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, ui
aeicaiey? ?e caeo/aoe iaai? oeie i?aoe?aiee?a, ?, a o?e aea aiaeeia, ia
caeo/aoe i?aoe?aiee?a ?ioeo oei?a. Oeae ieai a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeao aeey
i?aai?caoe??, yea iai?aaey? ?? ni?a?ia?oiee?a, caeo/a? iiaeo
i?aoe?aiee?a ? aeiiiiaaa? i?iaeaaaoe ae?iae aai iineoae.

Ia?aoo?, no?aoaa?/i? ieaie iiaeii? aooe ?ic?iaeai? oae, uia ia o?eueee
caeeoaoeny oe?e?nieie i?ioyaii o?eaaeeo ia??iae?a aiaeei?, aea ? aooe
aeineoue aio/eeie, uia i?e iaiao?aeiino? iiaeia aoei cae?enieoe ?o
iiaeeo?eaoe?th ? ia?ai???ioaoe?th.

Ieaioaaiiy ? oni?o i?aai?caoe??. Aeaye? i?aai?caoe??, ye ? ?iaeea?aee,
iiaeooue aeinyaiooe iaaiiai ??aiy oni?oo, ia cao?a/oth/e aaeeeiai
o?oaea ia oi?iaeueia ieaioaaiiy. A?eueo oiai no?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy naia
ii nia? ia aa?aioo? oni?oo. I?aai?caoe?y, ui noai?th? no?aoaa?/i? ieaie,
iiaea iioa?i?oe iaaaea/o /a?ac iiieeee a i?aai?caoe??, iioeaaoe?? ?
eiio?ie?.

I?ioa, oi?iaeueia ieaioaaiiy iiaea noai?eoe ?yae aaaeeeaeo ? /anoi
?noioieo ni?eyoeeaeo /eiiee?a aeey i?aai?caoe??.

No/aniee oaii ci?ie ? ca?eueoaiiy ciaiue ? iano?eueee aaeeeei, ui
no?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy i?aaenoaaey?oueny ?aeeiei niiniaii oi?iaeueiiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeaooi?o i?iaeai ? iiaeeeainoae. No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy
aea? iniiao aeey i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy. Oi?iaeueia ieaioaaiiy ni?ey?
cieaeaiith ?eceeo i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiiy. Ieaioaaiiy, ine?eueee aiii
neoaeeoe aeey oi?ioethaaiiy anoaiiaeaieo oe?eae, aeiiiiaaa? noai?eoe
?aei?noue caaaeueii? iaoe ana?aaeei? i?aai?caoe??.

Aeey no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy oa?aeoa?i? ianooii? iieiaeaiiy.

1. Iaaaeeeee ieaiiaee a?aeae?e (iaioa ca 6 /ieia?e) ei?ii?aoe??
aeiiiaith?oueny ieaioaaiiyi ia ieae/eo ??aiyo.

2. A?e ooieoe?? ieaioaaiiy iaa?oue a iaea?eueo aaeeeeo ei?ii?aoe?yo
ia?aoiao?oueny iaio aeanyoe ?ie?a.

3. No?aoaa?/i? ieaie ?ic?iaeythoueny ia ia?aaeao aeuiai ea??aieoeoaa
ei?ii?aoe??, ui i?iaiaeyoueny ui??/ii.

4. ??/i?e no?aoaa?/iee ieai ia’?aeio?oueny c ??/iei o?iainiaei ieaiii.

5. O a?eueoino? i?aai?caoe?e aaaaeathoue, ui ooieoe?y ieaioaaiiy

iiaea aooe aaeineiiaeaia.

Oe?e? i?aai?caoe??. Ia?oei ?, iiaeeeai, naiei ?noioiei ??oaiiyi i?e
ieaioaaii? aoaea aea?? oe?eae i?aai?caoe??.

Iniiaia caaaeueia iaoa i?aai?caoe?? – /?oei ae?aaeaia i?e/eia ??
?nioaaiiy – icia/a?oueny ye ?? i?n?y. Oe?e? ae?iaeythoueny aeey
cae?eniaiiy oe??? i?n??.

I?n?y aeaoae?co? noaoon o??ie ? caaacia/o? iai?yi ? i???ioe?e aeey
aecia/aiiy oe?eae ? no?aoaa?e ia ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eieo ??aiyo.
Oi?ioethaaiiy i?n?? i?aai?caoe?? iiaeiia i?noeoe ianooiia:

1. Caaea/a o??ie c oi/ee ci?o ?? iniiaieo iineoa aai ae?ia?a, ??
iniiaieo ?eie?a ? iniiaieo oaoiieia?e. I?ino?oa eaaeo/e, yeith
i?aei?e?iieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth caeia?oueny o??ia?

2. Ciai?oiy Na?aaea ii a?aeiioaiith aei o??ie, yea aecia/a? ?iai/?
i?eioeeie o??ie.

3. Eoeueoo?a i?aai?caoe??. sseiai oeio ?iai/ee ee?iao ?nio? ana?aaeei?
o??ie? sseiai oeio ethaeae caeo/a? oeae ee?iao?

Uia aea?aoe a?aeiia?aeio i?n?th, ea??aieoeoai iiaeiii a?aeiia?noe ia
aeaa ieoaiiy: “Ooi iao? ee??ioe?” “? sse? niiaeeae iaoeo ee??io?a i?
iiaeaii caaeiaieueieoe?” Ee??ioii a aeaiiio eiioaeno? aoaea aoaeue-ooi,
ooi aeei?enoiao? ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? i?aai?caoe??. Ee??ioai?
iaeiia?oe?eii? i?aai?caoe?? aoaeooue o?, ooi aeei?enoiao? ?? iineoae ?
caaacia/o? ?? ?ano?naie.

Caaaeueiio??iia? oe?e? oi?ioeththoueny ? anoaiiaeththoueny ia iniia?
caaaeueii? i?n?? i?aai?caoe?? ? iaaieo oe?iiinoae ? oe?eae, ia ye?
i???ioo?oueny aeua ea??aieoeoai. Uia aianoe ?noeiiee aianie a oni?o
i?aai?caoe??, oe?e? iiaeii? aieiae?oe ?yaeii oa?aeoa?enoee.

1. Ii-ia?oa, oe?e? iiaeii? aooe eiie?aoieie ? aei??ieie. Ae?aaeath/e
nai? oe?e? a eiie?aoieo aei??ieo oi?iao, ea??aieoeoai noai?th? /?oeo
aaco a?aee?eo aeey iiaeaeueoeo ??oaiue ? ioe?iee oiaeo ?iaioe.

2. Eiie?aoiee ai?eciio i?iaiicoaaiiy yaey? niaith ?ioo oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aoaeoeaieo oe?eae. Oe?e? cae/aeii anoaiiaeththoueny ia o?eaae? aai
ei?ioe? oei/ania? i?ii?aeee. Aeiaaino?ieiaa iaoa ia? ai?eciio ieaioaaiiy
i?eaeecii ??aiee i’yoe ?ieai. Ei?ioeino?ieiaa iaoa a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a i?aaenoaaey? iaeei c ieai?a i?aai?caoe??, yeee iio??aii
caaa?oeoe a iaaeao aeie?. Na?aaeiueino?ieia? oe?e? iathoue ai?eciio
ieaioaaiiy a?ae iaeiiai aei i’yoe ?ie?a.

3. Iaoa iiaeiia aooe aeinyaeiith, – uia neoaeeoe i?aeaeuaiith
aoaeoeaiino? i?aai?caoe??.

4. Uia aooe aoaeoeaieie, iiiaeeii? oe?e? i?aai?caoe?? iiaeii? aooe
aca?iii i?aeo?eioth/eie – ae?? ? ??oaiiy, iaiao?aei? aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iaei??? iaoe, ia iiaeii? caaaaeaoe aeinyaiaiith ?ioeo oe?eae.

Oe?e? aoaeooue cia/ouith /anoeiith i?ioeano no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy
o?eueee a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aeua ea??aieoeoai i?aaeeueia ?o
noi?ioeth?, iio?i aoaeoeaii ?o ?inoeoooe?iiae?c??o?, ?ioi?io? i?i ieo
? noeioeth? ?o cae?eniaiiy o an?e i?aai?caoe??. I?ioean no?aoaa?/iiai
oi?aae?iiy aoaea oni?oiei a o?e i???, a ye?e aeua ea??aieoeoai aa?a
aeieth a oi?ioethaaii? oe?eae ? a ye?e i??? oe? oe?e? a?aeia?aaeathoue
oe?iiino? ea??aieoeoaa ? ?aae?? o??ie.

?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio.

No?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy i?eaeaaaa? cia/aiiy oiae?, eiee aiii
?aae?ciao?oueny.

I?ney aeai?o iniiaiiieiaeii? caaaeueii? no?aoaa?? ?? iaiao?aeii
?aae?coaaoe, ia’?aeiaaoe c ?ioeie i?aai?caoe?eieie ooieoe?yie.

Aaaee?a?i iaoai?ciii oa’ycee no?aoaa?? ? ?ic?iaea ieai?a ? i???ioe??a:
oaeoeea, iie?oeee, i?ioeaaeo? ? i?aaee.

Oaeoeea yaey? niaith eiie?aoi? ei?ioeino?ieia? no?aoaa??. Iie?o?ea
i?aaenoaaey? caaaeuei? i???ioe?e aeey ae?e ? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue.
I?ioeaaeo?e iaeacothoue ae??, ye? iiaeii? aooe c?iaeai? a eiie?aoi?e
neooaoe??. I?aaeea oi/ii aeacothoue, ui iio??aii ?iaeoe a eiie?aoi?e
neooaoe??.

Ioe?iea no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio.

?ic?iaea ? iiaeaeueoa ?aae?caoe?y no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio caea?oueny
i?iaa/eii i?ioeanii. Ia oeiaea, aeoaea aaaaoi ye? i?aai?caoe??
canoiniaothoue iaoiae “ai?iaaaeeoe iaaaeii” ii a?aeiioaiith aei
ieaioaaiiy ? eaoano?io?/ii i?iaaeththoueny. Aacia?a?aia ioe?iea
no?aoaa?/iiai ieaio ia? iaaecae/aeia cia/aiiy aeey aeiaaino?ieiaiai
oni?oo ieaio.

Ioe?iea no?aoaa?? i?iaanoeny oeyoii ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe c
oe?eyie. I?ioean ioe?iee aeei?enoiao?oueny ye iaoai?ci cai?ioiiai
ca’yceo aeey ei?aeooaaiiy no?aoaa??. Uia aooe aoaeoeaiith, ioe?iea
iiaeiia i?iaanoeny nenoaiii ? aacia?a?aii. Iaeaaeiei ia?acii ?ic?iaeaiee
i?ioean iiaeiai ioiiethaaoe an? ??ai? – caa?oo aiec. I?e ioe?ioe?
i?ioeano no?aoaa?/iiai ieaioaaiiy iio??aii a?aeiia?noe ia i’youe
ieoaiue:

1 *e.? no?aoaa?y aioo??oiuei noi?nii? c iiaeeeainoyie i?aai?caoe???

2 *e.I?aaeiieiaa?o no?aoaa?y aeiionoeio i??o ?eceeo?

3 *e.Aieiae?? i?aai?caoe?y aeinoaoi?ie ?ano?naie aeey ?aae?caoe??
no?aoaa???

4 *e.A?aoiao? no?aoaa?y ciai?oi? iaaaciaee ? iiaeeeaino??

5 *e.? oey no?aoaa?y e?auei niiniaii canoinoaaiiy ?ano?n?a o??ie?

2.7.2. I?aai?caoe?y.

I?aai?coaao? – icia/aoe noai?eoe aeayeo no?oeoo?o. I?aai?caoe?y – oea
i?ioean noai?aiiy no?oeoo?e i?aei?e?inoaa, yea aea? iiaeeea?noue
ethaeyi aoaeoeaii i?aoethaaoe ?acii aeey aeinyaiaiiy eiai oe?eae.

I?aai?caoe?y aca?iiae?? ? iiaiiaaaeaiiy.

Uia ieaie aoee ?aae?ciaai? ea??aieoeoai iiaeiii ciaeoe aoaeoeaiee niin?a
ii?aeiaiiy ieai?a, c iioeiaeueiei ?acoeueoaoii.

I?aai?caoe?y ye i?ioean yaey? niaith ooieoe?th ii eii?aeeiaoe??
aaaaoueio caaea/: ?nio? aeaa iniiaieo aniaeoe i?aai?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano:

1. ?iciiae?e i?aai?caoe?? ia i?ae?icae?ee a?aeiia?aeii oe?eyi ?
no?aoaa?yi.

2. Aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue.

Aeaeaaoaaiiy, ye oa?i?i, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a oai??? oi?aae?iiy,
icia/a? ia?aaea/o caaea/ ? iiaiiaaaeaiue inia?, yea i?eeia? ia nia?
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?o aeeiiaiiy.

Uia c?icoi?oe, ye aoaeoeaii cae?enithaaoe aeaeaaoaaiiy, a oeth
i?iaeaio i? ?icaeyiaii i?ci?oa, – iaiao?aeii c?icoi?oe iia’ycai? c oeei
eiioeaioe?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? i?aai?caoe?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiue.

A?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue yaey? niaith ciaia’ycaiiy aeeiioaaoe caaea/?, ui ?
? a?aeiia?aeaoe ca ?o caaeia?eueiee aeica?e.

Aaaeeeai ona?aeiieoe, ui aeaeaaoaaiiy ?aae?ciao?oueny o?eueee o ?ac?
i?eeiyooy iiaiiaaaeaiue, ? aeania a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia iiaea aooe
aeaeaaiaaia. Ea??aiee ia iiaea ?icieaaoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
ia?aaeath/e ?? i?aeeaaeiio. Oi/ ia?niia, ia yeo anoaiiaeaia
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ??oaiiy yei?-iaaoaeue caaea/?, ia iaia’yceiai
aeeiioaaoe ?? iniaenoi, aiii caeeoa?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca
caaeia?eueia caaa?oaiiy ?iaioe.

sseui ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui yeanue iaee//y i?eeia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue
ca caaeia?eueia aeeiiaiiy caaea/? – i?aai?caoe?y iiaeiia iaaeaoe eiio
iaiao?aei? ?ano?ne. Ea??ai?oeoai cae?enith? oea oeyoii aeaeaaoaaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue ?acii ?c caaea/aie.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy yaeythoue niaith iaiaaeaia i?aai aeei?enoaoe ?ano?ne
i?aai?caoe?? ? iai?aaeyoe coneeey aeayeeo ?? ni?a?ia?oiee?a ia aeeiiaiiy
iaaieo caaea/.

Iiaiiaaaeaiiy iaiaaeai? ieaiaie, i?ioeaaeo?aie, i?aaeeaie ? onieie
?icii?yaeaeaiiyie ia/aeueiee?a, a oaeiae /eiieeaie ciai?oiuei? Na?aae?,
iai?eeeaae, caeiiaie ? eoeueoo?ieie oe?iiinoyie. Iaae? Oi?iaeuei?o
iiaiiaaaeaiue /anoi ii?ooothoueny caaaeyee aeaae? ? iaoi?iaeueiei
i?aai?caoe?yi.

O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaae? iiaiiaaaeaiue ci?iththoue oa?aeoa?
iiaiiaaaeaiue cia/iith oae?e i??ith, ui iaiao?aeii ?icaeyiooe
a?aeiineie i?ae ??aiyie iiaiiaaaeaiue, ye? aeyaeythoueny o aeaeyae?
aeaio caaaeueieo oei?a. Nii??aeo icia/athoueny ye e?i?ei? ? aia?aoi?
(ooaai?) iiaiiaaaeaiiy, i?e/iio iaeaeaa oeie iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoeny a
??cieo oi?iao.

E?i?ei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy – oea iiaiiaaaeaiiy, ye? ia?aaeathoueny
aaciina?aaeiuei a?ae ia/aeueieea aei i?aeeaaeiai ? aeae? aei ?ioei
i?aeeaaeei.

Aeaeaaoaaiiy e?i?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiue noai?th? ???a?o?th ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy
i?aai?caoe??. I?ioean noai?aiiy ???a?o?? iaceaa?oueny neaey?iei
i?ioeanii. Inuee?eueee iiaiiaaaeaiiy ?icii?yaeaeathoueny ethaeueie
cae/aeii ia?aaeathoueny ca aeiiiiiaith neaey?iiai i?ioeano,
?acoeueooth/a ???a?o?y iaceaa?oueny neaey?iei eaioethaii aai eaioethaii
eiiaiae. Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoii aeaeaaoaaiiy e?i?eieo iiaiiaaaeaiue ?
eaioetha eiiaiae.

Ia?o i?ae aecia/eoe ooaai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, noenei ?icaeyiaii
iioiaeaeaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo.

Aaei?i?no?ao?ai?e aia?ao aeeiio? oae aaaaoi ooieoe?e a no/anieo
i?aai?caoe?yo, ui ana ?o iaiiaeeeai ia?a?aooaaoe. Iaeiae iiaeia
eeaneo?eoaaoe ooaaiee aia?ao ii aeaio aai o?ueio iniiaieo oeiao,
a?aoiaoth/e ooieoe??, ye? a?i aeeiio?. Aei o?ueio oei?a aia?aoo
a?aeiinyoueny eiinoeueoaoeaiee, ianeoaiaoth/ee ? iniaenoee aia?ao,
yeee ?iiae? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aa??aio ianeoaiaoth/iai aia?aoo. Iaeiae
iio??aii iai’yoaoe, ui ia i?aeoeoe? ??aeei iiaeia i?iaanoe ??ceee
ei?aeii i?ae oeeie oeiaie.

Eeaneo?eaoe?? eiinoeueoaoeaiiai, ianeoaiaoth/iai ? iniaenoiai aia?ao?a
iienothoue ooaaiee aia?ao a?aeiia?aeii aei iai?yi?a eiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Aia?aoi? (ooaai?) iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeiiiiaaathoue i?aai?caoe?yi aeei?enoaoe
oao?aoe?a aac ii?ooaiiy i?eioeeio ?aeeiiia/aeueiino?. Ooaai?
iiaiiaaaeaiiy aeeth/athoue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?ei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy, iaia’yceia?
ocaiaeaeaiiy, ia?aeaeuei? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iiaiiaaaeaiiy. E?i?ei?
ea??aieee /anoi aieiae?thoue aia?aoieie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie a aeayeeo
iaeanoyo, a ?icae?e ooaaiiai aia?aoo aieiae?? e?i?eieie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie
a?aeiinii naiiai aia?aoo.

*enei i?aoe?aiee?a, ui i?aeei?ythoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ea??aieeo,
neeaaea? eiai ii?io ea?iaaiino?. sseui ii?ia ea?iaaiino? ia aoaea
a?aeiia?aeiei ia?acii iaiaaeaia, aeieeiooue ieooaieia ? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy
ea??aieea. Iioaioe?eia iiaeeea?noue ieooaieie a iiaiiaaaeaiiyo iiaea
aooe ciaioaia ca aeiiiiiaith i?eioeeio ?aeeiiia/aeueiino? – i?aoe?aiee
iiaeiai io?eioaaoe aaciina?aaei? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy o?eueee a?ae iaeiiai
ia/aeueieea ? a?aeiia?aeaoe o?eueee ia?aae iei.

Aeaeaaoaaiiy ??aeei aoaa? aoaeoeaiei, yeui ea??aieoeoai ia
aeio?eio?oueny i?eioeeio a?aeiia?aeiino?, ca?aeii c yeei ia’?i
iiaiiaaaeaiue iiaeiai a?aeiia?aeaoe aeaeaaiaai?e a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Iiaoaeiaa i?aai?caoe?e.

1. Iio??aii aeae?aoe oaeo i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o, yea a?aeiia?aea?
no?aoaa?/iei ieaiai ? caaacia/o? ?e aoaeoeaio aca?iiae?th c iaaeieeoi?i
na?aaeiaeuai ? aeinyaiaiiy iai?/aieo oe?eae.

2. No?oeoo?a i?aai?caoe?? ia iiaea caeeoaoeny iaci?iiith, oie ui
i?iy?oueny ye ciai?oi?, oae ? aioo??oi? ?? ioi/aiiy.

3. A?eueo?noue i?aai?caoe?e nueiaiaei? aeei?enoiaothoue ath?ie?aoe/i?
no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy. O?aae?oe?eiith no?oeoo?ith ath?ie?ao?? ?
ooieoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y, i?e ye?e inoaiiy ?icaeaa?oueny ia
i?ae?icae?ee, ui aeeiiothoue niaoe?ae?ciaai? ooieoe??.

4. Inuee?eueee /enoa ooieoe?iiaeuei? no?oeoo?e aeyaeeeny ia aeoaea
aoaeoeaieie, aaeee? i?aai?caoe?? ia?aeoee aei aeei?enoaiiy
aeea?c?iiaeueieo no?oeoo?. Iniiaieie oeiaie oaei? no?oeoo?e ?
aeea?c?iiaeuei? no?oeoo?e, i???ioiaai? aai ia ??ci? aa/ i?iaeoeoe??,
aai ia ??ci? a?oie niiaeeaa/?a, aai ia ??ci? ?aa?iie. A?a?? ia ei?enoue
o??? aai ?ioi? no?oeoo?e aecia/a?oueny aaaeeea?noth oeueiai aeaiaioa a
no?aoaa?/ieo ieaiao i?aai?caoe??.

5. No?oeoo?e, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue i?aeia?iaei? a?aeae?eaiiy, /ano?oa ca
ana aeei?enoiaothoueny a neooaoe?yo, eiee ia’?i ca?oa?aeiiai i?iaeaae
o??ie a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee a ii??aiyii? c i?iaeaaeai ana?aaeei? e?a?ie.
Eiee ia’?i ca?oa?aeiiai i?iaeaae ?noioii c?inoa?, iaea?eueo
a?aeiia?aeiith noa? aeiaaeueia i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a.

6. Ia?aaaae ath?ie?aoe/ieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy ia?aaoaathoue a /?oeiio
?iciiae?e? i?aoe?, i?ioan?eiiio c?inoaii?, ui aaco?oueny ia
eiiiaoaioiino?, ? o aii?yaeeiaai?e nenoai? i?aaee ? noaiaea?o?a, ui
aecia/athoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe??. Iioaioe?ei? iaaaoeai? aieeae,
ui iaaeathoueny ath?ie?aoe/ieie no?oeoo?aie ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe??, ia?aaoaathoue a aei?noe?e caaeaiino? iiaaae?iee,
o?oaeiiuao ca’yceo ana?aaeei? i?aai?caoe?? ? iacaeaoiino? aei oaeaeeeo
iiaiaaaaeaiue. Ianooaae oeeo i?iaeai oaeaeei c?inoathoue, yeui
i?aai?caoe?y noeea?oueny c oaeaeeeie ci?iaie iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
aai aenieioaoiieia?/iith i?iaeoeoe??th.

7. Aeaye? i?iaeaie ath?ie?aoe/ieo no?oeoo? iiaeooue aooe ae??oai? i?e
aaaaeaii? i?aai?/ieo aai aaeaioeaieo no?oeoo?. Iniiai? oeie aaeaioeaieo
no?oeoo? – oea i?iaeoia i?aai?caoe?y, iaea?eueo iao?e/iee i?aai?caoe?y
? eiiaeiia?aoe.

8. O i?iaeoi?e ? iao?e/i?e i?aai?caoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeeaaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueii noai?aieo, oei/aniaeo oe?eueiaeo no?oeoo? ia iino?eio
no?oeoo?o i?aai?caoe??. Aeieeath/a i?e oeueiio iaeeaaeaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue
?ioee ?ac?a i?eaiaeeoe aei ai?ioueae ca aeaaeo, eiioi?i?cio i?e
ae?iaeaii? a?oiiaeo ??oaiue ? iaaei??ieo aeo?ao.

9. Eiiaeiia?aoe neeaaeathoueny c iniiaii? o??ie ? aei/??i?o eiiiai?e,
ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ie?ai? aeiiii?/i? oeaio?e. Iniiaia, iaea?eueo
iao?e/iee o??ia eoio? ? i?iaea? aei/??i? o??ie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c?
nai?th no?aoaa??th c?inoaiiy.

10. Aaaaoi ye? aaeee? i?aai?caoe?? aeei?enoiaothoue neeaaeio neeaaeiao
no?oeoo?o, ui neeaaea?oueny c no?oeoo? ??cieo oei?a.

11. O ?aieao aoaeue-yei? no?oeoo?e iiaeia c?iaeoe oii? ia
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th iiaiiaaaeaiue c oei, uia aeaoe ieae/anoiy/ee
ea??aieeai i?aai naiei ooaaethaaoe aaaeeea? ??oaiiy. Iioaioe?ei?
ia?aaaae oaei? noaie iieyaathoue a iie?ioaii? aca?iiae?? ? iai?io
?ioi?iaoe??th i?ae ea??aieoeoaii ??cieo ??ai?a (ii aa?oeeae?),
i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, iineeaii?
iioeaaoe?? ae?yeueiino? ea??aiee?a, iie?ioaii? i?aeaioiaee ea??aiee?a
??cieo ??ai?a. Aeaoeaio?ae?ciaai? no?oeoo?e cae/aeii aeioe?eueii
canoiniaoaaoe oiae?, eiee ioi/aiiy i?aai?caoe?? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeeiai?/ieie ?eieaie, eiieo?aioe??th i?e iayaiino? aeeaa?n?o?eiaaii?
i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae oaoiieia??th, ui oaeaeei i?iy?oueny.
Aeioe?euei?noue aaaaeaiiy oaeeo no?oeoo? oaeiae c?inoaii? ii i???
ca?eueoaiiy ?ici???a i?aai?caoe?? ? ?? neeaaeiino?.

12. sseui ci?ie a iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? a?aeaoaathoueny ii??aiyii
iia?eueii, a i?aai?caoe?y a?aeiinii iaaaeeea, oi aeey ia? iiaea
aeyaeoeny ia?aaaaeiith oeaio?ae?ciaaia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy. Ia?aaaae
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? no?oeoo?e ia?aaoaathoue a aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaiiio
aeei?enoaii? ia?niiaeo, aeniei? i??e eii?aeeiaoe?? ? eiio?ieth ca
niaoe?ae?ciaaieie aeaeaie ae?yeueiino? ? a ciaioaii? ?iia??iino? oiai,
ui i?ae?icae?ee ii/iooue ?inoe a caeoie i?aai?caoe?? caaaeii.

13. Aeey oiai, uia aeei?enoaoe ia?aaaae niaoe?ae?caoe?? iio??aia
aoaeoeaia ?ioaa?aoe?y i?aai?caoe??. Aeey ?ioaa?aoe?? i?aai?caoe?e,
ae?th/eo a no?eeiio iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu? ? ui aeei?enoiaothoue
oaoiieia?? ianiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aeoiaeyoue iaoiaee, iia’ycai? c
?ic?iaeith ? anoaiiaeaiiyi i?aaea ? i?ioeaaeo?, ???a?o?/ieie no?oeoo?aie
oi?aae?iiy. I?aai?caoe??, ae?th/? a a?eueo i?ieeaiio iaaeieeoiueiio
na?aaeiaeu? ? aeei?enoiaoth/? ??ciiiai?oi? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane ?
oaoiieia?? aeioneo ie?aieo ae?ia?a, /anoi aaaaeathoue a?eueo
i?aaeeueiei i?iaanoe ?ioaa?aoe?th oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
aca?iica’yce?a, i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe ??cieo eii?oao?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy
ia?aae.

2.7.3. Iioeaaoe?y.

I?e ieaioaaii? ? i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe ea??aiee aecia/a?, ui eiie?aoii
iiaeiia aeeiiaoe aeaia i?aai?caoe?y, eiee, ye ? ooi, ia eiai aeoieo,
iiaeiai oea c?iaeoe. sseui aea?? oeeo ??oaiue c?iaeaiee aoaeoeaii,
ea??aiee io?eio? iiaeeea?noue ao?eeoe nai? ??oaiiy a ni?aae,
canoiniaoth/e ia i?aeoeoe? iniiai? i?eioeeie iioeaaoe??.

Iio?aaoe?y – oea i?ioean niiioeaiiy nia? ? ?ioeo aei ae?yeueiino? aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iniaenoeo oe?eae aai oe?eae i?aai?caoe??.

Nenoaiaoe/ia aea/aiiy iioeaaoe?? c ineoieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ia aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe oi/ia, ui ae niiioea? ethaeeio aei o?oaea. Iaeiae
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee ethaeeie a o?oae? aea? aeaye? caaaeuei?
iiyniaiiy iioeaaoe?? ? aeicaiey? noai?eoe i?aaiaoe/i? iiaeae? iioeaaoe??
ni?a?ia?oieea ia ?iai/iio i?noe?.

??ci? oai??? iioeaaoe?? ?icae?eythoue ia aea? eaoaai???: ci?noiai? ?
i?ioeanoaeuei?.

Iaeiae, uia c?icoi?oe cia/aiiy oai??? ci?noiaii? ? i?ioeanoaeueii?
iioeaaoe??, o?aaa nii/aoeo canai?oe cia/aiiy iniiaiiieiaeieo c?icoi?oe:
niiaeeae ? aeiaai?iaea.

Niiaeeae – oea ona?aeiieaia a?aenooi?noue /iai-iaaoaeue, ui ni?e/eiy?
niiioeaiiy aei ae??. Ia?a?ii? niiaeeae caeeaaeai? aaiaoe/ii, a iiaoi?i?
ae?iaeythoueny a oiae? i?ciaiiy ? io?eiaiiy aeeoo?aiai aeina?aeo.

Niiaeeae iaiiaeeeai aaciina?aaeiuei niinoa??aaoe aai aei??thaaoe. I?i ?o
?nioaaiiy iiaeia noaeeoe eeoa ii iiaaae?ioe? ethaeae. Niiaeeae neoaeaoue
iioeaii aei ae??.

Niiaeeae iiaeia caaeiaieueieoe aeiaai?iaeaie. Aeiaai?iaea – oea o?, ui
ethaeeia aaaaea? aeey nia? oe?iiei. Iaiaaeaea?e aeei?enoiaothoue
ciai?oi? aeiaai?iaee (a?ioia? aeieaoe, i?inoaaiiy ii neoaea?) ?
aioo??oi? aeiaai?iaee (ii/oooy oni?oo i?e aeinyaiaii? iaoe), ui
io?eiothoueny ca aeiiiiiaith naii? ?iaioe.

Ci?noiai? oai??? iioeaaoe??.

Ci?noiai? oai??? iioeaaoe?? ianaiia?aae noa?athoueny aecia/eoe niiaeeae,
niiioeath/? ethaeae aei ae??, iniaeeai i?e aecia/aii? ia’?io ? ci?noo
?iaioe. I?e caeeaaeaii? iniia no/anieo eiioeaioe?e iioeaaoe?? iaea?eueoa
cia/aiiy iaee ?iaioe o?ueio /ieia?e: Aa?aoaia Ianeio, O?aaea??ea
Aa?oeaa?aa ? Aeaa?aea IaeEeaeeaiaea.

Ca?aeii c oai???th Ianeio i’youe iniiaieo oei?a iio?aa (o?c?ieia?/i?,
aaciaoe?, nioe?aeuei?, oni?oo, naiiae?aaeaiiy) ooai?youe ???a?o?/io
no?oeoo?o, yea ye aeii?iaio aecia/a? iiaaae?ieo ethaeeie. Niiaeeae aeueo
??ai?a ia iioeaothoue ethaeeie, iiee ia caaeiaieai?, i?eiaeii?,
/anoeiai iio?aa? ieaeiueiai ??aiy. Iaeiae oey ???a?o?/ia no?oeoo?a ia ?
aaniethoii aei?noeith ? noai?ith.

Iaiaaeaea?e, ae?th/? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?, oaeiae ye ? ?o eieaae,
ae?th/? ana?aaeei? yei?-iaaoaeue e?a?ie, iiaeii? caaacia/oaaoe
iiaeeeaino? aeey caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ni?a?ia?oiee?a. Inuee?eueee a
??cieo e?a?iao a?aeiinia aaaeeea?noue iio?aa aecia/a?oueny ii-??ciiio,
ea??aieee i?aai?caoe?e, ae?th/eo ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??ai?, iiaeii?
ciaiiy oe? a?aei?iiino? ? i?eeiaoe ?o a ?ic?aooiie.

Oi/, caeaaaeiny a, oai??y ethaenueeeo iio?aa Ianeio aeaea ea??aieeai
aaeueie ei?eniee iien i?ioeano iioeaaoe??, iiaeaeueo? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee ?? aeaeaea ia iiai?noth.

Aaaaeath/e, ui eeaneo?eaoe?y iio?aa, cai?iiiiiaaia Ianeio, ia iiaia,
IaeEeaeeaiae aeiiiaiea ??, aa?aoe iiiyooy iio?aa aeaaee, oni?oo ?
i?eiaeaaeiino?.

Iio?aaa aeaaee ae?aaea?oueny ye aaaeaiiy aieeaaoe ia ?ioeo ethaeae. O
?aieao ???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?e Ianeio iio?aaa aeaaee iiiaaea? eoaeenue
i?ae iio?aaaie a iiaac? ? naiiae?aaeaiiy. Oi?aae?iiy aeoaea /anoi
caeo/a? ethaeae c iio?aaith aeaaee, ine?eueee aiii aea? aaaaoi
iiaeeeainoae aeyaeoe ? ?aae?coaaoe ??.

Iio?aaa oni?oo oaeiae ciaoiaeeoueny aeanue iina?aaeei? i?ae iio?aaith a
iiaac? ? iio?aaith a naiiae?aaeaiiy. Oey iio?aaa caaeiaieueiy?oueny ia
i?iaieioaiiyi oni?oo oe??? ethaeeie, ui eeoa i?aeoaa?aeaeo? eiai
noaoon, a i?ioeanii aeiaaaeaiiy ?iaioe aei oni?oiiai caaa?oaiiy.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 50-o ?ie?a O?aaea??e Aa?oeaa?a c ni?a?ia?oieeaie
?ic?iaea ua iaeio iiaeaeue iioeaaoe??, caniiaaio ia iio?aaao.

Aa?oeaa?a i?eeoia aei aeniiaeo, ui /eiieee, ae?th/? a i?ioean? ?iaioe,
aieeaathoue ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa. A?a??i?/i? /eiieee (?ici?? nieaoe,
oiiae o?oaea, ? oa?aeoa? eiio?ieth c aieo aaciina?aaeiueiai
ia/aeueieea), onueiai eeoa ia aeathoue ?icaeiooeny ii/oooth
iacaaeiaieaiiy ?iaioith. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iioeaaoe?? iaiao?aeii
caaacia/eoe aieea iioeaoth/eo /eiiee?a – oaeeo, ye a?ae/oooy oni?oo,
i?inoaaiiy ii neoaea?, aeciaiiy c aieo iaaeieeoi?o,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, c?inoaiiy iiaeeeainoae.

I?ioeanoaeuei? oai??? iioeaaoe??.

Ci?noiai? oai??? iioeaaoe?? aacothoueny ia iio?aaao ? iia’ycaieo c ieie
/eiieeao, ui aecia/athoue iiaaae?ieo ethaeae. I?ioeanoaeuei? oai???
?icaeyaeathoue iioeaaoe?th a ?ioiio ieai?. O ieo aiae?co?oueny o?, ye
ethaeeia ?iciiae?ey? coneeey aeey aeinyaiaiiy ??cieo oe?eae ? ye aeae?a?
eiie?aoiee aeaeyae iiaaae?iee. I?ioeanoaeuei? oai??? ia inii?ththoue
?nioaaiiy iio?aa, aea aaaaeathoue, ui iiaaae?iea ethaeae aecia/a?oueny
ia o?eueee ieie. Ca?aeii c i?ioeanoaeueieie oai??yie iiaaae?iea
iniaenoino? ? oaeiae ooieoe??th eiai ni?eeiyooy ? i/?eoaaiue,
iia’ycaiiai c aeaiith neooaoe??th, ? iiaeeeaeo iane?aee?a aea?aiiai iei
oeio iiaaae?iee.

? o?e iniiai? i?ioeanoaeuei? oai??? iioeaaoe??: oai??y i/?eoaaiue,
oai??y ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a.

Oai??y i/?eoaaiue caniiao?oueny ia i?eiouaii?, ui ethaeeia iai?aaey?
nai? coneeey ia aeinyaiaiiy yei?-iaaoaeue iaoe o?eueee oiae?, eiee
aoaea oiaaiaiee o aaeee?e ?iia??iino? caaeiaieaiiy ca oeae ?aooiie nai?o
iio?aa aai aeinyaiaiiy iaoe. Iio?aaoe?y ? ooieoe??th /eiieea i/?eoaaiiy
aeo?aoe o?oaea – ?acoeueoaoe”, i/?eoaaiiy – “?acoeueoaoe –
aeiaai?iaea” ? aaeaioiino? (oiaoi a?aeiinii? i??e caaeiaieaiiy).
Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia iioeaaoe?y aeinyaa?oueny, eiee ethaee a??youe, ui
?o coneeey iaia’yceiai aeicaieyoe ?i aeinyaiooe iaoe ? i?eaaaeooue aei
io?eiaiiy iniaeeai oe?iii? aeiaai?iaee. Iio?aaoe?y neaaoa?, yeui
?iia??i?noue oni?oo aai oe?ii?noue aeiaai?iaee ioe?ith?oueny ethaeueie
iaaeniei.

O ?aieao oai??? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ia?aaeaa/a?oueny, ui ethaee
i?aeaeathoue noa’?eoeai?e ioe?ioe? a?aeiioaiiy aeiaai?iaee aei
cao?a/aieo coneeue ? ii??aiththoue eiai c oei, ui, ye nii??aeo
aaaaeathoue, io?eiaee ?io? i?aoe?aieee ca aiaeia?/io ?iaioo.
Iani?aaaaeeeaa, ca ?o ioe?ieaie, aeiaai?iaea i?eaiaeeoe aei aeieeiaiiy
ineoieia?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy. Caaaeii, yeui ethaeeia aaaaea? na?e o?oae
iaaeiioe?iaiith, a?i aoaea ciaiooaaoe coneeey, ui cao?a/othoueny.
sseui ae a?i aaaaea? na?e o?oae ia?aioe?iaiei, oi a?i, iaaiaee,
caeeoeoue ia’?i coneeue, ui cao?a/othoueny ia eieeoiueiio ??ai? aai
iaa?oue ca?eueoeoue eiai.

Iiaeaeue Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a caniiao?oueny ia oiio, ui iioeaaoe?y ?
ooieoe??th iio?aa, i/?eoaaiue ? ni?eeiyooy i?aoe?aieeaie ni?aaaaeeeai?
aeiaai?iaee. ?acoeueoao?ai?noue o?oaea i?aoe?aieea caeaaeeoue a?ae
i?eeeaaeaieo iei coneeue, eiai oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ? iiaeeeainoae,
a oaeiae ioe?iee iei nai?? ?ie?. Ia’?i coneeue, ui cao?a/othoueny
caeaaeeoue a?ae ioe?iee i?aoe?aieeii oe?iiino? aeiaai?iaee ? oiaaiaiino?
a oiio, ui aiii aoaea io?eiaia. Ca?aeii c iiaeaeeth Ii?oa?a-Eioea?a
?acoeueoaoeai?noue o?oaea i?iaeiaaeo? caaeiaieaiiy, a cian?i ia
iaaiaee, ye aaaaeathoue i?eoeeueieee oai??? ethaenueeeo a?aeiinei.

2.7.4. Eiio?ieue.

Eiio?ieue – oea i?ioean, ui caaacia/o? aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae i?aai?caoe??.
A?i iaiao?aeiee aeey aeyaeaiiy ? ae??oaiiy aeieeath/eo i?iaeai ?ai?oa,
i?ae nii??aeo noaiooue aeoaea na?eicieie, ? iiaea oaeiae
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey noeioethaaiiy oni?oii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?ioean eiio?ieth neeaaea?oueny c onoaiiaee noaiaea?o?a, ci?ie oaeoe/ia
aeinyaiooeo ?acoeueoao?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy ei?aeooaaiue a oiio aeiaaeeo,
yeui aeinyaioo? ?acoeueoaoe ?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae anoaiiaeaieo
noaiaea?o?a.

Eiio?ieue – oea e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaa ? aeieaaeia ooieoe?y oi?aae?iiy. Iaeia
c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae eiio?ieth, yeo iio??aii a?aoiaoaaoe
ianaiia?aae, iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiio?ieue iiaeiai aooe anainyaeiei.
Eiaeiee ea??aiee, iacaeaaeii a?ae naiai ?aiao, iiaeiai cae?enithaaoe
eiio?ieue ye iaa?ae’?iio /anoeio nai?o iinaaeiaeo iaia’yce?a, iaa?oue
yeui i?ooi eiio niaoe?aeueii oeueiai ia aei?o/aa.

Eiio?ieue ? iaea?eueo ooiaeaiaioaeueiee aeaiaio i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy. I?
ieaioaaiiy, i? noai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, i? iioeaaoe?th ia
iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe iiai?noth o a?ae?ea? a?ae eiio?ieth. Ae?enii,
oaeoe/ii an? nii??aeo ? iaa?ae’?iieie /anoeiaie caaaeueii? nenoaie
eiio?ieth a aeai?e i?aai?caoe??. Oey ianoaaeia noai? a?eueo c?icoi?eith
i?ney oiai, ye i? iiciaeiieiiny c o?ueiia iniiaieie aeaeaie eiio?ieth:
iiia?aaei?i, iioi/iei ? caeeth/iei. Ca oi?iith cae?eniaiiy an? oe? aa/
eiio?ieth noiae?, ine?eueee iathoue iaeio ? oo ae iaoo: ni?eyoe oiio,
uia ?acoeueoaoe, ui oaeoe/ii io?eiothoueny aoee ye iiaeia aeeae/a aei
iaiao?aeieo. ?ic??ciththoueny nii??aeo o?eueee aiaeeiith cae?eniaiiy.

Iiia?aaei?e eiio?ieue cae/aeii ?aae?ciao?oueny a oi?i? iaaii? iie?oeee,
i?ioeaaeo? ? i?aaee. Ia?aaeon?i a?i canoiniao?oueny ii a?aeiioaiith aei
o?oaeiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo ? o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Iioi/iee eiio?ieue
cae?enith?oueny, eiee ?iaioa aaea eaea ? cae/aeii aeaioiaey?oueny o
aeaeyae? eiio?ieth ?iaioe i?aeeaaeiai eiai aaciina?aaei?i ia/aeueieeii.
Caeeth/iee eiio?ieue cae?enith?oueny i?ney oiai, ye ?iaioa cae?i/aia aai
cae?i/eeiny a?aeaaaeaiee aeey ia? aiaeeia.

Iioi/iee ? caeeth/iee eiio?ieue caniiao?oueny ia cai?ioieo ca’yceao.
Ea?oth/? nenoaie a i?aai?caoe?yo iathoue ?ic?ieiaiee cai?ioiee ca’ycie,
ine?eueee ea??aiee i?aoe?aiee, ui ? ii a?aeiioaiith aei nenoaie
ciai?oi?i aeaiaioii, iiaea ao?o/aoeny a ?? ?iaioo, ci?ithth/e ? oe?e?
nenoaie, ? oa?aeoa? ?? ?iaioe.

I?ioean eiio?ieth.

O i?ioean? eiio?ieth ? o?e /?oei iii?oieo aoaio: ae?iaeaiiy noaiaea?o?a
? e?eoa???a, c?noaaeaiiy c ieie ?aaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ? i?eeiyooy
iaiao?aeieo ei?aeooth/eo ae?e. Ia oe??yiiio aoai? ?aae?ciao?oueny
eiiieaen ??cieo caoiae?a.

Ia?oee aoai i?ioeano eiio?ieth – oea onoaiiaea noaiaea?o?a, oiaoi
eiie?aoieo, oe?eae, ui i?aeaeathoueny aei??thaaiith, ui iathoue
oei/ania? ei?aeiie. Aeey oi?aae?iiy iaiao?aei? noaiaea?oe a oi?i?
iieaciee?a ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy aeey an?o eiai eeth/iaeo
iaeanoae, ye? aecia/athoueny i?e ieaioaaii?.

Ia ?ioiio aoai? ii??aiyiiy iieaciee?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?c caaeaieie
noaiaea?oaie aecia/a?oueny ianooaa aeiionoeieo a?aeoeeaiue. A?aeiia?aeii
aei i?eioeeio aeeeth/aiiy, o?eueee ?noioi? a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae caaeaieo
noaiaea?o?a iiaeii? ni?e/eiyoe ni?aoethaaiiy nenoaie eiio?ieth, ?iaeoa
aiia noai? iaaeiiii?/iith ? iano?eeith.

Ianooiiee aoai – aei??thaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a – ? cae/aeii naiei aaaeeei ?
ethaei. Ii??aithth/e aei??yi? ?acoeueoaoe ?c caaeaieie noaiaea?oaie,
iaiaaeaea? io?eio? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe, ye? ae?? iaiao?aeii ?iaeoe.

Oaeeie ae?yie iiaeooue aooe ci?ie aeayeeo aioo??oi?o ci?iieo nenoaie,
ci?ia noaiaea?o?a aai iaao?o/aiiy a ?iaioo nenoaie.

Iiaaae?i/anuee? aniaeoe eiio?ieth.

Ethaee ? iaa?ae’?iiei aeaiaioii eiio?ieth, ye, i?ioa, ? an?o ?ioeo
noaae?e oi?aae?iiy. Oiio i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?ioeaaeo?e eiio?ieth iaiaaeaea?
iiaeiai a?aoe aei oaaae iiaaae?ieo ethaeae.

Cae/aeii, oi ianoaaeia, ui eiio?ieue iaaea? neeueiee ? aaciina?aaei?e
aieea ia iiaaae?ieo, ia iiaeiia ni?e/eiyoe i?yeiai caeeaoaaiiy.
Iaiaaeaea?e /anoi iaaienii ?iaeyoue i?ioean eiio?ieth aeaeeiei, uia
iaaeaoe aieea ia iiaaae?ieo ni?a?ia?oiee?a ? i?eioneoe ?o iai?aaeoe nai?
coneeey ia aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae i?aai?caoe??.

Ia oeiaea, oi/ a?eueo?noue iaiaaeaea??a aeia?? ciathoue i?i o?, ui
i?ioean eiio?ieth iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey iaaeaiiy iiceoeaiiai
aieeao ia iiaaae?ieo ni?a?ia?oiee?a, aeaye? caaoaathoue i?i iiaeeeaino?
eiio?ieth aeeeeeaoe iaiaaieni? c?eae a iiaaae?ioe? ethaeae. Oe?
iaaaoeai? yaeua /anoi ? iia?/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie iaaeyaeiino? ae??
nenoaie eiio?ieth.

Eiio?ieue /anoi aieeaa? neeueiee /eiii ia iiaaae?ieo nenoaie. Iaaaeaei
ni?iaeoiaai? nenoaie eiio?ieth iiaeooue c?iaeoe iiaaae?ieo i?aoe?aiee?a
i???ioiaaieie ia ieo, oiaoi ethaee aoaeooue i?aaiooe aei caaeiaieaiiy
aeiia eiio?ieth, a ia aei aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaieo oe?eae. Oae? aieeae
iiaeooue oaeiae i?eaanoe aei aeaea/? iaa??ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

I?iaeai, aeieeath/eo aiane?aeie aieeao nenoaie eiio?ieth, iiaeia
oieeiooe, caaeath/e inieneai? i?eeiyoi? noaiaea?oe eiio?ieth,
anoaiiaethth/e aeainoi?iii?e ca’ycie, caaeath/e iai?oaeai?, aea
aeinyaei? noaiaea?oe eiio?ieth, oieeath/e caeaiai eiio?ieth, a oaeiae
aeiaai?iaeaeoth/e ca aeinyaiaiiy caaeaieo noaiaea?o?a eiio?ieth.

Oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeoeaiiai eiio?ieth.

Iiaaae?iea ethaeae, i?e?iaeii, ia ?aeeiee /eiiee, ui aecia/a?
aoaeoeai?noue eiio?ieth. Aeey oiai uia eiio?ieue i?a aeeiiaoe naith
?noeiio caaea/o, oiaoi caaacia/eoe aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae i?aai?caoe??, a?i
iiaeiai aieiae?oe aeae?eueeiia aaaeeeaeie aeanoeainoyie.

Eiio?ieue ? aoaeoeaiei, yeui a?i ia? no?aoaa?/iee oa?aeoa?, iaoe?eaiee
ia aeinyaiaiiy eiie?aoieo ?acoeueoao?a, nai?/aniee, aio/eee, i?inoee ?
aeiiii?/iee.

Eiee i?aai?caoe?? cae?eniththoue na?e a?cian ia ca?oa?aeieo ?eieao,
ooieoe?y eiio?ieth i?eaeaaaa? aeiaeaoeiao i??o neeaaeiino?.

Eiio?ieue ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ianooaa? ? iniaeeai aaaeeith ni?aaith /a?ac
aaeeea /enei ??cieo iaeanoae ae?yeueiino? ? eiioi?eaoe?ei? aa?’??e.
?acoeueoao?ai?noue eiio?ieth iiaeia iie?ioeoe, yeui ia??iaee/ii
i?iaanoe cono??/? a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ea??aiee?a a ooaa-eaa?oe??
i?aai?caoe?? ? ca ei?aeiiii. Iniaeeai aaaeeeai ia iieeaaeaoe ia
?iicaiieo ea??aieeao a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?ica’ycaiiy oeoee i?iaeai,
ye? a?ae ieo ia caeaaeaoue.

3. Iaiaaeaeiaio ii-yiiinuee? aai ye oea ?iaeyoue a «Iaoeon?oa aeaie?».

Aeey oiai uia ynii oyaeoe nia? yiiinueeee noeeue oi?aae?iiy
ia?niiaeii, iaiao?aeiee eiie?aoiee i?eeeaae, ui aeicaiey?, ui
iaceaa?oueny, a?ae/ooe oeae noeeue. Iaaooue, iaee?aua i?aeoiaeeoue aeey
aeaii? iaoe o??ia “Iaoeon?oa aeaie?”, nenoaia oi?aae?iiy a ye?e ? a
aeayeiio ?iae? aoaeiiii.

Aeaeo?ioaoi?/ia o??ia “Iaoeon?oa aeaie?” aoiaeeoe a /enei 50
iaea?eueoeo i?iieneiaeo eiiiai?e eai?oae?noe/iiai na?oo. ?? i?iaeoeoe?y
?aae?ciao?oueny nueiaiaei? i?aeoe/ii o an?o eooeao caiii? eoe?. Iaa?oue
i?inoa caaaeea ia “Iaoeon?oa aeaie?” aoaeeoe a yiiinueeeo a?cianiaiao
ii/oooy aeaaiaia?eii? caaanoe, iano?eiio oyao aei anueiai oiai, ui
cae/aeii iaceaathoue “iaoiaeaie oi?aae?iiy Iaoeon?oa “.

Ooiaeaoi?ii o??ie ? Eiiinueea Iaoeon?oa. Eiai o?oaeiaa ae?yeuei?noue
ii/aeany a iaaaeee?e aaeineiaaei?e iaenoa?i?, aea a?i i?aoethaaa o/iai
iaeno?a ia i?ca?io ieaoo. Ooi cia?, ye ae neeaeiny aeeooy oe???
ethaeeie, yeae a?i ia ii/oa i?i Oiiana Aae?niia, yeee, ye a?aeiii,
caeiaany aeiao?aeieoeoaii ? iaeii/anii i?aai?coaaa iaenoa?i? ii
aeaioiaeaiith ?ic?iaeaieo ieo i?eno?i?a. Iaoeon?oa i?iieeny
iai?ae?iaeaiith ethaia’th aei aeiao?aeieoeoaa ? ae??oea a?aee?eoe aeanio
ni?aao ca i?eeeaaeii Aae?niia. Iacaaa?ii a?i aeeeioa ia ?eiie na?e
ia?oee ae??a. Oea aoea aaeineiiaeaia aeaeo?e/ia ?icaoea, yea
oaaei/oaaeany a aeaeo?iiao?ii. Iiae?y oey noaeany a 1918 ?., a /a?ac
aeanyoue ?ie?a aeaeo?ioaoi?/ia eiiiai?y “Iaoeon?oa aeaie?” noaea
caaeaaaoe oii a iia?e aaeoc? yiiinueei? i?iieneiaino?. Nai Eiiinueea
Iaoeon?oa aeiaeeaoe aei aeeaiei? noa?ino?. Iaa?oue eiee eiio aoei
aeaeaei ca a?n?iaeanyo, a?i cae?enithaaa aaciina?aaei? ea??aieoeoai
eiiiai??th.

O nai?e i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? AeI. Iaoeon?oa aenoioa ?yae
oi?aae?inueeeo i?eioeei?a, ui caaacia/oaaee eiio aenie? i?eaooee. ?
aieiaiei na?aae ieo aoa i?eioeei oi?eiai oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii. Ethaeeia
c eiai neaainoyie ? iiaeeeainoyie aoea ai?uaia a naiee oeaio?
oi?aae?inueei? eiioeaioe??. Iaaooue, ye i?ooi ?ioee a ssiii??, Iaoeon?oa
ona?aeiiea iaiao?aei?noue aeeaieiai, anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy an???
oiieino? iiaiaeaeaiiy c ethaeeiith ye c eeth/iaei aeaiaioii aeiiii?/iiai
iaoai?cio, aea aeaiaioii e?eoeei, a?aeiinii iaiaae?eiei, ui aeiaaa?
aacaeiaaiii iaeaaiaeaeaiiai oi?aae?inueeiai eiio?ieth.

Ua a 30-o ?ieao, eiee a o??i? ia?aoiaoaaeiny i?eaeecii 1600
i?aoe?aiee?a, Iaoeon?oa i?eaa?ioa oaaao yiiinueeeo i?aei?e?ioe?a aei
ethaenueeiai /eiieea. Caaaeyee eiai ?aeayi a yiiinuee?e nenoai?
oi?aae?iiy neeaeany noai?i ???a?o?/ia o??aaea i??i?eoao?a – ethaeeia,
o?iaine, oaoiieia?y. Iiaa?oiaaee niinoa??aa/ oia?oa a?aea?aeoth/ee
yiiinueeo o??io, caa?oa? oaaao ia?aaeon?i ia oaoiieia?th. A?i oaa/a? a
i?e ia?oii?e/eio oni?o?a. Iaeiae oea a?aoeeaa a?aaeaiiy, oi/,
c?icoi?ei, a iei?oi?o oiiaao iaiiaeeeai ia?eoeny aac ia?oieeanii?
oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??. Oaoiieia?y caeia? i?aeeaaea iieiaeaiiy, a ia
ia?oiio i?noe? – ia?niiae. Oae caaaeaee ioe?ithaaa eiai ?ieue Iaoeon?oa,
oae eiai ioe?iththoue ca?ac an? yiiinuee? i?aei?e?ioe?.

Ua ia ci?? nai?? ae?yeueiino? E.Iaoeon?oa na?eicii caeiaany
i?iaeaiith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oeaio?ae?caoe?? ? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy, aaeeaaa eiie?aoi? caoiae?a a iiooeao iioeioio. O i?eioeei?
a?i aaaaeaa oeth i?iaeaio ia?ica’yciei ? aenooiaa iniaeeai aia?a?eii
i?ioe iaaei??iiai noeeo a oo aai ?ioo noi?iio. O eiioeaioe?? AeI.
Iaoeon?oa oeaio?ae?caoe?y ? aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y i?enooi? a o??iiaiio
oi?aae?ii? ia ia?eoaoieo ea/aiao, aenoaath/enue ia ia?o? ?ie? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae neooaoe??. Oae, ia aoai? i?neyai?iiiai a?aeiiaeaiiy
yiiinueei? aeiiii?ee (1945-1954) Iaoeon?oa a?aeaeaaaa ia?aaaao
oeaio?ae?caoe??. O??ia, ia eiai aeoieo, iio?aaoaaea oaa?aeiai
ea??aieoeoaa, ? oeaio?aeueia ooaa-eaa?oe?a acyea ia nia? oo?aioo
aoeaaeueii i?i an? ae??aieoe? o??iiaiai aoooy. Eiee aeiiii?ea
caeeoeea iicaaeo aeiai?ii? ?oaaae? ? eiiiai?th i?enooieea aei inai?iiy
ciai?oi?o ?eie?a (1955-1960), Iaoeon?oa i?oia ia oe?ieo
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?th yea caaacia/eea iiaeeeaino? ni?eeaiai
iaiaa?oaaiiy ethaeueie, ?ano?naie ? i?iaeoeoe??th. O ia??iae, ui i?oia
ca iaooiaith e?ecith (1973 ?.), Iaoeon?oa ciiao i?eeiyany ci?oeithaaoe
oeaio?ae?ciaai? ea/aie.

Oaeoe ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue i?i o?, ui Aei. Iaoeon?oa iaci?iii ?
eaoaai?e/ia a?aeiiaeyany aa/eoe a i?aai?caoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? o??ie
aeayea ?ac ? iacaaaeaee canoeaaiiy ina?oa. Aoaeue-yea ?? eaiea
caaaeaee aoea a?aee?eoa aeey ia?aaoaeiae. O 1959 ?., iai?eeeaae, a?i
canioaaa aaniethoii iiaee aeey oeaio?aeueiiai aia?aoo o??ie aieiaia
?aaea. O ?aaeo e??i iueiai oa?eoee ua aeaa /eaie. Iaeiiio c ieo aoee
aei?o/ai? iioi/i? ae?iaie/? iia?aoe?? ? iia?aoe?? ia aioo??oiueiio
?eieo, ?ioiio – o?iainia? iia?aoe?? ? iia?aoe?? ia ciai?oi?o ?eieao.
Nai aea Iaoeon?oa caeiyany aeiaaino?ieiaei ieaioaaiiyi. *eaie ?aaee
ei?enooaaeeny iiaiith naiaiaeith ae?e, Iaoeon?oa aiaeeiith caeeoaany a
o?i?. Iaeiae a?i aino?ici?i noaaeea ca ae?yeuei?noth o??ie ? a ne?ooieo
neoaoe?y anyeee ?ac anoaaaaoe o ?oey.

O 1971 ?. Iaoeon?oa neeaaoe c nia? iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?aceaeaioa ? noaaoe
aieiaith ?aaee aee?aeoi??a. Oiio iioeao a?i ienaaoe: “Eiee o??ia iaaaiy?
a c?inoaii? nai?o ooiaeaoi??a, aeieea? iaaaciaea canoith. Naia oea
noaei oaia? a?ae/oaaoeny a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy; an? niiae?aathoueny ia
naiai aiaeaey, ? y a?ae/oa, ui ni?aae i?oee ia cian?i aeaaeea. Ia iiaeia
any aiaeeia /aeaoe, ui neaaea ea??aiee. Naia ii oeueiio y ae??oea
neeaae? c nia? nai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy ? ia?aaeaoe a?acaee i?aae?iiy nai?io
ianooiieeo”.

Iaeiae a 1977 ?., a ia??iae? /a?aiaeo oneeaaeiaiue, a?i ciiao
iiaa?ioany aei iia?aoeaiiai ea??aieoeoaa ? ia?aoanoaaa aeuee aoaeii
oi?aae?iiy o??iith. Iaoeon?oa caeeoeiai a?aeaeaeeany a?ae ni?aa o a?oe?
86 ?ie?a.

sse? ae o? iaae?, ye? iioeei oa?aeoa?ecothoue noeeue oi?aae?iiy Aei.
Iaoeon?oa?

Ii-ia?oa, oea aeoeai?noue a iciaeiieaii? c noaiii ni?aa o an?o
i?ae?icae?eao o??ie, c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi an?o ?? neoaea. IaeAeaoaeuei?oa
iciaeiieaiiy c aeieoiaioaoe??th, cono??/? ? oaeaoiii? ia?aaiai?e
iino?eii aeicaieyee Iaoeon?oa “o?eiaoe iaeaoeue ia ioeuen? iiae?e”.
Iaianeoia iio?aaa i?aceaeaioa a ?ioi?iaoe?? iaae?eii no?aooaaea
iaiaaeaea??a a?ae ia?aoai?aiiy a eaa?iaoieo i?aoe?aiee?a, niiioeaea ?o
aei iniaenoi? i?enooiino? a “aa?y/eo oi/eao” ae?iaieoeoaa. A?nue
noi?ioeueiaaia iei e?i?y iiaaae?iee iaiaaeaea?a: “Eiee o oia? a
i?aeei?aii? 100 /ieia?e, oe iiaeiai caaaeaee aooe na?aae ieo, eiee 1000
– iiaeao caeiyoe i?noea a oeaio??, yeui ae oe ea?o?o 10 000, aoaeue ia
aeayeiio aeaeaeaii?, aea oai, ca?aeee an?o aeaeii.

Ae?oaa iaaea eiai noeeth – iaiieaaeeaa i?aaiaiiy aei oiai, uia
i?aoe?aieee o??ie aaeineiiaethaaee naith i?ioan?eio iaenoa?i?noue.
sse na?ae/eoue iaeei c ni?a?ia?oiee?a Iaoeon?oa, ana ni?eeoaaiiy c
iaiaaeaea?aie “a?i i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaa oe?e? ?icaeoeo aeaeaoieo
cae?aiinoae o i?aeeia?ieo ethaeae”. Ia?ane?aeoth/e oeth iaoo, a?i
ea?oaaany i?eioeeiaie yiiinueei? ia?iaeii? iaaeaaia?ee, ui i?iaieioo?,
“ui iineaeth/?noue ? ?ioaineaia ?iaioa iaae niaith caaaeaee aaaeooue
aei oni?oo”.

O?aoueith iaaeath noeeth Aei. Iaoeon?oa iio??aii aeciaoe
aia?a?eia caioi/aiiy ?i?oe?aoeae. Aac ?i?oe?aoeae, aaaaeaa a?i, ia
iiaeia a no/anieo oiiaao ea?oaaoe ae?iaieoeoaii. A?ae oeoee, ooi
caaaeaee /aeaa i?aeeacee aai ?ino?oeoe?e, Iaoeon?oa noa?aany
iicaoaaoeny.

Ia?aoo?, /aoaa?oa iaaea – an?eyea caioi/aiiy aeeneon?e na?aae
iaiaaeaea??a ia i?aaeiao iiooeo e?auiai c iiaeeeaeo ??oaiue. I?e oeueiio
Iaoeon?oa noaaeea, uia aeeneon?? ia ii?oooaaee ii?ie yiiinueei?
n?iaeii? aoeee: “*ieia?e ? Ae?oaeeia nia?a/athoueny ia aeey oiai, uia
?icoiaeaeaiiyi, a aeey oiai, uia ciaeoe ye iiaeia a?eueoa oi/ie
caeeaeaiiy”.

Noai?th?oueny a?aaeaiiy, ui Iaoeon?oa ai?iaaaeea a nai?e o??i?
niaoeeo?/io o?einio?th aeoiaaiiy aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae i?aoe?aiee?a,
yea ?iciianthaeeeany, a noo?, ia anth e?a?io. Aaaaoi a /iio oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui ca ci?noii o?einio?y oey aeeaiei iaoe?iiaeueia,
? cie?aia o?nii iia’ycaia c o?aaeeoe?eieie ?ae?a?eieie

? ?aeaieia?/ieie nenoaiaie.

A?aeiii, ui yiiinueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?ae?a?y i?ini/eeany
iaoe?iiae?noe/iei aeooii. O i?e caeeaaeai? ?aea?, niiioeath/? yiiioe?a
a ona?aeiieaiith nai?? i?e/aoiino? aei caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a. ?noi?e/ii yiiioeaa? anaeyee aeoieo i?i o?, ui a nai?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a?i iiaeiai ia?aaeon?i i?eeoaaoeny i?i “iaiiaiaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai

noaeeie”. O “ca’yceo c oeei a?i caee ?icaeyaeaoe
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?”, aea?aeaai?, ni?yioaaiiy ye nai? aeani?.

Iaoeon?oa oi?ei nei?enoaany oeei na?oiaeyaeii nai?o ni?aa?o/eciee?a
? a ?ic?iaeai?e iei aeoiai?e nenoai? c?iaea aeoeaio ia i?iiaaaiae?
i?yiiai ca’yceo i?ae i?ioea?oaiiyi o??ie ? i?ioea?oaiiyi oe??yiiai
i?aoe?aieea ? yiiinueei? iaoe?? caaaeii. Oey ?aeay ciaeoea
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a o??iiaiio a?ii?, yeee eiaeiee aeaiue o a?n?i
/an?a ?aieo ni?aa? i?eaeecii 200 oen. i?aoe?aiee?a:

Ia’?aeia?ii iao? neee ? ?icoi,

C?iaeii ana a ?i’y i?ioea?oaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa.

Iaoae iao? oiaa?e oa/ooue aei ia?iae?a anueiai na?oo.

Iaoae oa/ooue nii??aeo aacia?a?aii ? a?/ii,

sse aiaea c iane?i/aiiiai oiioaio.

?inoe, ?iaeono??y, ?inoe, ?inoe!

Aoaee aeeaa aa?iii?y ? /ani?noue!

Aoaee “aeeaa Iaoeon?oa aeaie?!”

Nenoaia i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a a “eiiiai?? Iaoeon?oa aeaie?”
neeaaea?oueny, ii-ia?oa, c i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, a iiae?oc?, c
inai?iiy o??iiaiai eiaeaeno iiaaae?iee. Canaithth/e o??iiaee eiaeaen
iiaaae?iee, ciiao iaeiyo? i?aoe?aieee a?aea?aeothoue niaoe?aeuei?
caiyooy, ia yeeo iei anaeythoue: “sseui oe cae?eniea aeiaaeeiao
iiieeeo, o??ia i?iaa/eoue oia?. sseui ae oe a?aenooiea a?ae
ii?aeueiiai eiaeaeno o??ie, oia? iaia? i?iuaiiy”.

A?nue oeae eiaeaen: “Iao? i?eioeeie. Ona?aeiieaiiy nai??
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? a ni?aa? i?ia?ano ? i?eiiiaeaiiy aeia?iaooo iaoiai
noni?euenoaa. I?enay/aiiy nia? iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo na?oiai?
oeea?e?caoe??.

Iaoa e?aaei. I?ia?an oeea?e?caoe?? – oea ia aano?aeoe?y. An? i?
ni?eueieie coneeeyie aiineoueny a iueiai na?e aianie. Eiaeiee c ian
iiaeiai iino?eii iai’yoaoe oea. An?eyea a?aeaeai?noue o??i? – eeth/ aei
oni?oo.

Iao? aeooiai? oe?iiino?: 1) Neoae?iiy iaoe?? oeyoii aaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa; 2) /ani?noue; 3) aa?iii?y ? ni?ai?aoey; 4) ai?ioueaa ca
ye?noue; 5) aeinoi?inoai ? i?aeei?aiiy; a) ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y c o??iith;
7) aaey/i?noue o??i?”.

Eiaeaen iiaaae?iee i?ecia/aiee ianaiia?aae aeey ineoieia?/iiai
caaa?ooaaiiy i?aoe?aieea. Iaoeon?oa aaaaeaa, ui iaiaaeaea?e an?o eaiie
ciaia’ycai? ia o?eueee oyniyoe eiai cia/aiiy aeey naieo nia?, aea ?
ai?iaaaeeoe eiai ?aea? a na?aeii?noue i?aeeaaeeo. I?aoe?aiee o??ie, ui
ue?i ni?eeiya oe? ?aea?, caeaoiee, ii ia?aeiiaiith Aei. Iaoeon?oa,
ia

iaeneiaeueio i?aoeaa?aeaea/o, ia aeya oe?eani?yiiaaii? ?i?oe?aoeae,
ia aeiaeeaeath/enue aeac?aie caa?oo.

C naiiai ea/aio nai?? ae?yeueiino? Aei. Iaoeon?oa oyniyoe, ui oe?ia
aoaeue-yeiai i?aei?e?inoaa ??aia oe?i? eiai ethaenueeiai /eiieea: aac
iaeaaeiei ia?acii iia?e?ciaaiiai ethaenueeiai /eiieea i?aai?caoe?y
?icaaeth?oueny.

C iaoith iaeneiaeueia iiaeeeaiai i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy eiiiaoaioiino?
i?aoe?aiee?a, aeoea?caoe?? caeeaaeaiiai a ieo oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo
cae?enith?oueny aacia?a?aia ?ioaoe?y. O o??i? “Iaoeon?oa aeaie?”
eiaeiee ??e 5% ni?a?ia?oiee?a ia?aeeaea?oueny c iaeiiai i?io?eth ?iaioe
ia ?io?e. Ui noino?oueny iaiaaeaea??a, oi oey oeeo?a ae?eoe aei 1/3 ?o
/enaeueiino?. Aiae?c i?aenoie?a ?ioaoe?? aiineoe ?noioiee aianie a
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai ?icnoaaeyiiy eaae??a, /iio Iaoeon?oa
iaaeaaaa ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy. “Iinoaaeoe ethaeeio ia nai? i?noea, –
aiai?eaoe a?i, – icia/aoe io?eia? a?ae iueiai iaeneiaeueio a?aeaea/o”.

Ioaea, ?iaey/e aeniiaie anueiio aeua neacaiiio, y oio?a ae iacaaoe
a?aei?oi? iniaeeaino? yiiinueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo: yiiinuee? oi?aae?ioe?
caa?oathoue aieiaio oaaao ia oi?ioaaiiy iio??aiiai iano?ith o
i?aoe?aiee?a. ssiiinueea o??ia i?aaia noai?eoe aeey i?aoe?aiee?a
niaoeeo?/io aoiinoa?o, a ye?e a?i a?ae/oaaa ae nia? caoeuaiei ?
ii?eoaaiei, a oaeiae caeaoiei ?aae?coaaoe nai? aeeoo?a? iai??e.
ssiiinuee? iaiaaeaea?e ?icoi?thoue oi?aae?iiy ye ae?yeuei?noue, o?nii
iia’ycaio c oii?yaeeoaaiiyi iiaaae?iee ethaeae. Aeey iaiaaeaea?a oea
aacia?a?aiee i?ioean ?iaioe na?aae nai?o i?aeeaaeeo, yeee, a noo?, ia
ia? oei/aniaeo ?aiie, ai, ii yiiinueeeo ii?iao, iaia? iaae? aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Aeniiaie.

Aoaeoeaia noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i? aaaaoi a /iio
aecia/a?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi no/anieo oi?aae?inueeeo a?aeiinei,
i?aeaeuaiiyi ea?iaaiino? aeiiii?ee. Naia iaiaaeaeiaio,
oi?aae?iiy caaacia/o? ca’ycai?noue, ?ioaa?aoe?th aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a a i?aai?caoe??.

Iaiaaeaeiaio — iaeaaaeeea?oa iiiyooy a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?.
Eiai aea/athoue aeiiii?noe, i?aei?e?ioe?, o?iainenoe,
aaie??e ? an?, ooi noino?oueny a?ciano.

« Oi?aaeyo? — icia/aoe aanoe i?aei?e?inoai aei eiai iaoe,
aeoyaoth/e iaeneioi iiaeeeaino? c ?nioth/eo ?ano?n?a». Oao?aoeyi
iiaiai aiaeei? iaiao?aei? aeeaie? ciaiiy ii iaiaaeaeiaioo, a
aeey oeueiai o?aaa /?oei i?aaenoaaeyoe nooue ? iiiyooy
iaiaaeaeiaioo.

E?oa?aoo?a.

1. Aaeaaaiia E.O. «Iniia? o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo», I., – 1995,
(n.284).

2. Aani?i A.?. «Iniia? iaiaaeaeiaioo», I., – 1997, (n.412).

3. Aaeueeaae/ ?.N. Iaaieia A.E. «Iniia? iaiaaeaeiaioo», I., – 1998,
(n.467).

4. Aa?/eeiaa E.I. «Iaiaaeaeiaio: i?ae?o/iee aeey aoc?a», – I., THI?O?
“Aaiee ? a??ae?”, 1994, (n.375).

5. Eaaaiia A.ss. «Oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii i?aai?caoe??», – I., 1997,
(n.435).

6. Eioii I.A., I?e?theia A.A., Eiii?ia N.A. «Iaiaaeaeiaio», –

I., O?iaine ? noaoenoeea, 1993, (n.411).

7. Eaiae I.A. «Iaiaaeaeiaio – ienoaoeoai oi?aaeyoe», I., – 1995,
(n.284).

8. Etha?iiaa I.A. «Iaiaaeaeiaio – oeyo aei oni?oo», – I.,
Aa?ii?ii?caeao, 1992, (n.189).

9. Iaeee Ianueeii ? ?io., «Iniiae iaiaaeaeiaioo», – I., 1995, (n.243).

10. Iaeneioeia I.I. ?aiaoue?aa A.A. «Iaiaaeaeiaio», I., – 1998,
(n.389).

11. Iaianthe A.TH. «Oi?aae?inueea ni?eeoaaiiy», – I., 1990,
(n.222).

12. Ia?eeinii, C. Ii?oeia, ?onoiiae? I.E. «Ienoaoeoai oi?aae?iiy», –
Eai?caeao, 1992, (n.428).

13. ?icaiaa?a Ae.I. «A?cian, iaiaaeaeiaio», I., – 1997, (n.400).

14. Oaei? O?aaea??e O?ineio, «Iaiaaeaeiaio», – I., 1992, (n.175).

15. Ooeei ?.A. «Oi?aae?iiy o??iith», – I., 1996, (n.312).

16. Oaooooae?iia ?.A. «Nenoaia iaiaaeaeiaioo», – I., 1996,
(n.274).

17. Oiaa?ae Aei., Ei?ioeia ?. «I?eioeeie iaiaaeaeiaioo», – I., 1996,
(n.377).

18. Oiea? A. «sse ?iaeoe a?cian a ?a?ii?», – I., Aeaeaaieoeoai

“I?ia?an”, 1990, (n.513).

19. «No/aniee iaiaaeaeiaio: i?eioeeie ? i?aaeea», Aeaeaeaeano, I.
Iiaai?iae, ?E*I, 1992, (n.51).

PAGE 1

PAGE 49

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019