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Организационные структуры

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Aaaaeaiea.

Ethaay i?aaiecaoeey – yoi i?aaeaea anaai ethaee e ?aaioa, eioi?oth iie
auiieiytho. Iaeiaei iaai? ethaeae e ?aaio aua ia i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay
i?aaiecaoeee. Aeey oiai, /oiau i?iecioae ia?aoiae io i?iaeoe?iaaiey
?aaiou e i?iaeoe?iaaieth eee nicaeaieth i?aaiecaoeee, iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii niaaeeieoue ?aaiou (aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe) e
?aaioieeia (ethaeae) iaaeaeo niaie. Aeaiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea au?aaeaaony
i?aaeaea anaai a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a. Yoa ?aaioa iinayuaia
i?iaeoe?iaaieth i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?. A ia?aie aeaaa i?iaaaeai
aiaeec o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oeiia i?aaiecaoeee. Iiieii o?aaeeoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?
a ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony iiaua aayiey a yoie iaeanoe iaiaaeaeiaioa,
iienaiea eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeaii ai aoi?ie aeaaa.

Eciaiaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u (?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey) i?aaenoaaeyaony
iaeiei ec eino?oiaioia auaiaea i?aaei?eyoee ec e?eceniie neooaoeee.
Aii?in ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee iniaaiii aaaeai a ?innee, oae eae caeanue
ia?iiiia /enei aieueoeo i?aaei?eyoee – i?aaei?eyoee aeaaioia, ?acaeoea
eioi?uo a eo iuiaoiai iaeeea i?inoi iaaiciiaeii. A o?aoueae aeaaa
aeaiiie ?aaiou ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu no?oeoo? nia?aiaiiuo ?inneeneeo
i?aaei?eyoee, a oae aea aa?eaiou eo ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee.

1.O?aaeeoeeiiiua oeiu i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?.

1.1. Aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey.

?ino niaoeeaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo ?aaio a i?aaiecaoeee ia?aie/eaaaony
aiciiaeiinoyie ii eo eii?aeeiaoeee. ?ac?aoeoue yoo i?iaeaio iiaeii, anee
ia/aoue a?oiie?iaaoue noiaeea ?aaiou e eo eniieieoaeae, o.a. ia/aoue
inouanoaeyoue eo ii?aaeaeaiiia i?aaiecaoeeiiiia iainiaeaiea eniieieoaeae
noiaeeo ?aaio. Aeaiiue i?ioeann i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iainiaeaiey iacuaaaony
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeeae. Iin?aaenoaii aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee i?aaiecaoeey
iiaeao ?anoe?youeny i?aeoe/anee aani?aaeaeueii. I?eia?ii oiio yaeythony
ei?ii?aoeee-aeaaiou oeia “Yennii”, “Aeaeaia?ae iioi?n”, EAI e ae?.
Nouanoaoao iiiai iiaeoiaeia e a?oiie?iaaieth niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aaio a
i?aaiecaoeeyo. Aeaoiy iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie, ii eioi?ui
iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey, yaeythony a?oiie?iaaiea
?aaio aie?oa ?ano?nia e a?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio aie?oa ?acoeueoaoa
aeayoaeueiinoe. A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie i?eaioaoeee ia oi eee ae?oaia
iai?aaeaiea inouanoaeyaony niioaaonoaothuee oei aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee (ni.
?en.1 ).

Oceay 1 2

niaoeeaeecaoeey ?aaio

A?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio

Ii ooieoeeyi

Ii i?iaeoeoo

Ii oaoiieiaee

Iao?e/iay

Eiiiaaoeeiiiay

Aanno?oeoo?iay

aie?oa ?ano?nia

Oe?ieay

Ii /eneaiiinoe

Ii a?aiaie

Ii oa??eoi?ee

Ii i?iaeoeoo

Ii iio?aaeoaeth

Ii ?uieo

niaoeeaeecaoeey ?aaio 3 4

Oe?ieay niaoeeaeecaoeey ?aaio A?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio aie?oa aeayoaeueiinoe
?acoeueoaoa Oceay niaoeeaeecaoeey ?aaio

?en.1. Oeiu aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee, auaeaeyaiua ia iniiaa iai?aaeaiey
a?oiie?iaaiey

Ec ?en. 1 aeaeii, /oi a eaaae?aioa 1 ?aniieaaathony oeiu
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee, aeey eioi?uo oa?aeoa?ii ionoonoaea i?e
a?oiie?iaaiee ?aaio y?ei au?aaeaiiiai i?aaeii/oaiey e eo
niaoeeaeecaoeee. Iiyoiio, a aeaiiii neo/aa, i?aiaeaaeatho iiaeoiaeu e
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee, iniiaaiiua ia aeiaieueii-oaee i?inouo i?eioeeiao
eeiaeiiai aeaeaiey i?aaiecaoeee: ii /eneaiiinoe; ii a?aiaie; ii
oa??eoi?ee eee i?e?iaeiui oaeoi?ai. Oae, a?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio ii
/eneaiiinoe oe?iei eniieuecoaony a a?iee, n?aaee o/aueony e i?e
i?iaaaeaiee iauanoaaiiuo ?aaio. A?oiie?iaaiea ii a?aiaie naycaii ni
niaiiinoueth eee naciiiinoueth a i?iecaiaenoaa, a ii oa??eoi?ee – n
“aaia?aoeae” ?aaio a i?aaiecaoeee.

1.2. Eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey i?aaeiieaaaao ioiineoaeueioth aaoiiiiiinoue a
?aaioa. Oaeie aaoiiiiiinoueth, iai?eia?, iaeaaeaao nieaeao ia iiea aiy,
o/aueeny a eeanna, caieaeii i?e ?uouea eioeiaaia e caaiaeneie ?aai/ee a
a?eaaaea. Aeaiiue oei aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony a oeaeii
i?inoioie, iaeiiia?iinoueth naycae (oieueei aa?oeeaeueiua nayce) e
aiciiaeiinoueth naiioi?aaeaiey (ioiineoaeueiay aaoiiiiiinoue). Iiyoiio
ii oe?iei eniieuecoaony i?e i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio a ieciauo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caaiueyo naiaeiiai eee iaeeiai aeciana (?en. 2).

?en.2. Eeiaeiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Oaeie i?inoie iiaeoiae e a?oiie?iaaieth ?aaio e ethaeae inouanoaeyaony
iau/ii eiaaea auiieiyaiua ?aaiou i/aiue iaeiioeiiu, a ethaee – ia
aeeooa?aioee?othony. A n?aaeiaai e aieueoiai ?acia?a i?aaiecaoeeyo
eeiaeiia aeaeaiea ia /anoe aeaao yooaeo, eae i?aaeei, ia ieaeieo o?iaiyo
ea?a?oee (a a?oiiao, a?eaaaeao, caaiueyo e o.i.). Eae oieueei ?aaiou a
i?aaiecaoeee ia/eiatho niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny, aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ia?aoiaea e ae?oaei oeiai aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee.

1.3. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey.

N ?acaeoeai niaoeeaeecaoeee ?aaiou, naycaiiie n iieo/aieai e
?ani?aaeaeaieai ?ano?nia a i?aaiecaoeee, aicieeea ooieoeeiiaeueiay
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey (eaaae?aio 2, ?en. 1). A i?iecaiaenoaa yoio oei
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee iieo/ee ?acaeoea a ia?eiae i?iiuoeaiiie ?aaiethoeee
i?e nicaeaiee e?oiiuo oaa?ee e caaiaeia. Ii nae aeaiue cia/eoaeueiay
/anoue i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee eniieuecoao aeaiiue iiaeoiae. I?e
ooieoeeiiaeueiii aeaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee ia /anoe
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ?aaiou a?oiie?othony i?aeiouanoaaiii, eae yoi auei
ioia/aii auoa, aie?oa ?ano?nia. Oae, ioaeae ieaie?iaaiey oi?aaeyao oaeei
?ano?nii, eae a?aiy, ioaeae eaae?ia – yoi ethaee, ioaeae oeiainia –
aeaiueae, ioaeae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai – aeaiiua e o.ae. Aeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee yoi icia/aao, /oi ia?aaeei ia?yaeo n
eeiaeiui aeaeaieai ?aaio a aa iniiaiii caaia e yoiio aeiaaaeyaony
ooieoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaiea aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aaio,
ianeoaeeaathueo i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa (?en. 3).

?en. 3. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey.

?aciiaeaeiinoyie ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee yaeythony
a?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio ii i?ioeanno (ooo/iia, ianniaia e iiuoiia
i?iecaiaenoai), o.a. ii oeio i?iecaiaenoaa, e ii oaoiieiaee
(iaoaiecaoeey, aaoiiaoecaoeey e ?iaioecaoeey), o.a. ii oeio
iai?oaeiaaiey. A iaieo neo/ayo ?aaiou a?oiie?othony ii i?eioeeio eo
noiaeanoe (a?eaaaea nai?ee a ianniaii i?iecaiaenoaa eee a?eaaaea,
ianeoaeeaathuay *IO). Oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiie
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee e aa ?aciiaeaeiinoae a i?iaeoe?iaaiee
i?aaiecaoeee naycaii n iaeioi?uie yaiuie i?aeiouanoaaie, eioi?ua eiatho
aeaiiue iiaeoiae. Iniiaiui ec ieo yaeyaony aiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey
oie eee eiie ?aaiou iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui niiniaii. Yoi aeinoeaaaony
aeaaiaea?y ?acaeoeth ooieoeeiiaeueiie niaoeeaeecaoeee, eioi?ay yeiiiieo
a?aiy, oi?iuaao iiaeaioiaeo ?aaioieea e, aeaaiia, iicaieyao
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiii ianeoaeeoue ethaoth ae?oaoth /anoue i?aaiecaoeee a
iaeanoe niaoeeaeece?iaaiiie ooieoeee. Oae, iiyaeaiea a aooaaeoa?ee
?aaioieea ii ?an/aoo ca?aaioiie ieaou i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai ia?niiaea
aaconeiaii niinianoaoao iiauoaieth ea/anoaa yoie i?ioeaaeo?u. Oio oaeo,
/oi iainiaeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo neoaea neaaeoao a i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
noaia n?aco aea ca o?iaiai aunoaai ?oeiaiaenoaa, i?eaeaao neeo e
i?anoeae aaaeiaeoei ooieoeeyi. Neaaenoaeai yoiai yaeyaony oe?aieaiea
aa?oeeaeueiuo naycae e eiiioieeaoeee a i?aaiecaoeee e oneeaiea eiio?iey
ca aeayoaeueiinoueth ieaeanoiyue” o?iaiae a i?aaiecaoeee.
Ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey ioe?uaaao, oaeei ia?acii, iooue e
eiee/anoaaiiiio ?inoo i?aaiecaoeee, nio?aiyy aei ii?aaeaeaiiie
noaiaie oaeaea ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaiou. I?aeoe/anee ana
eiaeono?eaeueiua aeaaiou au?inee ia iniiaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii yoiai oeia
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee eee aea aai ?aciiaeaeiinoae. *aeiaa/anoai iaycaii
yoiio niiniao a?oiie?iaaiey ?aaio a i?aaiecaoeee oai, /oi ii iicaieee
aueoe ia ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai, iaoaiecaoeeth e aaoiiaoecaoeeth
i?iecaiaenoaa. Iaeiaei oe?iei ecaanoia e ae?oaay noi?iia aeaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Oae, iianiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay aieaciue – ooieoeeiiaeeci,
iaycaia naiei iiyaeaieai eiaiii yoiio niiniao a?oiie?iaaiey
?aaio. Ooieoeeiiaeeci au?anoaao ec naa?oniaoeeaeecaoeee, nicaeathuath
iai?iieoeaaiua i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?aai?iaeee iaaeaeo
na?oiie?iaaiiuie ?aaioaie e ineaaeythuae oaeei ia?acii ai?ecieoaeueiua
nayce. A ?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo ?aciuaaiea iauai i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oeaee
e aa ?anoaneeaaiea ii ooieoeeiiaeueiui “eaa?oe?ai”. Nicaeaaony
caieiooinoue a ?aieao ioaeaeia e noaiiaeony iaiueoa ethaeae, aeoiathueo
ia i?aaiecaoeee a oeaeii. A iiae?acaeaeaieyo i?aaiecaoeee ia/eiaao
?acaeaaoueny einoeieo naiinio?aiaiey, aaaeoueo e eiina?aaoecio,
neeaaeuaaaony neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie iaioaeioth ?aaioo iaaiciiaeii
oaeaeeoue ec i?aaiecaoeee. Ana yoi i?eaiaeeo e aicieeiiaaieth
i?ioeai?a/ee, eiioeeeoia iaaeaeo ooieoeeiiaeueiuie o/anoeaie. Aua iaeiei
na?ueaciui iaaeinoaoeii ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony
ii?iaeaeaaiue ath oae iacuaaaiue “yooaeo aoouei/iiai ai?ea”. Nooue aai
ninoieo a oii, /oi ?acaeoea i?aeiouanoaaiii aa?oeeaeueiuo naycae a
?aieao ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea iiaeieiaao ?aoaiea i?iaeai,
aicieeathueo ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo i?aaiecaoeee, aei aa aeaaiiai
?oeiaiaeeoaey. A ?acoeueoaoa iiiuoee ?oeiaiaeeoaeae neiioeaio?e?iaaoueny
ia ?aoaiee no?aoaae/aneeo caaea/ oiioo a iia?aoeaiie ?aaioa, a oaeo/ea.
E yoi ia yaeyaony aeiie ?oeiaiaeeoaey, a aeiie eniieuecoaiie
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

1.4. Aeeaeceiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey.

I?iaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueiie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee io/anoe auee ?aoaiu niaiie
i?ei?eoaoa a iai?aaeaiee i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee i?aaiecaoeee, o.a. iooai
a?oiie?iaaiey ?aaio aie?oa ?acoeueoaoa (eaaae?aio 3, ?en.1). Iiaue oei
a?oiie?iaaiey ?aaio a i?aaiecaoeee iieo/ee iacaaiea aeeaeceiiaeueiie
i?aaiecaoeee. I?e yoii auaeaeyaony aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey ii i?iaeoeoo, ii
iio?aaeoaeth e ii ?uieo. I?eioeei noiaeanoe eae e a i?aaeuaeouai
ooieoeeiiaeueiii aa?eaioa inoaeny, ii oaia?ue ii noae ioiineoueny ia e
?aaioa n ?ano?nii, a e ?aaioa iaae iieo/aieai ?acoeueoaoa. ?acaeoea
i?iaeoeoiaie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee a i?iaeoe?iaaiee i?aaiecaoeee ia
i?aeoeea auei naycaii n iiyaeaieai iiiaii?iaeoeoiauo
aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiiuo i?iecaiaenoa eee iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiiiaiee, /oi
yaeeinue anoanoaaiiie ?aaeoeeae aeciana ia eciaiaiea aiaoiae n?aaeu.
Ii?aaeaeaiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea i?iaeoeoiaiai iiaeoiaea ieacaea
i?iaiaeeiay a NOA iinea aoi?ie ie?iaie aieiu iieeoeea eiiaa?nee aiaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa n oeaeueth auaeaeaiey a aai ninoaaa i?iecaiaenoaa
iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia. I?e aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee ii iio?aaeoaeth
a?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio inouanoaeyaony aie?oa eiia/iiai iieueciaaoaey
i?iaeoeoeee (iai?eia?, a?iey e a?aaeaeaineea io?anee eee oiaa?u aeey
aeiia e oiaa?u aeey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e o.ae.). ?uii/iay
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey no?ieony a ioiioaiee aaia?aoe/aneeo e io?aneaauo
?uieia i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaae. A iao/iie e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neie
aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea a iaeanoe ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey yoio oei
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee iieo/ee iacaaiea i?iaeoiiai eee i?ia?aiiiiai
(oi?aaeaiea ii i?iaeoo, i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaia oi?aaeaiea). Iniaaiiinoueth
aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony nicaeaiea ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiuo /anoae a
i?aaiecaoeee, i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ia i?iaeoeo, i?ia?aiio eee i?iaeo,
iio?aaeoaey eee ?uiie. A ?aieao iiaeoiaea oe?iei eniieuecoaony
neeaaeuaathuayny acaeiicaaeneiinoue iaaeaeo /anoyie i?aaiecaoeee.
I?eioeeieaeueiay noaia ?anniao?eaaaiiai oeia aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee iiaeao
auaeyaeaoue neaaeothuei ia?acii (?en. 4).

?en. 4. Noaia aeeaeceiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u.

Ia?aoiae e i?iaeoeoiaiio aa?eaioo a i?iaeoe?iaaiee i?aaiecaoeee iau/ii
ia/eiaaony iinea oiai, eae aunoaio ?oeiaiaenoao noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiie
iaaiciiaeiinoue inouanoaeaiey iaeiia?aiaiii ?inoa e aaeaeaaoiiai
?aaae?iaaiey ia eciaiaiey aiaoiae n?aaeu a ?aieao ooieoeeiiaeueiie
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee. A yoii neo/aa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii caaia
auaeaeythony aaoiiiiiua /anoe, naycaiiua oaoiieiae/anee n ?acee/iuie
i?iaeoeoaie, e ia yoe o/anoee iacia/athony ?oeiaiaeeoaee, iaaeaeyaiua
iieiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth ca i?iecaiaenoai oiai eee eiiai i?iaeoeoa e
iieo/aiea i?eauee. O/anoeai i?eaeaaony iaiaoiaeeiia aeey iaania/aiey
iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ ooieoeeiiaeueiia ianeoaeeaaiea. O aunoaai
?oeiaiaenoaa inoaaony iaaieueoia eiee/anoai oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo neoaea (iau/ii 4-6), eiioeaio?e?othueony ia auiieiaiee
aeaenoaee, iinyueo. no?aoaae/aneee oa?aeoa? e ianeoaeeaathueo i?eiyoea
?aoaiee ia aunoai o?iaia. A?oiie?iaaiea ?aaio aie?oa ?acoeueoaoa
?ac?aoeei ?yae i?iaeai, aicieeoeo i?e ?ano?niii iiaeoiaea. I?e
?anniao?eaaaiii iiaeoiaea iaeiiaoe-oi oaeaeinue eneeth/eoue oaeo/eo ec
?aaiou ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee iooai ioaeaeaiey iia?aoeaiiai o?iaiy
oi?aaeaiey, eiioeaio?e?othuaainy ia i?iecaiaenoaa eiie?aoiiai i?iaeoeoa,
io no?aoaae/aneiai – ioaa/athuaai ca ?ino e ?acaeoea i?aaiecaoeee a
oeaeii. Yoiio oaeaea niinianoaiaaei ia?aianaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
i?eaueue ia “i?iaeoeoiaue” o?iaaiue, /oi ianiiiaiii aunaiaiaeeei a?aiy
aa?oiaai ?oeiaiaenoaa aeey iaaeoiuaaiey e ?aoaiey no?aoaae/aneeo
caaea/. Ae?oaei aaaeiui i?aeiouanoaii aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee ii i?iaeoeoo
yaeyaony oi, /oi iia i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiiio iiauoaieth aieiaiey a
i?ioeanna ?aaiou e eiia/iiio ?acoeueoaoo (i?iaeoeoo, iio?aaeoaeth,
?uieo). Ia?aiin oeaio?a aieiaiey a iia?aoeaiii oi?aaeaiee ia i?iaeoeo
iaeaa/aao eioaa?aoeeth aioo?e ioaaonoaaiiiai ca aai i?iecaiaenoai
iiae?acaeaeaiey e niea/eaaao ethaeae. Iiauoaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe
“i?iaeoeoiaiai” ?oeiaiaeeoaey niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth
aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee, eieoeeaoeau e aaoiiiiee. Iiyaeaiea aieueoaai /enea
oi?aaeaioeaa n iaueie iaycaiiinoyie ia?aaiaeeo “yooaeo aoouei/iiai
ai?ea” n aa?oiaai o?iaiy oi?aaeai/aneie ea?a?oee aiec e ineaaeyao aai
iaaaoeaiia aeaenoaea. A ?acoeueoaoa a ?aieao i?iaeoeoiaie i?aaiecaoeee
?anoao yooaeoeaiinoue. Aianoa n oai i/aaeaeiu e iaaeinoaoee
i?iaeoeoiaie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee. Aianoi ooieoeeiiaeecia iiyaeyaony
ae?oaay aieaciue – “i?iaeoeoeaeci”, eee i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea oeaeae
i?iaeoeoa iauei i?aaiecaoeeiiiui oeaeyi. ?acaeoea i?iaeoeoiaie ea?a?oee
aaaeao e aeoaee?iaaieth a ?aaioa e niioaaonoaothuaio oaaee/aieth
/eneaiiinoe ia?niiaea, a oaeaea e iayooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth
?ano?nia. A ?acoeueoaoa yoiai ?anooo ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiuo neoaea. ?ino i?aaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeey aa /anoae
cao?oaeiytho i?iaaaeaiea eiio?iey naa?oo. ?acaeoea aeeaa?neoeeaoeee
oaaee/eaaao iiiaeanoaaiiinoue ?ieae, auiieiyaiuo ?aaioieeii a
i?aaiecaoeee, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e oaaee/aieth
no?anna, aucuaaaiiai ?aaioie.

1.5. Iao?e/iay i?aaiecaoeey

Anee i?iaeaia aaeaioaoeee e aiaoiae n?aaea yooaeoeaii ia ?ac?aoaaony a
?aieao ioaeaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee, oi anoanoaaiiui auoiaeii ec iieiaeaiey
noaiiaeony iaeiia?aiaiiia oneeaiea a a?oiie?iaaiee ?aaio eae ?ano?niiai
iiaeoiaea, oae e iiaeoiaea, i?eaioe?iaaiiiai ia ?acoeueoao. Eaaae?aio 4
(?en.1) eeethno?e?oao aeaiiue iiaeoiae e aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee. Iaeaieaa
iaaeyaeiui eiie?aoiui oeiii ?aoaiey oaeiai ?iaea yaeyaony iao?e/iue
iiaeoiae. Iao?e/iay aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey yaeeanue io?aaeaieai iiiuoie
iaeiia?aiaiii iaeneiece?iaaoue i?aeiouanoaa e ieieiece?iaaoue neaaua
noi?iiu eae ooieoeeiiaeueiiai, oae e i?iaeoeoiaiai iiaeoiaeia. Iia
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naaeaine?iaaiiue eiii?iienn iaaeaeo aeaeaieai e
a?oiie?iaaieai ?aaio aie?oa ?ano?nia e aie?oa ?acoeueoaoa.
Aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey ia iniiaa iao?e/iiai iiaeoiaea ec anao eiathueony a
i?aeoeea yaeyaony iaeaieaa neiaeiie aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee.
Iaeiaei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao iia iiaeao auoue i/aiue
yooaeoeaiie. Oae, iai?eia?, e iao?e/iie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee
ia?auathony oiaaea, eiaaea o?aaoaony neiaeiay nenoaia ?aaeoeee ia
aicaeaenoaea oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu. Ia?aoiae e iao?e/iiio iiaeoiaeo a
iino?iaiee i?aaiecaoeee yaeeny ?aaeoeeae ia eciaiaiea aeoaeiu e neeu
aicaeaenoaey ?yaea oaeoi?ia aiaoiae n?aaeu, au?aceaoaany a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue a eioaineoeeaoeee iioieia eioi?iaoeee. Yoio iiaeoiae
naycuaatho oaeaea n ?aoaieai i?iaeai oi?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeyie a
neooaoeeyo, eiaaea iie eniuouaatho neeueiia ia?aie/aiea a ?ano?nao,
iniaaiii oeiainiauo e ethaeneeo, a oaeaea eiaaea iaeiia?aiaiii
i?aaeuyaeythony i/aiue aunieea o?aaiaaiey ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio e
i?iaeoeoiaiio iai?aaeaieyi. Ioee/eoaeueiie /a?oie iao?e/iiai iiaeoiaea e
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee yaeyaony oi?iaeueiia iaee/ea o ?aaioieea
iaeiia?aiaii aeaoo ia/aeueieeia, iaeaaeathueo ?aaiuie i?aaaie. Yoa
nenoaia aeaieiiai iiae/eiaiey aace?oaony ia eiiaeiaoeee aeaoo ia/ae –
ooieoeeiiaeueiiai e i?iaeoeoiaiai. Eaaeaeay iao?eoea ioiioaiee aeeth/aao
a naay o?e oeia ?ieae a i?aaiecaoeee:

aeaaiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, iiaeaea?aeeaathuee aaeain a nenoaia aeaieiiai
iiae/eiaiey;

?oeiaiaeeoaee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e i?iaeoeoiauo iiae?acaeaeaiee,
“aeaeyuea” iiae/eiaiiiai a y/aeea iao?eoeu iaaeaeo niaie;

?oeiaiaeeoaee y/aae iao?eoeu, ?aaii io/eouaathueany e ia?aae
ooieoeeiiaeueiui, e ia?aae i?iaeoeoiaui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai.

Iiaeaea?aeaiea yoeo ioiioaiee ia aeieaeiii o?iaia i?aaeuyaeyao i/aiue
aunieea ai anao ioiioaieyo o?aaiaaiey e ia?niiaeo.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiay, eee oaoie/aneay, /anoue iao?eoeu ioaaonoaaiia ca
iaania/aiea ?aaiou niaoeeoeeaoeeyie, oaoie/aneei ?oeiaiaenoaii,
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ia?niiaeii e aai ?acaeoea. I?iaeoeoiaay eee
aaeieieno?aoeaiay /anoue iao?eoeu ioaa/aao ca ieaie?iaaiea ?aaiou,
oi?aaeaiea e ioeaieo ?acoeueoaoia, auiieiaiea ?aai/eo iia?aoeee,
aeinoeaeaiea iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae. Yooaeo io eiiaeiaoeee yoeo aeaoo ia/ae
caeeth/aaony a iiaeaea?aeaiee aaeaina iaaeaeo oaoie/aneeie (ianeieueei
oi?ioi ?aaioa auiieiaia) e aaeieieno?aoeaiuie (eaeay ?aaioa naeaeaia e
ai neieueei iaioeinue aa auiieiaiea) oeaeyie.

Oeacaiiue aaeain aeinoeaaaony iooai “ia?aieaoaiey” aa?oeeaeueiuo
(aaeieieno?aoeaiay /anoue) e ai?eciioaeueiuo (oaoie/aneay /anoue) naycae
e eiiioieeaoeee. ?aaioiee a eaaeaeie y/aeea iao?eoeu (?en. 5)
iiae/eiyaony iaeiia?aiaiii aeaoi aeanoyi. Niaoeeaeenou
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ioaeaeia cae?aieythony ia oi?iaeueiie iniiaa ca
ii?aaeaeaiiui i?iaeoeoii e iiyoiio aeieaeiu iiae/eiyoueny aeaoi
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi.

I?iaeoeoiaua iiae?acaeaeaiey Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey

I?iecaiaenoai Ia?eaoeia IEIE? Oeiainu

I?iaeoeo A

I?iaeoeo A

I?iaeoeo N

I?iaeoeo D

?en. 5. Iao?e/iay noaia aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee.

Oaoiieiaey ia?aoiaea e eniieueciaaieth iao?e/iiai iiaeoiaea a
i?iaeoe?iaaiee i?aaiecaoeee ninoieo ec o?ao noaaeee. Ia ia?aie noaaeee
nicaeathony a?aiaiiua oeaeaaua a?oiiu ii i?iaeoeoo, i?iaeoo eee
oa??eoi?ee. Yoe a?oiiu oi?ie?othony ec i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo /anoae
i?aaiecaoeee. Oi?iaeueii yoe i?aaenoaaeoaee inoathony a
iiae?acaeaeaieyo, eo aeaeaae?iaaaoeo, ii iie oaea aeieaeiu oaeaea
iiae/eiyoueny ?oeiaiaeeoaeth oeaeaaie a?oiiu. Ia aoi?ie noaaeee oaeea
a?oiiu iieo/atho noaoon iinoiyiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee a i?aaiecaoeee. Ii eo
o/anoieee ii-i?aaeiaio aua i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?anu iai?aaeaoeo eo
neoaea. Ia o?aoueae noaaeee a yoie iinoiyiiie a?oiia iacia/aaony
oi?iaeueiue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue, ioaaonoaaiiue ca eioaa?aoeeth anao ?aaio a
a?oiia io ia/aea aei eiioea. Ii oaea anooiaao a aeaeiaua ioiioaiey n
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie ooieoeeiiaeueiie e i?iaeoeoiaie /anoae,

Iao?e/iay aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey i?eaeaeaao ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ?yaeii naieo
yaiuo i?aeiouanoa, eioi?ua iiaoo i?iyaeoueny oieueei, anee aeey yoiai
eiathony iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee. Iniiaiui i?aeiouanoaii iao?e/iie
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee yaeyaony caeeth/aiiue a iae aunieee iioaioeeae
aaeaioaoeee e eciaiaieyi aiaoiae n?aaeu iooai i?inoiai eciaiaiey aaeaina
iaaeaeo ?ano?naie e ?acoeueoaoaie, ooieoeeyie e i?iaeoeoii, oaoie/aneeie
e aaeieieno?aoeaiuie oeaeyie.

Aieaa aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue iao?e/iie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee ii n?aaiaieth
n ae?oaeie iiaeoiaeaie aace?oaony ia oii, /oi ooieoeeiiaeueiua ciaiey
i?iiecuaatho eaaeaeoth ?aaioo. Yoiio aea niinianoaoao iaee/ea
aiciiaeiinoe aeaeiai eniieueciaaiey eaae?ia, eiathueo, eae i?aaeei, e
ooieoeeiiaeueioth, e i?iaeoeoiaoth iiaeaioiaeo. Aieueoea aiciiaeiinoe
iao?e/iue iiaeoiae ioe?uaaao a aeaea i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. Aua iaeiei
iaaeyaeiui i?aeiouanoaii iao?e/iie aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee aunooiaao oi,
/oi iia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui aa?eaioii i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee,
i?e eioi?ii ai?eciioaeueiua nayce oi?ie?othony e aeaaea ecia?aaeathony
ia noaia. Oaniia e iinoiyiiia ni/aoaiea aa?oeeaeueiuo e ai?eciioaeueiuo
naycae ?acaeaaao iaoaieciu iiiaeanoaaiiinoe aeanoe e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia
ianoao, a a?oiiao. Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae ?acaeaaao niiniaiinoe
?aaioieeia e aeaeaao eo o/anoieeaie i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

Eniieueciaaiea iao?e/iiai iiaeoiaea e aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee ii?iaeaeaao
?yae iaaaoeaiuo iineaaenoaee aeey i?aaiecaoeee. A iniiaa o?oaeiinoae, n
eioi?uie a neo/aa eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea noaeeeaaaony
i?aaiecaoeey, eaaeeo nenoaia aeaieiiai iiae/eiaiey. I?e ionoonoaee
aaeaina, eioi?ue ia oae eaaei onoaiiaeoue, aeaieiia iiae/eiaiea iiaeao
noaoue enoi/ieeii iiiaeo eiioeeeoia a i?aaiecaoeee. A /anoiinoe,
iao?e/iay nenoaia ii?iaeaeaao aeaoniuneaiiinoue ?iee ?aaioieea e aai
?oeiaiaeeoaeae. Yoi nicaeaao iai?yaeaiea a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo /eaiaie
i?aaiecaoeee, oaaee/eaaao eo no?ann.

N i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oi/ee c?aiey, iao?e/iay aeaia?oaiaioecaoeey i/aiue
o?oaeia ai aiaae?aiee. O?aaoaony aeeeoaeueiay iiaeaioiaea ?aaioieeia e
niioaaonoaothuay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a. Iao?e/iay noaia
iiiaeanoaaiiuo naycae e aeanoae neiaeia, a?iiicaeea e aei?iaa ia oieueei
ai aiaae?aiee, ii e a yenieoaoaoeee. Eae iieacaea i?aeoeea, iia
aaniethoii ia yooaeoeaia a e?eceniua ia?eiaeu. Ioaeaeueiua niaoeeaeenou
n/eoatho, /oi iao?e/ioth noaio iiaeii i?e/eneeoue nei?aa e aeinoeaeaieyi
oi?aaeai/aneie iunee, iaaeaee i?aeoeee. ssaeyy niaie oi?aaeai/aneee
“eaeaae”, iia n o?oaeii iiaeaeaaony ?aaeecaoeee e iiiaea ecaanoiua
eiiiaiee e iae ioiinyony neaioe/anee. A aeaaiia – yoi oi, /oi iia
yaeyaony, ii nouanoao, i?aaeaeii, o.e. aeaeueiaeoaa aa ?acaeoea
iaaiciiaeii.

2. Iiaia a oeiao i?aaiecaoeee.

A iineaaeiae /aoaa?oe XX aaea /aeiaa/anoai anooieei a iiaoth noaaeeth
naiaai ?acaeoey – noaaeeth iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa.
Ca?iaeeaoaany aua a 20-a aa. a iaae?ao eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa, iii
aeaei naie ia?aua ?inoee a 40-a aa., a a 50-a aa. noaee aiai?eoue i
ianooieaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie yeiiiieee e i?aa?auaiee eioi?iaoeee a
aaaeiaeoee oiaa?. A 60-a aa. iiyaeeenue i?aaeneacaiey i i?aa?auaiee
eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa a eioi?iaoeeiiiia. A ia/aea 80-o aa. iaeaieaa
?acaeoua no?aiu oaea iiaeiyeenue ia aai ia?aoth nooiaiue.

Niaeanii oeiieiaee oeeaeeecaoeee A.Oioea?a, aeaiiie ei a “O?aoueae
aieia”, i?ienoiaeyuae ia iaoeo aeacao nioeeioaoiieiae/aneie
?aaiethoeeae, yaeyaony eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiiiuethoa?iay ?aaiethoeey, a
niioaaonoaothuei ae oeiii oeeaeeecaoeee – eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai. I?e
oi?ie?iaaiee iiaiai iauanoaa i?aoa?iaaatho ?aaeeeaeueiua eciaiaiey
iaoa?eaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai, ie?iaicc?aiea, auo e ia?aciaaiea, eneonnoai
e eoeueoo?a. Iaiythony ia oieueei oi?iu, ii e niaea?aeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe. A aeaiiii eiioaenoa aaaeii iiiyoue oa iiaua o?aaiaaiey,
eioi?ua i?aaeuyaeyao eioi?iaoeeiiiia iauanoai e i?iaeoe?iaaieth
i?aaiecaoeee, e iauaaeeiaieth eee ?acaeaeaieth ?aaio a iae. Anee a
aeieioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa aeaenoaoao i?eioeei “eaaeaeue aeieaeai
ciaoue/oiaoue noieueei, /oiau a noiia ana ciaee/oiaee ana”, oi a
eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa aeaenoaoao i?eioeei: “eaaeaeue aeieaeai
ciaoue/oiaoue noieueei iai anai, /oiau auoue iacaaeneiui a naiai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n ae?oaeie”, (?en. 6).

?en. 6. “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua” a?aieoeu eiaeeaeaea e i?aaiecaoeee a aeaoo
oeiao iauanoa

N ia/aea 80-o aa. a ?acaeouo no?aiao aeaeiaay n?aaea iiae aeeyieai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa i?aoa?iaea cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey.
Neaaeothuea oaeoi?u ii?aaeaeytho o?iaaiue “eioi?iaoeeiiiinoe”
aiai?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ie?oaeaiey:

• ethaie eiaeeaeae eee i?aaieciaaiiay a?oiia iiaoo a ethaii ianoa e a
ethaia a?aiy naiaiaeii eiaoue aeinooi /a?ac aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua
nenoaiu nayce e ethaie iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ieo eioi?iaoeee;

• ethaie eiaeeaeae eee i?aaieciaaiiay a?oiia oiatho eniieueciaaoue
nia?aiaiioth eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth aeey ?aoaiey noiyueo ia?aae
ieie i?iaeai:

• ethaie eiaeeaeae, i?aaieciaaiiay a?oiia e iauanoai a oeaeii eiatho
iaiaoiaeeiua oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa, eio?ano?oeoo?o e nioeeaeueioth aaco
aeey i?iecaiaenoaa e aini?iecaiaenoaa o?aaoaiie eioi?iaoeee.

I?ia?ann eioi?iaoeee ?ac?ooee caieiooinoue i?aaiecaoeee e naeaeae
iaeiyooaeoeaiuie oa ec ieo, eioi?ua eniieueciaaee no?oeoo?u,
iaania/eaathuea yoi ea/anoai (iaoaienoe/aneea, ei?ii?aoeaiua)! Iaeiei ec
aaaeiuo iineaaenoaee yoiai yaeeinue nouanoaaiiia naeeaeaiea
i?iecaiaeeoaey n iio?aaeoaeai. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, canoaaeei
i?iecaiaeeoaey aua aieaa iia?aoeaii ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiey a
o?aaiaaieyo iio?aaeoaey e aua aieaa ea/anoaaiii oaeiaeaoai?youe
iio?aaiinoe iineaaeiaai. ?acei aic?inea acaeiicaaeneiinoue e
acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e iio?aaeoaeyie ia ?uiea.
Eiie?aoiue ?uiie, a aeiiieiaiea e eiie?aoiiio iio?aaeoaeth, noae ai
iiiaii ii?aaeaeyoue no?oeoo?o i?aaiecaoeee.

A neeaaeuaathueony oneiaeyo a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa iia iiaaaeeoue oio,
eoi iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiui ia?acii i?eniinaaeeaae naith i?aaiecaoeeth e
iiaui o?aaiaaieyi aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey, oi?ie?oaiiai
eioi?iaoeeiiiui iauanoaii. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy a eeoa?aoo?a
?anniao?eaathony ?acee/iua iiaua oeiu i?aaiecaoeee, oniaoii
aeaenoaothueo a “eioi?iaoeeiiiie” n?aaea. Ieaea aoaeoo iienaiu
i?aaiecaoeee oaeiai ?iaea: yaeoie?aoe/aneea, iiiaiia?iua,
ia?oeneiaoeaiua, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia ?uiie e i?aaiecaoeee
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai oeia.

2.1. Yaeoie?aoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey.

Eaeeie aeieaeiu auoue i?aaiecaoeee a aoaeouai? Eae iie aeieaeiu auoue
ni?iaeoe?iaaiu? Eaeei ia?acii aeieaeiu a ieo iauaaeeiyoueny eee
aeaeeoueny ?aaiou? Ioaaoeoue ia ana yoi aeinoaoi/ii o?oaeii. Iaeiaei a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iaeanoyo aunieeo oaoiieiaee e a auno?i ?anooueo
io?aneyo iiyaeeenue i?aaiecaoeee, o eioi?uo eiathony i?eciaee
i?aaiecaoeee aoaeouaai. A iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a yoe i?aaiecaoeee iieo/eee
iacaaiea yaeoie?aoe/aneeo (io aiae. adhocracy) ca eo i?eiaieiinoue e
ianoaiaea?oiui e neiaeiui ?aaioai, e o?oaeiiii?aaeaeyaiui e
auno?iiaiythueiny no?oeoo?ai, e aeanoe, iniiaaiiie ia ciaiee e
eiiiaoaioiinoe, a ia ia iiceoeee a ea?a?oee.

Yaeoie?aoey – yoi a oi aea a?aiy e oi?aaeai/aneee noeeue, e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiue aeecaei. Eeth/aaui a iae yaeyaony eiiiaoaioiinoue e iia
oeaieony iaeaunoei ia?acii. Eiio?ieue a oi?aaeaiee
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony onoaiiaeaieai oeaeae, iau/ii iai?yaeaiiuo. N?aaenoaa
aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae auae?athony naieie eniieieoaeyie. Eaaeaeue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ioaa/aao ca naie aeaenoaey, e aiciaa?aaeaeaaony oio,
eoi aeiaeaaaony oniaoa. A yaeoie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee eiaeeaeae
eniuouaaao neeueiia aeaaeaiea ecaia, eioi?ia /anoe/ii ineaaeyaony
a?oiiiaie ?aaioie, nicaeathuae /oanoai iauiinoe a ?aaioa. ?ene, oae aea,
eae e aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, aeaeeony iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie.

Oi?iaeueiinoe ia oeie/iu aeey yaeoie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee e naiaeyony
a iae aei ieieioia. Yoi ioiineony e ea?a?oee, ?aai/ei oneiaeyi e
iiiauaieyi, eueaioai, iaeaaeaea e o.i. Oae, a oaeie i?aaiecaoeee /anoi
auaaao o?oaeii ioee/eoue iaiaaeaea?a io ?aai/aai.

Eaeay yaeoie?aoe/aneie n?aaeu a i?aaiecaoeee iau/ii i?eienuaaaony
aia?eeaineie eiiiueoa?iie oe?ia “Ouetheaoo-Iaeea?ae”, ia/aaoae
i?iaiaeeoue aa a aeeciue aua a 40-o aa. Oaea a oa/aiea aeieaiai a?aiaie,
aeaaea a ia?eiae ?aoeannee, eiiiaiey ia oaieueiyea ?aaioieeia. Eiiiaiey
nio?aiyao ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeie ?acia?u naieo ioaeaeaiee (a
i?aaeaeao 1500 /aeiaae), /oi iiiiaaei ae aiaae?eoue iaiaa oi?iaeueiua
ioiioaiey e aoiinoa?o a?oiiiaie ?aaiou.

Yaeoie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee i?enoua aunieay noaiaiue naiaiaeu a
aeaenoaeyo ?aaioieeia, ii aa aa?oeiie yaeythony ea/anoaaiiia auiieiaiea
?aaiou e oiaiea ?aoaoue aicieeathuea i?iaeaiu. Eeth/aauie yeaiaioaie
yaeoie?aoe/aneiai aeecaeia yaeythony neaaeothuea:

• ?aaioa a iaeanoyo n aunieie eee neiaeiie oaoiieiaeae, o?aaothuay
oai?/anoaa, eiiiaaoeaiinoe e yooaeoeaiie niaianoiie ?aaiou
(a?oiiiaay acaeiinaycue ?aaio);

• ?aaioieee yaeythony aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie yenia?oaie a naiai
aeaea, auiieiytho neiaeiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iia?aoeee e oiatho
eiiioieoee?iaaoue ae?oa n ae?oaii aunieiyooaeoeaiui ia?acii;

• no?oeoo?a eiaao i?aaie/aneoth iniiao e /aoei ia ii?aaeaeaia,
i?aiaeaaeatho iaoi?iaeueiua e ai?eciioaeueiua nayce.
Ea?a?oe/aneia iino?iaiea iinoiyiii iaiyaony. O iiiaeo iaiaaeaea?ia iao
aeanoeie i?eaycee e eaeie-oi iaeiie ?aaioa. *anoe no?oeoo?u nio?aiythony
a iaaieueoeo ?acia?ao:

• i?aai i?eiyoey ?aoaiee e aeanoue iniiaaiu ia yenia?oiuo ciaieyo,
oeiainiaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony naa?oo;

• nenoaia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey no?ieony ia yenia?oiuo ciaieyo, aeeaaea
?aaioieea, aai eiiiaoaioeee e noaiaie o/anoey a iauae ?aaioa,
aiciaa?aaeaeaiea iineo a?oiiiaie oa?aeoa?;

• ioiioaiey ii aa?oeeaee e ai?eciioaee i?aeiouanoaaiii iinyo
iaoi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa?, ia?aaeei ionoonoaoao noaia no?oeoo?u oaeie
i?aaiecaoeee.

Iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiui yoio aeecaei yaeyaony aeey i?aaiecaoeee a oaeeo
iaeanoyo, eae eiinoeueoaoeeiiii-iiaiaaaaeai/aneay,
eiiiuethoa?ii-yeaeo?iiiay, iaaeeoeeineay, enneaaeiaaoaeueneay e
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neay, i?iecaiaenoai oeeueiia e o.i.

?en. 7. I?eioeeieaeueiay noaia no?oeoo?u yaeoie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee

No?oeoo?a yaeoie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee iau/ii annioeee?oaony ni noaiie
eiioeaio?e/aneie oi?iu (?en. 7). Yoi ia i?aaiecaoeey, eioi?ay aeaeeony n
ia/aeii a iaeiie oi/ea, aeaeaaynue io eioi?ie aaa?o eee aiec, au
i?eoiaeeoa a eiia/ioth oi/eo. A yaeoie?aoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeee anoue
oi/ea ion/aoa, io eioi?ie no?oeoo?a eae au ?anoiaeeony e?oaaie ii
?aaeeaeueiui iai?aaeaieyi. E?oa aeey oaeie i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony
neiaieii oiai, /oi ana oneeey aa ?aaioieeia aaaeoo e iaeiiio, e oniaoo
eiiiaiee. A iae oeaiiinoe (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue – ea/anoaa aa ?aaioieeia)
ia ?aiaee?othony ii o?iaiyi. I?aaiecaoeee iiaoo eiaoue ?acioth noaiaiue
yaeoie?aoe/iinoe. Oai ia iaiaa, niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeiui yaeyaony oi, /oi
yoi ii?aaeaeyaony o?iaiai oaoiieiaee, ea/anoaii ?aaioieeia e
iiaeaioiaeie ?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

2.2. Iiiaiia?iay i?aaiecaoeey.

A i?aaeuaeouae aeaaa ?anniao?eaaeanue aeaoia?iay iiaeaeue
aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee eee iao?e/iay iiaeaeue iino?iaiey i?aaiecaoeee.
Aeaoiy ecia?aieyie a iae auee ?ano?nu e ?acoeueoaou, n i?eaioaoeeae ia
eioi?ua i?ienoiaeeo iaeiia?aiaiiia iauaaeeiaiea ?aaio a oi?ia iao?e/iuo
y/aae. Naia iao?e/iay i?aaiecaoeey iau/ii yaeyaony eiiaeiaoeeae
eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie e aeeaeceiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee, eae au
neeaaeuaaaony ec ieo. Iaeiaei i?e oaeii iiaeoiaea ca a?aieoeaie
iao?e/iie i?aaiecaoeee inoathony oaeea aaaeiua ia?aiaiiua, eae
oa??eoi?ey, ?uiie e iio?aaeoaeue, n i?eaioaoeeae ia eioi?uo oaeaea iiaoo
iauaaeeiyoueny ?aaiou a i?aaiecaoeee. I?e aeiaaaeaiee yoiai o?aoueaai
ecia?aiey iiyaeythony iiiaiia?iua i?aaiecaoeee. Aia?aua yoio oa?iei aue
eniieueciaai a 1974 a. O. Aiaaeiii i?e iienaiee no?oeoo?u ei?ii?aoeee
“Aeio Ei?ieia”. Iiiaiia?iay i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao auoue ecia?aaeaia, eae
yoi iieacaii ia ?en. 8. Iio?aaeoaeueneea, ?uii/iua eee

oa??eoi?eaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey

?en. 8. I?eioeeieaeueiay noaia no?oeoo?u iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee

Iniiaie iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony aaoiiiiiay ?aai/ay a?oiia,
iaeiia?aiaiii auiieiythuay o?e caaea/e.’

iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaoiaeeiuie

?ano?naie.

i?iecaiaenoai aeey eiie?aoiiai iio?aaeoaey, ?uiea eee oa??eoi?ee
i?iaeoeoa eee oneoae;

ianeoaeeaaiea eiie?aoiiai iio?aaeoaey, ?acaeoea eee
i?iieeiiaaiea ia eiie?aoiue ?uiie, i?iaaaeaiea iia?aoeee a i?aaeaeao
ii?aaeaeaiiie oa??eoi?ee.

Ii niaieoiiinoe auiieiyaiuo caaea/ oaeea aaoiiiiiua a?oiiu iieo/atho
iau/ii noaoon oeaio?a i?eauee, a a ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo iiaoo yaeyoueny
naiinoiyoaeueiuie eiiiaieyie. Iaeiaei a iaieo neo/ayo iie oai eee eiui
ia?acii iaeaaathony ei?ii?aoeaiuie iaeiaaie.

A iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee athaeaeaou iiae?acaeaeaiee
?ac?aaaouaathony naieie iiae?acaeaeaieyie, ?oeiaiaenoai i?aaiecaoeee
oieueei eiaanoe?oao a ieo n?aaenoaa e aeaao aeaiueae acaeiu.

I?iaeaia iao?e/iie iiaeaee, eae ia yoii aiai?eee ?aiaa, ninoieo a oii,
/oi iia iniiaaia ia nenoaia aeaieiiai iiae/eiaiey, yaeythuaeny iaeaieaa
oycaeiui aa naienoaii. Aa iaaeiytho a oii, /oi iia nicaeaao oae
iacuaaaioth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth oecio?aieth. Iiiaiia?iay aea iiaeaeue ia
nicaeaao iiaeiaiie i?iaeaiu. A iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee ioiioaiey /eaiia
aaoiiiiiie a?oiiu n ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaiecaoeee e aa ae?oaeie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie ie/ai ia ioee/athony io ioiioaiee n iinoi?iiiei
eeeaioii.

I?eia?ii iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee iiaoo auoue oiiieiaaiua ?aiaa
yenia?eiaioaeueiua a?eaaaeu “oaeaaea/iie” nai?ee ia caaiaeao eiiiaiee
“Aieueai”. Yoe a?eaaaeu, ninoiyuea ec
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo e iiiaii?ioeeueiuo ?aaioieeia, iieo/atho
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue caeac io eiie?aoiiai eeoea ia nai?eo aaoiiiaeey.
A?eaaaea naia ii?aaeaeyao, eaeea ?ano?nu, ioeoaea e a eaeii iauaia
aeieaeiu auoue iieo/aiu. Aeaeaa a?eaaaea niae?aao aaoiiiaeeue ia
“oaeaaeea” io ia/aea aei eiioea e i?iaeaao aai caeac/eeo. Ec iieo/aiiie
noiiu a?eaaaea ?ann/eouaaaony n iinoaaueeaie, eiiiaieae, ?aaioieeaie e
i?iecaiaeeo ae?oaea auieaou. A inoaaoayny noiia ?aeiaanoe?oaony.
A?eaaaea yaeyaony eae au “i?aaei?eyoeai a i?aaei?eyoee”. Aeaaiui
i?aeiouanoaii oaeiai iiaeoiaea yaeyaony oi, /oi oaeaaony iaeneiaeueii
oaeiaeaoai?eoue cai?inu iio?aaeoaey, naeecea aai n i?iecaiaeeoaeai.
Aeaiiue iiuo ia iineo aua ianniaiai oa?aeoa?a ec-ca naiae neiaeiinoe e
aei?iaiaeciu. O?aaothony i/aiue aunieia ea/anoai ?aaioieeia,
aaeaeaaoiay i?aaiecaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, io?aaioaiiinoue iia?aoeee e
naycae. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeia niioaaonoaothuay n?aaea: caeac/eee e
iinoaaueee, eio?ano?oeoo?a, iauay eoeueoo?a e o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey e
aeecie.

Ae?oaay noaia no?oeoo?u iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee i?eaiaeeony a eieaa
?.Aeiooa “Ieaie?iaaiea aoaeouaai ei?ii?aoeee”. A iae i?iaiaeeony eaeay i
oii, /oi eaaeaeia iiae?acaeaeaiea a iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao
auoue i?aaieciaaii oaeei aea ia?acii, eae e i?aaiecaoeey a oeaeii.
Iiiaiia?iay no?oeoo?a i?eiaieia e ethaiio, aieioue aei iaeue/aeoaai,
iiae?acaeaeaieth i?aaiecaoeee. *ai iaiueoa iiae?acaeaeaiea eee /anoue
i?aaiecaoeee, oai iaiueoa aai ooao e aieueoa ?aciiia?aciuo iaycaiiinoae
o aai ?oeiaiaeeoaey. A i?aaiecaoeee, oicyenoaaiiua aaeeieoeu eioi?ie
ioiineoaeueii iacaaeneiu, ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa e
oa??eoi?eaeueii ?aca?inaiu, iiiaiia?iie aeaeaaony eiaiii ii?aaeaeaiiay
oicyenoaaiiay aaeeieoea, a ia i?aaiecaoeey a oeaeii. Yoio oei
i?aaiecaoeee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeaaea iaaieueoiio iiae?acaeaeaieth
auoue ianoieueei aaoiiiiiui, ianeieueei aiiaua yoi aiciiaeii a no?oeoo?a
aieaa e?oiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iiiaiia?iay iiaeaeue nicaeaao
n iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie noaiaiueth i?eaeeaeaiiinoe naiaiaeiue ?uiie
aioo?e i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ue ia eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoae aeey neia?aee e
yeiiiiee ia ianooaaa aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iniiaiuie i?aeiouanoaaie iiiaiia?iuo i?aaiecaoeee ?.Aeioo n/eoaao
neaaeothuea:

ionoonoaoao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a i?iaaaeaiee eaeeo-eeai
?ai?aaiecaoeee n oeaeueth eciaiaiey i?ei?eoaoiinoe e?eoa?eaa,
eniieuecoaiuo i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee ?aaio, aeoeaiou iiaoo auoue eciaiaiu
iooai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ?ano?nia ?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaiecaoeee;

iiae?acaeaeaiey iiaeii nicaeaaaoue, eeeaeaee?iaaoue eee
iiaeeoeoee?iaaoue aac na?ueaciuo eciaiaiee iieiaeaiey ae?oaeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee. *ai aieueoa /anoae i?aaiecaoeee eiioaeoe?otho n
“iiiaiia?iie” a?oiiie, oai iaiueoa aicaeaenoaotho ia iaa eciaiaiey a
yoeo /anoyo;

nicaeaaony iaeneiaeueii aeaaii?eyoiay neooaoeey aeey
aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee i?e oii, /oi ?ieue ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee
inoaaony aaaeouae;

e eayuiio iiiaiia?iiio ia?aciaaieth i?eiaiyaony
oieoeoee?iaaiiay, /aoei oeene?oaiay e eaaei ecia?yaiay ia?a
yooaeoeaiinoe – iieo/aaiay i?eaueue, /oi i?aaeioa?auaao auiieiaiea
inaaaei?aaiou e aicieeiiaaiea yeaiaioia ieioie ath?ie?aoee. I?e yoii
i?eaueue, ?anniao?eaaaiay eae iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea ?acaeoey
aeciana, ia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui ia?eeii oniaoa. I?aiaeaaeathuae
oeaeueth aunooiaao ?acaeoea iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee e aa /eaiia.

2.3. Ia?oeneiaoeaiay i?aaiecaoeey.

Ianiio?y ia iiiaea i?aeiouanoaa iiiaiia?iie i?aaiecaoeee, oai ia iaiaa
aeaaea n aa iiiiuueth auaaao o?oaeii nicaeaoue oaeoth no?oeoo?o, eioi?ay
ono?aeaaea au anao /eaiia i?aaiecaoeee e aaeaeaaoii iioeae?iaaea au eo
aeayoaeueiinoue. ?yae niaoeeaeenoia n/eoaao, /oi aeaiiay i?iaeaia aieaa
oniaoii ?aoaaony, anee /eaiai i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai
o/anoaiaaoue a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee, eanathueony eo ?aaiou. Iineaaeiaa
ooi/iaiea yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueiui e ioee/aao a ei?ia i?aaiecaoeee,
iino?iaiiua ia “o/anoee ?aaioieeia a oi?aaeaiee”, eee o.i.
ia?oeneiaoeaiua i?aaiecaoeee, io i?aaiecaoeee, aaea iin?aaenoaii
nicaeaiey i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey inouanoaeyaony iaeiiiaoaioiia
aiaoaoaeuenoai a ?aaioo ae?oaeo /eaiia eee /anoae i?aaiecaoeee.
Iaaeyaeiui i?eia?ii oaeiai iiaeoiaea yaeeinue aaaaeaiea a ia?eiae
ia?ano?ieee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo auaoaai NNN? auai?iinoe ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
nicaeaiea ia ieo niaaoia o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia, iinoaaeaiiuo aieath
caeiia iaae ?oeiaiaenoaii e i?ecaaiiuo aeaiie?aoece?iaaoue oi?aaeaiea
i?aaei?eyoeai.

Eaaeauaa a iniiaa ia?oeneiaoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee o/anoea ?aaioieeia
anao o?iaiae a oi?aaeaiee i?aaeiieaaaao:

• o/anoea a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee’,

• o/anoea a onoaiiaeaiee oeaeae’,

• o/anoea a ?aoaiee i?iaeai.

I?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea iiaeaee ia?oeneiaoeaiie i?aaiecaoeee io
o?aaeeoeeiiiie e n aeaeaae?iaaieai i?aa i?eaiaeeony ia ?en. 9.

?en. 9. ?acee/ey a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee a o?aaeeoeeiiiie, ia?oeneiaoeaiie e
aeaeaae?othuae i?aaiecaoeee

Noaiaiue e oi?iu o/anoey a oi?aaeaiee iaiieiytho
ia?oeneiaoeaiinoue ii?aaeaeaiiui niaea?aeaieai. ?acee/aaony o?e noaiaie
o/anoey:

• auaeaeaeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee;

• au?aaioea aeueoa?iaoeau:

• auai? ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey.

Ia?aay noaiaiue – auaeaeaeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee – ia o?aaoao aaaaeaiey
no?oeoo?iuo e ae?oaeo eciaiaiee a o?aaeeoeeiiioth i?aaiecaoeeth e iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ?oeiaiaeeoaeai. Oaeie iiaeoiae ana aua oe?iei
i?eiaiyaony ia i?aaei?eyoeyo n oeaio?aeeciaaiiui ?oeiaiaenoaii.

Aoi?ay noaiaiue – ?ac?aaioea aeueoa?iaoea – o?aaoao oaea iiyaeaiey a
i?aaiecaoeee niaoeeaeueiuo no?oeoo?, eioi?ua iiaee au yooaeoeaii ?aoaoue
yoo caaea/o. Ia i?aeoeea yoi au?aaeaaony a nicaeaiee a?aiaiiuo eee
iinoiyiiuo eiieoaoia eee eiiennee, eioi?ui ii?o/aaony auiieiyoue
aeaiioth ?aaioo. I?eia?ii oaeeo ia?aciaaiee iiaoo auoue oae iacuaaaiua
oic?an/aoiua eee eiioeeeoiua eiiennee – ia ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo,
eiieoaou ii iaai?o eaae?ia a ?aai/ea a?oiiu – ia aia?eeaineeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo, e?oaeee ea/anoaa ~ ia yiiineeo i?aaei?eyoeyo.

O?aouey noaiaiue – auai? aeueoa?iaoeau – i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi o/anoea a
oi?aaeaiee inouanoaeyaony a oi?ia” ?aaiou niaoeeaeueiuo niaaoia
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai, oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai e oi?aaeai/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.
?aoaiey oaeeo niaaoia ia?aaeei auaatho iaycaoaeueiuie aeey oao
?oeiaiaeeoaeae, i?e eioi?uo iie nicaeathony. A ninoaa yoeo niaaoia
aoiaeyo, eae i?aaeei, eeoea ni neaaeothuaai ca o?iaiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey
aieaa ieceiai o?iaiy ea?a?oee a i?aaiecaoeee.

Niaaou eiatho neaaeothuea ooieoeee:

• ianoo ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca eii?aeeiaoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe
iiae?acaeaeaiee, iiae/eiaiiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeth, e eioi?iio ioiineony
yoio niaao;

• ioaa/atho ca eioaa?aoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiee,
i?aaenoaaeaiiuo a iai, n aeayoaeueiinoueth iaeiiai eee aeaoo auoanoiyueo
o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey e iaeiiai eee aeaoo ieaeanoiyueo (iau/ii
?oeiaiaeeoaeue eaaeaeiai o?iaiy i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaoao iiieii
“naiaai” niaaoa aua a aeaoo -“ieaeiai” e “aa?oiai”);

• ii?aaeaeytho iieeoeeo (i?aaeea e i?ioeaaeo?u) iiae/eiaiiuo ei

ii?acaeaeaiee, niaianoeioth n aeaoiy ae?oaeie o?iaiyie. Aaaeii
ioiaoeoue, /oi niaaou ia i?eieiatho ?aoaiey ca iiaeio/aoiua ei
iiae?acaeaeaiey, iie i?eieiatho ?aoaiey oieueei ioiineoaeueii
i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo ia eo o?iaia.

Iaeioi?ui niaaoai ii?o/aaony ioeaiea e iaeia?aiea aeayoaeueiinoe
iiaeio/aoiiai ei ?oeiaiaeeoaey. Iaeiaei i?aai oaieeoue inoaaony ca
auoanoiyuei ?oeiaiaenoaii. Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeue ioaeaeueiue
?oeiaiaeeoaeue iieo/aao iiaeaea?aeeo eae naa?oo, oae e nieco.

Iienaiiua oneiaey i?eaeatho no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee
aeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?: eaaeaeia eeoei a i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ia eiaao
aeanoue iaae ae?oaeie, iiaeio/aoii eo niaianoiiio eiio?ieth. Yoi
i?aaeioa?auaao i?iecaie ii ioiioaieth e ethaiio /eaio i?aaiecaoeee ni
noi?iiu ethaiai auoanoiyuaai eeoea.

Ia?oeneiaoeaiua i?aaiecaoeee eiatho e ae?oaea aaaeiua
i?aeiouanoaa. I?e i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaiiie ?aaioa o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee
iiauoaao ea/anoai i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee. ?anniao?eaaaony
aieueoaa eiee/anoai aeueoa?iaoea, i?eaiineony aieueoa iiuoa a
ianoaeaeaiea, aiaa/a noaiiaeony ioeaiea aiaoiae n?aaeu. O/anoea
?acaeaaao oai?/aneia ioiioaiea e ?aaioa, ?iaeaeaao aieueoa eaeae,
iaiaauaao ?aaioo a oeaeii. ?acaeaay nenoaio eiiioieeaoeee a
i?aaiecaoeee, o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee ioe?uaaao eiiioieeaoeeiiioth nenoaio
nieco e ineaaeyao, oai naiui, aeaaeaiea ia ?oeiaiaeeoaey ni noi?iiu
iiae/eiaiiuo. O ?aaioieeia iiyaeyaony /oanoai nianoaaiieea, iiauoaaony
iioeaaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe, iie eo/oa auiieiytho i?eieiaaiua eie aea
?aoaiey. Nicaeaaony aoiinoa?a a?oiiiaie, niaianoiie ?aaiou, cia/eoaeueii
oeo/oathuay o?oaeiaoth ii?aeue e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Iaeiaei aea i?e iai?aaeeueiii i?iaeoe?iaaiee ia?oeneiaoeaiua
i?aaiecaoeee noaeeeaathony n ?yaeii i?iaeai. Oae, ianiaianoeiinoue
ea?a?oee e aeaiie?aoee, caeiaeaiiay a iuoeaiee /aeiaaea, iiaeao
iinoiyiii aica?auaoue aai e aeiiouaieth, /oi aeanoue anaaaea eaeao a
iaeiii iai?aaeaiee. A oaeii neo/aa o?oaeii ni?iaeoe?iaaoue
aeaiie?aoe/aneoth i?aaiecaoeeth, a eioi?ie nio?aiyaony ea?a?oey. A
?acoeueoaoa i?ienoiaeeo oeeii eeai a noi?iio iayooaeoeaiinoe niaaoia,
eeai iie ia/eiatho aiaoeaaoueny a aeaea iiaeio/aoiuo ei ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e
iiae?acaeaeaiee. I?aeoeea o/anoey iieacuaaao, /oi neeueii ?acaeoua
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoneea ia/aea a /aeiaaea anooiatho a i?ioeai?a/ea n
aeaaeaieai eieeaa, eioi?ia ieacuaaaony eie ia eaaeaeiai ioaeaeueiiai
o/anoieea. Aicieeaao yooaeo “eieeaeoeaiie yenieoaoaoeee”, a?icyuae i?e
ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao noaoue aieaa aeanoeie, /ai
“ia/aeuenoaaiiay yenieoaoaoeey”. Eieeaeoeaiue eiio?ieue aeaenoaee
?oeiaiaeeoaey ?acaeaaao o iaai iiioeenoneea ea/anoaa, a o “eiio?iea?ia”
– eieeaeoeaiue yaieci, eiathuee ?ac?ooeoaeueiua iineaaenoaey aeey
i?aaei?eyoee. Ia?aaeei a nayce n i?eoiaeii iiaiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey,
iaeaaeathuaai naiei noeeai oi?aaeaiey, naiei aeaeaieai neooaoeee,
aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?aoi?ie?iaaiey ia?oeneiaoeaiuo no?oeoo?.
Iaeiaei yoi iiaeao ieacaoueny naa?oneiaeiie caaea/ae, oae eae
ia?oeneiaoeaiua no?oeoo?u o?oaeii ia?ano?aeaaoue. Ia yooaeoeaiinoue
no?oeoo? n o/anoeai ?aaioieeia a oi?aaeaiee nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea
ieacuaaao iiaeaea?aeaiea aaeaina a iacia/aaiinoe naa?oo e auai?iinoe
nieco /eaiia niaaoia.

Ia?oeneiaoeaiua oeiu no?oeoo? eniieuecothony a ?acee/iiai ?iaea
i?aaiecaoeeyo iacaaeneii io eo ?acia?a e io?aneaaie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe. Iie, eae e iiiaiia?iua, iiaoo ?ani?ino?aiyoueny
oieueei ia /anoue eee ioaeaeueiue o?iaaiue a i?aaiecaoeee. Eo aiaae?aiea
iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny eae naa?oo, oae e nieco iooai iinoaiaiiiai e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ioaaoa iaeiiai o?iaiy ca ae?oaei.

2.4. I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay i?aaiecaoeey.

Auno?ua e aeeiaie/iua eciaiaiey iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey, i?iecioaaeoea
ai aiaoiai ie?oaeaiee aeaeiauo i?aaiecaoeee, niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth
iniaiai oeia i?aaiecaoeee, iieo/eaoeo iacaaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo.
Iiyaeaiea yoeo i?aaiecaoeee auei naycaii n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth nicaeaiey
?aaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae ia onoie/eaie e iinoiyiiie iniiaa
iooai iienea e ?aaeecaoeee anao eiathueony a yoii iai?aaeaiee
aiciiaeiinoae. Yoiai oaeaea o?aaiaaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue iioeaaoeee
?aaioieeia e i?eiyoeth eie ia naay ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca nicaeaiea yoeo
yeiiiie/aneeo oeaiiinoae. E, iaeiiaoe, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea no?oeoo?u,
eae niinia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ioaeaeueiuo eeoe e a?oii, auee aucaaiu e
aeecie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aaeaine?iaee auaiaeu e ?enea, iieo/aaiuo e
?acaeaeyaiuo ioaeaeueiuie eeoeaie e a?oiiaie.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea no?oeoo?u, i eioi?uo eaeao ?a/ue, ia neaaeoao
ioiaeaeanoaeyoue n iaeui aecianii, ioe?uoeai aeciana,
eiaanoeoeeiiiuie i?iaeoaie e i?inoi niiniaii auno?iai iaiaauaiey.
I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee ia naycaiu n ?acia?ii aeciana, n
eaeie-oi ii?aaeaeaiiie io?aneueth, n oa??eoi?eae eee n eoeueoo?ie.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee i?eaioe?iaaiiu ia ?ino e aieueoa
?an/eouaatho ia eiathueany aiciiaeiinoe, /ai ia eiio?iee?oaiua
?ano?nu. ?aaeecaoeey yoeo aiciiaeiinoae e eniieueciaaiea aeey yoiai
?ano?nia /aua inouanoaeyaony ia e?aoein?i/iie, yieciaee/aneie e
iiyoaiiie iniiaa. Eiio?ieue ca ?ano?naie iineo iau/ii iiin?aaeiaaiiue
oa?aeoa? (a?aiaea, caei e o.i.). No?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aaiecaoeeae oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaeui eiee/anoaii
o?iaiae, aeaeinoueth e naoaaui iino?iaieai. Aeayoaeueiinoue oaeie
i?aaiecaoeee iau/ii ioeaieaaaony ia ia iniiaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe, a ia
iniiaa yooaeoeaiinoe. Iioeaaoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
no?ieony ia iienea aiciiaeiinoae e aeinoeaeaiee ?acoeueoaoa, a ia ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. N oi/ee c?aiey
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iino?iaiey, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea no?oeoo?u
aace?othony ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie eieoeeaoeaa, a ia ia eii?aeeiaoeee,
eae yoi eiaao ianoi a o?aaeeoeeiiiuo i?aaiecaoeeyo.
Neiioeaio?e?iaaiiia ?acaeoea caiaiyaony ?acaeoeai ii iiiaei
iai?aaeaieyi. A i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay eiiiaoaioiinoue
aaaeiaa i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eiiiaoaioiinoe. Eeth/aauie i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie
oaeoi?aie yaeythony ethaee, a?oiiu e eo eaaeeoeeaoeey. Ieaea ia ?en. 10
i?eaiaeeony i?eioeeieaeueiay noaia no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
i?aaiecaoeee.

?en. 10. Noaia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aaiecaoeee

I?aaei?eieiaoaeueneay i?aaiecaoeey n iiceoeee no?oeoo?iiai acaeyaea ia
iaa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aaa?ioooth ie?aieaeo, a iniiaaiee eioi?ie
iaoiaeeony ?oeiaiaenoai yoie i?aaiecaoeee. I?e yoii ?oeiaiaenoai ia
oieueei iaiyao naia ianoi, ii e iaiyao naie iniiaiua ooieoeee. Aeaaiie
iaycaiiinoueth ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie i?aaiecaoeee aianoi
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eiio?iey yaeyaony anaia?iay iiaeaea?aeea oneeee
?aaioieeia, aeaeathueo aecian. Neaaeothuee nieco o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeee
aeeth/aao o?e iniiaiuo aeiea. Eeth/aaie ec ieo -yoi ?ano?nu i?aaiecaoeee
(ethaee, aeaiueae, a?aiy, oaoiieiaee, eioi?iaoeey, eaeae e o.ae.).
Caaea/a yoiai aeiea – iaania/aiea ?ano?naie oneeee ?aaioieeia,
aeaeathueo aecian. Aoi?ie aeie – yoi iiae?acaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea
?uiee aeey aeciana e ia?aaeathuea eo ?acaeoea oai, eoi aeaeaao aecian.
O?aoee aeie ninoieo ec eiinoeueoaioia, a oi/iaa aecian-o?aia?ia,
iiiiaathueo naiei iiuoii e eiooeoeeae aeaeaoue aecian. Ia aa?oeia
ia?aaa?iooie ie?aieaeu ?aniieiaeaiu aeaeathuea aecian
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea y/aeee, noieone?iaaiiua ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ?uiie,
ia eioi?ii iie caieiathony iieneii e ?aaeecaoeeae aiciiaeiinoae. Yoe
y/aeee ia aeaea yaeythony iaaieueoeie aaoiiiiiuie a?oiiaie ?aaioieeia,
iauaaeeiaiiuo ii e?eoa?eth aeciana, eioi?ue iie aeaeatho. Ii noaoono iie
iiaoo auoue oeaio?aie i?eauee eee aeaaea naiinoiyoaeueiuie oe?iaie eee
eiiiaieyie. Oaeia no?oeoo?iia iino?iaiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
i?aaiecaoeee “iiai?a/eaaao aa eeoeii” e iio?aaeoaeth, i?eaeeaeaao e iaio
e iicaieyao naiaa?aiaiii e aeaei ?aaae?iaaoue ia eciaiaiea aai
o?aaiaaiee. I?e yoii inouanoaeyaony iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia
aeaeaae?iaaiea i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe oai, eoi iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeaeaao
aecian. ?acei iiauoaaony iioeae?iaaiiinoue ethaeae e yooaeoeaiinoue eo
?aaiou.

3. ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey nia?aiaiiuo ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Ia/eiay n 3O-x aiaeia e aieioue aei ia/aea ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieea auaoaai
NNN? auea iiaeaa?aeaia aeaaioiiaiee. I?aaei?eyoey-aeaaiou iiyaeyeenue
iaeei ca ae?oaei. N ia/aeii ia?aoiaea e?uii/iui ioiioaieyi
i?aaeoaeuenoai ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i?eeiaeeei iaeneioi oneeee e
iiiu?aieth iaeuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. A ?acoeueoaoa iaeua i?aaei?eyoey, oioy
e ianeieueei oaioe/ii, ii ia/aee anoaaaoue ia iiae, a oi a?aiy eae
e?oiiua ieacaeenue ia a?aie aaie?ionoaa, noaa caeiaeieeaie ?uii/iuo
i?aia?aciaaiee.

I?eoiaeeony i?eciaoue, /oi aeayoaeueiinoue ii/oe eaaeaeiai ec ieo
yaeyaony iayooaeoeaiie (ia?aioaaaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai, iinoiyiiia
oaaee/aiea oauoeia io iniiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, aieueoie iauai
iaeniieuecoaiuo iiuiinoae, e?oiiua noiiu caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae
athaeaeaoii e e?aaeeoi?aie, nie?auaiea /enea ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo).

Iaeiei ec ?aaeueiuo iooae auoiaea e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ec e?ecena
yaeyaony ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey, o.a. eciaiaiea oaoiieiae/aneie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai n oeaeueth
nio?aiaiey (?anoe?aiey) ?uieia nauoa, aeioiaeia e eaieoaea. Aaaeue a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aieueoeinoai ?inneeneeo i?aaei?eyoee eniieuecotho
eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueioth no?oeoo?o oi?aaeaiey. A i?eeiaeaiee i?eaaaeaia
no?oeoo?a iaeiiai ec oaeeo i?aaei?eyoee.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei aa?eaioia ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua.

Ia?aaea/a i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia iaeniieuecoaiua iniiaiua oiiaeu.

Aeaiiue aa?eaio yaeyaony iaeaieaa i?inoui auaiaeiui aeey e?oiiuo
i?iiuoeaiiu no?oeoo?. Eae ioia/aeinue, eo iniiaiua oiiaeu eniieuecothony
ia iieiinoueth e yaeythony naia ai?iaea aaeeanoii. Ai-ia?auo, ia i?eiiny
ie eaeie i?eauee, iie oaaee/eaatho noiio iaeiaa ia eiouanoai, /oi aua
aieueoa oaaee/eaaa noiio caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia?aae
athaeaeaoii. Ai-aoi?uo, iaee/ea oaeeo oiiaea iaaaoeaii neacuaaaony ia
no?oeoo?a aaeaina aucuaay /?acia?iia aa ooyaeaeaiea e a eiia/ iii n/aoa
cao?oaeiyy acaeiiaeaenoaea ni no?oe oo?aie oeiainiaiai naeoi?a, /oi
io?aaeaaoa ia iaee/ee iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

E?oiiui i?aaei?eyoeyi ca/anooth auaiaeii ecaaaeoueny io iaeniieuecoaiuo
iniiaiuo oiiaeia, eioi?ua ioaeiu iaeui. Iineaaeiea eiay aieaa eaaeee
aeinooi e e?aaeeoiui n?aaeno aai, iiaoo iiii/ue aeaaioai a ?aoaiee
i?iaeaiu iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe e iienea iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a ?innee
iaoneiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue acaeiinaycaiiiai ?acaeoey e?oiiuo e iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee.

?anniio?ei o?e iaeaieaa i?inouo iaoaiecia acaeiiaeaenoaey.

• I?iaeaaea iaeniieuecoaiuo iniiaiuo oiiaeia iaeiio i?aaei?eyoeth. E
i?aeiouanoaai aeaiiie i?ioeaaeo?u ioiineony auno?ia iieo/aiea
cia/eoaeueiie noiiu aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a eioi?uo e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey
ino?i ioaeaeathony. Aieaa oiai, aeey i?aaei?eyoee, oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea
eioi?uo yaeyaony i/aiue oyaeaeui, oaeie iiaeoiae iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ia
oieueei eae iioeiaeueiue, ii e aaeeinoaaiii oeaeaniia?aciue. Iaaeinoaoie
aai – aacaica?aoiay iioa?y /anoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii,
ionoonoaea aiciiaeiinoe auno?i (aac iiauo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee (oaaee/eoue
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa. I/aaeaeii, /oi aeey i?aaei?eyoee, iaoiaeyueony ia
a?aie aaie?ionoaa, yoi iaaeooaeueii. Aeey oao, eoi eniuouaaao a?aiaiiua
o?oaeiinoe, oaeie iiaeoiae iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eci-aaoue eae eceeoia
?aaeeeaeueiue.

Ioiaoei caeioa?aniaaiiinoue e aiciiaeiinoue o/anoe/y ianoiie
aaeieieno?aoeee. N iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaiiay iia?aoeey i?aaeiieaaaao
?acaeoea iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey (iaeiaiieaoaeueueea), /oi oaaee/eo
aeioiaeioth /anoue ianoiiai athaeaeaoa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, e?oiiia
i?aaei?eyoea (aeieaeiee) iieo/aao ii?aaeaeaiioth noiio n?aaenoa, eioi?ay
aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny ia iie?uoea caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae oaaea?aeueiui
e ianoiui athaeaeaoaie. Ianoiay aaeieieno?aoeey iiaeao o/anoaiaaoue a
ea/anoaa yenia?oa a ia?aaiai?ao ii ioeaiea eiouanoaa, /oiau ecaaaeaoue
iaiainiiaaiiiai caauoaiey eee caieaeaiey oeai.

I?iaeaaea iniiaiuo oiiaeia e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee iaeui inouanoaeyaony
eeai iaiin?aaenoaaiii, eeai i?e niaeaenoaee oeiainiaiai iin?aaeieea
(/aua aaiea, oioy ia naiii aeaea a yoii o/anoaotho ia oieueei oeiainiaua
no?oeoo?u, ii e oi?aiai-iin?aaeie/aneea e aeaaea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua).
Iiyaeaieaiineaaeia-ai a i?ioeannaeaeaeee iaoneiaeaii ionoonoaeai o
iaeiai i?aaei?eyoey iaiaoiaeeiie noiiu aeey aaeeiia?aiaiiiai ieaoaaea,
iineieueeo e?oiiua i?aaei?eyoey a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ioaeaeathony a
ieo aacioeaaaoaeueii (eaaeaeue

aeaiue oaaee/eaaao eae iauaiu caaeieaeaiiinoe, oae e noiiu iaie e
oo?aoia ia ieo).

A ethaii neo/aa i?eia?aoaiea aaieii /anoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia e?oiiiai
i?aaei?eyoey -naiaai ?iaea oiaa?iue e?aaeeo, iiyoiio i?e aeinoaoi/ii
aunieie aai noaaea yoiai aaie nei?aa anaai iieaeao ia oaeoth iia?aoeeth.

• Ia?aaea/a iaeiio i?aaei?eyoeth /anoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia ia iniiaaiee
aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu. Ec aeoeaia ?ano?oeoo?ece?oaiiai i?aaei?eyoey a
ea/anoaa iauaeoia a?aiaeu iiaoo aunooiaoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiua e
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua iniiaiua oiiaeu. I?e yoii ec eo ninoaaa eneeth/aaony
/anoue iai?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, o.a. ooieoeeiie?othuee aeeeie oiiae,
eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea eioi?iai cai?auaaony. Eneeth/athony oaeaea
aeoeau, i?eiinyuea nianoaaiieeo aeioiae, i?aauoathuee aaee/eio
iioaioeeaeueiie a?aiaeiie ieaou.

A?aiaeiay ieaoi neeaaeuaaaony ec noiiu aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee e
eiienneiiiuo, auiea/eaaaiuo a?aiaeiaeaoaeth ca i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiouanoaa
a oicyenoaaiiia iieueciaaiea, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie i?ioeaio io
noieiinoe ia?aaeaaaaiiai eiouanoaa (eae i?aaeei. aeeceee e i?ioeaioo ii
aeieain?i/iiio aaieianeiio e?aaeeoo. A neo/aa anee a?aiaeaoi? naycai n
a?aiaeiaeaoaeai iinoaaeaie i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
oa?aeoa?a), a aaee/eio a?aiaeiie ieaou iiaeao auoue ca/oaia noieiinoue
iinoaaie.

Eiouanoai, ia?aaeaaaaiia a a?aiaeo, iiaeao auoue ioeaiaii ii inoaoi/iie
noieiinoe eeai ia iniiaa neiaeeaoaeny aaee/eiu aeiaiai?iuo oeai ia
eiouanoai, iaeaaeathuaa niioaaonoaothueie yenieoaoaoeeiiiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. A neo/aa, anee a?aiaeaoi? naycai n a?aiaeiaeaoaeai
iinoaaeaie i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a),
a?aiaeiaeaoaeue ia iiiaio caeeth/aiey aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu eiaao
cia/eoaeueioth caaeieaeaiiinoue ia?aae a?aiaeaoi?ii, noieiinoue
ia?aaeaaaaiiai eiouanoaa iiaeao auoue oiaiueoaia ia aaee/eio
caaeieaeaiiinoe. Oio aea naiue iaoaieci ca/aoa iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai,
anee eiouanoai aueoiaaony a?aiaeaoi?ii o a?aiaeiaeaoaey.

Anee a?aiaeiaeaoaeue, i?eia?aoathuee o a?aiaeaoi?a i?iaeoeoeeth (oneoae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a), ia a ninoiyiee naiaa?aiaiii
?ann/eouaaoueny ca iinoaaee, noiia aeieaa iiaeao nienuaaoueny i?e
ia?eiaee/aneii ia?acaeeth/aiee aeiaiai?a a?aiaeu.

Iaiaa i/aaeaeia oeaeaniia?aciinoue a?aiaeu a ioiioaiee eiouanoaa
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Anee oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneee aa?eaio
?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee i?aaeiieaaaao nio?aiaiea iiae?acaeaeaiee iniiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey, anoaao aii?in i nio?aiaiee
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo i?aaiecaoeeiiii
?acaeaeyaiuie /anoyie eiouanoaaiiiai eiiieaena. I?aaeiaoii n?aaiaiey i?e
i?eiyoee ?aoaiey yaeythony ioioneiua oeaiu aioo?aiiaai iai?ioa
(oaeaeueiua cao?aou ia niaea?aeaiea iiae?acaeaeaiee aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa), i?eaioe?iai/iua cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey ia i?eia?aoaiea
oneoa aoaeoueo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, ia?aciaaiiuo ia iniiaa yoeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee (aeiaiai?iua oeaiu) e iinooieaiey io a?aiaeiuo
ieaoaaeae. Anee ?acieoea iaaeaeo cao?aoaie ia i?iaeoeoeeth (oneoae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a) iinea ?acaeaeaiey e ?ann/eoaiiuie ca yoio
aea n?ie a?aiaeiuie ieaoaaeaie aoaeao iaiueoa cao?ao aei ?acaeaeaiey,
naea/a a a?aiaeo eiouanoaa iiae?acaeaeaiee aniiiiaaoaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi, ia?aciaaiiui ia eo iniiaa, aeey
?ano?oeoo?ece?oaiiai i?aaei?eyoey yeiiiie/anee oeaeaniia?acia.

Oaeei ia?acii ia?aaea/a /anoe e/ouanoaa a aiciacaeiia iieueciaaiea
iicaieyao:

aicianoeoue ?anoiaeu ia niaea?aeaiea eiouanoaa;

oeo/oeoue no?oeoo?o aaeaina e iiauneoue ?aioaaaeueiinoue aeoeaia;

naeaeaoue aieaa auaiaeiuie oneiaey iinoaaie ?ano?nia (Oneoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a), anee a?aiaeaoi?ii aunooiatho,
iiae?acaeaeaiey aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aia?aciaaiiua a iaeua
i?aaei?eyoey;

iieo/aoue aeioiaeu ia eiouanoai, ia i?eieiay ia naay ?enee oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A?aiaeaoi?o (iaeiio i?aaei?eyoeth) eniieueciaaiea eiouanoaa e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee noeeo i?aeiouanoaa:

inouanoaeyoue oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue aac e?oiiuo ia?aiia/aeueiuo
eiaanoeoeee;

aueoieoue a?aiaeoaiia eiouanoai ii enoa/aiee n?iea a?aiaeu e i?e oneiaee
ianaiey aueoiiie noieiinoe;

aiciiaeiinoue nienuaaoue a?aiaeiua ieaoaaee ia naaanoieiinoue, oiaiueoay
iaeiaiiaeaaa-aioth i?eaueue;

ecaaaeaoue oieaou iaeiaa ia eiouanoai i?e iieueciaaiee yoei eiouanoaii.

• I?iaaaeaiea acaeiica/aoia iaaeaeo e?oiiie no?oeoo?ie,
i?aaei?eyoeyie-e?aaeeoi?aie e ?aaeiiaeueiui athaeaeaoii.I?aenioi
neooaoeeth, eiaaea e?oiiia i?aaei?eyoea eiaao aieueoea noiiu
caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae eiio?aaaioaie e ianoiui athaeaeaoii, ia eiay i?e
yoii “aeeauo” aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiciiaeiinoe
iie?uoue aeieae e ioaa/aoue ii oaeouei iaycaoaeuenoaai. E?aaeeoi?u aea
o?aaotho iaiaaeeaiiiai iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe, aeeth/ay oo?aou, iaie
e o.i. Eiaiii a oaeie neooaoeee i?aaei?eyoeth ia inoaaony ae?oaiai
auai?a e?iia i?aaeeiaeaiey i i?iaaaeaiee acaeiica/aoa, i?e eioi?ii
?aaeueiay noieiinoue /anoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia i?aaei?eyoey aoaeao ?aaia
noiia caaeieaeaiiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii, aeieae e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
iiaaoathony iooai ia?aaea/e /anoe iniiaiuo n?aaenoa n aaeaina aeieaeieea
ia aaeain e?aaeeoi?a.

Nai iaoaieci acaeiica/aoa aeinoaoi/ii oeie/ai e ia i?aaenoaaeyao iniaiai
eioa?ana. Ai?acaei i?eaeaeaoaeueiaa iiaeoiae e ia?aaea/a eiouanoaa ai
aeaaeaiea iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi ni noi?iiu i?aaei?eyoee-e?aaeeoi?ia e
ianoiie aeanoe. Iaa iiauo aeaaeaeueoea iiaoo i?iaeaoue iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa iaeiio i?aaei?eyoeth, naeaoue a a?aiaeo eee eniieueciaaoue a
ea/anoaa aciina a onoaaiue eaieoae ia?acoaiuo iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iieiaeeoaeueiie noi?iiie i?e iieoiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iaeui
i?aaei?eyoeai yaeyaony iieo/aiea iaaei?iaiai (ii n?aaiaieth n iiaui)
eiouanoaa a nianoaaiiinoue. Io?eoeaoaeueiuo noi?ii a aeaiiii aa?eaioa
iaiiiai aieueoa:

iaiaoiaeeiinoue aaeeiia?aiaiiie auieaou n?aaieoaeueii aieueoie noiiu
n?aaenoa aei oiai iiiaioa, eae eiouanoai ia/iao ieoiaoueny; iaycaiiinoue
oieaou iaeiaa ia eiouanoai; a neo/aa iaaeinoaoea nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia –
iieo/aiea caaiiuo n?aaenoa, a neaaeiaaoaeueii aicieeiiaaiea
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia ii ianeoaeeaaieth aeieaa;

neiaeiinoue ?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa a aoaeouai, anee iaaeiaiinoue a iai
ioiaaeao.

Iieo/aiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa a a?aiaeo icia/aaoaeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee, n
iaeiie noi?iiu, ionoonoaea iaiaoiaeeiinoe oieaou iaeiaa ia eiouanoai,
nieaeaiea aaee/eiu iaei-aiiaeaaaaiie i?eauee ca n/ao a?aiaeiie ieaou e
nio?aiaiea eeeaeaeiie no?oeoo?u aaeaina, n ae?oaie – ionoonoaea i?aaa
nianoaaiiinoe a ioiioaiee eiouanoaa; a ?yaea neo/aaa aiciiaeii, /oi
a?aiaeiay ieaoa i?aauneo yeiiiieth ia iaeiaao, aii?oecaoeee e i?ioeaioao
ii caeiai.

A iieueco iieo/aiey iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iaeui i?aaei?eyoeai a ea/anoaa
aciina a onoaaiue eaieoae aiai?eo ia?aaea/a eiouanoaa a nianoaaiiinoue;
oi?ie?iaaiea eaieoaea ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa; iiaeaea?aeea ni
noi?iiu o/?aaeeoaey, a anee iineaaeiei yaeyaony ianoiay aeanoue –
eueaioiiai ?aaeeia i?iicaiae-noaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?ioea aea oaeiai ?aoaiey aunooiaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue oieaou iaeiaa ia
eiouanoai, a oaeaea io/eneaiey /anoe i?eauee a ea/anoaa aeeaeaeaiaeia
o/?aaeeoaeyi e oai naiui nio?aiaiey caaeneiinoe io ieo.

Ia iao acaeyae, iaeaieaa oaea/iui yaeyaony aa?eaio, i?e eioi?ii iniiaiua
n?aaenoaa ia?aaeathony iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi ia oneiaeyo a?aiaeu.

• Au/eaiaiea eaeeo-eeai iiae?acaeaeaiee ec iauae no?oeoo?u a
naiinoiyoaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey. Iniiaiay i?e/eia iayooaeoeaiinoe
ia-i?ioieueiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa ia e?oiiii i?aaei?eyoee –
iacia/eoaeueiinoue eo aeeaaea a iauea oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou.
E?oiiiio i?aaei?eyoeth i?iua niaea?aeaoue iaaieueoea oauoi/iua
i?iecaiaenoaa, /ai o?aoeoue n?aaenoaa ia eo icaei?iaeaiea.

N yoie oi/ee c?aiey iiyaeaiea nianoaaiieea, aeey eioi?iai iai?ioeeueiia
i?iecaiaenoai ieaaeaony iniiaiui, ianiiiaiii, aeieaeii iieiaeeoaeueii
iiaeeyoue ia ?acoeueoaou oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ea/anoaa iauaai oneiaey oeaeaniia?aciinoe au/eaiaiey
yaeyaony aieaa aunieay i?iaiice?oaiay yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iiae?acaeaeaiey aia e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, /ai a aai ninoaaa. I?eiyoea
?aoaiey i oii, eaeea iiae?acaeaeaiey oeaeaniia?acii au/eaiyoue ec
no?oeoo?u e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey, aeieaeii iniiauaaoueny ia aiaeeca,
ai-ia?auo, ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth iiae?acaeaeaiey aia i?aaei?eyoey,
ai-aoi?uo, noaiaie aeaeinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna eaaeaeiai
iiae?acaeaeaiey, o.a. aac nouanoaaiiuo eciaiaiee oaoiieiaee ia?aeoe ia
auione ae?oaiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee e, a-o?aoueeo, noaiaie acaeiiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoiieiae/aneie caaeneiinoe iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Oauoi/iinoue iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ii i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneei
(ia naycaiiui n eiaanoeoeeyie e no?oeoo?iuie eciaiaieyie) i?e/eiai
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aiciiaeiinoe au/eaiaiey, anee aeaaeaiea oauoi/iuo
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo e iai?ioeeueiuo i?iecaiaenoa ia ecaea?aeee iniiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa iuooeii e aniiiiaaoaeueiua i?iecaiaenoaa eiatho aieaa
yooaeoeaiua eaiaeu ?aaeecaoeee naiae i?iaeoeoeee (oneoa) e
niioaaonoaaiii iiaoo auoue i?eaueueiuie.

A ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo nio?aiaiea aniiiiaaoaeueiuo (iai?ioeeueiuo)
i?iecaiaenoa a no?oeoo?a e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey aieaa oeaeaniia?acii, /ai
eo au/eaiaiea. A aieueoae noaiaie neacaiiia eanaaony aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, iniaaiii anee i?eaieaiuo aeueoa?iaoea eo i?iaeoeoeee
(oneoaai) o e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey iao. A iaiueoae noaiaie yoi ioiineony
e iai?ioeeueiui i?iecaiaenoaai, anee iie ia eniieuecotho oneiaey e
einaaiiua ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey (iai?eia?,
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth eio?ano?oeoo?o e iooiaeu).

Aiciiaeiinoe naiinoiyoaeueiie oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeythony:

iaee/eai oiaa?iiai auionea e aeieae iineaaeiaai a iauai iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa;

oaeoe/aneeie oaiiaie ?inoa oiaa?iiai auionea (a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee
e ii noieiinoe) e o?aaoaiuie aeey iaania/aiey aacoauoi/iie ?aaiou a
neo/aa i?ae?auaiey iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey;

o?iaiai ?aioaaaeueiinoe oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee;

oaeoe/aneie (e i?iaiice?oaiie iinea au/eaiaiey) noaiaiueth
oaoiieiae/aneie caaeneiinoe io ae?oaeo iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey
(iai?eia?, ecia?yaiie aeieae cao?ao ia i?iaeoeoeeth yoeo iiae?acaeaeaiee
a naaanoieiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa).

Oaeei ia?acii, iauei oneiaeai au/eaiaiey aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
(iai?ioeeueiuo) iiae?acaeaeaiee yaeyaony iaee/ea ni?ina ia eo
i?iaeoeoeeth (oneoae), aeinoaoi/iiai aeey oiai, /oiau eiiiaine?iaaoue
nie?auaiea caa?ocee iiuiinoae a ?acoeueoaoa cae?uoey iniiaiiai
i?iecainnoaa.

?acoeueoaoii au/eaiaiey iiaeao auoue ia?aciaaiea iiaiai i?aaei?eyoey
ethaiai ?acia?a. Nicaeaiea e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey aiciiaeii a neo/aa
au/eaiaiey eaeiai-eeai ia?aaeaea iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yeiiiie/aneie
i?aaeiinueeie ia?aciaaiey eiaiii oaeie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u
n/eoaaony cia/eoaeueiue ianooaa i?iecaiaenoaa.Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi
anoue ianniaue ?uiie i?iaeoeoeee aiiaue ia?aciaaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey
(iai?eia?, iieooaa?eeaoia, eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee); nio?aiyaony
iioi/iia i?aaeiaoii-niaoeeaeece-?iaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai; enoi/ieeii
aeioiaea yaeythony ieceay oeaia e aunieay nei?inoue iai?ioa.

A inoaeueiuo neo/ayo ?a/ue iiaeao eaeoe ia ia?aciaaiee iaeuo
i?aaei?eyoee, eai niaia niaoeeaeecaoeee iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa n
i?aaeiaoiie ia oaoiieiae/aneoth /?aaaoa iaecaaaeiie iioa?ae yeiiiiee ia
ianooaaao i?iecaiaenoaa;

aniiiiaaoaeueiia (iai?ioeeueiia) i?iecaiaenoai eae iiae?acaeaeaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie (nioeeaeueiie) eio?ano?oeoo?u ianeoaeeaaao eieaeueiua
iio?aaiinoe e ia ?ann/eoaii ia ianniaue auione;

Oaeei ia?acii, a ea/anoaa i?aaeiinueee ia?aciaaiey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee ia
aaca ?ano-?oeoo?e?oaiuo e?oiiuo aunooiaao iaee/ea ia i?inoi ni?ina, a
eiaiii ieceiyeanoe/iiai ii oeaia ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth (oneoae).

Ae?iaeaiea e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ia ?yae iaeeeo

A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo eniieuecoaony aua iaeei aa?eaio?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee,
i?e eioi?ii e?oiiia i?aaei?eyoea ii nianoaaiiie eieoeeaoeaa ?acaeaeyaony
ia ianeieueei aieaa iaeeeo. I?e yoii ?oeiaiaenoai, eae i?aaeei,
i?eeaaaao iaeneioi oneeee eoiio, /oiau iniiaiay noiia oauoeia e
caaeieaeaiiinoe ii anai noaoueyi auea “acaaeaia” oieueei ia iaeio ec
iiauo no?oeoo?, a ?acaeaeeoaeueiua aaeainu anao ae?oaeo inoaaaeenue au
“/enouie”.

I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea ia?aay no?oeoo?a ni a?aiaiai i?ae?auaao
nouanoaiaaiea e naiei eiouanoaii iie?uaaao caaeieaeaiiinoue anaai
e?oiiiai i?aaei?eyoey. Ana aea inoaeueiua no?oeoo?u ieacuaathony
naiaiaeiuie io aeieaia naiaai i?aaeoanoaaiieea e i?e iaeiia?aiaiiii
eciaiaiee i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u, iiaeoiaea e ia?eaoeiao e
oeiainiaie iieeoeee iiaoo ia/aoue ?aioaaaeueiia i?iecaiaenoai.

Auai? aa?eaioa ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee caaeneo io ninoiyiey eiie?aoiiai
i?aaei?eyoey a iiiaio i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ii yoiio iiaiaeo, a oaeaea oeaeae
e caaea/ i?aaei?eyoey. Iai?aiaiii aeieaeiu o/eouaaoueny eioa?anu
?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey, athaeaeaoa, e?aaeeoi?ia e yeiiiieee a oeaeii.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaoue, /oi ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey ia yaeyaony iaiaoeaae. Yoi
oieueei iaeia ec ia?, iaeiaei iia niiniaia iaeaa/eoue aeey iiiaeo
e?oiiuo no?oeoo? aieaciaiiue ia?aoiae e iiaui yeiiiie/aneei ioiioaieyi.

?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny a eioa?anao iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.
Yoi iniaaiii aeooaeueii aeey aeai?anneaiuo ?aaeiiia, aaea i?aeoe/anee
ana nouanoaothuea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua no?oeoo?u eiatho noiaeiua i?iaeaiu e
ia iiaoo ieacaoue iaiaoiaeeiie iiiiue ae?oa ae?oao.

Oaeei ia?acii, a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee aiciiaeii aeinoeaeaiea n?aco aeaoo oeaeae – ?acaeoey iaeiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e auoiaea ec e?ecena e?oiiuo ?inneeneeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

E, iiaeaeoe, naiia aeaaiia. ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee
nicaeano, iiaeii iaaeayoueny, iaiaoiaeeiua i?aaeiinueee aeey i?eoiea e
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, /oi eneeth/eoaeueii aaaeii
i?e ia?aie/aiiinoe enoi/ieeia e iauaiia eiaanoe?iaaiey.

Caeeth/aiea.

I/aaeaeiui yaeyaony oi, /oi eaaeaeay i?aaiecaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeinoaoi/ii neiaeioth oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneoth e nioeeaeueioth nenoaio,
io?aaeathuoth aa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue e niaoeeoeeo. Iienaoue yoo nenoaio
aiciiaeii, anee ii?aaeaeeoue oa?aeoa? acaeiiaeaenoaey iiae?acaeaeaiee.

Niiniau acaeiiaeaenoaey noi?ii oa?aeoa?ecotho ?anniao?eaaaioth nenoaio
ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii e iicaieytho noaeeoue, ianeieueei yooaeoeaii iia
ni?aaeyaony ni naiae aeaaiie caaea/ae – i?aaiecaoeeae aa?iiie/aneiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeii e aiaoiae n?aaeie. Iaiaeiaaaeiia
ianoi a yoii caieiaao no?oeoo?a i?aaiecaoeee, iin?aaenoaii eioi?ie eee
/a?ac eioi?oth yoi acaeiiaeaenoaea inouanoaeyaony.

Niaeanii nouanoaothuae oai?ee e i?aeoeee, acaeiiaeaenoaea ia o?iaia
“iiae?acaeaeaiea – iiae?acaeaeaiea” eee “a?oiia – a?oiia” ?aaeecoaony n
iiiiuueth eiiaeiaoeee ?acee/iuo oeiia aeaia?oaiaioecaoeee e aunooiaao a
?aieao i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?: eeiaeiie, ooieoeeiiaeueiie,
eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie, aeeaeceiiaeueiie, iao?e/iie, a oae aea ae?oaeo
aieaa niaa?oaiiuo e iaeaieaa i?eniiniaeaiiuo e nia?aiaiiui aeeciaiiui
o?aaiaaieyi no?oeoo?ai.

Ia?iiiay ?ieue i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u a aeecie ethaiai i?aaei?eyoey
iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeeth, eae iaeei ec iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia auoiaea ec e?ecena, a oae aea i?eniiniaeaiey e
iiaui ?uii/iui oneiaeyi. Aaaeue yoi oae iaiaoiaeeii nae/an ?inneeneei
i?aaei?eyoeyi iniaaiii e?oiiui.

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