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Организационная работа туристического агентства

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Aaaaeaiea

Oo?eci e iooaoanoaey yaeythony iaiouaieaiie /anoueth eiaeono?ee
ainoai?eeinoaa. Iooaoanoaey – aeaaiay oaia oo?ecia. ?acee/ey ai a?aiaie,
?annoiyieyo, ianoao i?iaeeaaiey, oeaeyo e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
i?aauaaiey – ana yoi eeoue ioee/eoaeueiua yeaiaiou oo?ecia. A oeaeii,
oo?eci yaeyaony iiiaioeaeaaui oaiiiaiii, eioi?ue iaeiia?aiaiii ni/aoaao
a naaa yeaiaiou i?eeeth/aiee, ?iiaioeeo aeaeueieo no?ainoaee,
ii?aaeaeaiioth oaeio, iinauaiea yecioe/aneeo iano e, iaeiia?aiaiii,
caiiua caaiou i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa, aii?inu caei?iauey, ee/iie
aaciianiinoe e nio?aiiinoe eiouanoaa.

Oo?eci ea?aao iaeio ec aeaaiuo ?ieae a ie?iaie yeiiiieea,
iaania/eaay aeanyooth /anoue ie?iaiai aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?iaeoeoa. Yoa io?aneue yeiiiieee ?acaeaaaony auno?uie oaiiaie e a
aeeaeaeoea aiaeu noaiao iaeaieaa aaaeiui aa naeoi?ii. Aaeaaiaeiue ?ino
eiaanoeoeee a eiaeono?eth oo?ecia ninoaaeo ieiei 30 %.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu oo?eci noae iaeiei ec naiuo i?eaueueiuo aeaeia
aeciana a ie?a. Ii eniieuecoao i?eia?ii 7% ie?iaiai eaieoaea. A ia/aea
90-o aiaeia aeiey oo?ecia oaea ninoaaeyea 10% ie?iaie oi?aiaee oiaa?aie
e oneoaaie, /oi iicaieeei aio caiyoue o?aouea ianoi iinea yenii?oa iaooe
e aaoiiiaeeae, a e 2005 a. oo?eci aeieaeai aueoe ia ia?aia ianoi.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci ieacuaaao iiuiia aicaeaenoaea ia
caiyoinoue ianaeaiey. Ii ioeaieai niaoeeaeenoia, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy 100
iei. /aeiaae ?aaioatho a eiaeono?ee oo?ecia, a e 2005 a. eaaeaeue
ainueiie o?oaeiniiniaiue /aeiaae a ie?a aoaeao caiyo a yoii naeoi?a
yeiiiieee. Eiaeono?ey oo?ecia – o?oaeiaieee i?ioeann, iiyoiio a iai
caiyou a iniiaiii iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aaioieee. Iaeiaei yoi ia
icia/aao, /oi a noa?a oo?ecia ia eniieuecoaony aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiue
o?oae. A aeaiiie noa?a iiaua ?aai/ea ianoa a aaia?aoe/aneii ieaia
?ani?ino?aiythony oe?a, /ai a ae?oaeo ?acaeaathueony naeoi?ao yeiiiieee.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci yaeyaony aeoeaiui enoi/ieeii iinooieaiee
eiino?aiiie aaethou e ieacuaaao aicaeaenoaea ia ieaoaaeiue aaeain
no?aiu. Iiieii aeeyiey ia yeiiiieeo iiiaeo no?ai iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
oo?eci aicaeaenoaoao ia eo nioeeaeueioth e eoeueoo?ioth n?aaeo,
yeieiaeth. A iineaaeiea, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeeytho ia oo?enoia.

Iaeiaei ?ino iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia aucuaaao iaeioi?ua
iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey, iai?eia? eioeyoeeth, ?ac?ooaiea ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu e ia?ooaiea o?aaeeoeee ianoiiai ianaeaiey. Yoi iniaaiii iaaeyaeii
i?iyaeyaony a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, aaea oo?enou ec aieaa aiaaouo
eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai naiei i?enoonoaeai iaaycuaatho i?enouee ei
ia?ac aeecie e o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, naiaa?aiaiiay e
ananoi?iiiyy ioeaiea iineaaenoaee iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia yaeyaony
i/aiue aaaeiui oaeoi?ii aeey ninoaaeaiey oaeie yeiiiie/aneie e
oo?enoneie iieeoeee, eioi?ay iicaieyea au ecaeaeaoue iaeneiaeueioth
auaiaeo e i?aaeoi?aaeaeaoue ?ac?ooeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea oo?ecia.

Oo?eci – eiaeono?ey, ?acaeaathuayny a oao ?aaeiiao (caiee), eioi?ua
iaeaaeatho anoanoaaiiuie e eneonnoaaiiuie iniaaiiinoyie, i?eaeaeathueie
i?eioeei iinaoeoaeae (oo?enoia) ?aciiia?aciui oa?aeoa?ii aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eae i?aaeei, e eaoaai?ee oo?enoia ioiinyo iooaoanoaaiieeia, auacaeathueo
ec ianoa naiaai iinoiyiiiai i?iaeeaaiey n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
oaeiaeaoai?aiey, e /uea i?aauaaiea a ianoa oo?enoe/aneiai iacia/aiey
i?aauoaao nooee.

Oo?enoe/aneee i?iaeoeo – yoi eiiieaen oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo
oo?enonei-yeneo?neiiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie a?aaeaeaiai (oo?enoai).

Eiiieaeniay nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oaeiai i?iaeoeoa
iacuaaaony eiaeono?eae oo?ecia.

A nenoaio eiaeono?ee oo?ecia aoiaeyo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaiecaoeee e o/?aaeaeaiey:

1. I?aaei?eyoey, i?aaeinoaaeythuea oneoae ii ?aciauaieth (ainoeieoeu,
iioaee, eaiieiae, iaineiiaou);

2. I?aaei?eyoey ieoaiey (?anoi?aiu, eaoa, aa?u);

3. Oe?iu, caieiathueany o?ainii?oiui ianeoaeeaaieai (aaoii?aaei?eyoey,
aaeaoeeiiiua i?aaei?eyoey, aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua aaaeiinoaa, i?aaei?eyoey
ii?neiai e ?a/iiai o?ainii?oa);

4. Oo?enoneea oe?iu ii ?ac?aaioea e ?aaeecaoeee oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa
(oo?enoneea ath?i, yeneo?neiiiua ath?i, oo?enoneea aaaionoaa, ath?i
?aaeecaoeee iooaaie);

5. ?aeeaiii-eioi?iaoeeiiiua oo?enoneea o/?aaeaeaiey (?aeeaiiua
aaaionoaa, ?aeeaiiua ath?i, eioi?iaoeeiiiua aaaionoaa);

6. I?aaiu oi?aaeaiey oo?eciii (eiieoaou e aeaia?oaiaiou oo?ecia,
iauanoaaiiua oo?enoneea i?aaiecaoeee e iauaaeeiaiey);

?acaeoea oo?enoneie eiaeono?ee caaeneo io iiiaeanoaa oaeoi?ia:

· Iaee/ea oo?enonei-?ae?aaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia;

· Iaee/ea ?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?u ?aaeiia;

· Iaee/ea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia;

· Ainoaea?noaaiiie iiaeaea?aeee oo?ecia;

· Aeaiia?aoe/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia;

· Oaeoi?ia ?enea;

· Iieeoe/aneeo e yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia;

· Iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna, o?aaeeoeee e ae?.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy neiaeeeanue neaaeothuay eeanneoeeaoeey aeaeia e oi?i
oo?ecia.

Oi?iu oo?ecia ii aeaeieciaiaieth iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iiai i?eciaea
aeaeyony ia ioaeaeueiua ?aciiaeaeiinoe. E yoei oa?aeoa?iui
i?eciaeai ioiinyony: aeaaiay oeaeue iooaoanoaey, oa?aeoa?
i?aaiecaoeee iooaoanoaey, eioaineaiinoue oo?enoneiai iioiea,
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue oo?a (iooaoanoaey), aic?anoiie i?eciae ,
eniieuecoaiue o?ainii?o, oi?ia nio?oaeie/anoaa.

A caaeneiinoe io aeaaiie oeaee iooaoanoaey auaeaeytho neaaeothuea
?aciiaeaeiinoe oi?i oo?ecia:

1. ?ae?aaoeeiiiay,

2. iiciaaaoaeueiay,

3. iao/iay,

4. aeaeiaay.

?ae?aaoeeiiiue oo?eci – oo?eci, n oeaeueth ioaeuoa, icaei?iaeaiey e
ea/aiey.

I?e yoii neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi i?aauaaiea a?aaeaeai a
niaoeeaeueiuo naiaoi?eyo (eae i?e iaee/ee aieueie/iiai eenoa, oae e i?e
aai ionoonoaee) ia ioiineony e oo?ecio, oae eae naiaoi?ee- yoi
?aciiaeaeiinoue aieueieoeu. Ia?aaeaeaeaiea ethaeae a auoiaeiua aeie a
oeaeyo ioaeuoa, ?acaea/aiey, caiyoey nii?oii iacuaaaony “oo?eci eiioea
iaaeaee”.

Iiciaaaoaeueiue (eoeueoo?iue) oo?eci – iooaoanoaea a oeaeyo
iciaeiieaiey n enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuie aeinoii?eia/aoaeueiinoyie e
oieeaeueiuie i?e?iaeiuie iauaeoaie ii ii?aaeaeaiiie i?ia?aiia.

Iao/iue oo?eci – iinauaiea eiia?annia, neiiiceoiia n
iineaaeothueie yeneo?neiiiuie iiacaeeaie.

Aeaeiaie oo?eci (iiacaeee aecianiaiia n aeaeiauie oeaeyie)
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie, i?aaieciaaiiue, naiiaeayoaeueiue

(iai?aaieciaaiiue).

Ii noaiaie iiaeeueiinoe:

1. noaoeeiia?iue,

2. ia?aaeaeaeiie,

3. nioeeaeueiue oo?eci.

Iooaoanoaea /aeiaaea (naiuee) ii nianoaaiiiio ieaio,
aeeth/athuaio ii?aaeaeaiea ?aeiiia iinauaiey, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
inoaiiaie, oneiaee ii/eaaa e o.i., iacuaaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui, a
iooaoanoaea a ninoaaa a?oiiu ii ieaio oo?enoe/aneiai oicyenoaothuaai
noauaeoa iacuaaaony a?oiiiaui oo?eciii.

Iooaoanoaea iaeiiai eee a?oiiu oo?enoia ii oi/iiio ia?o?ooo e
?aaeaiaioo, onoaiiaeaiiui oo?enoneei oicyenoaothuei noauaeoii,
iacuaaaony i?aaieciaaiiui oo?eciii.

Aeaiiua oo?enou e oo?enoneee oicyenoaothuee noauaeo naycaiu iaaeaeo
niaie acaeiiuie o?aaiaaieyie e iaycaoaeuenoaaie.

I?aaieciaaiiua oo?enou iaania/eaathony eiiieaenii oo?enoneeo
oneoa ii ca?aiaa i?eia?aoaiiie iooaaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie
(ioaeuoathuea ia oo?aacao, a naiaoi?eyo, aeiiao ioaeuoa, ii iooaaeai).
E i?aaieciaaiiui oo?enoai oaeaea ioiinyony oa, eoi ia ii?aaeaeaiiue
n?ie i?eia?ae eeoue /anoue oo?enoneeo oneoa (iai?eia?, iooaaeo oieueei
ia ieoaiea).

Ii eioaineaiinoe i?iaeaae oo?iooaaie ?acee/atho: 1.iinoiyiiue,

2.naciiiue oo?eci.

E?oaeiaiaee/iia e ioiineoaeueii ?aaiiia?iia iinauaiea oo?enoneeo
?aaeiiia iacuaaaony iinoiyiiui oo?eciii. Yoa ?aciiaeaeiinoue oi?iu
oo?ecia, oa?aeoa?ia i?aaeaea anaai aeey iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo oeaio?ia
oeeaeeecaoeee, eoeueoo?u, icaei?iaeaiey: ecaanoiua ai?iaea ie?a,
eo?i?ou, ianoa, ?aniieaaathuea oieeaeueiuie ea/aaiuie ieia?aeueiuie
aiaeaie e oeaeaaiuie a?ycyie.

Iaeioi?ua ?aaeiiu i?eaeaeatho oo?enoia i?aeiouanoaaiii a
ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy aiaea. Oaeie oo?eci yaeyaony naciiiui. Oo?enoneea
?aaeiiu, iinauaaiua oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy aiaea (iai?eia?, eaoii
eee ceiie), oa?aeoa?ecothony eae iaeiinaciiiua, a ?aaeiiu, iinauaaiua
a ethaia a?aiy aiaea ( e eaoii, e ceiie), iacuaathony aeaoonaciiiuie.
Naciiu ii noaiaie eioaineaiinoe iinauaiey oo?enoaie aeaiiiai ?aaeiia
aeaeyony ia ieeiaua (iaeaieaa caa?oaeaiiua), oeoea (ni n?aaeiae
noaiaiueth caa?ocee), e ia?oaua (iacaa?oaeaiiua, ii/oe ia iinauaaiua
oo?enoaie).

Ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey oo?enoia a iooaoanoaee
auaeaeythony e?aoeia?aiaiiue e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue oo?eci.
E?aoeia?aiaiiue oo?eci – yoi oo?eci n i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth
iooaoanoaey ia aieaa o?ao nooie.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiue oo?eci – yoi oo?eci, i?e eioi?ii n?ie
iooaoanoaey ninoaaeyao aieaa o?ao nooie. A caaeneiinoe io
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey a iooaoanoaee nouanoaaiiui ia?acii
eciaiythony iio?aaiinoe oo?enoa.

Ii i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe:

1. Iaeiiaeiaaiue;

2. Iiiaiaeiaaiue;

3. O?aiceoiue.

Nie?auaiea a?aiaie iooaoanoaey, ia ii?aaeaeaiiii

(iinoiyiiii) ia?o?ooa, aaaeao e oaaee/aieth a ?anoiaeao oo?enoa aeiee
o?ainii?oiie ninoaaeythuae, o.a. aai cao?ao ia o?ainii?o. A caaeneiinoe
io aic?anoa oo?enoia oo?eci iiae?acaeaeyaony ia:

1. aeaoneee,

2. iieiaeaaeiue,

3. c?aeue,

4. niaoaiiue.

A caaeneiinoe io eniieuecoaiuo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa, aeey
ia?aaeaeaeaiey oo?enoia ?acee/atho neaaeothuea ?aciiaeaeiinoe oi?i
oo?ecia:

1. Aaoiiiaeeueiue;

2. AEaeaciiaei?iaeiue;

3. Aaeaoeeiiiue;

4. Aiaeiue;

5. Eiiaeie?iaaiiue.

A caaeneiinoe io aaia?aoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe ?acee/atho:

1. Iaaeeiioeiaioaeueiue;

2. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue (iaae?aaeiiaeueiue);

3. ?aaeiiaeueiue;

4. Ianoiue;

5. I?ea?aie/iue.

Oo?enoe/aneea oneoae ninoaaeytho cia/eoaeueioth /anoue iio?aaeyaiuo
ianaeaieai oneoa e eiatho niaoeeoe/aneee nioeeaeueii-icaei?iaeoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?, o.a. ioaeuo, aiciiaeiinoue ?acaeoey ee/iinoe, iiciaiey
enoi?e/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae, aiciiaeiinoue caiyoey nii?oii,
o/anoea a eoeueoo?ii-ianniauo ia?ii?eyoeyo e ae?oaea, o.a. oo?eci
ni/aoaao a naaa yeiiiie/aneee, nioeeaeueiue, aoiaieoa?iue,
ainieoaoaeueiue e ynoaoe/aneee oaeoi?u.

Oo?enou yaeythony iio?aaeoaeyie iniiaiuo, aeiiieieoaeueiuo e
niioonoaothueo oneoa.

Iniiaiua oo?enoe/aneea oneoae ?aaeaiaioe?othony aeiaiai?ii ia
oo?enoe/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e iooaaeie. E oaeei oneoaai, eae i?aaeei,
ioiinyony:

· ?aciauaiea;

· Ieoaiea;

· O?ainii?oiua oneoae, aeeth/ay o?ainoa?o;

· Yeneo?neiiiua oneoae.

Aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae eiatho aanueia oe?ieee niaeo? e caieiatho i?e
?acaeoie eio?ano?oeoo?a oo?ecia aei 50% io iauaai aeioiaea. Nthaea
iiaeii ioianoe:

· Aeiiieieoaeueiua yeneo?nee, ia aioaaeoea a ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo oneoa;

· Oeceoeueoo?ii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua oneoae;

· Iaaeeoeeineea oneoae;

· Eoeueoo?ii-c?aeeuiua e ea?iaua ia?ii?eyoey;

E niioonoaothuei oneoaai ioiinyony:

· Iaania/aiea noaa?aiiie i?iaeoeoeeae, oo?enoneie neiaieeeie;

· Oi?aiaia, aaethoii-e?aaeeoiia, eioi?iaoeeiiiia, eiia?anniia e i?i/aa
ianeoaeeaaiea;

· Oneoae niaoeeaeueiuo aeaeia nayce, i?aaeinoaaeaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
naeoia e ae?.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ia?o?ooia, oo?ia, yeneo?neiiiuo i?ia?aii, i?aaeinoaaeaiea
iniiaiuo e niioonoaothueo oneoa ninoaaeytho oaoiieiaeth oo?enoneiai
ianeoaeeaaiey, o.a. yoi oi?ie?iaaiea eiie?aoiiai oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe a oo?enoneie oneoaa.

Ia?o?oo – yoi ca?aiaa nieaie?iaaiiay o?anna ia?aaeaeaeaiey oo?enoa a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie n oeaeueth i?aaeinoaaeaiey aio
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i?ia?aiiie oneoa.

Oo? – yoi eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay eee a?oiiiaay iiacaeea ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio
oo?enoneiio ia?o?ooo a eiie?aoii ii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie.

Oo? yaeyaony oiaa?iie oi?iie oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa, ?aaeecoaiiai a
aeaea iooaaee eee aao/a?a.

Anee a ninoaa oo?a aoiaeeo o?ainoa?o, oi oaeie oo? iacuaaaony
o?ainoo?ii.

Oo?enoneay iooaaea – yoi aeieoiaio, iiaeoaa?aeaeathuee iieaoo
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo i?ia?aiiie oneoa, yaeythueony oi?iie no?iaie
io/aoiinoe.

A iooaaea oeacuaaaony o?anna ia?o?ooa, ia?a/aiue iniiaiuo oneoa, n?ie
aeaenoaey, oeaia, iienaiea ia?o?ooa e ae?.

Aao/a? – yoi aeieoiaio, ia iniiaaiee eioi?iai i?iecaiaeeony
ianeoaeeaaiea eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia e acaeii?an/ao n oe?iie.

Acaeiiioiioaiey oo?enoa n ianeoaeeaathuae aai oe?iie ioi?ieythony oaeaea
aeiaiai?ii ia oo?enoneia ianeoaeeaaiea. Ii yaeyaony iniiaiui
aeieoiaioii aeey i?aaeuyaeaiey i?aoaicee e oe?ia e oaeinoiaa?aiee aa a
noaeaaiii ii?yaeea.

Oo?iia?aoi?u.

Oo?iia?aoi?u auiieiytho ooieoeee i?aaiecaoi?ia e nicaeaoaeae
eiiieaeniiai i?iaeoeoa aeey a?oiiiaiai oo?ecia. Oo?iia?aoi? i?aaeeaaaao
iooaoanoaey ?acee/iie noieiinoe e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe ii ?acee/iui
iai?aaeaieyi e a ?aciia a?aiy aiaea.

Iio?aaeoaeue ieaoeo ca iiacaeeo oeene?iaaiioth oeaio. Ia/aei ia?o?ooa
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaiaa?eaaaony e yaeyaony ianoii nai?a a?oiiu. A
noieiinoue iiacaeee aeeth/athony e oneoae aeaea-ia?aaiae/eea, eioi?ue a
caaeneiinoe io oneiaee iiaeao nii?iaiaeaeaoue a?oiio a oa/aiea anae
eee /anoe iiacaeee.

Oo?enoe/aneea iiacaeee i?eieiatho ana aieaa iiioey?iue oa?aeoa? o.e.
iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii ianeoaeeaaiey yaeyaony iaeao eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eeoa?aoo?u, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo ia?a/aiue aeaeia ianeoaeeaaiey,
aeeth/aiiuo a noieiinoue, a oaeaea iiae?iaioth eioi?iaoeeth ii anai
aii?inai eioi?ua /aua anaai aicieeatho ai a?aiy iooaoanoaey. Aoaeouee
o/anoiee oo?enoe/aneie a?oiiu, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeao auynieoue ca?aiaa
oneiaey iiacaeee, a oaeaea aa i?eaeeceoaeueioth noieiinoue.

Oo?iia?aoi?ia /anoi iacuaatho “iioiaeeaie” , iioiio /oi iie i?iaeatho
naie oo?u iioii a oo?aaaionoaa, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, aunooiatho
eae ?icie/iua i?iaeaaoeu oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa. I?e yoii oo?aaaioo
auiea/eaaaony eiienney.

Oo?aaaio – yoi oece/aneia eee th?eaee/aneia eeoei, aunooiathuaa
iin?aaeieeii ii i?iaeaaea noi?ie?iaaiiuo oo?iia?aoi?ii oo?ia.

Eiiiaiee, nicaeathuea oo?enoe/aneee i?iaeoeo, eae, iai?eia?,
i?aaei?eyoey o?ainii?oa e ?aciauaiey, ioaeaeathony a oi?aiauo aaaioao,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeyee au eo eioa?anu a eaaeaeii ianaeaiiii ioieoa, aaea
eiathony iieoiaoaee eo oneoa. Yoi oaeiaii e iio?aaeoaeth, o.e.
oo?aaaionoai i?iaeaao , eae i?aaeei, eiiieaen oneoa, i?aaenoaaeyy ana
i?aaei?eyoey noa?u oneoa iaeiia?aiaiii. Oo?enoe/aneia aaaionoai
i?aaeeaaaao aeaa iniiaiuo naieo i?iaeoeoa:

1. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia a?iie?iaaiea iano, n i?iaeaaeae o?ainii?oiuo
aeieoiaioia;

2. Eiinoeueoaoeee e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee eeeaioai ioiineoaeueii
i?aaeiieaaaaiuo ia?o?ooia e aeaeia ianeoaeeaaiey, naycaiiuo n yoeie
ia?o?ooaie.

Eiinoeueoaoeee i/aiue aaaeiu, anee eeeaio ieaie?oao aeaeueithth iiacaeeo
e ia ciaeii n ia?o?ooii eee aeaeaao iinaoeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ianoa e ia
ciaao, eaeei aeaeii o?ainii?oa iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny.

Aaaionoaa ia iiae?acaeaeytho eeeaioia ia eiinoeueoe?othueony e
ioi?ieythueo iiacaeeo, iineieueeo n/eoaaony, /oi eeeaio eiaao i?aai
iieo/eoue iauaeoeaioth eioi?iaoeeth ii anai eioa?anothuei aai aii?inai,
anee iie cao?aaeaatho aai eioa?anu, naycaiiua n iooaoanoaeai. E ieacaiea
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie iiiiue, ioi?ieaiea i?iacaeiuo aeeaoia, ainoeie/iiai
a?iie?iaaiey e ae?oaeo oneoa auiieiyaony oai aea e a e?ao/aeoea n?iee.

?anoiaeu aaaionoaa eiiiaine?othony o?ainii?oiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie e
ainoeie/iuie i?aaei?eyoeyie a oi?ia eiienneiiiiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey
ii?aaeaeaiiiai a i?ioeaioiii niioiioaiee e noieiinoe ?aaeeciaaiiiai
ianeoaeeaaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?innee noi?ie?iaaeenue /aou?a a?oiiu oo?enoe/aneeo
oe?i ii aeaeo e oi?iai i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa.

1. Oe?iu n ieieiaeueiui iaai?ii oneoa, aaea i?aaeeaaaaony eeeaioai
ianeieueei iinoiyiiuo ia?o?ooia aac aeinoaoi/iiai auai?a.

2. Oe?iu aeinoaoi/iiai auai?a, aaea i?aaeeaaaaony eeeaioo 10-15
ia?o?ooia.

3. Oe?iu iieiiai auai?a, e?eoa?eai eioi?uo yaeyaony aeaaec: “Eoaea
oaiaeii e eiaaea oaiaeii!”.

4. Oe?iu yecioe/aneeo ia?o?ooia, i?aaeeaaathueo eeeaioai iaiau/iua
iooaoanoaey e yeneo?nee.

?ac?aaioea ia?o?ooia neiaeiay iiiainooiai/aoay i?ioeaaeo?a, o?aaothuay
aeinoaoi/ii aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeee e yaeythuayny iniiaiui yeaiaioii
oaoiieiaee oo?enoe/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey.

Iinea i?ioeaaeo?u ?ac?aaioee e ooaa?aeaeaiey ia?o?ooa i?enooiatho e
oi?ie?iaaieth oo?a.

?ac?aaaouaatho aeaa iniiaiuo aeaea oo?ia.

1. Iyeeaeae-oo?.

O.a. eiiieaeniua oo?enoe/aneea oneoae: ieoaiea, ?aciauaiea,
yeneo?neiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea, o?ainii?oiua, auoiaua,
nii?oeaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua, oeceoeueoo?iua, iaaeeoeeineea e i?i/ea
oneoae.

2. Eieethcea-oo?.

O.a. ioaeaeueiua oo?enoe/aneea oneoae: ieoaiea, ?aciauaiea,
yeneo?neiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea, o?ainii?o (ii auai?o).

Ia i?aeoeea aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth iieuecothony eieethcea-oo?u, aaea
oo?eno caeacuaaao ieieiaeueii-aeinoaoi/iue iaai? iniiaiuo oneoa,
iieoiay aeiiieieoaeueiua oneoae ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe. Yoi ?anoe?yao
aiciiaeiinoe ieaie?iaaiey nianoaaiiiai a?aiaie oo?enoo e a ?yaea
neo/aaa oaeaoaaeyao iooaaeo.

Aeiiieiaieai i?e ioi?ieaiee oo?ia yaeythony oiaa?u oo?enoe/aneiai
iacia/aiey, o.a. oo? – yoi niaieoiiue i?iaeoeo, ninoiyuee ec oneoae e
oiaa?a.

Noi?ie?iaaiiue ia iniiaaiee ia?o?ooa e eiie?aoiiai ni?ina oo? ia iiaeao
n?aco noaoue oiaa?iui i?iaeoeoii aeey i?iaeaaee. Aeey yoiai neaaeoao
auiieieoue ?yae yoaiia:

1. oi?ie?iaaiea oo?a;

2. yenia?eiaioaeueiia aiaae?aiea;

3. ?aeeaia e i?acaioaoeey;

4. i?iaeaaea oo?ia.

Yoai oi?ie?iaaiey oo?a aeeth/aao a naay “nai?eo” ?yaea oneoa e oiaa?ia
a iaeio “iaiei/eo”, iacuaaaioth oo?ii. E?iia iaoaie/aneiai ninoaaeaiey
oaeiai iaai?a oi?ie?iaaiea oo?a i?aaeoniao?eaaao e aai
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia iainiiaaiea eai iecei?aioaaaeueiue oo? a eiia/iii
eoiaa yaeyaony ianinoiyoaeueiui. Oaeei ia?acii oi?ie?iaaiea oo?a eiaao
aeaa a?aieoeu: aa?oiyy – iaeneiaeueii aeoeaiue iaeao oneoa e oiaa?ia;
ieaeiyy – yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue, aeeythuay ia aai oeaio.

Anee oo? “i?ioiaeeo” ii aeaiiui e?eoa?eyi, iaiaoiaeeii aai
yenia?eiaioaeueiia aiaae?aiea. Iii iiaeao auoue niaiauaii n ?aeeaiiui
aanieaoiui (eee eueaioiui) e?oecii, aaoiaoniui iooaoanoaeai e o.ae..

Ii ?acoeueoaoai ?aeeaiiiai oo?a aaaeaony aai i?acaioaoeey, a oaeaea
iineaaeothuay ?aeeaiiay eiiiaiey.

Iinea yoiai i?iecaiaeeony eaeueeoeyoeey cao?ao. Ii?aaeaeyaony
(caaeaaony) ii?ia i?eauee, ?ann/eouaaaony oeaia e oi?ie?oaony nenoaia
eueaio (neeaeie).

Aeaeaa noi?ie?iaaiiue oiaa?iue i?iaeoeo a aeaea oo?enoneie iooaaee
?aaeecoaony /a?ac oo?aaaioia, ath?i ii ?aaeecaoeee eee naiinoiyoaeueii
/a?ac ath?i iooaoanoaee e yeneo?nee, eioi?ia yaeyaony iin?aaeieeii
iaaeaeo oo?enoii e i?aaei?eyoeyie, ieacuaathueie aio oneoae (ainoeieoeu,
i?aaei?eyoey ieoaiey, yeneo?neiiiua neoaeau, iocae,
nii?oeaii-icaei?iaeoaeueiua eiiieaenu e o.ae.)

I?e oi?ie?iaaiee oo?a neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aai iniiaiua naienoaa:

· aoo?aeoeaiinoue (i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue);

· iaaeaaeiinoue;

· aaciianiinoue;

· iainiiaaiiinoue:

· oeaeinoiinoue (caaa?oaiiinoue);

· aae?anioth iai?aaeaiiinoue;

· eioi?iaoeaiinoue;

· aeaeinoue.

Iauea iai?aaeaiey ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia.

Naaiaeiy iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci o?ainoi?ie?oao i?aaeaea cae?uoua
iauanoaa a ioe?uoua oieaa?naeueiua iauanoaa, aaea eiioaeou iaaeaeo
ethaeueie ec ?aciuo no?ai noaiiayony iianaaeiaaiie ?aaeueiinoueth. Yoi
oaeiaeaoai?yao iio?aaiinoe ethaeae ai ano?a/ao e iaiaiao n ae?oaeie
eoeueoo?aie. Iainii?eii, /oi oo?eci yaeyaony iaeiei ec
aeeyoaeueiaeoeo oaiiiaiia yeiiiie/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey
iaoaai iauanoaa.

Ninoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee i oo?enoneeo iioieao e a oeaeii
yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia aace?oaony ia i?eiyouo
oi/iuo e oieaa?naeueiuo ii?aaeaeaieyo, eioi?ua iienuaatho oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia, eeanneoeoee?otho ?aciua aeaeu oo?enoneeo
iioieia.

Iniiaiua ii?aaeaeaiey oo?ecia auee noi?ioee?iaaiu I?aaiecaoeeae
Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee e Eiienneae ii noaoenoeea III. Yoe ii?aaeaeaiey
auee ia?aniio?aiu e i?eiyou ia eiioa?aioeee, i?iaiaeeaoaeny Anaie?iie
oo?enoneie i?aaiecaoeeae. Oai aea auee noi?ioee?iaaiu iaeioi?ua
?aeiiaiaeaoeee, eioi?ua Anaie?iay Oo?enoe/aneay I?aaiecaoeey
iioaeeeiaaea a naiai io/aoa “?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii noaoenoeea a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iea?aoeee.

Niaeanii ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi AOI anao iooaoanoaaiieeia, ia?anaeathueo
aiaoiea a?aieoeu no?ai, iiae?acaeaeytho ia oao, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auoue
aeeth/aiu a noaoenoeeo oo?ecia e iacaaiu ainoyie, e ia oao, eioi?uo ia
aeeth/atho a noaoenoeeo enoiaey ec iioeaia eo aeceoa. Ainoue, eioi?ue
iaoiaeeony a no?aia 24/. e aieaa, eeai, i?iaiaeeo ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeio
ii/ue a no?aia i?aauaaiey, eeanneoeoee?oaony eae oo?eno. Anee aea ii
i?iaiaeeo a no?aia iaiaa 24 /., oi aai ioiinyo e eaoaai?ee
iaeiiaeiaaiiai ainoy eee, ii i?eiyoie ?aiaa oa?ieiieiaee, e eaoaai?ee
yeneo?naioa. Iaiauea ana auoaeceiaeaiiia, iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e a?oiiu
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo iooaoanoaaiieeia:

Eiino?aiiue ainoue – ethaay ia?niia, oacaeathuay a ae?oaoth no?aio, ia
yaeythuayny aai (aa) iinoiyiiui ianoii aeeoaeuenoaa ia ia?eiae, ia
i?aauoathuee 12 ianyoeaa, i?e yoii aeaaiay oeaeue aeceoa eiay, /ai
iiea/eaaaiay aeayoaeueiinoue.

Eiino?aiiue oo?eno – yoi ainoue, i?iaeeaathuee a no?aia a?aiaiiiai
i?aauaaiey, ii e?aeiae ia?a 24 /., n oeaeueth ioaeuoa (i?iaaaeaiea
ioionea, icaei?iaeoaeueiua, iiciaaaoaeueiua, ?aeeaeiciua, nii?oeaiua,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-aeaeiaua e eiua oeaee).

Yeneo?naio – yoi eiino?aiiue ainoue, eioi?ue ia ii/oao a no?aia
i?aauaaiey, a aica?auaaony, iai?eia?, ia noaeii eee iiacae, ia eioi?ii
ii i?eaue a no?aio.

Ie?iaie ?uiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia.

Aiaeec oo?enoe/aneiai ?uiea a eaaeaeii oo?enoneii ?aaeiia ie?a inaauaao
enoi?eth ?acaeoey, oaeouaa ninoiyiea e aoaeouaa ie?iaiai oo?enoneiai
naeoi?a e i?aneaaeoao iniiaiua oeaee:

· eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue oa ?aaeiiu, aaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci
aic?anoaao, e oa, aaea ii nieaeaaony;

· iauynieoue i?e/eiu aieueoeo ?acee/ee a aaia?aoe/aneii ?ani?aaeaeaiee
/enea oo?enoia e aeioiaeia io ieo e aeeiaieeo yoeo ?acee/ee;

· eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue no?aiu, aaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci eiaao
aieueoie iioaioeeae aeey i?aa?auaiey a aaaeiue yeaiaio yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey.

Aaia?aoe/aneia nin?aaeioi/aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oo?enoneeo iaiaiia
niioaaonoaoao aaia?aoe/aneie eiioeaio?aoeee oi?aiaee, iaeiaei, eiaao
aeaa aaaeiuo ioee/ey.

Ai-ia?auo, no?aiu n iieiaeeoaeueiui aaeainii ii iinooieaieyi io
oo?ecia, iai?eia? NOA, Eniaiey, Ii?ooaaeey, A?aoeey, /anoi eiatho
io?eoeaoaeueiue aaeain a oi?aiaea. No?aiu n io?eoeaoaeueiui aaeainii
ii oo?enoneei iaiaiai eiatho iieiaeeoaeueiue oi?aiaue aaeain, iai?eia?
Aa?iaiey, ssiiiey.

Ai-aoi?uo, iaiai oo?enoneeie oneoaaie iaaeaeo eiaeono?eaeueiuie no?aiaie
n aiaeiae/iuie ia?acoeaie ni?ina ia iaycaoaeueii yaeyaony iaiaiii
i?iaeoeoaie iiaeiaiuo oeiia, eae a oi?aiaea oiaa?aie.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci e caiyoinoue.

Oo?eci ioaaouaaao iiiaeanoai ?aciiia?aciuo naeoi?ia yeiiiieee, e yoi
oneiaeiyao oi/ioth ioeaieo /eneaiiinoe ?aaioieeia, caiyouo a noa?a
oo?ecia. Aieaa oiai, ?aoaiea i?iaeaiu ?aaeueiie ioeaiee cao?oaeiyaony
ec-ca niaoeeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a o?oaea e ?aciiia?aciuo naycae iaaeaeo
oo?enoneei naeoi?ii e ae?oaeie naeoi?aie yeiiiieee.

?ino oo?ecia nicaeaao a no?aiao iacaaeneii io o?iaiy eo ?acaeoey
iiiai ?aai/eo iano. Iiyoiio oaeia aicaeaenoaea oo?ecia ia caiyoinoue
iiaeao noaoue ii?aaeaeythuei aeey iiiaeo iaaieueoeo no?ai, eioi?ua
nouanoaaiii caaenyo io aeaiiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee. A yoeo no?aiao aieaa
50% o?oaeiniiniaiiai ianaeaiey aiaea/aii a aeayoaeueiinoue, eioi?ay
i?yii eee einaaiii naycaia n oo?eciii a ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy aiaea. Iaeua
no?aiu a iniiaiii eiatho caieioooth yeiiiieeo, e aei ?acaeoey a ieo
eiaeono?ee oo?ecia iie caaenaee io eaeiai-ieaoaeue iaeiiai aeaea
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A ioee/ea io iaaieueoeo ainoaea?noa, a e?oiiuo eiaeono?eaeueiuo
no?aiao a oo?enoneie io?anee ?aaioaao oieueei 5% o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey. A ?acaeaathueony aea no?aiao, a eiaeono?ee oo?ecia nicaeaaony
aieueoa iiauo ?aai/eo iano, /ai a ae?oaeo io?aneyo yeiiiieee.

Iiieii eiee/anoaaiiiai aiaeeca aicaeaenoaey oo?ecia ia
caiyoinoue aeieaeai i?iaiaeeoueny e ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec. Caeanue
iniiaiui iieacaoaeai yaeyaony o?iaaiue ianoa?noaa.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee oo?ecia 90-o aiaeia.

O?e iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia a ia?eiae
aei 2000 a. aeieaeiu auoue i?eiyou ai aieiaiea:

· Ia?aay. Yeiiiie/aneee niaae ia aaaeao e niioaaonoaothuaio oiaiueoaieth
iooaoanoaee e oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Athaeaeaou iiaoo auoue o?acaiu,
ia?eiae iiacaeie iiaeao nie?aoeoueny e i?eaeeceoueny e aioo?aiiei
ia?aaiceai. Oo?enou aoaeoo i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e iiaui ianoiyoaeuenoaai,
iaiaa eiioi?oaaaeueiiio ?aciauaieth e oneoaai ii auai?o;

· Aoi?ay. ?ino iieacaoaeae iiacaeie nii?yaeai n oiaaeeii, iai?yaeaieai
e iaaeeaiiui oaaee/aieai a ia?aie iieiaeia 90-o aiaeia a n?aaiaiee ni
aoi?ie iieiaeiie yoiai aeanyoeeaoey. Eiay neooaoeey neeaaeuaaaony ii
ii/eaaai e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe i?aauaaiey, aaea niaae aieaa
cia/eoaeai;

· O?aouey oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aaeiieaaaao aeaa iniiaiuo iioeaa ?inoa ii
aiaeai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oo?ecia. Aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiue, o.a. a ?aieao
?aaeiia, iai?eia?, O?aioeey-Eniaiey eee Ei?ay-ssiiiey. Oaaee/aiea
iieacaoaeae iooaoanoaee aucaaii ?inoii ia?aaeaeaeaiey a aceaoneeo
no?aiao, /oi yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii aieaa auno?iai yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey Acee. Ia?iaeu ainoi/iiaa?iiaeneeo no?ai aoaeoo a iniiaiii
iooaoanoaiaaoue a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea no?aiu. Iaeaieueoee ?ino
iaeeaeaaony a auacaeiii oo?ecia (iiacaeee ia aeaeueiea ?annoiyiey),
iai?eia?, ec Aa?iiu a ssiiieth.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia. Ii ?aaeiiai a 1991-2000a.

Ia?niaeoeaa ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia ii oanoe ?aaeiiai ii?aaeaeyaony
AOI, ioeaieaay ii o?ai eaoaai?eyi :

· Ieceay – ieaea 3% ?inoa a aiae ca ia?eiae 1991-2000aa.

· N?aaeiyy – iaaeaeo 3% e 4% ?inoa a aiae n iii?aaeie i?iaeoa AOI ia
90-a aiaeu: aaeaaiaeiue ?ino –3,5% o.a. aa?aony n?aaeiee iieacaoaeue
(iaaeaeo 3% e 4%);

· Aunieay – n i?aauoaieai 4% ?inoa a aiae.

Aianoi oiai /oiau aiaeece?iaaoue ana oanoue ?aaeiiia, ii?aaeaeaiiuo AOI,
auyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue auaeaeeoue ?yae noa?aaeiiia a ioaeaeueiuo
?aaeiiao, oae eae neeoeii aaeeee a ieo aa?eaiou ia?niaeoeaiiai ?inoa
auacaeiiai oo?ecia. E iei ioiinyony noa?aaeiiu Oeaio?aeueiie e THaeiie
Aia?eee, ainoi/iie Acee e aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia, a oaeaea Aeeaeiaai
Ainoiea.

A eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo no?aiao, aicaeaaeyaiuo A?aaioeiie e *eee,
i?aaeaeaeyony oeo/oaiea yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee; eciaiaiea a i?ioeanna
i?eaaoecaoeee e yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe; aeaiie?aoe/aneea
i?aaeoaeuenoaa; ioe?uoue ?uiie n iaaieueoei i?ioaeoeeiieciii; ia?aaiai?u
ii oiaiueoaieth caaeieaeaiiinoe; aieueoea eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee;
oaaee/eaathueeny eiieo?aioiue yenii?o. Ana yoe oaeoi?u i?eaaaeoo e ?inoo
n?aaeiaai iieacaoaey ie?iaiai AAI.

I/aaeaeai i?ia?ann a yeiiiieea Acee, eioi?ue aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny,
yaeyynue iniiaiui eaoaeecaoi?ii anaie?iiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. A
i?aaeoanoaothuaa aei 1991 a. aeanyoeeaoea iauee ?ino yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae a Acee aue a 2,5 ?aca auoa, /ai a inoaeueiuo ?aaeiiao ie?a
(5,5 % a aiae i?ioea 2,2%). Ia?niaeoeau nio?aieoue iiaeiaiue oaii,
aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eau.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yiiineay yeiiiieea iiaeao ia auyaeoue iieacaoaeue
?inoa aieaa /ai 3% a aiae, inaiaiea ?uiea auacaeiiai oo?ecia
i?iaeieaeeony a onei?aiiii oaiia, oae eae iii io?aaeaao iaa
ioeoeeaeueiuo oneeey: oiaiueoaiea naiaai oi?aiaiai ia?ai?iecaiaenoaa ca
n/ao yenii?oa oo?enoia e oaaee/aiea iieoiaoaeueneiai eioa?ana /a?ac
eiino?aiiua iooaoanoaey ii caieaeaiiiio o?iaith i?iaeaae.

Iiaaeoea eiaeono?eaeueiua yeiiiieee THaeiie Ei?ae, Aiieiiaa, Oaeaaiy e
Neiaaio?a, a oae aea no?ai THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, aeeth/ay Oaeeaiae,
Iaeaeceth e Eiaeiiaceth, niiniaiu iiaeaea?aeaoue neeueiue yeiiiie/aneee
?ino, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai ?acaeaaaony n?aaeiee eeann- ao?aeoacey.
Iiea/eaaaiia a?aiy ioaeuoa e aic?anoathuee aeioiae yoiai eeanna
?anoiaeoaony ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiua iooaoanoaey. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea a
i?aaeaeao, i?aauoathueo 5% a aiae, aeey aeaiiie iiaea?oiiu no?ai
onoie/eai.

Eeoae- ?uiie iooaoanoaee iioaioeeaeueii oaiiiaiaeueiiai ?acia?a.
Auno?ue yeiiiie/aneee ?ino (iiaeaea?aeaiiia eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie
?anoe?aiea i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ino iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe) e
eeaa?aeecaoeey oo?enoneeo ia?aie/aiee iiaoo noeioee?iaaoue oneeey ii
?inoo aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiiai oo?ecia ec Eeoay. Ia eneeth/aia
aiciiaeiinoue, /oi e 2010 a. eeoaeneee oo?enoneee ?uiie iiaeao noaoue
aieaa iaoe?iui, /ai aia?eeaineee.

Aeeaeiee Ainoie – o?aoee ?aaeii, niiniaiue oaea?aeeaaoue
auoaoeacaiiue n?aaeiee oaii ia?niaeoeaiiai ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia,
eiaao aieueooth ?ac?aoaiiinoue i?iaeai iieeoe/aneiai e nioeeaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeuaeouei aeanyoeeaoeai, ca eneeth/aieai
neooaoeee n E?aeii . Ainaiue naiuo aieueoeo no?ai Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea a
70-a aiaeu aeinoeaee iieacaoaey 4,7 % aaeaaiaeiiai ?inoa AAI . Iaeiaei
a 80-a aiaeu yoio iieacaoaeue ninoaaee naiue ieceee o?iaaiue- 0,5 % . N
aic?anoaieai iaooaaeiau/e e aeaeaeaiey a iieueco i?eaaoecaoeee, /oi
aeieaeii oaaee/eoue i?iaeoeoeaiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue yeiiiieee ,
iaeeaeaaony iiaia iiauoaiea yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa aieioue aei
iauaie?iaiai iieacaoaey. Yoi i?eaaaeao e aiciaiiaeaieth auacaeiiai
oo?ecia no?ai Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea.

Aa?iia (n aa aunieei aaciaui o?iaiai oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe iiiaeo
no?ai, eioi?ua ioee/athony naiaiaeii ?anii?yaeaaiui ii naiaio
oniio?aieth aeioiaeii), Ea?eaneee noa?aaeii Aia?eee, ?aaeii THaeiie Acee
e ana /anoe Ao?eeaineiai ?aaeiia ioeaieaathony ia 90-a aiaeu ii
n?aaeiaio i?ioeaioo ia?niaeoeaiiai ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia (iaaeaeo 3%
e 4% a aiae). Oieueei Naaa?iaia?eeaineee noa?aaeii ioeaieaaaony ieceei
iieacaoaeai ia?niaeoeaiiai ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia.. Caeanue
aeiieie?otho ?uiie NOA n caieaeaiiui n?aaeiei iieacaoaeai yeiiiie/aneiai
?inoa( /ooue aieaa 2% a aiae a 90-a aiaeu ), e a oi aea a?aiy aunieee
o?iaaiue iia?aie/iiai oo?ecia iaaeaeo NOA e Eaiaaeie, eioi?ue aoaeao
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue a aieueoeo iauaiao, ii n ia?niaeoeaie ?inoa oieueei a
i?aaeaeao io 2% aei 3% a aiae, /oi e “nieaeaao” a oeaeii
iioaioeeaeueiue ?ino auacaeiiai oo?ecia aeey no?ai Aia?eeaineiai
eiioeiaioa.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia ii ?aaeiiai a 1991-2000 aa.

Ea?eaneee noa?aaeii Aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa, Ainoi/iiaceaoneee ?aaeii
e aannaei Oeoiai ieaaia, a oaeaea ?aaeii THaeiie Acee oaea?aeeaatho
ia?niaeoeau ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia a 90-o aiaeao auoa n?aaeiaai
oaiia. Ea?eaneee noa?aaeii iaono?aeaaaony, aeaeay noaaeo ia Aa?iiaeneee
?uiie (oi/iaa, eniieuecoy a ea/anoaa naiaai i?aeiouanoaa aiciiaeiinoe,
auyaeaoeany io ineaaeaiey eo?na aeieea?a NOA). Onei?aiiay ?ac?aaioea e
?acaeoea ia?o?ooiiai oo?ecia ai iiiaeo no?aiao Ainoi/iiaceaoneiai
?aaeiia e aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia (a /anoiinoe, a Eiaeiiacee, Iacaecee e
Eeoaa) n o/aoii oaaee/aiey /enea iiauo ?aaeiiia i?eaia (iai?eia?,
Eaiaiaeaee, Aueaoiaia) iicaieyo oaeaeaoue oi?ioea iieacaoaee ?inoa eae
aeaeueiaai aa?iiaeneiai oo?ecia a yoe ?aaeiiu, oae e aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiuo
iiacaeie a no?aiu n onei?aiiuie oaiiaie ?acaeoey oo?ecia ( a /anoiinoe,
a THaeioth Ei?ath e Oaeaaiue).

Aeey THaeiie Acee ioe?uaathony aeaaii?eyoiua ia?niaeoeau onoie/eaiai
?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia (iai?eia?, a Eiaeeth, O?e Eaiea), o.a. aeey
?aaeiia, aaea i?ioeaio ?inoa iiaeao noaoue cia/eoaeueii auoa n?aaeiaai.

Ii ae?oaei ?aaeiiai e noa?aaeiiai ia?niaeoeau auacaeiiai oo?ecia ia
90-a aiaeu ioeaieaathony ia n?aaeiai o?iaia, o.a. a iauaia 30,4 % a
aiae. Ie iaeei ?aaeii ia aoaeao ioia/ai caiaoiui nieaeaieai
ia?niaeoea auacaeiiai oo?ecia.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ianiio?y ia oi, /oi Naaa?iay Aia?eea aoaeao
oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny caieaeaiiui iieacaoaeai ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia. Yoi
ia aoaeao icia/aoue, /oi ?aaeiiu iaycaoaeueii aeieaeiu eiaoue
iiieaeaiiue n?aaeiee oaii ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia. Naiue aunieee oaii
?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia ec Naaa?iie Aia?eee i?eoiaeeony ia no?aiu,
i?eieiathuea iaeua a?oiiu e ia eioi?ua i?eoiaeeony 10 % oaaee/aiey
iioiea oo?enoia ec Naaa?iie Aia?eee, oioy a oeaeii ?ino auacaeiiai
oo?ecia ec yoiai ?aaeiia ninoaaeo anaai eeoue 1% oo?enoneie aeoeaiinoe
aeaiiiai ?aaeiia.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa oo?ecia a Aa?iia.

A oeaeyo iiieiaiey ia?niaeoeau ?inoa oo?enoneeo iioieia eniieuecothony
neaaeothuea iieacaoaee a nenoaia eo ioeaiie: ieceee (eee ieaea
n?aaeiaai), n?aaeiee e aunieee (eee auoa n?aaeiaai).

Oae eae a oeaeii ia?niaeoeau Aa?iiu (enoi/ieea e iio?aaeoaey oo?enoneeo
iioieia) ioeaieaaaony n?aaeiei iieacaoaeai, oi yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai
auyaeyao aiciiaeiua aa?eaiou ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. Iai?eia?,
ia?niaeoeau auacaeiiai oo?ecia ec Aa?iiu a Aia?eeo, Ainoi/ioth Aceth e
?aeiiu aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia, a oaeaea a THaeioth Aceth iianaianoii
auoa n?aaeieo iieacaoaeae, a oi a?aiy eae yoe iieacaoaee
i?aaeiieaaathony auoue ieaea n?aaeieo aeey Aeeaeiaainoi/iiai ?aaeiia a
nayce n yeiiiie/aneeie o?oaeiinoyie e iaeii?eaeaeaoaeueiinoueth
?aniieiaeaiiuo a yoii ?aaeiia no?ai.

Aa?iia eae ?aaeii auacaeiiai oo?ecia eiaao oi?iooth aaco ?inoa ii anai
iai?aaeaieyi ca eneeth/aieai THaeiie Acee. Ec Ao?eee, Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea,
thaeiie Acee e ?aeiiia aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia a 1990 a. caoeene?iaaii
4,5-6 iei. i?eauoee oo?enoia. Iiyoiio, anee oaaee/aiea ninoaaeo 5% a
aiae a ia?eiae 90-o aiaeia, neaaeai ec Ao?eee, oi yoi aoaeao icia/aoue
aeiiieieoaeueii 3,1 iei. i?eauoee e 2000a. Aeaaea aieaa ne?iiiue
iieacaoaeue n?aaeiaai ?inoa a iauaia 3% a aiae aeano oaaee/aiea oo?ecia
ec Ao?eee a Aa?iio n 5 iei. aei 6,7 iei. i?eauoee a ia?eiae 1990-2000
aa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaaeii o/eouaaoue iauaiu onoie/eauo oo?enoneeo
iioieia i?e ioeaiea aoaeouaai ?inoa yoeo iieacaoaeae.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa oo?ecia Aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa.

Aeey Aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa i?enou nieaeaiiue iieacaoaeue n?aaeiaai
o?iaiy ia?niaeoeau ?inoa eae ii aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiiio oo?ecio, oae e ii
oo?enoneei iioieai a THaeioth Aceth e no?aiu Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea.
Aeiieie?othuay ?ieue Naaa?iie Aia?eee a Aia?eeaineii ?aaeiia e aunieay
aeiey o/oaiiuo oo?enoneeo iioieia a ?aieao i?ea?aie/iiai iaiaia iaaeaeo
NOA e Eaiaaeie aeatho ieceea ioeaiee aeey aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiiai oo?ecia.

Aia?eeaineee eiioeiaio eae ?aaeii iauaaeeiaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae
ioeaieaaaony n?aaeieie iieacaoaeyie ia?niaeoea i?eaea/aiey oo?enoia
a oa/aiea anaai ia?eiaea 90-o aiaeia, o.a. oa?aeoa?ecoaony aunieie
noaiaiueth aeoeaiinoe auacaeiiai oo?ecia.

Iaeiaei, eae auei ioia/aii ?aiaa, Ea?eaneee aannaei ( a neeo aai
ioiineoaeueii eaaeie i?eniiniaeyaiinoe e Aa?iia ii o?iaith ianeoaeeaaiey
oo?enoia e aai oneeee ii i?iaeaaea oo?ia ia aa?iiaeneii i?ino?ainoaa)
eiaao aieaa aunieee iieacaoaeue ?inoa ia?niaeoea, /ai ae?oaea
?aeiiu Aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa, oioy ana noa?aaeiiu eiatho ia?niaeoeao
aunoae ioiaoee aaeaaiaeiiai ?inoa 3-4 % , /oi icia/aao n?aaeiee
iieacaoaeue ?inoa.

Naiuie cia/eoaeueiuie ?aaeiiaie ii auacaeo ia Aia?eeaineee eiioeiaio
a 90-o aiaeao yaeyaony Aa?iia, Ainoi/iay Acey, no?aiu aannaeia oeoiai
ieaaia e Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa oo?ecia a Ainoi/iie Acee e Aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia.

Ii Ainoi/iie Acee e aannaeio Oeoiai ieaaia iaeeaeathony ia?niaeoeau
auoa n?aaeiaai iieacaoaey, eae ii auacaeiiio, oae e ii auacaeiiio
oo?ecio. Iaeaieaa i?eieiaaiuie ?aaeiiaie auacaeiiai oo?ecia ec no?ai
Ainoi/iie Acee e aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia aoaeoo noa?aaeiiu
Aia?eeaineiai eiioeiaioa, a oaeaea no?aiu- ia?oia?u Ainoi/iie Acee,
aannaeia Oeoiai ieaaia e THaeiie Acee. Ioia/aaony, /oi n 1970 a. ii
1990 a. aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiue oo?eci iiaeiyeny a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee n
17% aei 43% e n 38% aei 53%- a Ainoi/iie Acee. Yoa oaiaeaioeey
nio?aieony a nayce n auniee ?inoii ianaeaiey a oaeeo no?aiao, eae
THaeiay Ei?ay, Oaeaaiue, Eiaeiiacey, Iaeaecey, Oaeeaiae, a oaeaea ca
n/ao oiai, /oi Eeoae ?anoe?yao iiacaeee a ninaaeiea no?aiu.

Ianooaa e aa?eaioiinoue oo?enoneiai ?acaeoey ii anai iai?aaeaieyi
oo?ecia a Ainoi/ioth Aceth e aannaei oeoiai ieaaia aoaeoo
aic?anoaoue aei o?iaiy auoa n?aaeieo oaiiia aeaaiaea?y auacaeiiio
oo?ecio anao ?aaeiiia. I?eiyoia ii?aaeaeaiea – auoa n?aaeiaai o?iaiy
?inoa (aieaa 4% a aiae) n?aaieoaeueii caieaeaii, eiaaea ?a/ue eanaaony
iieacaoaeae naeoi?a auacaeiiai oo?ecia a no?aiao Ainoi/iie Acee e
Oeoiieaaineiai aannaeia, oae eae iiiaea iieacaoaee aeeaea e 10% eee
nauoa 10 % a aiae.

Iineieueeo aieueoeinoai i?aaeeiaeaiee i?iaeoa AOI “I?iaiic
anaie?iiai oo?ecia aei 2000 aiaea e ia iineaaeothuee ia?eiae”
ii?aaaeuaaaony, i/aaeaeii, /oi i?e niaaea ia ?uiea oo?ecia a oneiaeyo
ia/aea 90-o aiaeia a ni/aoaiee n aieueoeie eiaanoeoeeyie,
iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey iaono?ienoaa aacu ?aciauaiey aic?anoathuaai iioiea
oo?enoia a 2,5 ?aca ( anee ?ino aaeaaiaeiiai i?eoiea aoaeao
ioeaieaaoueny a oa/aiea aeanyoe eao oeeo?ie 10% a aiae), a?yae ee
n?aaeiea iieacaoaee aoaeoo i?aauoaoue 6-7% a aiae a oa/aiea anaai
aeanyoeeaoey. Oieueei iaeioi?ua no?aiu iiaoo aeinoeaiooue ieea naieo
i?aaeeiaeaiee. A oeaeii aea ii ?aaeiio 6-7-i?ioeaioiue iieacaoaeue
n?aaeiaaiaeiaiai ?inoa aiciiaeai oieueei aeaaiaea?y iaae?aaeiiaeueiui
oo?enoneei iioieai.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa oo?ecia a THaeiie Acee.

Iieeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea no?ai THaeiiaceaoneiai ?aaeiia a i?ioaaeoaa
aeanyoeeaoea auei iaonoie/eai. Yoi iineoaeeei niaaeii ?inoa
auacaeiiai e auacaeiiai oo?ecia.

Aeoiay i aoaeouai, neaaeoao auoue iioeienoii, ianiio?y ia
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe, i?aiaeieaiea eioi?uo aeieaeii oeo/oeoue
neooaoeeth. Iiaay eiaeono?eaeueiay iieeoeea Eiaeee, nieaeaiea i?aeoeee
eeoeaice?iaaiey e eiio?iey ca aaethoiui iaiaiii, nicaeatho oe?ieea
aiciiaeiinoe aeey eiaanoeoeee e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Yoi a naith
i/a?aaeue nicaeaao oeiainiaua aiciiaeiinoe a eiaeee ia oieueei aeey
aeaeiauo iiacaeie, ii e ia ioaeuo. A oiaea ineaaeaiey eiio?iey ca
aaethoiui iaiaiii, iaeeaeaaony iiaeuai a eiaeeeneii auacaeiii
oo?ecia, aeathuee ia?niaeoeau ?inoa a oeaeii ii ?aaeiio aei o?iaiy
n?aaeieo oaiiia. Iniiaiui ?aaeiiii ii i?eaio THaeiiaceaoneiai
auacaeiiai oo?ecia aoaeoo Ainoi/iay Acey e aannaei Oeoiai ieaaia.

*oi eanaaony auacaeiiai oo?ecia a THaeioth Aceth, oi ioeaiee oaiiia
?inoa ia ia?niaeoeao ii?aaeaeythony ia o?iaia auoa n?aaeieo. Iie
i?eaiaeyony, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eiathony naie a aaeaaeinoaaeao ec
iniiaiuo ?aeiiia oo?enoneiai ?uiea, aunie i?ioeaio ianoaaeeueiinoe ia
?uiea oo?ecia, /oi a no?aiao THaeiie Acee iieeoe/aneay neooaoeey
iaaaciiania aeey oo?enoia, a oaeaea iuouaaony aieueoie iaaeinoaoie
n?aaenoa, aeey ?acaeoey oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa e ca?oaaaeiuo i?iaeaae.

Ioeaiee aeathony oaeaea n o/aoii i?iaeieaeathueony ?aaeiiaeueiuo
eiioeeeoia (iai?eia?, iaaeaeo Eiaeeae e Iaeenoaiii), /oi oaeoe/anee
ii?aaeaeyao iniiaiua iieacaoaee auacaeiiai oo?ecia n?aaieoaeueii
ieceeie. Aa?iiaeneee aeaeueiee oo?eci aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny a
caaeneiinoe io iauaia aeaiaaeiie iannu a ?yaea no?ai ?aaeiia.
I?aaeiieaaaaony oaii ?acaeoey ia?niaeoea oo?ecia a THaeioth Aceth auoa
n?aaeiaai o?iaiy ec Ainoi/iie Acee, aannaeia oeoiai ieaaia, aeeaeiaai
Ainoiea e Ao?eee.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea.

Aeeaeiee Ainoie eiaao a ia?niaeoeaa aia/aoeythuee yeiiiie/aneee ?ino,
/oi, ianiiiaiii, i?eaaaeao e iiauoaiiiio n?aaeiaio iieacaoaeth
iioaioeeaeueiiai ?inoa auacaeiiai oo?ecia. Ana

?aaeiiu auea?uaatho io aic?anoathuaai auacaeiiai oo?ecia n aeeaeiaai
Ainoiea.

Ioeaiee ia?niaeoea auacaeiiai oo?ecia ia Aeeaeiai ainoiea
i?iaeaiaoe/iu. Anee a?aoiaioii yaeyaony oi, /oi aieaa noaaeeueiay
ianoaiiaea a ?aaeiia iiaea au oneeeoue ?ino auacaeiiai oo?ecia, oi a
ea/anoaa eiio?a?aoiaioa aunooiaao neooaoeey, eiaaea i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue
oo?ecia a ?aaeii iaynii au?aaeaia e eaeao i?ioeann eco/aiey e
enneaaeiaaiey yoie neooaoeee.

?ino iieacaoaeae auacaeiiai oo?ecia ia Aeeaeiee Ainoie i?iecieaeao a
iniiaiii a ?aieao aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiiai oo?ecia , ii ia ca n/ao
?aaeiiia Aa?iiu e Aia?eee.

Ia?niaeoeau ?inoa oo?ecia a Ao?eea.

Ao?eea- ?aaeii, ninoiyuee ec iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo noa?aaeiiia.
Noa?aaeiiaeueiua aa?eaiou iiea aua i?aaenoieo ii?aaeaeeoue a oiaea
iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeueiiai ?acaeaea ii Ao?eea a ?aieao i?iaeoa “I?iaiic
anaie?iiai oo?ecia aei 2000 aiaea e ia iineaaeothuee ia?eiae”. Oai ia
iaiaa, anoue neiaeeaoeany oaiaeaioeee aeey anao noa?aaeiiia.
Iineieueeo i?iaeieaeatho nio?aiyoueny i?iaeaiu, i?enouea eiioeiaioo,
eioi?ua ia?aie/eaatho iioaioeeaeueiu ?ino ?aaeecaoeee ?aaeiiaeueiiai
oo?ecia, oi ioeaiee eanathony aiciiaeiinoae n?aaeieo oaiiia ?inoa
ia?niaeoea eae auacaeiiai, oae e auacaeiiai oo?ecia. Iaeaieaa
ia?niaeoeaiuie ?aaeiiaie ii auacaeo ec Ao?eee aoaeoo Acey e naia
Ao?eea (aioo?e ?aaeiia), a n?aaeiee iieacaoaeue ?inoa auacaeiiai
oo?ecia a Ao?eeo aoaeao oa?aeoa?ai aeey iiacaeie ec Aa?iiu, Aia?eee e
Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea

Iaoneiaeaiiinoue oo?ecia.

Aeaiiue iiae?acaeae eanaaony auaiaeia ia iniiaiuo oaeoi?ao, aeeythueo e
iaoneiaeeaathueo iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oo?enoneoth aeayoaeueiinoue ia 90-
aiaeu e iineaaeothuee ia?eiae iiaiai noieaoey. Nouanoaotho oaeoi?u,
eioi?ua i/a?/eaatho ?acaeoea oo?ecia e oi?ie?otho iai?aaeaiiinoue
oo?enoneeo iioieia.

Iio?aaiinoe oo?ecia ii?aaeaeythony eae aiaoieie ianoiyoaeuenoaaie, oae
e ?uii/iuie oneiaeyie (o.a iio?aaiinoyie, i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?ani?ino?aiaieai oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa).

Aiaoiea ianoiyoaeuenoaa yooaeoeaiinoe oo?ecia aeeth/atho
aeaiia?aoe/aneea e nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey, yeiiiie/aneia e oeiainiaia
?acaeoea, a oaeaea ?acaeoea oi?aiaee, o?ainii?oioth eio?ano?oeoo?o e
nenoaio aaciianiinoe.

Aeaiia?aoe/aneea e nioeeaeueiua eciaiaiey.

Eciaiaiea aeaiia?aoe/aneie no?oeoo?u e nioeeaeueiie iiaeaee
ia?iaeiianaeaiey a ?acaeouo e iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao aaaeoo e
oiio, /oi ana aieueoa ethaeae aoaeao eiaoue a?aiy e aeioiae,
?anoiaeoaiue ia iooaoanoaey. Yoe eciaiaiey aeeth/atho neaaeothuea
oaeoi?u:

· Iiac?ineaiea ianaeaiey;

· Oaaee/aiea ?aaioathueo aeaiuei e aeioiaea ia /eaia naiuee;

· Aic?anoaiea aeiee iaeeiieeo iiaeeeuo ethaeae;

· Oaiaeaioeey e aieaa iicaeiei a?aeai;

· Auno?ue ?ino /enea aacaeaoiuo naiaeiuo ia? ii n?aaiaieth n ?inoii
ianaeaiey;

· Nie?auaiea /enea eiiea?aoeeiiiuo ia?aie/aiee;

· Oaaee/aiea i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe iiea/eaaaiuo ioioneia;

· Aieaa ?aiiee ooiae ia iaineth;

· Oaaee/eaathuaany iniciaiea oo?enoneeo aiciiaeiinoae.

Iieacaoaee anaie?iiai ?inoa ia?iaeiianaeaiey oaaee/eaathony iaaeeaiii,
ii i?ienoiaeeo oaaee/aiea /enea oo?enoia a aic?anoiuo a?oiiao n
aieueoei i?eno?anoeai e oeiainiauie aiciiaeiinoyie e iiacaeeai. Iaeiei
ec caiaoiuo eciaiaiee a ?acaeouo no?aiao noaiao i?iaeieaeathuaany
nieaeaiea eiee/anoaa ianaeaiey a aic?anoa 15 eao-24 aiaea.
Iineaaiaiiue anieane ?iaeaeaaiinoe neacaeny ia aic?anoa a?oii
ianaeaiey, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue yaeeinue oaeoi?ii, nieceaoei
iieacaoaee ?iaeaeaaiinoe a 60-a e 70-a aiaeu, /oi i?eaaei e aieaa
aunieie aeiee ac?ineiai e i?anoa?aeiai ianaeaiey a ?acaeouo e iiauo
eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao. Ai anao eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao iieacaoaeue
?iaeaeaaiinoe nieaeaaony, a i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie oaaee/eaaaony
a ?acoeueoaoa eo/oae caaiou i caei?iauea ethaeae.

I?iaeieaeeoaeueiua iiea/eaaaiua ioionea, i?eaaaeoo e aieueoei
eaieeoey?iui ia?eiaeai, a /anoiinoe, n e?aoee i?aauaaieai.

Aieueoay aeaeinoue ?aai/aai a?aiaie oiaea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeey
?aciiia?aciuo iio?aaiinoae a iooaoanoaeyo. Aic?anooo iio?aaiinoe a
?acee/iuo oeiao iiacaeie ii oeaeyi e aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe, ?anoe?aieth
aeaeiaiai oo?ecia ca ?aieaie iau/iiai naciia-iee.

Iiauoaiiue o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey oaaee/eaaao no?aieaiea ?acee/iuo
ethaeae e ciaieth ae?oa i ae?oaa. Oaoiieiaee aeinoaaie e eiiioieeaoeee
aeaeatho aiciiaeiui ?acaeaaoue iinoiyiiua eiioaeou ii/oe ni anaie
?aeiiaie ie?a, ai anao noa?ao iauaiey. Ie? noaiiaeony /?acau/aeii
einiiiieeoe/iui. Aeaaiaea?y aeeyieth ethaeae ae?oa ia ae?oaa
oi?ie?oaony iauaie?iaie noeeue aeecie, eioi?ue aicaeaenoaoao ia
iiacaeee e oo?eci. Naiui ooiaeaiaioaeueiui iniiaaieai aic?anoathueo
iieacaoaeae oo?ecia oaeoe/anee aunooiaao i?e/eiiay naycue e ?acoeueoao
noaiiaeaiey aeiaaeueiiai noeey aeecie.

Eioa?an e ae?oaei iauanoaai aucuaaao aeaeaiea iooaoanoaiaaoue e
iieo/aoue iiaua aia/aoeaiey. Iieoiaoaee o?aaotho iiaua e iiiaiaa?eaioiua
oo?enoneea oneoae e i?iaeoeou.

Yeiiiie/aneia e oeiainiaia ?acaeoea.

Nouanoaoao /aoeay naycue iaaeaeo oaiaeaioeeyie ?acaeoey oo?ecia e
iauaai yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. Oo?enoneee ?ino i/aiue /oanoaeoaeai e
eaeiio-eeai yeiiiie/aneiio eciaiaieth. Anee oeaiu, oi ?ino iieacaoaeae
a oeaeii ia 1% /anoiiai iio?aaeaiey aaaeao e iauaio canoith a
?anoiaeao ia iooaoanoaey; i?e ?inoa iio?aaeaiey ia 2,5 % ?acaeoea
oo?ecia aic?anoaao ia 4% , a i?e ?inoa iio?aaeaiey 5% iieacaoaeue
oaaee/aiey cao?ao ia oo?eci ninoaaeyao 10% . A neo/aa, anee iio?aaeaiea
ieaea 1% , oi a oo?ecia iuouaaony niaae. Ii a eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie
no?aia oaeay ?aaeoeey ia yeiiiie/aneea eciaiaiey i?iyaeyaony ii-naiaio
e ioeeiiaiea io n?aaeiaai iieacaoaey oaeaea aunooiaao a ?acee/iuo
oi?iao.

Niaae yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a eiioea 80-o aiaeia oae e ia aue
i?aiaeieai e 1994a., /oi i?eaaei e iaaeaieth iieacaoaeae ?inoa
oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii ?ino AAI a oeaeii a oa/aiea 90-o aiaeia
niia ana-oaee ninoaaeyoue 3% a aiae (eee aieaa oiai), oioy aeey
caiaaeiuo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai yoio iieacaoaeue aoaeao ia iaeei
ioieo ieaea n?aaeiaai ?inoa, a aeey Acee, Eaoeineie Aia?eee e Aeeaeiaai
Ainoiea ?acaeoea n?aaeiaai oaiia ?inoa aeinoeaaao aieaa aunieeo
ioeaiie.

Ee/iue aeee?aoeeiiiue aeioiae, iioiaea, aoaeao oaaee/eaaoueny. Yoi
i?eiao oi?io oe?ieiai iinooieaiey aeioiaeia, eae a no?aiao n onoiyaoaeny
eiaeono?eaeecaoeeae, oae e a no?aiao n yeiiiieeie i?iiuoeaiiiai
?acaeoey, /oi i?eaaaeao:

· E aieueoae oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe, a /anoiinoe, eanathuaeny
oaaee/aiey /enea iieoiaoaeae oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa n aieaa aunieeie
aeioiaeaie;

· E aieueoae i?iii?oeee n?aaenoa, iauanoaaiii auaeaeyaiuo ia iiacaeee e
oo?eci.

Eciaiaiea oeai ia oo?eci e oo?enoneee i?iaeoeo ii?aaeaeythony ia oieueei
o?iaiai, ?inoii e aeioiaeii, iai?aaeyaiui ia oeaee oo?ecia e iiacaeie,
ii e oaeoi?aie oeaiiia?aciaaiey ia yoo i?iaeoeoeeth e oneoae. Aoi?ay
iieiaeia 20-ai aaea auea ia?eiaeii, eiaaea oeaiu ia oo?eci
iiaeieiaeenue iaaeeaiiaa, /ai au?anoaea eioeyoeey a ?acoeueoaoa
oaaee/aiey ianooaaa yeiiiieee e eiieo?aioiiai aeaaeaiey.
Caeiiiaeaoaeueiua ia?aie/aiey ia iia?aoeee ia aaeaeeieyo e
i?iaeieaeathuaany i?iecaiaenoai aieaa aianoeoaeueiuo e eiioi?oaaaeueiuo
nio?aiytho naia aeeyiea ia oaiaeaioeee a oo?enoneii oeaiiia?aciaaiee.

Eciaiaiey a aaethoiuo eo?nao oiaea aeeytho ia oeaiu iiacaeie ca
?oaaae, /oi io?aaeaaony ia ?inoa oo?ecia.

Iieeoe/aneea, caeiiiaeaoaeueiua e ii?iaoeaiua eciaiaiey.

Iiaua iieeoe/aneea no?oeoo?u a Ainoi/iie Aa?iia iiea aua yeiiiie/anee
neaau, /oi yaeyaony ?aaeueiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey aiaea/aiey ianaeaiey a
ca?oaaaeiue oo?eci. Iauai oo?ecia iaaeaeo no?aiaie Caiaaeiie e
Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu aoaeao ?anoe, ii a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a a iai?aaeaiee
n Ainoiea ia Caiaae. Ia?u Aa?iiaeneiai niiauanoaa ii noaiiaeaieth
aaeeiiai ?uiea aoaeoo iai?aaeaiu ia neaai inaaeaaaiue naeoi? aaeaoeee a
nayce n iaee/eai ii?aaeaeaiiie nii?ioeaeyaiinoe ni noi?iiu
iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aaic/eeia ?yaea no?ai AYN e i?iaeieaeathueeny
ia?aianuuaiiinoueth ay?iii?oia e aaeaoeeiiiuo ei?eaei?ia . Iieeoeea AYN
“ioe?uoia iaai” iai?aaeaii ia iacia/eoaeueioth ei??aeoe?iaeo
aiciiaeiinoae n oeaeueth i?aaeinoaaeaiey aa?iiaeneei iannaaee?ai
nouanoaaiii nieaeaiiuo oeai e aieueoaai auai?a iaaeaaeiuo
aaeaeiiiaiee.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci aeey ?acaeaathueony no?ai yaeyaony enoi/ieeii
iinooieaiey eiino?aiiie aaethou e nicaeaiey ?aai/eo iano. A oi aea
a?aiy ii i?eaiineo eciaiaiey a o?aaeeoeeiiiua nioeeaeueiua nenoaiu e
i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, nicaeaaay aeiiieieoaeueioth caaeneiinoue.

Iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea aianei eciaiaiey a aaeain aeaaaoia, auaiaey
aini?eyoea oo?ecia ec i?eieoeaiie ioeaiee oneiaee ?acaeoey- noieo eee
ia noieo aai iiaeaea?aeeaaoue. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue oo?eci oaia?ue
i?eciaaony eae nia?aiaiiue eino?oiaio yeiiiieee, naycaiiue eae n
aeioiaeaie, oae e n i?iaeaiaie. Ii/oe ana ?acaeaathueany no?aiu
iiieiatho oeaeaniia?aciinoue ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia.
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai i?e ieaie?iaaiee ?acaeoey oo?ecia
i?eieiatho ai aieiaiea yeiiiie/aneea, nioeeaeueiua, eoeueoo?iua
iio?aaiinoe ianaeaiey e o?aaiaaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, eioi?ay yaeyaony
aacie oo?ecia, aunooiaao eae aeiey ianneaiiai oo?ecia e o?aaoao
eiaeono?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

Aic?anoaao cia/eiinoue ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu eae aacu aeey oo?ecia.
Iineaaeothuea 10 eao iiaeoaa?aeyo aieueoaa aieiaiea, i?iyaeaiiia ia
oieueei i?aaeoaeuenoaaie no?ai, ii e oo?enoneeie iia?aoi?aie e
i?iecaiaeeoaeyie oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa n oeaeueth nicaeaiey “
aeinoieiiai oo?ecia”.

Oaoiieiaey ?acaeoey oo?ecia.

I?ia?ann a oaoiieiaeyo aaeaoeeiiii-eiaeaia?iuo nenoai, iacaiiiai
o?ainii?oa, a oaeaea nenoai yeaeo?iiiuo aeaiiuo i?iaeieaeaao
inouanoaeyoueny ia i?ioyaeaiee anao 90-o aiaeia. ?acaeoea iooaoanoaee
aoaeao aieaa auno?ui, i?yiui, n naoueth naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo ia?o?ooia e
iaiaa aei?iainoiyuei.

Iaeiia?aiaiii aoaeao niaa?oainoaiaaoueny n?aaenoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iaania/aiey e a?iie?iaaiey iiacaeie.

?acaeoea oi?aiaee. A 90-a aiaeu ianoiyoaeuenoaa iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee noaiiayony aieaa eeaa?aeueiuie, oioy i?iyaeythony
naea?aeeaathuea oaeoi?u, aucaaiiua o?oaaaeneeie ia?aaiai?aie AAOO.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey nio?aiyao i?aeoeeo nouanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey a
oneiaeyo, eiaaea aieueoaa /enei no?ai aeoeaiaa o/anoaotho eae a
yenii?oa, oae e a eiii?oa.

Onoaiaaeeaaaony e caeeth/aaony aieueoa ?aaeiiaeueiuo niaeaoaiee,
iai?eia?, ii oeio niaeaoaiey i naiaiaea oi?aiaee a Naaa?iie Aia?eea
(NAFTA) , /oi a naith i/a?aaeue iiaeaea?aeeaaao oo?eci iaaeaeo no?aiaie.
?anoe?ythony e iaaeaeoia?iaeiua naoe oo?iia?aoi?ia.

O?ainii?oiay eio?ano?oeoo?a. Iaeeaeaaiua ianooaau ?inoa oo?ecia aoaeoo
ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia iaono?ienoai e ?acaea/aiey, o?aaoaiua oo?enoaie.
Naiua aieueoea i?iaeaiu a nayce n yoei aicieeatho a noa?a o?ainii?oiie
eio?ano?oeoo?u (ay?iii?ou, aaoiaei?iae e aeaeaciiaei?iaeiua naoe). Aieaa
oiai, iaeeaeaaony ?aeiino?oeoeey o?ainii?oiie eio?ano?oeoo?u ai anao
?aaeiiao ie?a.

Aac anyeeo nnueie ia aeiaaeueiua aaeao?ainii?oiua i?ioeannu e o?oaeiinoe
?aaeueiay ia?niaeoeaa ninoieo a oii, /oi aaeaia?aaicee e ?ino oo?ecia
aoaeoo i?aaeiaoii noieeiiaaiey ai iiiaeo ?aeiiao ie?a ia i?ioyaeaiee
90-o aiaeia . Aaeao?ainii?oiua ia?aa?ocee ieaaeoony iniiaiui
i?aiyonoaeai aeey iieiiai inouanoaeaiey iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
aceaoii-iinaaei/iuo n?aaenoa, iio?aaotho iiauo eiaanoeoeee a aieueoii
iauaia.

?ano?nu ?uiea. Ianoiy, i?yii e yooaeoeaii aicaeaenoaothuea ia oo?eci e
naycaiiua n oi?ie?iaaieai iio?aaiinoae, ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia
oo?enoneee i?iaeoeo e oneoae, oneiaii iiaeii iacaaoue – ?ano?nu ?uiea.
Ninoaaeythuea aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey yaeythony: i?ioeann iio?aaiinoae,
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey; naaiaiou ?uiea; ?acaeoea oeaeae oo?enoneiai
i?iaeoeoa; /anoiue oo?enoneee naeoi? e ethaeneea ?ano?nu.

Iio?aaiinoe, ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea. Iio?aaiinoe a aeene?aoeeiiiii
oo?ecia, (o.a. oo?eci ii nianoaaiiiio auai?o) aoaeoo aic?anoaoue a
oa/aiea 90-o aiaeia.

I?aaeiieaaaaony oaaee/aiea iiacaeie ca ieaoo , i?eaeeaeaiioth e
?aaeueiui oa?eoai, /oi iaoneiaeo aeaa aaaeiuo iiiaioa:

· ?ino aeiee eaieeoey?iuo iiacaeie, a /anoiinoe ii eiino?aiiui
ia?o?ooai;

· ?ino iiaoi?yaiinoe eaieeoey?iiai ia?eiaea.

Aieaa oiai, yoe oaiaeaioeee i?eaaaeoo e oaaee/aieth iio?aaiinoae a
iiauo, aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo e ?aciiia?aciuo oo?enoneeo i?iaeoeoao e
oneoaao. O?aaeeoeeiiiue, oe?ieee ianooaa oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa e oneoa
(iai?eia?, ioaeuo ia ieyaea, ai?iaeneea oo?u) inoaiaony iniiaiui auai?ii
ia oo?enoneeo ?uieao, n iaaeeaiiui ?inoii oeai.

?acaeoea nenoaiu “ ni?in-iio?aaiinoe”, i?aaeoniio?aiiia ia ia?eiae 90-o
aiaeia e aeaeaa, /aoei ii?aaeaeyaony oa?ieiii “naaiaio ?uiea”, /oi
icia/aao i?ioeann, eiaaea i?iaeaaaoe oo?enoneiai ia?o?ooa eee iano ia
naiieao, a ainoeieoeo i?eaeaeaao iieoiaoaeae, eioi?ua aoaeoo
oaeiaeaoai?aiu i?iaeoeoii eee oneoaaie, i?aaeeiaeaiiuie i?iaeaaoeii.

Naaiaio ?uiea. ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ioiioaiee i?eaaaeao e
oaaee/aieth naaiaioa ?uiea iooaoanoaee e oo?ecia, a /anoiinoe, a nayce
n oaeoi?ii aeaiia?aoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, ia?aca aeecie e a?oiiiauo
eioa?ania ianaeaiey.

I?aaeaeaeyony ?ino aioo?e?aaeiiaeueiiai oo?enoneiai naaiaioa a Acee.
Aa?iia, ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea e a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao; aieaa oe?ieia
iacia/aiea iai?aaeaiee oo?ecia, a /anoiinoe, iiauo aai aeaeia, iiacaeee
ia aeaeueiea ?annoiyiey; i?iaeoiaiiue ?uiie eaieeoe e ioaeuoa (o.a.
niioaaonoaothuee eae niaea?aeaieth, oae e iaiaoiaeeiiio eiioi?oo);
i?eaeaeaoaeueiue oo?eci (o.a. oaeiaeaoai?ythuee eaeei-eeai aeaoi eee
aieaa yeaiaioai, naycaiiui n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie); e?aoeee ioaeuo,
i?aaiecoaiue n eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa ?anneaaeaiey e ioaeuoa aia
aeiia.

Oeaee ?acaeoey oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa.

Aiaeec oo?enoneiai eioa?ana auyaee iaiaoiaeeiinoue: aieueoaai
?aciiia?acey oeaeae e caaea/ oo?ecia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, /oi
iaoneiaeeaaao ?uiie aeene?aoeeiiiiai oo?ecia; ?anoe?aiiie
aeeaa?neoeeaoeee oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa; iaono?ienoaa e ieaaiiai ?acaeoey
anao neeaaeuaathueony iai?aaeaiee e oaiaeaioeee ?uiea n o/aoii
aaciianiuo noaiaea?oia ianeoaeeaaiey.

?uiie noaiiaeony aieaa eiie?aoiui, eiaaea aic?anoaao iniciaiea a
iio?aaeaiee i?iaeoeoa, nenoaiu nayce e eiiioieeaoeee noaiiayony aieaa
i?eniiniaeaiiuie. Oaaee/eaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue a ieaie?iaaiee
oo?enoneiai ?acaeoey ia iniiaa iieiie eioaa?aoeee e iieiiai iiieiaiey
iio?aaiinoae oo?enoneeo ?uieia a ?acaeoee i?aaeeiaeaiee e ni?ina.

Ia?eaoeia a oo?ecia. 70-a e 80-a aiaeu auee ia?eiaeii, eiaaea eaaeaeue
oei e eaoaai?ey oo?enoneiai o/anoieea, (o.a. no?aiu, iia?aoi?u) eiaee
oi?ioea ia?niaeoeau aeey oniaoa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ienoiaeyo
eciaiaiey a aeaiiie neooaoeee ia oieueei ec-ca aeaaeaiey, aucaaiiiai
eioaineaiie eiieo?aioeeae e ana aieaa aic?anoathueie o?aaiaaieyie
iio?aaeoaey, ii e a ?acoeueoaoa caoyioaoaainy yeiiiie/aneiai niaaea.
Yoi i?eaaei e neooaoeee, eiaaea ana o/anoieee oo?enoneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, ia ni?eaioe?iaaaoeany ia ?uiea, iino?aaeaee ec-ca
iayooaeoeaiinoe iia?aoeee.

Aeinoeaeaiea oeaee iia?aoi?ia – ?acaeoea i?iaeoeoa e oneoa a oi/iii
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie caaeneo io aieaa eioaineaiie i?iaeaaee,
aieueoae ianooiaoaeueiinoe a ?aaeecaoeee oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa,
iaaeaee yoi auei a i?ioeii. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?uii/iua e ni?eaioe?iaaiiua
ia i?iaeaeaeaiea athaeaeaou cia/eoaeueii oaaee/ao i?iii?oeee
oo?enoneiai ?inoa a iineaaeothuea aiaeu.

Yeiiiie/aneia aicaeaenoaea oo?ecia.

Oo?enou o?aoyo aeaiueae a ioaeyo, ?anoi?aiao, o?ainii?oa, e o.ae.
ei?iieeatho a yeiiiieeo no?aiu i?aauaaiey. Yoi i?iieeiiaaiea iiaeii
enneaaeiaaoue n iiiiuueth ioeaiee i?yiiai e einaaiiiai i?iieeathuaai
aicaeaenoaey. I?yiia aicaeaenoaea-yoi iauai ?anoiaeia oo?enoia ca
au/aoii iauaia eiii?oa, iaiaoiaeeii aeey iieiiai iaania/aiey oiaa?aie e
oneoaaie oo?enoia. I?aaei?eyoey, e eioi?ui iaiin?aaenoaaiii iinooiatho
?anoiaeu oo?enoia, oaeaea ioaeaeathony a iieoiea oiaa?ia e oneoaao
ae?oaeo naeoi?ia ianoiie yeiiiieee. Iai?eia?, ainoeieoeu iieuecothony
oneoaaie no?ieoaeae, eiiioiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee, aaieia, no?aoiauo
eiiiaiee, i?iecaiaeeoaeae ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia e ae?. Oaeei ia?acii,
aaia?e?iaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay aeoeaiinoue , iieo/aiiay ec yoeo
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo yoaiia ?anoiaeiaaiey, e yaeyaony einaaiiui
aicaeaenoaeai. Iaeiaei iii ia ioaaouaaao ana ?anoiaeu oo?enoia ai a?aiy
i?yiiai aicaeaenoaey, oae eae /anoue aeaiaa auoiaeeo ec iai?ioa /a?ac
eiii?o e iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea.

Ai a?aiy i?yiiai e einaaiiiai ?anoiaeiaaiey o ianoiiai
ianaeaiey iaeaieeaaaony aeioiae a oi?ia ca?aaioiie ieaou, a?aiaeiie
ieaou e ae?. Yoio aeiiieieoaeueiue aeioiae ianoiua aeeoaee iiaoo
?anoiaeiaaoue ia iieoieo ioa/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia e oneoa, nicaeaaay oai
naiui iiaue aeoie yeiiiie/aneie aeoeaiinoe.

Oo?eci, iaeiaei, iiaeao ieacaoue e iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiieeo. I?iecaiaenoai oo?enoneie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa o?aaoao
ia?aa?inee ?ano?nia ec ae?oaeo noa? yeiiiieee, aaea iio?aaiinoue a ieo
oaeaea auniea.

Eioeyoeey iiaeao i?eaanoe e nie?auaieth eiee/anoaa
oiio?aaeyaiuo ianoiui ianaeaieai i?iaeoeoia. Yoio eioeyoeeiiiue ?ene
iniaaiii aaeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, ec-ca iayeanoe/iinoe
i?aaeeiaeaiey oai e iaaiciiaeiinoe eiii?oe?iaaoue ea/anoaaiiua
i?iaeoeou ii i?e/eia ieceiai eo?na ianoiie aaethou ii ioiioaieth e
oaa?aeui aaethoai. Eioeyoeeth iiaeii i?einoaiiaeoue n iiiiuueth
oiaiueoaiey ni?ina ni noi?iiu eiino?aiiuo e ianoiuo iio?aaeoaeae eee n
iiiiuueth oaaee/aiey eiii?oa, ca n/ao oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, iieo/aaiuo io
oao aea eiino?aiiuo ainoae.

Yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou i?aaiecaoeee o/o.

Iiae i?aaiecaoeeae oo?ecia, eae io?aneaaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu
iiieiaaony ni/aoaiea no?oeoo?u e niiniaia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey aa
yeaiaioia e iiaenenoai. No?oeoo?a oo?ecia oa?aeoa?ecoaony ninoaaii aa
yeaiaioia e niiniaii eo iauaaeeiaiey (acaeiiaeaenoaey).

I?aaiecaoeeiiiay no?oeoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niinia
iauaaeeiaiey no?oeoo?iuo aaeeieoe yeaiaioa?iiai o?iaiy (oo?oe?i,
oo?aaaionoa eo.i.), a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai ia?acoaony ea?a?oey oo?ecia
eae io?aneaaie yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu.

A i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a io?anee oo?ecia iiaeii
?acee/eoue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo, iaoa?eaeueii –
aauanoaaiiue , oaoiieiae/aneee , e eioi?iaoeeiiiue aniaeou.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u naycai n
oi?ie?iaaieai nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa, n iiiiuueth
eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony ooieoeeiie?iaaiea oo?ecia. A caaeneiinoe io
yoiai auaeaeythony neaaeothuea i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaua oi?iu oo?ecia :
oaaea?aeueiay, ioieoeeiaeueiay, aeoeeiia?iay, /anoiay e o.ae.

Iaoa?eaeueii-aauanoaaiiue aniaeo no?oeoo?u oo?ecia eae io?anee
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue i?iecaiaeeiuo e ?aaeecoaiuo ei
oo?ia, oneoa e oiaa?ia. Yoio aniaeo oa?aeoa?ecoaony iauaiaie
?aaeecaoeee oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa.

Oaoiieiae/aneee aniaeo io?anee oo?ecia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
niaieoiiinoue eiie?aoiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n
i?iecaiaenoaii , ?aaeecaoeeae e iio?aaeaieai oo?enoneiai i?iaeoeoa.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue aniaeo i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u oo?ecia. *oiau
ni?aaeoueny n oi?aaeaieai oaeie neiaeiie nenoaiu, eae oo?eci,
iaiaoiaeeia ?aoeeiiaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey iioiea eioi?iaoeee. Iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiie i?aaiecaoeeae aeey aieueoeo nenoai yaeyaony
ea?a?oe/aneay no?oeoo?a e o.ae.

Aeae oo?ecia naycai ni niaoeeoeeie io?aaeaiey oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia a athaeaeaoa no?aiu eee aa ?aaeiia. Ii aeaiiiio i?eciaeo
a oi?iao oo?ecia auaeaeytho aeaa aeaea oo?ecia : aeoeaiue e ianneaiue.

I?eacae eiino?aiiuo oo?enoia a no?aio eee ioa/anoaaiiuo oo?enoia a
aeaiiue ?aaeii no?aiu yaeyaony aeoeaiui oo?eciii. Aeoeaiue oo?eci
neoaeeo oaeoi?ii aaica aeaiaa (aaethou) a no?aio eee aeaiiue ?aaeii.

Iooaoanoaea a?aaeaeai iaeiie no?aiu a ae?oaea ainoaea?noaa e
auacae oo?enoia ec aeaiiiai ?aaeiia no?aiu yaeythony ianneaiui
oo?eciii. Ianneaiue oo?eci yaeyaony oaeoi?ii auaica aeaiaa
(aaethou) ec no?aiu eee aeaiiiai ?aaeiia.

Aiaeec aaeaina.

Iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa o?iaiy ?inneeneie oeiainiaie eioi?iaoeee:
aeaiiua, i?aaeoniio?aiiua o?aaiaaieyie ?inneeneie io/aoiinoe a
oeiainiaie e iaeiaiaie iaeanoe, e eioi?iaoeey oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe,
oaea a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oi?ie?oaony n o/aoii o?aaiaaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
noaiaea?oia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Anee ?acoeueoaou yeiiiie/aneiai
aiaeeca ii ia?aiio e?oao eioi?iaoeee niiinoaaeiu n ?acoeueoaoaie anao
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaiecaoeee ?innee, oi ?an/aoiua iieacaoaee n
ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaiueth ei??aeoe?iaee iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu e
eioa?i?aoe?iaaiu e eiino?aiiuie eiaanoi?aie.

?acthie?oy auoaeceiaeaiiia, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi noaiaea?oiay
oaoiieiaey aiaeeca oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oo?oe?iu
iniiauaaaony ia eniieueciaaiee noaiaea?oiie e aaeeiiia?aciie a
niaea?aeaoaeueiii ieaia iaoiaeieiaee oi?ie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee. Aiaeec
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee – i?ioeann
oai?/aneee, e iiyoiio ia iiaeao auoue i?aaeeiaeaia aaeeiay noaia aai
inouanoaeaiey. Iaeiaei a oi aea a?aiy iiaeao auoue noi?ioee?iaai ?yae
iieiaeaiee, eanathueony aai i?iaaaeaiey enoiaey ec aioo?aiiae eiaeee
enneaaeiaaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia. A niioaaonoaee n iae
ia ia/aeueiii yoaia aiaeeca inouanoaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea eiouanoaaiiie
no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey , ninoaaa enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey aai
aeayoaeueiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia ia
iniiaa eniieueciaaiey iaeaieaa aa?aae?iaaiiuo iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie
io/aoiinoe. Iieo/aiiua ia yoii yoaia ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca
oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieytho auaeaeeoue oa aniaeou
eiouanoaaiiiai e oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey, ia eioi?ua
oeaeaniia?acii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia iineaaeothueo yoaiao
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca.

I?e aiaeeca oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe iaeaieaa iauoth
ea?oeio ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey aeaao aiaeec oaeeo oi?i
aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe, eae aaeain i?aaei?eyoey e aai io/ao i
i?eaueyo e oauoeao.

Aiaeec yoeo oi?i aooaaeoa?neie io/aoiinoe a aeeiaieea aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eciaiaiee oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey
i?aaei?eyoey a oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie. Aeey auyaeaiey
iaueo oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oe?iu e ii?aaeaeaiey aa ia?niaeoeaiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oeaeaniia?acii niiinoaaeyoue iieacaoaee ianeieueeeo
aaeainia.

Yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae oicyenoaothuaai noauaeoa iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny aeaiyei: n iiceoeee eiouanoaaiiiai iieiaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoey e n iiceoeee aai oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey. Iaa yoeo
aniaeoa oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe acaeiinaycaiu:
ia?aoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a eiouanoaa, aai iaea/anoaaiiue ninoaa iiaoo
i?eaanoe e oooaeoaieth oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey, e iaiai?io. Oae,
iaii?aaaeaiiia iia?oaeaiea n?aaenoa a aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoe, i?iecaaaeaiiuo caianao iiaeao iaaaoeaii iiaeeyoue ia
aiciiaeiinoue naiaa?aiaiii inouanoaeyoue oaeouea ieaoaaee, a ?ino
caaiiuo n?aaenoa – i?eaanoe e iaiaoiaeeiinoe ?aaeecaoeee eiouanoaa
i?aaei?eyoey aeey ?an/aoia n e?aaeeoi?aie.

Onoie/eainoue oeiainiaiai iieiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoey a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie caaeneo io oeaeaniia?aciinoe e i?aaeeueiinoe aeiaeaiey
oeiainiauo ?ano?nia a aeoeau. Aeoeau aeeiaie/iu ii naiae i?e?iaea, a
i?ioeanna ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaei?eyoey eo aaee/eia e no?oeoo?a
i?aoa?iaaatho iinoiyiiua eciaiaiey. Iaeaieaa iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
eiaaoeo ianoi ea/anoaaiiuo eciaiaieyo a no?oeoo?a n?aaenoa e eo
enoi/ieeia , a oae aea a eo aeeiaieea iiaeii iieo/eoue n iiiiuueth
aiaeeca io/aoiinoe.

Aa?oeeaeueiue e ai?eciioaeueiue aiaeec ia iniiaa oeiainiaie
io/aoiinoe oeaeaniia?acii inouanoaeyoue ia ia/aeueiii yoaia
yeiiiie/aneiai aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey. I/aiue /anoi aai
iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae aniiiiaaoaeueiue yoai, a oiaea eioi?iai
auyaeythony oa aniaeou, eioi?ua a aeaeueiaeoai iio?aaotho oaeoaeaiiiai e
ananoi?iiiaai aiaeeca. Aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec iicaieyao auaeaeeoue n
o/aoii io?aneaaie niaoeeoeee iaeaieaa aaaeiua aeey aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey
eiouanoaaiiua eiiiiiaiou e enoi/ieee oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, a
ai?eciioaeueiue – auyaeyao iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a no?oeoo?a
eiouanoaa e iai?aaeaieyo oeiaine?iaaiey, eiaaoeo ianoi a
?anniao?eaaaiii ia?eiaea.

Aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i no?oeoo?a n?aaenoa
i?aaei?eyoey e eo enoi/ieeia, au?aaeaiiuo ia a aaniethoiuo aaeeieoeao,
a a aeieyo eeai a i?ioeaioao. Ca aaeeieoeo, eee 100%, i?eieiaaony
aaethoa aaeaina, e eaaeaeue aaniethoiue iieacaoaeue ?ann/eouaaaony eeai
a aeieyo, eeai a i?ioeaioao ii ioiioaieth e eoiaiaiio iieacaoaeth
aaeaina. Ioiineoaeueiua iieacaoaee a ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie inaiaiaeaeaiu
io iaaaoeaiiai aeeyiey eioeyoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia, /oi iicaieyao
i?iaiaeeoue aieaa iauaeoeaiue aiaeec oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
aeeiaieea.

Noaiaiue aeaoaeecaoeee aooaaeoa?neiai aaeaina, ii eioi?iio
i?iaiaeeony aa?oeeaeueiue e ai?eciioaeueiue aiaeec, ii?aaeaeyaony oaie
oeaeyie, eioi?ua noaayony i?e enneaaeiaaiee.

Eiiaaea aa?oeeaeueiue e ai?eciioaeueiue aiaeec oeaeaniia?aciaa
i?iaiaeeoue ii iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie io/aoiinoe, o.a. iaeioi?ua noaouee
iiaoo auoue oe?oiiaiu. A oao neo/ayo, eiaaea aaaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
cia/eiinoue ioaeaeueiuo ninoaaiuo /anoae eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey, aiaeec
neaaeoao inouanoaeyoue ii iieiie noaia.

I/aaeaeii, /oi i?e ioeaiea eeeaeaeiinoe eiouanoaa e ii?aaeaeaiee
aai ?uii/iie noieiinoe o iioaioeeaeueiuo eiaanoi?ia aoaeao niaa?oaiii
?aciia ioiioaiea e ioeaiea iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, a ninoaaa eioi?uo
i/aiue auniea aeiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia e aeaeiaie ?aiooaoeee,
eee aeoeaia, aieueoay /anoue eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony ia iauaeou i?iiuoeaiiie
nianoaaiiinoe, aeeth/athuea i?aaa ia i?ia?aiiu YAI, aacu aeaiiuo,
iio-oao, iaoaiou ia ecia?aoaiea e i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu e o.i. Aiaeec
ninoaaa iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia iiaeao auoue aanueia aeooaeai aeey
oo?oe?i, caieiathueony oo?iia?aoi?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth, o eioi?uo
cia/eoaeueiua n?aaenoaa eaeoo ia ?aeeaio e oi?ie?iaaiea aeaeiaie
?aiooaoeee, ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia, i?eia?aoaiea eioi?iaoeee
e o.i.

Aeey eaieoaeiaieeo iauaeoia io?anee, oaeeo eae ainoeie/iia oicyenoai,
eaiieiae, iioaee, n?aaenoaa ?aciauaiey ia o?ainii?oa, a ninoaaa
eiouanoaa eioi?uo cia/eoaeueiay aeiey i?eoiaeeony ia iniiaiua n?aaenoaa,
iaiaoiaeeii aieaa aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaaoue aii?in no?oeoo?u yoeo
n?aaenoa e ii?aaeaeeoue iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea eo aeaeaeaiea, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e eioaineaiinoue oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Nia?aiaiiay no?oeoo?a oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe, iicaieyao auaeaeeoue
e ioeaieoue a ninoaaa iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, oaeaeueiue aan noieiinoe
caiaeueiuo o/anoeia e ae?oaeo iauaeoia i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey, caeaiey,
nii?oaeaiey, iaoeiu e iai?oaeiaaiea, o?ainii?oiua n?aaenoaa,
i?iecaiaenoaaiiue e oicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue e ae?. Aeaiiua oeiainiaie
io/aoiinoe iicaieytho ?ann/eoaoue oaeea iieacaoaee, oa?aeoa?ecothuea
oece/aneia ninoiyiea iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey, eae eiyooeoeeaio eciina e eiyooeoeeaio aaiaea e auauoey
iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e ioaeaeueiuo eo yeaiaioia.

I?e aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie aeiea a ninoaaa aeoeaia i?aaei?eyoey
aeieain?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee (ii e?aeiae ia?a i?aauoathueo 5-10%
io aaethou aaeaina) a oiaea aiaeeca oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe oeaeaniia?acii enneaaeiaaoue eo no?oeoo?o. Aeaiiua
oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe iicaieytho ?ann/eouaaoue oaeaeueiue aan a ninoaaa
aeieain?i/iuo aeiaeaiee eiaanoeoeee a aei/a?iea e caaeneiua iauanoaa, a
ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee, caeiu (ia n?ie aieaa iaeiiai aiaea). A nia?aiaiiuo
oneiaeyo yoe aeaiiua iniaaiii eioa?anotho iioaioeeaeueiuo eiaanoi?ia,
?anniao?eaathueo aii?in i naiai o/anoee a i?yiii oeiaine?iaaiee
i?aaiecaoeee, iineieueeo, eae iieacuaaao ?inneeneee iiuo, eiaiii /a?ac
aei/a?iea e caaeneiua iauanoaa inouanoaeyaony a aieueoeo ianooaaao
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee. Aeey ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe ioaea/aiey
?ano?nia a ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee ( o.a. aei/a?iea e caaeneiua)
iaiaoiaeeii niiinoaaeoue iauoth noiio iai?aaeaiiuo ia yoi oeiainiauo
n?aaenoa n iinooieaieai aeioiaeia.

No?oeoo?a eiouanoaa, iaauanoaeaiiiai a iai?ioiuo aeoeaao, aeaao
i?aaenoaaeaiea i niioiioaiee caiania, aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe,
e?aoein?i/iuo oeiainiauo aeiaeaiee e aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa.

Iineieueeo iio?aaiinoue a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoaao ii?aaeaeyaony
io?aneaaie niaoeeoeeie i?aaei?eyoee e oneiaeyie eo oaeouae
aeayoaeueiinoe, naie ii naaa iieacaoaee no?oeoo?u oaeoueo aeoeaia iaei
eioi?iaoeaiu. Eioa?aniua e iieaciua aiaeeoe/aneea auaiaeu iiaee au auoue
naeaeaiu a oiaea n?aaiaiey iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?u iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa
?anniao?eaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey, e oniaoii aeaenoaothueo iaeiioeiiuo
eiiiaiee. Iaeiaei iiaeiaiay ii?iaoeaiay eioi?iaoeey iiaeao auoue
iieo/aia eeai a ?acoeueoaoa iaiauaiey aeaiiuo aaeaina ca ?yae eao, eeai
iooai i?iaaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo io?aneaauo iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee. Ie oi,
ie ae?oaia a iaoae no?aia naeaeaoue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui.

Aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec ianneaa aaeaina aeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea i
oeiainiauo enoi/ieeao oi?ie?iaaiey eiouanoaaiiie aacu i?aaei?eyoey e
aicieeoeo i?e yoii oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoaao. Iiiaea ec iieo/aiiuo
?an/aoiuo iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?u ianneaia i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an aeey
eiaanoi?ia. Caeanue, i?aaeaea anaai, neaaeoao auaeaeeoue niioiioaiea
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa e i?eaea/aiiuo.

Aeey au?aaioee no?aoaaee oaeouae aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
aaaeiui i?aaenoaaeyaony ioneaaeeaaiea e iiaeaea?aeaiea i?eaieaiiai
o?iaiy e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Enneaaeiaaiea no?oeoo?u eiouanoaa e oeiainiauo enoi/ieeia e
iaycaoaeuenoa ca ?yae eao (iauai?eiyoie ie?iaie i?aeoeeie a
eiaanoeoeeiiiie iaeanoe yaeyaony aiaeec oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe , ii
e?aeiae ia?a ca o?e aiaea) iicaieyao auyaeoue oaiaeaioeee, o/ao eioi?uo
i?e au?aaioea no?aoaaee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey iaania/eaaao ?ino yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey aai
?ano?nia. Aua ?ac iiae/a?eiai, /oi aa?oeeaeueiue aiaeec ai iiiaii iineo
aniiiiaaoaeueiue oa?aeoa?, iicaieyy auyaeyoue iai?aaeaiey oaeoaeaiiiai
enneaaeiaaiey iioaioeeaea i?aaei?eyoey, e iieo/aaiua ?acoeueoaou aeatho
iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i niioiioaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo
i?aaeiinueie aai oicyenoaaiii aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ai?eciioaeueiue aiaeec io/aoiinoe caeeth/aaony a iino?iaiee iaeiie
eee ianeieueeeo oaaeeoe, a eioi?uo aaniethoiua iieacaoaee caiaiythony
ioiineoaeueiuie iieacaoaeyie oaiiia ?inoa eee nieaeaiey, au?aaeaiiuie a
i?ioeaioao eee aeieyo, /oi iicaieyao aiaeece?iaaoue aeaiiua iieacaoaee a
i?ioeii e i?iaiice?iaaoue eo aoaeouea cia/aiey. Iniiaie n?aaiaiey, eae
i?aaeei, yaeythony iieacaoaee aaceniiai ia?eiaea. Oeaiiinoue
?acoeueoaoia ai?eciioaeueiiai aiaeeca cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony a
oneiaeyo eioeyoeee, oai ia iaiaa, yoe aeaiiua iiaeii eniieueciaaoue i?e
iaaeoicyenoaaiiuo n?aaiaieyo.

Anee o/anoue, /oi a ?innee iineaaeiea aiaeu nii?iaiaeaeaeenue
n?aaieoaeueii aunieie eioeyoeeae, i?e/ai ioaeaeueiua
iaoa?eaeueii-aauaaua e oeiainiaua eiiiiiaiou oa?aeoa?eciaaeenue
?acee/iuie oaiiaie eioeyoeee, eniieueciaaoue ?ann/eoaiiua.

Iaoiaeeea aiaeeca oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey aeeth/aao a naay
neaaeothuea aeiee aiaeeca:

· iauay ioeaiea oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e aai eciaiaiey ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae;

· aiaeec oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey;

· aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe aaeaina;

· aiaeec aeaeiaie aeoeaiinoe e ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey;

· aiaeec ?aioaaaeueiinoe eaieoaea e i?iaeaae.

Oeiainiaia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey oa?aeoa?ecoaony ?aciauaieai e
eniieueciaaieai n?aaenoa (aeoeaia) e enoi/ieeaie eo oi?ie?iaaiey
(nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e iaycaoaeuenoa, o.a. ianneaia). Yoe naaaeaiey
i?aaenoaaeaiu a aaeaina i?aaei?eyoey.

A 20-o aiaeao iaeei ec nicaeaoaeae aaeainiaaaeaiey – I. A. Aeaoia
?aeiiaiaeiaae enneaaeiaaoue no?oeoo?o e aeeiaieeo oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey
i?aaei?eyoey i?e iiiiue n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeoe/aneiai aaeaina.
N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeeoe/aneee aaeain iieo/aaony ec enoiaeiiai aaeaina
iooai aeiiieiaiey aai iieacaoaeyie no?oeoo?u, aeeiaieee e no?oeoo?iie
aeeiaieee aeiaeaiee e enoi/ieeia n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey ca io/aoiue
ia?eiae. Iaycaoaeueiuie iieacaoaeyie n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeoe/aneiai
aaeaina yaeythony: aaniethoiua aaee/eiu ii noaoueyi enoiaeiiai io/aoiiai
aaeaina ia ia/aei e eiiaoe ia?eiaea, oaeaeueiua aana noaoae aaeaina a
aaethoa aaeaina ia ia/aei e eiiaoe ia?eiaea, eciaiaiey a aaniethoiuo
aaee/eiao, eciaiaiey a oaeaeueiuo aanao, eciaiaiey a % e aaee/eiai ia
ia/aei ia?eiaea (oaii i?e?inoa noaouee aaeaina), eciaiaiey a % e
eciaiaieyi aaethou aaeaina (oaii i?e?inoa no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee –
iieacaoaeue aeeiaieee no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee), oeaia 1% ?inoa aaethou
aaeaina e eaaeaeie noaouee – ioiioaiea aaee/eiu aaniethoiiai eciaiaiey e
i?ioeaioo aaniethoiiai eciaiaiey ia ia/aei ia?eiaea.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeeoe/aneee aaeain caia/aoaeai oai, /oi ii naiaeeo
aiaaeeii e nenoaiaoece?oao oa ?an/aou e i?eeeaeee, eioi?ua iau/ii
inouanoaeyao ethaie aiaeeoee i?e ia?aiia/aeueiii iciaeiieaiee n
aaeainii. Noaiie n?aaieoaeueiiai aaeaina ioaa/aii iiiaeanoai aaaeiuo
iieacaoaeae, oa?aeoa?ecothueo noaoeeo e aeeiaieeo oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey.
N?aaieoaeueiue aaeain oaeoe/anee aeeth/aao iieacaoaee ai?eciioaeueiiai e
aa?oeeaeueiiai aiaeeca. A oiaea ai?eciioaeueiiai aiaeeca ii?aaeaeythony
aaniethoiua e ioiineoaeueiua eciaiaiey aaee/ei ?acee/iuo noaoae aaeaina
ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae, a oeaeueth aa?oeeaeueiiai aiaeeca yaeyaony
au/eneaiea oaeaeueiiai aana iaooi. Ana iieacaoaee n?aaieoaeueiiai
aaeaina iiaeii ?acaeoue ia o?e a?oiiu:

iieacaoaee no?oeoo?u aaeaina;

iieacaoaee aeeiaieee aaeaina;

iieacaoaee no?oeoo?iie aeeiaieee aaeaina.

Aeey iniuneaiey iauae ea?oeiu eciaiaiey oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey aanueia
aaaeiu iieacaoaee no?oeoo?iie aeeiaieee aaeaina. Niiinoaaeyy no?oeoo?o
eciaiaiee a aeoeaa e ianneaa, iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i oii, /a?ac eaeea
enoi/ieee a iniiaiii aue i?eoie iiauo n?aaenoa e a eaeea aeoeau yoe
iiaua n?aaenoaa a iniiaiii aeiaeaiu.

Aeey iauae ioeaiee aeeiaieee oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey neaaeoao
na?oiie?iaaoue noaouee aaeaina a ioaeaeueiua niaoeeoe/aneea a?oiiu ii
i?eciaeo eeeaeaeiinoe (noaouee aeoeaa) e n?i/iinoe iaycaoaeuenoa
(noaouee ianneaa). Ia iniiaa aa?aae?iaaiiiai aaeaina inouanoaeyaony
aiaeec no?oeoo?u eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey.

I?eciaeaie “oi?ioaai” aaeaina n oi/ee c?aiey iiauoaiey (?inoa)
yooaeoeaiinoe iiaeii iacaaoue oaeaea neaaeothuea iieacaoaee.

eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe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 2,4;

iaania/aiiinoue i?aaei?eyoey nianoaaiiuie iai?ioiui eaieoaeii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 0,1;

?ino nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea;

ionoonoaea ?aceeo eciaiaiee a ioaeaeueiuo noaoueyo aaeaina;

aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue iaoiaeeoueny a niioaaonoaee (?aaiiaanee) n
?acia?aie e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

a aaeaina ionoonoaotho “aieueiua” noaouee (oauoee; i?in?i/aiiay
caaeieaeaiiinoue aaieai e athaeaeaoo);

o i?aaei?eyoey caianu ia i?aauoatho ieieiaeueioth aaee/eio enoi/ieeia eo
oi?ie?iaaiey (nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, aeieain?i/iuo e?aaeeoia e
caeiia, e?aoein?i/iuo e?aaeeoia e caeiia).

Aiaeec no?oeoo?u aaeaina ca aiaeece?oaiue ia?eiae (oaaeeoea 5)
iieacuaaao, /oi aeey aaee/eiu e no?oeoo?u ?ano?niie aacu (niaieoiiuo
aeoeaia) aaeaeiiiaiee a 1998 aiaeo auee oa?aeoa?iu neaaeothuea
eciaiaiey.

Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiui a oi?ie?iaaiee no?oeoo?u aaeaina aaeaeiiiaiee
yaeyaony:

· ?ino “aeaoeoeeoa” nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea e oaaee/aiea oaiiia ?inoa aai
iaycaoaeuenoa;

· ?ino aeaaeoi?neie e e?aaeeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe;

· iaee/ea “aeaoeoeeoa” nianoaaiiuo iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

· iaee/ea “aeaoeoeeoa” /enouo aeoeaia aaeaeiiiaiee.

?acoeueoaou aiaeeca eeeaeaeiinoe i?aaei?eyoey i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an,
i?aaeaea anaai aeey eiiia?/aneeo e?aaeeoi?ia. Oae eae, eiiia?/aneea
e?aaeeou e?aoein?i/iu, oi eiaiii aiaeec eeeaeaeiinoe eo/oa anaai
iicaieyao ioeaieoue niiniaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey iieaoeoue yoe
iaycaoaeuenoaa.

Eeeaeaeiinoue icia/aao niiniaiinoue oeaiiinoae eaaei i?aa?auaoueny a
aeaiueae, o.a. a aaniethoiua eeeaeaeiua n?aaenoaa. Eeeaeaeiinoue iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?iaeaaee aeoeaa, e eae
noiio, au?o/aiioth io i?iaeaaee aeoeaa. Yoe iieacaoaee oanii naycaiu:
ca/anooth iiaeii i?iaeaoue aeoea ca ei?ioeia a?aiy, ii ni cia/eoaeueiie
neeaeeie a oeaia.

Ana aeoeau i?aaei?eyoey a caaeneiinoe io noaiaie eeeaeaeiinoe, o.a. io
nei?inoe i?aa?auaiey a aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, iiaeii oneiaii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia neaaeothuea a?oiiu.

1. Iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiua aeoeau (A1) – noiiu ii anai noaoueyi aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey auiieiaiey oaeoueo
?an/aoia iaiaaeeaiii. E yoie a?oiia ioiinyony oaeaea oa e?aoein?i/iua
oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey (oeaiiua aoiaae), eioi?ua iiaeii i?e?aaiyoue e
aeaiueaai.

2. Auno?i?aaeecoaiua aeoeau (A2) – aeoeau, aeey ia?auaiey eioi?uo a
iaee/iua n?aaenoaa o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy. A yoo a?oiio iiaeii
aeeth/eoue aeaaeoi?neoth caaeieaeaiiinoue (ieaoaaee ii eioi?ie
iaeeaeathony a oa/aiee 12 ianyoeaa iinea io/aoiie aeaou), i?i/ea
iai?ioiua aeoeau.

Eeeaeaeiinoue yoeo aeoeaia ?acee/ia e caaeneo io noauaeoeaiuo e
iauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia: eaaeeoeeaoeee oeiainiauo ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey,
acaeiiioiioaiee n ieaoaeueueeaie e eo ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe, oneiaee
i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia iieoiaoaeyi, i?aaiecaoeee aaenaeueiiai
ia?auaiey.

3. Iaaeeaiii ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau (A3) – noaouee ?acaeaea II aeoeaa
aaeaina, aeeth/athuea caianu e i?i/ea iai?ioiua aeoeau.

Oiaa?iua caianu ia iiaoo auoue i?iaeaiu aei oao ii?, iiea ia iaeaeai
iieoiaoaeue. Caianu nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia e iacaaa?oaiiie i?iaeoeoeee
eiiaaea o?aaotho i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ia?aaioee, i?aaeaea /ai eo iiaeii
aoaeao i?iaeaoue.

Neaaeoao ia?aoeoue aieiaiea, /oi noaouey “?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia”
ia aeeth/athony a yoo a?oiio.

4. O?oaeii?aaeecoaiua aeoeau (A4) – aeoeau, eioi?ua i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
eniieueciaaiey a oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a oa/aiee ioiineoaeueii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea. A yoo a?oiio iiaeii aeeth/eoue noaouee I
?acaeaea aeoeaa aaeaina “Aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau”, a oaeaea aeaaeoi?neoth
caaeieaeaiiinoue, ieaoaaee ii eioi?ie iaeeaeathony aieaa /ai /a?ac 12
ianyoeaa iinea io/aoiie aeaou. Niaeanii Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio noaiaea?oo
oeiainiaie io/aoiinoe ?5 aeieain?i/iay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue
aeeth/aaony a ninoaa i?i/eo aeieain?i/iuo aeoeaia.

Ia?aua o?e a?oiiu aeoeaia (iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiua aeoeau,
auno?i?aaeecoaiua e iaaeeaiii ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau) a oa/aiee oaeouaai
oicyenoaaiiiai ia?eiaea iiaoo iinoiyiii iaiyoueny e ioiinyony e oaeouei
aeoeaai i?aaei?eyoey. Oaeouea aeoeau aieaa eeeaeaeiua, /ai inoaeueiia
eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoey.

Ianneau aaeaina ii noaiaie aic?anoaiey n?ieia iiaaoaiey iaycaoaeuenoa
a?oiie?othony neaaeothuei ia?acii.

1. Iaeaieaa n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa (I1) – e?aaeeoi?neay
caaeieaeaiiinoue, ?an/aou ii aeeaeaeaiaeai, i?i/ea e?aoein?i/iua
iaycaoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea nnoaeu, ia iiaaoaiiua a n?ie (ii aeaiiui
i?eeiaeaiee e aooaaeoa?neiio aaeaino).

2. E?aoein?i/iua ianneau (I2) – e?aoein?i/iua caaiiua e?aaeeou aaieia e
i?i/ea caeiu, iiaeeaaeauea iiaaoaieth a oa/aiee 12 ianyoeaa iinea
io/aoiie aeaou.

3. Aeieain?i/iua ianneau (I3) – aeieain?i/iua caaiiua e?aaeeou e i?i/ea
aeieain?i/iua ianneau (noaouee V ?acaeaea aaeaina “Aeieain?i/iua
ianneau”).

4. Iinoiyiiua ianneau (I4) (noaouee IV ?acaeaea aaeaina “Eaieoae e
?aca?au” e ioaeaeueiua noaouee VI ?acaeaea aaeaina, ia aioaaeoea a
i?aaeuaeouea a?oiiu. “Aeioiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia”, “Oiiaeu iio?aaeaiey”
e “?aca?au i?aaenoiyueo ?anoiaeia e ieaoaaeae”).

*oiau iaania/eoue aaeain aeoeaa e ianneaa, iinoiyiiua ianneau neaaeoao
oiaiueoeoue ia noiio ii noaoueyi “?anoiaeu aoaeoueo ia?eiaeia”,
“Oauoee”.

E?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa – yoi oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa, a
e?aoein?i/iua e aeieain?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa aianoa acyoua ia?acotho
aiaoiea iaycaoaeuenoaa.

I?aaei?eyoea n/eoaaony eeeaeaeiui, anee aai oaeouea aeoeau i?aauoatho
aai e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa. I?aaei?eyoea iiaeao auoue eeeaeaeiui a
aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie. I?aaei?eyoea, iai?ioiue eaieoae eioi?iai
ninoieo i?aeiouanoaaiii ec aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa e e?aoein?i/iie
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, iau/ii n/eoaaony aieaa eeeaeaeiui, /ai
i?aaei?eyoea, iai?ioiue eaieoae eioi?iai ninoieo i?aeiouanoaaiii ec
caiania.

Iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe i?eiaiythony aeey ioeaiee niiniaiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey auiieiyoue naie e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Iie aeatho
i?aaenoaaeaiea ia oieueei i ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey ia aeaiiue
iiiaio, ii e a neo/aa /?acau/aeiuo i?ienoanoaee.

Iauoth ioeaieo ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe aeaao eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae
eeeaeaeiinoe, eioi?ue a yeiiiie/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iacuaatho oaeaea
eiyooeoeeaioii iie?uoey, eiyooeoeeaioii iauaai iie?uoey.

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe ?aaai ioiioaieth oaeoueo aeoeaia e
e?aoein?i/iui iaycaoaeuenoaai e ii?aaeaeyaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.

picscalex1000100090000034a0100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
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0000c0ffffffb8ffffffc00c0000980300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000c00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
0002a8040500000013020002a40c15000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001d00040000002d01010008000000320a8c03
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0000330008000000320a6e01b80801000000320008000000320a6e01a005010000003100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;

aaea Eoe – eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe;

A1 – iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiua aeoeau;

A2 – auno?i?aaeecoaiua aeoeau;

A3 – iaaeeaiii ?aaeecoaiua aeoeau;

I1 – iaeaieaa n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa;

I2 – e?aoein?i/iua ianneau.

Eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoao iauoth eeeaeaeiinoue e
iieacuaaao, a eaeie ia?a oaeouea e?aaeeoi?neea iaycaoaeuenoaa
iaania/eaathony oaeoueie aeoeaaie, o.a. neieueei aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoe
oaeoueo aeoeaia i?eoiaeeony ia 1 aeaiaaeioth aaeeieoeo oaeoueo
iaycaoaeuenoa. Anee ioiioaiea iaiueoa /ai 1:1, oi oaeouea iaycaoaeuenoaa
i?aauoatho oaeouea aeoeau.

?aeiiaiaeoaiua i?eeacii Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee ?118 io 1 ieoya?y 1997
aiaea cia/aiey yoiai iieacaoaey io 1 aei 2, cia/aiea aieaa 2
iaaeaeaoaeueii.

Anee eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe aunieee, oi yoi iiaeao auoue
naycaii n caiaaeeaieai iai?a/eaaaiinoe n?aaenoa, aeiaeaiiuo a caianu, n
iaii?aaaeaiiui ?inoii aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Iinoiyiiia nieaeaiea eiyooeoeeaioa icia/aao aic?anoathuee ?ene
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe. Oeaeaniia?acii yoio iieacaoaeue n?aaieaaoue ni
n?aaeieie cia/aieyie ii a?oiia aiaeiae/iuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iaeiaei yoio iieacaoaeue i/aiue oe?oiiaiiue, oae eae a iai ia
o/eouaaaony noaiaiue eeeaeaeiinoe ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia iai?ioiiai
eaieoaea.

Aiaeec eciaiaiey eiyooeoeeaioa oaeouae eeeaeaeiinoe oeacuaaao ia
e?eceniue oa?aeoa? ninoiyiey eeeaeaeiinoe, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny
iaaeinoaoeii iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa o Eiiiaiee aeey iie?uoey e?aoein?i/iuo
iaycaoaeuenoa. Ieieiaeueiia cia/aiea yoiai eiyooeoeeaioa, eiaaea
Eiiiaiey au? yaeyaony ieaoaaeaniiniaiie a e?aoein?i/iii ia?eiaea, ?aaii
1 (a yoii neo/aa e?aoein?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa ?aaiu iai?ioiiio eaieoaeo
Eiiiaiee). Iieacaoaeue eeeaeaeiinoe iinoiyiii iaoiaeeony ieaea
ieieiaeueii i?eaieaiiai o?iaiy. Yoi icia/aao, /oi Eiiiaiey a
e?aoein?i/iii aniaeoa yaeyaony iaieaoaaeaniiniaiie.

A i?aeoe/aneii ieaia yoi icia/aao, /oi, ai-ia?auo, iai?ioiue eaieoae
Eiiiaiee iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaai ca n/ao e?aoein?i/iuo caaiiuo n?aaenoa
e, ai-aoi?uo, /oi nianoaaiiue eaieoae oaeaea oeiaine?oaony ca n/ao
e?aoein?i/iuo i?eaea/aiey n?aaenoa, i?e/ai Eiiiaiey auioaeaeaia
iinoiyiii ?aoeiaine?iaaoue yoe iaycaoaeuenoaa (oi anoue iie?uaaoue eo
eneeth/eoaeueii ca n/ao acyouo iiauo caeiia). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ii
aeaiiiio e?eoa?eth no?oeoo?o aaeaina Eiiiaiee iiaeii i?eciaoue
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie.

Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai iaeaieaa
eeeaeaeiuo aeoeaia e oaeouei iaycaoaeuenoaai e ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea

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00000b0200000000050000000c02e003e00c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
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0000c00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
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bb0b01000000320008000000320a90035b0801000000310008000000320a6a01f6090100
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010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e009500040000002d0102000400
0000f001010008000000320a90037d0a01000000cf0008000000320a9003470701000000
cf0008000000320a6a01370901000000c00009000000320a60023f0303000000ebe8ea00
08000000320a60024d0102000000e0e110000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0000040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a9003
4509010000002b0008000000320a6002d505010000003d0008000000320a600234000100
00004b000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007000000
0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d006e040000002d01020004000000f0010100
03000000000000000000 ;

aaea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- eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe;

A1 – iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiua aeoeau;

I1 – iaeaieaa n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa;

I2 – e?aoein?i/iua ianneau.

Yoio eiyooeoeeaio yaeyaony iaeaieaa aeanoeei e?eoa?eai
ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e iieacuaaao, eaeoth /anoue e?aoein?i/iie
caaeieaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao iiaaneoue a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy.
Aaee/eia aai aeieaeia auoue ia ieaea 0,2.

Eiyooeoeeaio aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe ia 01 yiaa?y 1999 aiaea ninoaaee
0,05, /oi ieaea ?aeiiaiaeoaiiai o?iaiy (0,2…0,3). Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao
i aeaoeoeeoa iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa naiie eeeaeaeiie /anoe aeoeaia
(aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa) Eiiiaiee.

Eiyooeoeeaio n?i/iie eeeaeaeiinoe yaeyaony i?iiaaeooi/iui
eiyooeoeeaioii iie?uoey e iieacuaaao, eaeoth /anoue iiaeii iiaaneoue
oaeoueie aeoeaaie ca ieionii caiania. Eiyooeoeeaio n?i/iie eeeaeaeiinoe
?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea

picscalex100010009000003390100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02e00360091200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffb8ffffff20090000980300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000c00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
0002c4030500000013020002020915000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000600040000002d01010008000000320a8c03
340801000000320008000000320a8c03ec0401000000310008000000320a6e0122080100
0000320008000000320a6e01ec0401000000310010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001
000000020002001053796d626f6c0000040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000
320a8c03f60601000000500008000000320a8c03d605010000002b0008000000320a8c03
d80301000000500008000000320a6e01020701000000410008000000320a6e01d6050100
00002b0008000000320a6e01f60301000000410008000000320a60028602010000003d00
08000000320a60023400010000004b0015000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc
0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000600040000002d01010004000000f001
020008000000320a60024e0101000000e1000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000
000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d006e0400
00002d01020004000000f00101000300000000000000 ;

aaea Ea – eiyooeoeeaio n?i/iie eeeaeaeiinoe;

A1 – iaeaieaa eeeaeaeiua aeoeau;

A2 – auno?i?aaeecoaiua aeoeau;

I1 – iaeaieaa n?i/iua iaycaoaeuenoaa;

I2 – e?aoein?i/iua ianneau.

Ii iiiiaaao ioeaieoue aiciiaeiinoue iiaaoaiey i?aaei?eyoeai
e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa a neo/aa aai e?eoe/aneiai iieiaeaiey, eiaaea
ia aoaeao aiciiaeiinoue i?iaeaoue caianu.

Cia/aiea yoiai iieacaoaey ?aeiiaiaeoaony a i?aaeaeao io 0,8 aei 1,0; ii
iiaeao auoue /?acau/aeii aunieei ec-ca iaii?aaaeaiiiai ?inoa
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe.

Eiyooeoeeaio n?i/iie eeeaeaeiinoe iieacuaaao i?iaiice?oaiua ieaoaaeiua
aiciiaeiinoe Eiiiaiee i?e oneiaee naiaa?aiaiiiai i?iaaaeaiey ?an/aoia n
aeaaeoi?aie. Ii eoiaai 1998 aiaea cia/aiea aeaiiiai iieacaoaey
oiaiueoeeinue e ia 01 yiaa?y 1999 aiaea ninoaaeei 0,44 (?aeiiaiaeoaiue
o?iaaiue 1 e auoa). Oiaiueoaiea eiyooeoeeaioa n?i/iie eeeaeaeiinoe a
1998 aiaeo iieacuaaao nieaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe iiaaoaiey naieo
iaycaoaeuenoa a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai ca n/ao iiauo iinooieaiee.

?acee/iua iieacaoaee eeeaeaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeytho eioa?an ia oieueei
aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae e oeiainiauo ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey, ii e aeey
?acee/iuo iio?aaeoaeae aiaeeoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee: eiyooeoeeaio
aaniethoiie eeeaeaeiinoe – aeey iinoaaueeia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia,
eiyooeoeeaio n?i/iie eeeaeaeiinoe – aeey aaieia, eiyooeoeeaio oaeouae
eeeaeaeiinoe – aeey iieoiaoaeae e aea?aeaoaeae aeoeee e iaeeaaoeee
i?aaei?eyoey.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia 01 yiaa?y 1999 aiaea eeeaeaeiinoue Eiiiaiee
yaeyaony e?aeia iaaeinoaoi/iie e ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eaanoe a? a
niioaaonoaee n iioeiaeueiuie cia/aieyie niioaaonoaothueo iieacaoaeae
iooai oaaee/aiey oao eee eiuo noaoae iai?ioiuo aeoeaia, eeai oiaiueoay
noaouee e?aoein?i/iuo iaycaoaeuenoa. Aeaiiay ?aaioa o?aaoao i?iaaaeaiey
oaeoi?iiai aiaeeca aeeiaieee eciaiaiey eeeaeaeiinoe Eiiiaiee.

Ninoiyiea eeeaeaeiinoe Eiiiaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie no?oeoo?a aaeaina, a oaeaea i aunieii oeiainiaii
?enea i?e eioi?ii Eiiiaiey ia a ninoiyiee naiaa?aiaiii iiea/eaaoue naie
n/aoa.

Iinea ii?aaeaeaiey iauae oa?aeoa?enoeee oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey e aai
eciaiaiey ca io/aoiue ia?eiae neaaeothuae aaaeiie caaea/ae aiaeeca
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey yaeyaony enneaaeiaaiea iieacaoaeae oeiainiaie
onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue – oa?aeoa?enoeea, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuay i
noaaeeueiii i?aauoaiee aeioiaeia iaae ?anoiaeaie, naiaiaeiii
iaiaa?e?iaaiee aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie i?aaei?eyoey e yooaeoeaiii eo
eniieueciaaiee a aania?aaieiii i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee. Oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue oi?ie?oaony a i?ioeanna anae
i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e yaeyaony aeaaiui
eiiiiiaioii iauae onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey.

Aiaeec onoie/eainoe oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey ia oo eee eioth aeaoo
iicaieyao auynieoue, ianeieueei i?aaeeueii i?aaei?eyoea oi?aaeyei
oeiainiauie ?ano?naie a oa/aiee ia?eiaea, i?aaeoanoaothuaai yoie aeaoa.
Aaaeii, /oiau ninoiyiea oeiainiauo ?ano?nia niioaaonoaiaaei o?aaiaaieyi
?uiea e ioaa/aei iio?aaiinoyi ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey, iineieueeo
iaaeinoaoi/iay oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue iiaeao i?eaanoe e
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe i?aaei?eyoey e ionoonoaeth o iaai n?aaenoa aeey
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa, a ecauoi/iay – i?aiyonoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth,
ioyaiuay cao?aou i?aaei?eyoey eceeoieie caianaie e ?aca?aaie. Oaeei
ia?acii, nouiinoue oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe ii?aaeaeyaony yooaeoeaiui
oi?ie?iaaieai, ?ani?aaeaeaieai e eniieueciaaieai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia.

Aiaoiei a? i?iyaeaieai aunooiaao ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue.

Ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue – yoi niiniaiinoue naiaa?aiaiii iieiinoueth
auiieiyoue naie ieaoaaeiua iaycaoaeuenoaa, auoaeathuea ec oi?aiauo,
e?aaeeoiuo e eiuo iia?aoeee ieaoaaeiiai oa?aeoa?a.

Ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony aeaiiuie:

· iaee/ea aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia ?an/aoiuo n/aoao, aaethoiuo n/aoao,
e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua aeiaeaiey. Yoe aeoeau aeieaeiu eiaoue
iioeiaeueioth aaee/eio. *ai cia/eoaeueiaa ?acia? aeaiaaeiuo n?aaenoa ia
n/aoao, oai n aieueoae aa?iyoiinoueth iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
i?aaei?eyoea ?aniieaaaao aeinoaoi/iuie n?aaenoaaie aeey oaeoueo ?an/aoia
e ieaoaaeae. Iaeiaei, iaee/ea iacia/eoaeueiuo inoaoeia n?aaenoa ia
aeaiaaeiuo n/aoao ia anaaaea icia/aao, /oi i?aaei?eyoea
iaieaoaaeaniiniaii: n?aaenoaa iiaoo iinooieoue ia ?an/aoiua aaethoiua
n/aoa, a eanno a oa/aiee aeeaeaeoeo aeiae, e?aoein?i/iua oeiainiaua
aeiaeaiey eaaei i?aa?aoeoue a aeaiaaeioth iaee/iinoue. Iinoiyiiia
e?eceniia ionoonoaea iaee/iinoe i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi i?aaei?eyoea
i?aa?auaaony a “oaoie/anee iaieaoaaeaniiniaiia”, a yoi oaea iiaeao
?anniao?eaaoueny eae ia?aay nooiaiue ia iooe e aaie?ionoao.

· ia ionoonoaee i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe e caaea?aeeie ieaoaaeae;

· ianaiaa?aiaiiii iiaaoaiee e?aaeeoia, a oaeaea aeeeoaeueiii iai?a?uaiii
iieueciaaiee e?aaeeoaie.

Ieceay ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue auaaao eae neo/aeiie, a?aiaiiie, oae e
aeeeoaeueiie, o?iie/aneie. I?e/eiaie yoiai iiaoo auoue:

· iaaeinoaoi/iay iaania/aiiinoue oeiainiauie ?ano?naie;

· iaauiieiaiea ieaia ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee;

· ia?aoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa;

· ianaiaa?aiaiiia iinooieaiea ieaoaaeae io eiio?aeoia;

· eceeoee oiaa?ia ia ioaaonoaaiiii o?aiaiee.

Aunoae oi?iie onoie/eainoe i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony aai niiniaiinoue
?acaeaaoueny. Aeey yoiai i?aaei?eyoea aeieaeii iaeaaeaoue aeaeie
no?oeoo?ie oeiainiauo ?ano?nia e aiciiaeiinoueth i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?eaeaeaoue caaiiua n?aaenoaa, o.a. auoue e?aaeeoiniiniaiui.

E?aaeeoiniiniaiui yaeyaony i?aaei?eyoea i?e iaee/ee o iaai i?aaeiinueie
aeey iieo/aiey e?aaeeoa e niiniaiinoe naiaa?aiaiii aica?aoeoue acyooth
nnoaeo n oieaoie i?e/eoathueony i?ioeaioia ca n/ao nianoaaiiuo ?ano?nia.

Ca n/ao i?eauee i?aaei?eyoea ia oieueei iiaaoaao naie iaycaoaeuenoaa
ia?aae aaieaie, athaeaeaoii, no?aoiauie eiiiaieyie e ae?oaeie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, ii e eiaanoe?oao n?aaenoaa a eaieoaeueiua cao?aou. Aeey
iiaeaea?aeaiey oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe aaaeai ia oieueei ?ino
aaniethoiie aaee/eiu i?eauee, ii e aa o?iaiy ioiineoaeueii aeiaeaiiiai
eaieoaea eee cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey, o.a. ?aioaaaeueiinoe. Neaaeoao
iiiieoue, /oi aunieay i?eaueueiinoue naycaia n aieaa aunieei ?eneii, a
yoi icia/aao, /oi aianoi aeioiaea i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao iiianoe
cia/eoaeueiua oauoee e aeaaea noaoue iaieaoaaeaniiniaiui.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeiainiaay onoie/eainoue i?aaei?eyoey – yoi oaeia
ninoiyiea aai oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea e eniieueciaaiea,
eioi?ia iaania/eaaao ?acaeoea i?aaei?eyoey ia iniiaa ?inoa i?eauee e
eaieoaea i?e nio?aiaiee ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe e e?aaeeoiniiniaiinoe a
oneiaeyo aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy ?enea.

I?e aiaeeca oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe i?eiaiythony ?acee/iua
ioiineoaeueiua iieacaoaee, a a /anoiinoe:

1. Eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie
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 ;

aaea Einn – eiyooeoeeaio iaania/aiiinoe nianoaaiiuie n?aaenoaaie;
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- nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee(IV ?acaeae ianneaa aaeaina);
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- aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau (I ?acaeae aeoeaa aaeaina);
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 – iai?ioiua aeoeau (II ?acaeae aaeaina).

oa?aeoa?ecoao noaiaiue iaania/aiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey nianoaaiiuie
iai?ioiuie n?aaenoaaie, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey oeiainiaie onoie/eainoe.

2. Eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea
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;

aaea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 – eiyooeoeeaio iaiaa?aiiinoe nianoaaiiiai eaieoaea;
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– nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee;
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 – aiaiai?ioiua aeoeau.

Iieacuaaao, ianeieueei iiaeeueiu nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee n?aaenoa n
oeiainiaie oi/ee c?aiey: /ai aieueoa Ei, oai eo/oa oeiainiaia ninoiyiea,
iioeiaeueiia cia/aiea Ei=0,5.

3. Eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiuo e nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa
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;

aaea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– eiyooeoeeaio niioiioaiey caaiiuo e nianoaaiiuo

n?aaenoa;
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- aeieain?i/iua ianneau;

picscalex1000100090000038d0000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
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0000- nianoaaiiua enoi/ieee.

Aai ?ino a aeeiaieea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oneeaiee caaeneiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey io i?eaea/aiiiai eaieoaea (piecaoeee, inouanoaeythuea naith aeayoaeueiinoue a noa?a i?aaeinoaaeaiey oo?enoneeo oneoa, oaaee/eaatho i?aaeaeueioth en/eneaiioth noiio ?anoiaeia ia ?aeeaio a 3 ?aca . Iaoe oneoae iiaoo iii?aaeoueny ?uieo, ninoiyuaio ec 140000 iio?aaeoaeae. Oeaeue - ioaaoeoue 98000 iio?aaeoaeae (140000 o 70%). Iineieueeo n?aaeiee iio?aaeoaeue aoaeao eiaoue 24 eiioaeoa n ?aeeaiie e iieooi?iie neeie aicaeaenoaey, oi ?an/aoiia /enei caeoiaaiuo eiioaeoia ninoaaeoue 3,528 iei. (98000 o 24 o 1,5). Oae eae 1000 eiioaeoia aeaiiie neeu noiyo a n?aaeiai 95 ?oa., ?aeeaiiue athaeaeao aeieaeai ?aaiyoueny 335160 ?oa. ?aoaiey i n?aaenoaao ?ani?ino?aiaiey ?aeeaiu. Aeaaiua oaae a auai?a n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee aeey aeiianaiey ?aeeaiiiai niiauaiey aei oeaeaaie aoaeeoi?ee: 1. auai? noaiaie ioaaoa, /anoiou e aicaeaenoaey; 2. auai? aeaaiuo aeaeia n?aaenoa eioi?iaoeee; 3. auai? eiie?aoiuo aeaeia n?aaenoa ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee; 4. auai? a?aiaie ?aciauaiey a n?aaenoaao eioi?iaoeee. ?aoaiea i oe?ioa ioaaoa, /anoioa iiyaeaiey e neea aicaeaenoaey ?aeeaiu. Ioaao. Aeieaeii iiciaeiieoueny n ?aeeaiiie eiiiaieae 70% oeaeaaie aoaeeoi?ee a oa/aiee 2000 aiaea. Ii aeaiiui noaoenoeee 2% ai?iaea Iineau - n?aaeiee e aunoee eeann (140000 /ae.), o.a. iaoa oeaeaaay aoaeeoi?ey ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 98000 /aeiaae. *anoioa iiyaeaiey ?aeeaiu. Ca aiae iaania/eaaaony 24 ?aeeaiiuo eiioaeoa. Neea aicaeaenoaey. Eniieueciaaoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?anoeaeiua aeo?iaeu ii oo?ecio e iooaoanoaeth. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi yoi aoaeao iieooi?iay neea aicaeaenoaey. Iniaaiiinoueth ?aeeaiu oo?enoe/aneiai i?iaeoeoa yaeyaony oi, /oi ii oaeaaeaeaieth iia ia oae aeaenoaaiia. Iia o?aaeeoeeiiia e aieaa yooaeoeaii eaeao a aacaoao, aeo?iaeao e ii ?aaeei. Iiyoiio a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai eaiaea ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee aua?aia ?aeeaia a i?anna. ?aeeaia a aeo?iaeao iaoneiaeaia neaaeothuei: · aeinoiaa?iinoue e i?anoeaeiinoue; · aunieia ea/anoai aini?iecaaaeaiey; · aeeeoaeueiinoue nouanoaiaaiey; · cia/eoaeueiia /enei aoi?e/iuo /eoaoaeae; · oi?ioay “i?ioiaeeiinoue” n?aaee /eoaoaeae; · aunieay aeaiia?aoe/aneay e aaia?aoe/aneay naeaeoeaiinoue. Noieiinoue ?aeeaiu a ?an/aoa ia 1000 /aeiaae. Auai? eiie?aoiuo iineoaeae ?aeeaiu. Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi ia aeaiiue iiiaio ia ?uiea i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothuea eioa?anothuea ian, n oi/ee c?aiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee, aeo?iaeu: “Oo?eci e ioaeuo”, “Aiyae”, “Aiyae e ioaeuo”. I?e iiiiue ia?eaoeiaiauo enneaaeiaaiee aue ii?aaeaeai e?oa /eoaoaeae e n o/aoii aaniieaciie aoaeeoi?ee - /anoue eioi?ay ia yaeyaony oeaeaaui ?uieii ?anniao?eaaaiiai oo?aaaionoaa ii?aaeaeeee iioaioeeaeueiue oeaeaaie ?uiie. Iai?eia?, aeo?iae “Oo?eci e ioaeuo” eiaao 85000 /eoaoaeae, ec eioi?uo 60% aaniieaciie aoaeeoi?ee e 40 % (34000 /ae.) oeaeaaay aoaeeoi?ey. Oeaia ?aeeaiu a 1/2 no?aieoeu 13568 ?oa. Iiyoiio noieiinoue ?aeeaiu ninoaaeyao 399 ?oa. (13568 : 34000 o 1000 =399 ?oa.) ia 1000 /eoaoaeae. Oa aea ?an/aou inouanoaeythony e aeey ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeaiiuo aeo?iaeia (oaaeeoea 1). Oaaeeoea 1. Iaeiaiiaaiea aeo?iaeaOe?aaeIioaioeeaeueiue oeaeaaie ?uiieNoieiinoue ?aeeaiu (1/2 iieinu), ?oa.*anoioa auoiaeaNoieiinoue ?aeeaiu ia 1000 /ae., ?oa.Oo?eci e ioaeuo8500034000/ae-40%135682 ?aca a ian.399Aiyae8500045000/ae-54%72001 ?ac a ian160Aiyae e ioaeuo10000034000/ae-40%69501 ?ac a ian.204 · “Oo?eci e ioaeuo” - (13568 : 34000 o 1000 = 399 ?oa.) noieiinoue ?aeeaiu ia 1000 /eoaoaeae 399 ?oa. · “Aiyae” - (7200 : 45000 o 1000 = 160 ?oa.) noieiinoue ?aeeaiu ia 1000 /eoaoaeae 160 ?oa. · “Aiyae e ioaeuo” - (6950 : 34000 o 1000 = 204 ?oa.) noieiinoue ?aeeaiu ia 1000 /eoaoaeae 204 ?oa. Yoe aeo?iaeu yaeythony iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyueie a ea/anoaa iineoaeae ?aeeaiu aeey oe?iu “Aea Aeco”. A?aoee eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu. ?aoaiey i auai?a eiie?aoiuo iineoaeae ?aeeaiu e a?aiaiiii a?aoeea eo eniieueciaaiey iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea noaiu. A?aoee eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa ?aeeaiu, , iieacaiiue ia noaia 2, aiai?eo i oii , /oi oeeeee/iinoue ?aciauaiey ?aeeaiu ?aaiiia?ia. Oae a aeo?iaea Aei ?aciauaiey iauyaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe ii?in iio?aaeoaeae ia oaio, i?aaeony ee ei i?aaeeaaaaiia iauyaeaiea e auaeaeyaony ee ia?auaiea ec ?yaea i?i/eo. Iinea ?aciauaiey iauyaeaiey i?iaiaeyony caia?u ociaaaaiinoe ?aeeaiu iio?aaeoaeyie eee aa ociaaaaiinoe eae aeaeaiiie ?aiaa. Ioaeeeoy naia iauyaeaiea a i?ioeanna, iaaei no?aieoueny i?eaea/ue aieiaiea /eoaoaeae e iaoae eioi?iaoeee. Niaoeeaeenou ii oai?ee ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee auaeaeytho a ea/anoaa i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey: eioaineaiinoue, oieeaeueiinoue, aeaeaeaiea, iiaoi?yaiinoue, eiio?anoiinoue e ?acia?. I?eiaieoaeueii e ?aeeaia yoi icia/aao neaaeothuaa. Eioaineaiinoue iau/ii au?aaeatho n iiiiuueth e?oiiuo caaieiaeia, eniieuecoy anai ecaanoiue oaeo, /oi a aeo?iaeao i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue oae iaeaieaa aaaeiua niiauaiey. Oieeaeueiinoue eae oaeoi? i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey icia/aao, /oi aeaiiay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay oi?ia ioee/aaony io eiuo eiieo?e?othueo oi?i ?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaiee, /oi ei naienoaaiia iiaecia. Iau/ii a ea/anoaa yeaiaioa oieeaeueiinoe aunooiatho oioia?aoey eee ?enoiie, eee eaeia-oi neiai ec caaieiaea, iaeaaeathuaai iniaie i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoueth aeey aae?anaoa. Aeaeaeaiea iiaeao auoue i?ae?anii ia?aaeaii eeethno?aoeeae. Iii aeieaeii auoue ?aceei, iiae/a?eeaaoueny, anee iiaeii, iaiau/iui ?aeo?nii, niacaiiinoueth e o.ae. Iii, eae oaea aiai?eeinue, i?eaeaeaao aieiaiea a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. Iiaoi?yaiinoue, o.a. ioaeeeaoeey iaeiiai e oiai aea iauyaeaiey n caaeaiiie ia?eiaee/iinoueth. Yooaeoeaii ioaeeeiaaoue ia iaeii e oi aea iauyaeaiea, a “na?eae” - a caaeneiinoe io naciia ?aeeaie?iaaoue ?aciua oo?u, ii nio?aiyoue naie “oe?iaiiua eiinoaiou” - ?acia?, oeaao, aa?noeo, iauai oaenoa, aeecaei e o.ae. Yoi iaania/eaaao e iinoiyinoai oe?iaiiiai noeey, e ecaanoiia ?aciiia?acea, ii?ie aeaaea oieeaeueiinoue. Eiio?anoiinoue icia/aao, /oi ?aeeaiiia iineaiea ia aeieaeii eiie?iaaoue aeaaea naiua eo/oea ia?acoeu eee niaea?aeaoue caeinoaiaaiiua o eiieo?aioia iaoiaeee. Oaeia iiae?aaeaoaeuenoai oneeeaaao iiceoeeth eiieo?aioa e aoaeo oiai, eoi eaeao aneaae ca eeaea?aie. ?acia? iauyaeaiey aua?ai a 1/2 iieinu, o.e. yoi aeinoaoi/ii caiaoiue ?acia?, /eoatho 40%. Anaai a n?aaeiai a ianyoe noieiinoue ?aeeaiu ninoaaeyao 256354 ?oa. A aeiiieiaiea e iniiaiie ?aeeaia eniieueciaaoue ia/aoioth ?aeeaio: eaeaiaea?e e aoeeaou - ecaeathony aieueoei oe?aaeii e ?ani?ino?aiythony aanieaoii n?aaee eeeaioia oe?iu, ?acaeathony iinaoeoaeyi ia aunoaaeao e y?ia?eao. picscalex100010009000003540000000000120000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffffe0000000c00100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 000050000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000000000000000 0000 Eaaeaeue ianyoe iaiaoiaeeii iiaen/eouaaoue: 1. eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiiai ia?auaiey: Yi = picscalex100010009000003b60000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02200400051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffffc0040000d60300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000d00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc014000050000001302fc01a70417000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010009000000 320a6a01ef01010000004e0001010f000000320a880384000500000041f6f5caee00ea00 c000a800fd00c0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000 070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000 f001010003000000000000ffffff00000000 o 100% Aaea: N - eiee/anoai iieiaeeoaeueiuo ioeeeeia anaai, Aoe - ioaao oeaeaaie aoaeeoi?ee, Ei - eiyooeoeeaio yooaeoeaiinoe ioaaoa aoaeeoi?ee. 2. iauee aeioiae a ?oaeyo: Iae = V x Oe - N o n , V - eiee/anoai aueoiaaiuo oneoa ii ?aeeaia, Oe - noieiinoue aaeeieoeu oneoae, N - noieiinoue iaeiie ioaeeeaoeee, n - eiee/anoai ioaeeeaoeee. 3. iieacaoaeue yooaeoeaiinoe ?aeeaiiiai ia?auaiey (?oaeue aeioiaeia ia ?oaeue cao?ao ia ?aeeaio) Iy = picscalex100010009000003e30000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e00320071200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffffe0060000960300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000b00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 fc014000050000001302fc01dc0617000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d0101000c000000 320a6a013000030000005678d600ea00a80014010c000000320a6a015f0403000000d1f5 6e000101a800c0000c000000320a88035a020300000043786e000101a800c00010000000 fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010200 04000000f001010009000000320a6a013e03010000002d00d3000a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc010202225379 7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000cc000000000000 0000 Ana yoe iieacaoaee ?ann/eouaathony aaeaiany/ii eee aaeaeaa?oaeueii e a caaeneiinoe io ?acoeueoaoia ei??aeoe?oaony ?aeeaiiay aeayoaeueiinoue. Ii?aaeaeeoue nae/an eaeie o?iaaiue i?iaeaae auciaao aeaiiay ?aeeaiiay eiiiaiey o?oaeii. Iiieii ?aeeaiu, o?iaaiue i?iaeaae caaeneo io iiiaeo oaeoi?ia: iniaaiiinoae oiaa?a, aai oeaiu, yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia e o.ae. Aaciianiinoue e Yeieiae/iinoue i?iaeoa 1.1 Io?aia o?oaea Iaania/aiea eiioi?oiuo oneiaee ?aaiou e naaaeaiea e ieieioio aa?iyoiinoe aicaeaenoaey ia ?aaioathueo a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia – yoi caaea/e io?aiu o?oaea. Oeaeueth aiaeeca aaciianiinoe e yeieiae/iinoe aeeieiiiiai i?iaeoa yaeyaony aiaeec oneiaee o?oaea, iianiuo e a?aaeiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia ia yoaia ?ac?aaioee e yenieoaoaoeee ?anniao?eaaaiiai i?aaei?eyoey e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii caueoa io aicaeaenoaee oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia caei?iauea iieueciaaoaeae e eeeaioia e ianoueo a?aae aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A ?anniao?eaaaiie oe?ia iieueciaaoaee e eeeaiou iiaoo iiaeaa?aaoueny aicaeaenoaeth neaaeothueo iianiuo e a?aaeiuo oaeoi?ia: 1. Ii?aaeaieth yeaeo?e/aneei oieii aneaaenoaea: - eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iiaeni?aaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey; - ia?ooaiey cacaieaiey; - ianiaethaeaiey oaoieee aaciianiinoe. 2. Aicaeaenoaeth yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo iieae. 3. Aicaeaenoaeth ooia. 4. Iaaeinoaoeo eee ia?aaiiia?iinoe inaauaiey. 5. Ia?ooaieth iee?ieeeiaoa, iiae /ai iiieiaaony iiauoaiiay caiueaiiinoue aicaeooa, iiauoaiiay eee iiieaeaiiay aeaaeiinoue, iiauoaiiay eee iiieaeaiiay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa. 6. Aicaeaenoaeth ?acee/iuo aeaeia eceo/aiee. Ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua oaeoi?u aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue naieoa?iui ii?iai e i?aaeeai NaiIeI2.2.2.542 – 96. [11] I?iecaiaenoaaiiua iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey. I?iecaiaenoaaiiay naieoa?ey – yoi nenoaia i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, i?aaeioa?auathueo eee oiaiueoathueo aicaeaenoaea ia ?aaioathueo a?aiaeuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie , oa?aeoa?ecothueie naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneoth ianoaiiaeo ia i?iecaiaenoaa, yaeythony: iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey a iiiauaieyo ia ?aai/eo ianoao, inaauaiea ?aai/eo iano, iaee/ea a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aicaeooa ?aai/ae ciiu, ?acia?u ieiuaaee e iauaia iiiauaiee ia iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai e ae?. Iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaieyo ii?aaeaeytho oaieiiaiai i?aaiecia /aeiaaea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie, eioi?ue caaeneo io neaaeothueo oaeoi?ia: - oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa - ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa - nei?inoe ia?aiauaiey aicaeooiuo iann - eo/enoiai oaiey. Iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey ia i?iecaiaenoaa aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe o?aaiaaieyi “Naieoa?iuo ii?i i?iaeoe?iaaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee” a eioi?uo n o/aoii oa?aeoa?a auiieiyaiie ?aaiou ii?ie?othony ia?aiao?u aicaeooiie n?aaeu a ?aai/ae ciia. 1.2. I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou ioena. Ioen i?aaeiacia/ai aeey yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou nio?oaeieeia oe?iu , ianeoaeeaaiey eeeaioia. ?acia?u iiiauaiey ninoaaeytho 40 i. Aeaiiina iiiauaiea iniauaii 6 eiiithoa?aie, oaee-na?aa?ii e 2 oeeo?iauie iiaeaiaie, 2 oaeneieeueiuo aiia?aoa e 2 ena?iena. Ii noaiaie ii?aaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneei oieii iiiauaiea eeanneoeoee?oaony eae iiiauaiea aac iiauoaiiie iianiinoe (nooia, n ii?iaeueiie oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa, eciee?othueie iieaie, eiathuaa iaaieueoia eiee/anoai cacaieaiiuo i?aaeiaoia). A yoii iiiauaiee ia o?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiuo ia? caueou io ii?aaeaiey yeaeo?e/aneei oieii. Ieoaiea iai?oaeiaaiey i?iecaiaeeony io iaeiioaciie naoe ia?aiaiiiai oiea n iai?yaeaieai 220 A e /anoioie 50 Aoe. Ii ac?uaiiianiinoe iiiauaiea ia eeanneoeoee?oaony , o.e. ie a ?aaeiiaeueiii, ie a aaa?eeiii ?aaeeiao ac?uaiiianiay nianue ia?aciaaoueny ia iiaeao. Inaauaiea iiiauaiey neeaaeuaaaony ec anoanoaaiiiai e eneonnoaaiiiai. A iiiauaiee eiaaony o?e ieiiiuo i?iaia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo aa?oeeaeueii ?aai/ae iiaa?oiinoe e auoiaeyueo ia ainoi/ioth noi?iio, anoanoaaiiue naao ec naaoiauo i?iaiia iaaeaao naieo , /oi niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi NaiIeI i.8.1.1.[10] Aeaiiia iiiauaiea oa?aeoa?ecoaony iaaieueoei aeeaiaciiii eieaaaiee oaiia?aoo?u, ii?iaeueiie aeaaeiinoueth(40-60%) e caiueaiiinoueth. 1.3. Iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey a iiiauaiee. Caa?yciaiiinoue aicaeooa cia/eoaeueii nieaeaao aania?aaieioth e iaaeaaeioth ?aaioo oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa. Ia?aiauathuayny a i?ino?ainoaa iueue iaeaaeaao yeaeo?e/aneei ca?yaeii e i?eeeiaao e ethaie iiaa?oiinoe. Iiae aa aicaeaenoaeai eciaiythony oece/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa?eaeia iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee, iueeiee iiaoo aucaaoue iaiieaaeee a iaeiieoaeyo ia aeeneao e ae?oaeo ono?ienoaao. Iueue, eiathuay a naiai ninoaaa neeueiue yeaeo?ieeo , iiaeiuaao aieueoia eiee/anoai aeaae ec aicaeooa, e i?e yoii ia iiaa?oiinoe yeaiaioia iiaeao ia?aciaaoueny ieaiea ec yeaeo?ieeoe/aneiai ?anoai?a, nieaeathuay ?aaioiniiniaiinoue. Iiyoiio aicaeoo, iinooiathuee a iiiauaiea , aeieaeai niaea?aeaoue i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeioth eiioeaio?aoeeth iuee. Aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aeiionoeiuo ii?i caiueaiiinoe eniieueciaaiu no?ieoaeueiua, ecieyoeeiiiua e ioaeaei/iua iaoa?eaeu, eioi?ua ia auaeaeytho iueue. Eaaeaeue aeaiue a iiiauaiee aeaeaaony aeaaeiay oai?ea, /oi nieaeaao aa?iyoiinoue iaeiieaiey iuee. Aaioeeyoeey aeieaeia nicaeaaaoue ia ?aai/eo ianoa, a ?aai/ae e ianeoaeeaaaiie ciiao iiiauaiee iaoai?ieiae/aneea oneiaey e /enoioo aicaeooiie n?aaeu , niioaaonoaothuea aeaenoaothuei naieoa?iui ii?iai. A iiiauaieyo n aeeeoaeueiui i?aauaaieai ethaeae e a iiiauaieyo, aaea o?aaoaony iiaeaea?aeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie oaiia?aoo?u a oieiaeiue ia?eiae aiaea, ono?aeaathony ioiieoaeueiua nenoaiu. Nenoaiu ioiieaiey aeieaeiu ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi aeaenoaothueo naieoa?iuo ii?i, no?ieoaeueiuo ii?i e noaiaea?oia NNOA. Oaieiniaaaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo caeaiee eee a?oii caeaiee, iai?oaeoaiuo nenoaiaie oeaio?aeueiiai ioiieaiey, i?aaeoniao?eaaaony io oaieiaie naoe. 1.4. Aicaeaenoaea ooia e aea?aoeee. Aeey oeo/oaiey aeonoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee iiiauaiey , neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue neaaeothuea ia?u: iiaeaaeyoue ooi eee caoee, i?enoonoaea eioi?uo ia aeaeaoaeueii, a oaeaea ?aaiiia?ii ?ani?aaeaeyoue caoeiaoth yia?aeth, /oiau o?iaaiue caoeiaiai aeaaeaiey ia i?aauoae aeiionoeiiai o?iaiy. Enoi/ieeaie ooia a iiiauaiee ioena yaeythony ono?ienoaa YAI: 1) aeaeaaoaee aioo?aiiaai aaioeeyoi?a YAI; 2) aeeneiaiaeu. Ooi, i?iecaiaeeiue aaioeeyoi?ii, iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue eae iinoiyiiue, a ooi aeeneiaiaea, eae -eiioeueniua. I?e auiieiaiee iniiaiie ?aaiou ia YAI o?iaaiue ooia ia ?aai/ai ianoa ia i?aauoaao 50 aeAA a niioaaonoaee n [10]. Aeey oiaiueoaiey ooiiaiai aicaeaenoaey, i?e ioaeaeea ioena eniieueciaaii niaoeeaeueiay ooiiiiaeauathuay noaiiaay iaeeoeiaea e niaoeeaeueiia iaiieueiia iie?uoea. 1.5. Inaauaiiinoue iiiauaiey. Io ninoiyiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai inaauaiey a iiiauaieyo ia ?aai/eo ianoao a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie caaenyo aaciianiinoue o?oaea, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea e ea/anoai. Niaeanii NaiIeI 2.2.2.542-96 [10] auiieiaiu neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey e inaauaieth iiiauaiee e ?aai/eo iano: 1) Eneonnoaaiiia inaauaiea a iiiauaieyo yenieoaoaoeee YAI inouanoaeyaony nenoaiie iauaai ?aaiiia?iiai inaauaiey. 2) Eneonnoaaiiia inaauaiea iaania/eaaao ia ?aai/eo ianoao YAI inaauaiiinoue ia ieaea ii?ie?oaiuo cia/aiee. 3) Ia?aie/aia i?yiay aeaneinoue io enoi/ieeia inaauaiey , i?e yoii y?einoue naaoyueony iiaa?oiinoae (ieia, naaoeeueieee e ae?.), iaoiaeyueony a iiea c?aiey ia aieaa 200 eae/i. 4) Ia?aie/aia ia?aaiiia?iinoue ?ani?aaeaeaiey y?einoe a iiea c?aiey iieueciaaoaey YAI, i?e yoii niioiioaiea y?einoe iaaeaeo ?aai/eie iiaa?oiinoyie ia i?aauoaao 3:1 – 5:1, a iaaeaeo ?aai/eie iiaa?oiinoyie e iiaa?oiinoyie noai e iai?oaeiaaiey 10:1. 5) ss?einoue naaoeeueieeia iauaai inaauaiey a ciia oaeia eceo/aiey io 50 a?aae. aei 90 a?aae. N aa?oeeaeueth a i?iaeieueiie e iiia?a/iie ieineinoyo ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 200 eae/i, caueoiue oaie naaoeeueieeia aeieaeai auoue ia iaiaa 40 a?aae. 6) Iiiauaiea eiaao anoanoaaiiia e eneonoaaiiia inaauaiea. Anoanoaaiiia inaauaiea inouanoaeyaony /a?ac naaoii?iaiu, ieiuaaeue eaaeaeiai ninoaaeyao 2,55 i e iaania/eaaao eiyooeoeeao anoanoaaiiie inaauaiiinoe ia iaiaa 1,5%. Ieiuaaeue ia iaeii ?aai/aa ianoi n YAI ninoaaeyao ia iaiaa 6 i , a iauai ia iaiaa 20 i. Iiaa?oiinoue iiea a iiiauaiee ?iaiay . aac auaiei, ianeieueceay, oaeiaiay aeey i/enoee e aeaaeiie oai?ee, iaeaaeaao aioenoaoe/aneeie naienoaaie, /oi niioaaonoaoao ii?iai . 1.7 I?ioeaiiiaea?iay aaciianiinoue. Iiaea?iay iianiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee ii?aaeaeyaony iniaaiiinoyie auiieiyaiiai a ieo oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.Aeey aeaiiiai iiiauaieye eaoaai?ey ac?uaiiianiinoe iiaea?iie iianiinoe –A, oae eae eniieuecothony o?oaeiiai?th/ea oaa?aeua aauanoaa e iaoa?eaeu, a oae aea aauanoaa e iaoa?eaeu, niiniaiua i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee n aiaeie, eenei?iaeii aicaeooa eee ae?oaii oieueei ai?aoue. A YAI auniea ieioiinoue ?aciauaiey yeaiaioia yeaeo?iiiuo noai. A iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe ae?oa io ae?oaa ?aniieaaathony niaaeeieoaeueiua i?iaiaea, eiiioieeaoeeiiiua eaaaee. I?e i?ioaeaiee ii iei yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea auaeaeyaony cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai oaieiou, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiauoaieth oaiia?aoo?u, iieaaeaieth i?iaiaeia e, eae neaaenoaea, ei?ioeia caiueaiea, nii?iaiaeaeathuaany ai?aieai. Aeey ioaiaea ecauoi/iinoe oaieiou io YAI neoaeao nenoaiu aaioeeyoeee e eiiaeeoeeiie?iaaiey aicaeooa. Iaeiaei iie i?aaenoaaeytho aeiiieieoaeueioth iiaea?ioth iianiinoue, oae eae iaania/eaatho iiaea/o eenei?iaea-ieeneeoaey, a i?e aicieeiiaaiee iiaea?a auno?i ?ani?ino?aiytho iaiiue e i?iaeoeou ai?aiey ii anai iiiauaieyi e ono?ienoaai, n eioi?ui naycaiu aicaeooiioaiaeu. Iai?yaeaiea e yeaeo?ionoaiiaeai iiaeaaony ii eaaaeueiui eeieyi, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho iniaoth iiaea?ioth iianiinoue. Iaee/ea ai?th/aai ecieyoeeiiiiai iaoa?eaea, aa?iyoiuo enoi/ieeia a aeaea yeaeo?e/aneeo ene?, ?acaaoaeaiiinoue e o?oaeiiaeinooiiinoue aeaeatho eaaaeueiua eeiee ianoii iaeaieaa aa?iyoiiai aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey iiaea?a. Ia?u ii i?ioeeaeoeea caai?aiee: A) eiio?ieue ca oaiia?aoo?ie iai?oaeiaaiey; A) iaee/ea ia?ae/iuo n?aaenoa oooaiey; A) i?eiaiaiea aaoiiaoe/aneeo i?aaeio?aieoaeae; A) iiaea?iay neaiaeecaoeey; Ae) ieai yaaeoaoeee e aeaenoaey ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea i?e iiaea?a. I?e aicieeiiaaiee iiaea?a iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue ia?ae/iua n?aaenoaa caueou, iai?eia?, eniieuecotho oeie/aneia oi?iiaeaiea ?aaeoeee ai?aiey – oaeaeeneue aac (NI ). Iaiaaaneoaeueiay eiioeaio?aoeey aaciia?aciie eeneiou ia iaiaa 30% iauaia caueoiiai iiiauaiey. Oae aea eniieuecothony iiaea?iua e?aiu, ?aniieaaathueany ia caiaoiuo e aeinooiiuo ianoao. A aeaiiii iiiauaiee ana ia?u ii i?ioeaiiiaea?iie aaciianiinoe niaethaeaiu. 1.8 Yeieiae/iinoue i?iaeoa. A oeaeii ii no?aia au?aaioea 1eAo// yeaeo?iyia?aee aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue aua?ineoue a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo 92 a iooiaeia, a oii /enea a aicaeoo 58a, a ioaaeu – 30a, a i?e?iaeiua aiaeiaiu - 4a. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iniiaiay aeiey yeaeo?iyia?aee a no?aia au?aaaouaaaony ia aeae?i- e ia aoiiiuie yeaeo?inoaioeeyie, a oaieiauie, eniieuecothueie a ea/anoaa oiieeaa oaieue , iaooai?iaeoeou e , a iaeiaiueoae noaiaie, i?e?iaeiue aac. Iiyoiio i?eciaii , /oi ii oaeaeueiiio aano aua?inia a aoiinoa?o oaieiyia?aaoeea i?i/ii caieiaao iaeii ec ia?auo iano n?aaee iniiaiuo caa?ycieoaeae. I?e ?aaioa YAI iio?aaeytho ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai yeaeo?iyia?aee, /oi anoanoaaiii neacuaaaony ia yeieiaee. Yeiiiiey iaeiiai eAo// iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa i?e au?aaioea yeaeo?iyia?aee ia 40 a. Oaeaea oiaiueoaaony aua?in na?u a aoiinoa?o. A ?anniao?eaaaiii ioena 6 eiathueony eiiiuethoa?ia aoaeoo yenieoaoe?iaaoueny a aeaiue a n?aaeiai ii 9 /ania, a oa/aiea eaaeaeiai /ana YAI iio?aaeyao 0,5 eAO// yia?aee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aaeaaeiaaii iio?aaeyaony 27 eAO// yia?aee. O/eouaay auoa neacaiiia, noiia?iia eiee/anoai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iooiaeia ninoaaeyao 92o27=2,48 ea a aeaiue (2,48o260=645,8 ea a aiae) ec ieo a aicaeoo 58o29=1,56 ea aaeaaeiaaii (1,56o260=405 ea aaeaaiaeii). Yeieiae/aneia aicaeaenoaea oo?ecia. A i?ioeanna oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe iaecaaaeii i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu .a ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?iaeaiu io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu e aa oeo/oaiey caieiatho aaaeiia ianoi ai iiiaeo enneaaeiaaieyo. ?aiaa enneaaeiaaiey ii aiaeeco oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe oaeaeyeinue iaei aieiaiey, aea e oi ?anniao?eaaee aicaeaenoaea oo?ecia oieueei a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi/eao caiiiai oa?a eee aicaeaenoaea ioaeaeueiuo aai aeaeia. Aicaeaenoaea oo?ecia ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo iiaeao auoue i?yiui, einaaiiui e iiaoaeeoaeueiui, a oaeaea iieiaeeoaeueiui e io?eoeaoaeueiui. Oo?eci ia iiaeao ?acaeaaoueny aac acaeiiaeaenoaey n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie, iaeiaei n iiiiuueth oi?aaeaiey ?acaeoeai oo?ecia e /aoeiai ieaie?iaaiey, aiciiaeii oiaiueoeoue iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea e oaaee/eoue iieiaeeoaeueiia. Iieiaeeoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai oo?ecia aeeth/aao: io?aio e ?anoaa?aoeeth enoi?e/aneeo iaiyoieeia, nicaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo ia?eia e caiiaaaeieeia, caueoo aa?aaia e ?eoia, nio?aiaiea eania e o.ae. Iaeiaei ai iiiaeo ?acaeaathueony no?aiao ia i?aaei?eieiaeinue ieeaeeo oaaia aeey caueou e nio?aiaiey i?e?iaeu ec-ca ionoonoaey iaiaoiaeeiuo oeiainiauo n?aaenoa, a iieo/aiiua io oo?ecia aeioiaeu ia?aea/eaaeenue a ae?oaea, i?ei?eoaoiua noa?u, n/eoaaoeany yeiiiie/anee aieaa auaiaeiuie. I?e ioeaiea aeeyiey oo?ecia ia i?e?iaeo aaaeii oaeaea, n eaeie oi/ee c?aiey iia aaaeaony: aaaeue oi, /oi n/eoaaony iieiaeeoaeueiui n oi/ee c?aiey, iiaeao ieacaoueny iaaaoeaiui n oi/ee c?aiey ianoiuo aeeoaeae. Iaaaoeaiua aicaeaenoaey oo?ecia, e niaeaeaieth, /anoi aa?oo aa?o iaae iieiaeeoaeueiuie . A /anoiinoe , yoi aicaeaenoaea ia ea/anoai aiaeu a ?aeao, ii?yo, ica?ao e ia ea/anoai aicaeooa ec-ca i?eiaiaiey o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa n aeaeaaoaeyie aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey ia ianeyiii oiieeaa; ooi io aeayoaeueiinoe ?aciuo ?acaeaeaoaeueiuo caaaaeaiee; oie/oiaeaiea ianoiie e aeeeie oaoiu oo?enoaie, ?acaeeaathueie eino?u; ?ac?ooaiea enoi?e/aneeo iaiyoieeia aaiaeaeaie, inoaaeythueie ia ieo iaaeiene, e o.ae. Iieeoeea no?ieoaeuenoaa iiauo ainoeie/iuo eiiieaenia e eio?ano?oeoo? aaeieue iiaa?aaeuey, iniaaiii a 70-a aiaeu, io?eoeaoaeueii iiaeeyaoay ia i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo, a iineaaeiea aiaeu noaea iaaeooaeueia. A iaeioi?uo no?aiao i?eiaiythony ia?aie/aiey ia no?ieoaeuenoai caeaiee a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe e ii?th, iai?eia? a Eiaeee, eee ia no?ieoaeuenoai iauaeoia auoa iaeueiiauo aea?aaueaa, iai?eia? a Iaa?eoaiee. Oae eae a oo?enoe/aneie noa?a oiio?aaeyaony i?iaeoeoeey iiiaeo ae?oaeo io?aneae, i?yii ia i?iecaiaeyueo oo?enoneee i?iaeoeo, aicaeaenoaea eo ia ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo oaeaea neaaeoao o/eouaaoue. Iieeoeea ii caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu aeieaeia auoue iaoeaeaia ia aeieain?i/iue ia?eiae aeey iaania/aiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe oo?enoneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeiaei iiiaea, iniaaiii ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, eaii?e?otho yoi, i?aaeii/eoay eiiia?/aneoth e oeiainiaoth nethieiooioth auaiaeo. Aeey ioeaiee aeeyiey ia ie?oaeathuoth i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo i?eiyou ?aciua iiaeaee. A iaeioi?uo oo?enoneeo ianoao neaai aeaenoaotho ii?iaoeaiua aeou, a i?e?iaeiio?aiiua neoaeau i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaotho. Iaeiaei ionoonoaea ii?iaoeaiie aacu, iaania/eaathuae caueoo ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, ia aeieaeii inoaiiaeoue i?ioeann ieaie?iaaiey ?acaeoey oo?ecia. Niaoeeaeenou a yoie iaeanoe aeieaeiu i?iaiaeeoue nianoaaiioth ioeaieo aicaeaenoaey ia n?aaeo. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi caueoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu yaeyaony aieaa i?inoie e aeaoaaie ia?ie, /ai eni?aaeaiea iaianaiiiai a?aaea a aoaeouai. Iieeoeea ?acaeoey oo?ecia n o/aoii yeieiae/aneiai aicaeaenoaey noaiiaeony ana aieaa aeooaeueiie, e AOI i?aaeeiaeeea iiiai i?ia?aii ii io?aia ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. ?ani?aaeaeaiea caeacia ii enoi/ieeai 1) Oo?eci e ioaeuo. Iniiaiie iioie eeeaioia a oe?io i?ienoiaeeo aeaaiaea?y ?aeeaia, aeaaaaiie a aeo?iaea “Oo?eci e ioaeuo”. Yoi niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue aeo?iae, ia/aoathuee eioi?iaoeeth oieueei i oo?enoe/aneeo oneoaao, auoiaeyuee ?ac a aeaa iaaeaee. Ia aai no?aieoeao iiaeii iaeoe i?aaeeiaeaiey iineianeeo oo?enoe/aneeo aaaionoa: i no?aiao, oo?ao e oeaiao, eo aae?ana e oaeaoiiu. Ec anao ecaeaiee ia/aoathueo oaeiai ?iaea eioi?iaoeeth, “Oo?eci e ioaeuo” yaeyaony iaeaieaa eiiiaoaioiui e iiioey?iui n?aaee ianaeaiey, o.e. iaeaieaa oe?iei e oi/ii ?ane?uaaao niaeo?, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoa. 2) Iinoiyiiue eeeaio. Eaoaai?ey oo?enoia, iieuecothuayny oneoaaie aeaiiiai aaaionoaa aieueoa iaeiiai ?aca. Nuacaeea iaeei ?ac /a?ac oe?io e, inoaaoenue aeiaieueiuie iiacaeeie eeeaiou i?aaeii/eoatho naeaeaoue (caeacaoue) neaaeothuaa iooaoanoaea a yoii aea aaaionoaa, o.e. iii oaea yaeyaony “i?iaa?aiiui”. Iaeioi?ua eeeaiou i?eaaaatho e oneoaai iaeiiai e oiai aea aaaionoaa ii/oe eaaeaeue ianyoe, oiaaea iie oaea ia?aoiaeyo a eaoaai?eth VIP e e iei ia/eiatho i?eiaiyoue iniaua oi?iu ianeoaeeaaiey. Iie iieuecothony any/aneeie eueaioaie e eaaeaeue ?ac i?e iieo/aiee iaeaoa aeieoiaioia aeey iiacaeee iieo/atho noaaie?u e iiaea?ee io oe?iu. 3) Ciaeiiua. Eaoaai?ey eeeaioia, eioi?ua ia?auathony a aaaionoai ii ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ae?ocae eee ?iaenoaaiieeia. I/aiue /anoi iinoiyiiua eeeaiou ?aeiiaiaeotho ethaeiia aaaionoai naiei ae?ocueyi eee aaeoo aianoa n ieie. 4) Auaanea. I?eiaiyy ia?oaeioth ?aeeaio e oeacaoaee ia oeeoeao e i?e oaea/iii eo ?aniieiaeaiee, iiaeii i?eaea/ue iaiaei eeeaioia a aaaionoai. Eae i?aaeei oaeea eeeaiou , oaeaeaa auaaneo, nia/aea caoiaeyo ociaoue i iaee/ee oiai eee eiiai oo?a e i aai oeaia e i?e i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aaiou nio?oaeieeia oe?iu caeioa?aniaaaoeeny eeeaio iaycaoaeueii aa?iaony ca iieoieie oo?a. 5) Eioa?iao. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy, ana aieueoa ethaeae, i?aaeii/eoatho ociaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth ethaiai ?iaea ia auoiaey ec aeiia eee ?aaiou. Yoi aiciiaeii naeaeaoue i?e iiiiue eiiiuethoa?a e anaie?iie naoe Eioa?iao, aaea iiaeii ii/a?iiooue eioi?iaoeeth ia ethaoth oaio. Aieueoeinoai oo?enoe/aneeo aaaionoa eiatho naie WEB- no?aieoeu ia eioi?uo ?aciauaaony iaeaieaa naaaeay e iiae?iaiay eioi?iaoeey i oe?ia, aa aeayoaeueiinoe, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo oneoaao, iaee/ea iano e oeaiao ia oo?-i?iaeoeou. ?aciauaiea eioi?iaoeee ia no?aieoeao Eioa?iaoa oaeiaii aua e oai, /oi eeeaio iiaeao nio?aieoue ethaoth caeioa?aniaaaooth aai eioi?iaoeeth a naiai eiiiuethoa?a eee ?ania/aoaoue aa, /oi au aa?iooueny e iae a ethaia ioaeiia aeey iaai a?aiy. Oi?ioi ioi?ieaiiay no?aieoea yaeyaony i/aiue neeueiui ?aeeaiiui oaaii. 6) Ae?oaia. Oae aea nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai ae?oaeo aeaeia ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aaaionoaa: *ia/aoiua ecaeaiey Aiyae, Aiyae e ioaeuo, Yeno?a I e o.ae. *ni?aai/ieee * ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ae?oaeo aaaonoa *?acee/iua eeoau (eeoa AE EAEI) *iaaaceiu (Iiaia?aaoneee) *iinieuenoaa *aaeaeiiiaiee *eioi?iaoeeiiii ni?aai/iua neoaeau (E?aniue oaeaoii)

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