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Enneaaeiaaiea nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

Eaeoeey 1 11.02.97

Oeaee e caaea/e eo?na ENO. I?aaeiao e iauaeo ENO.

Ieai.

ENO : Iiiyoey, iacia/aiea, i?eeiaeaiea.

I?aaeiao e iauaeo ENO.

Yoaiu ENO.

Aii?in 1 : ENO : Iiiyoey, iacia/aiea, i?eeiaeaiea.

ENO – i?ioeann ii?aaeaeaiey i?a. no?oeoo?u (ninoaaa, i?aaiecaoeee,
iiaaaeaiey, ninoiyiey nenoai), ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu, caeiiiia?iinoae
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey eco/aaiie nenoaiu n oeaeueth aa
niaa?oainoaiaaiey.

ENO aace?oaony ia ?yaea niaaeiuo aeenoeeieei :

eeaa?iaoeea – eco/aiea ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo caeiiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
nenoai oi?aaeaiey;

oai?ey nenoai – eniieueciaaiea nenoaiiiai aiaeeca;

aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey – enneaaeiaaiea aii?inia
iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey, nicaeaiea aac aeaiiuo e
acaeiiaeanoaea /aeiaaea n iaoeiie;

oai?ey eioi?iaoeee – enneaaeiaaiea iioieia eioi?iaoeee;

enneaaeiaaiea iia?aoeee – OII;

nenoaiiue aiaeec – i?aaenoaaeaiea ethaiai i?ioeanna a aeaea nenoaiu,
iino?iaiea iiaeaee a aeaea aea?aaa oeaeae.

I?e/eiu eco/aiey ENO :

1) E?ecen oi?aaeyaiinoe (n na?. 20-ai aaea) – oneiaeiaiea iae?i- e
iee?in?aaeu aeciana; caeii iaaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeciana;
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a e oeaeueth
aeeaaiinoeee aai yooaeoeaiinoe.

Iaoiaeieiaey ioeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe iaiaaeaea?a NOA :

xi – aeae oaeoi?a : No – au?o/ea

S – Sm, L, Sia … – cao?aou

Oe – ?uii/iua oeaiu

Rmi – iiae?acaeaeaiey

R(m) = Ae? – I(

R(m) – anae oe?iu

Ae? – aeioiae io ?aaeecaoeee

I( – noiia?iia ioeeiiaiea anao oaeoi?ia

Anee R(m) < R(m)( - io?eoeaoaeueiay ?aaioaAnee R(m) = R(m)( - iieiaeeoaeueiay ?aaioaAnee R(m) > R(m)( – ia aunieii o?iaia ?aaioa

Caeii nieaeaiey yooaeoeaiinoe.

Io oiai, ia eaeii io?acea e?eaie iaoiaeeony oe?ia caaeneo ?aoaiea,
i?eieiaaiia iaiaaeaea?ii oe?iu.

X – io?acie a?aiaie, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeony oe?ia. Eai aeiaeaiey ia
niioaaonoaotho aiciiaeiinoyi oe?iu.

Y – ethaua aeiaeaiey ia?aeatho oe?io ia aeaaeue, iineieueeo ia aoaeoo
ii?aaaeuaaoue naay a niioaaonoaee n caeiiii oauaathuae yooaeoeaiinoe.

2) Iia?aaeathuea oaiiu ?inoa ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

3) Nieaeaiea ioaea/e eiaanoeoeee a iaeanoe ?acaeoey aaaaeaiey
oi?aaeai/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee.

4) Iaii?aaaeaiii aieueoea eiaanoeoeee a iaeanoe nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey.

Aii?in 2 : I?aaeiao e iauaeo ENO.

NO i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeie nenoaiaie ?aciie neiaeiinoe, ia
?aciuo o?iaiyo e n ?aciuie niiniaaie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey – iauaeo ENO.

I?aaeiao ENO – iauaeoeaiua caeiiiia?iinoe, i?enouea nenoaiai oi?aaeaiey
n oeaeueth n oeaeueth niaa?oainoaiaaiey eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey.

Iauay eioaa?aeueiay caaea/a ENO – eco/aiea caeiiiia?iinoae
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey NO => ooieoeeiiaeueiua caaea/e :

nai? e ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee i nenoaia oi?aaeaiey

ioeaiea e aiaeec ninoiyiey, iiaaaeaiey e ia?aiao?ia NO

oa?aeoa?enoeea i?a. no?oeoo?u NO

aiaeec ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey iiaenenoai NO

oa?aeoa?enoeea yeiiiie/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee ?acaeoey NO

Aii?in 3 : Yoaiu ENO.

Yoaiu ENO :

Eaeoeey 2 18.02.97

Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey.

Ieai.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey nenoaiu.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu e i?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Aeaeu nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

Yeiiiieea eae nenoaia.

Aii?in 1 : Ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoey nenoaiu.

Iniiaiie niaoeeoeeie ENO yaeyaony oi, /oi yoa nenoaia ?anniao?eaaao
oi?aaeaiea iao?aaeeoeeiiii. Iaiaaeaeiaio a ENO ?anniao?eaaaony eae
nenoaia (neiaeiay).

Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae – ?anniio?aiea ethaiai iauaeoa eae nenoaiu.

Nenoaiiinoue – anaiauaa naienoai iaoa?ee.

Iiauoaiea nenoaiiinoe – iniiaiay oeaeue oi?aaeaiey. Iai?aaeaiey
iiauoaiey nenoaiiinoe :

nenoaiiinoue i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe

nenoaiiinoue iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe

nenoaiiinoue n?aaeu iaeoaiey

Nenoaia – niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia, acaeiinaycaiiuo ae?oa n ae?oaii,
ia?acothueo oeaeinoiinoue, aaeeinoai.

I?eciaee nenoaiu :

ninoieo ec iiiaeo yeaiaioia

iaee/ea naycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie

i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aaeeiia oeaeia, o.a. iauaaeeiaiea /a?ac aaeeioth
oeaeue

Iienaiea nenoai i?ioiaeeo ia ?acee/iuo o?iaiyo aano?aae?iaaiey :

neiaiee/aneee eee eeiaaenoe/aneee

oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiue (nenoaia iienuaaaony oi?iaeueiuie iaoiaeaie eae
iiiaeanoai, niaieoiiinoue iiiaeanoa)

I?aia?aciaaiea iiiaeanoaa aoiaeia e auoiaeia – ioiioaiea => X R Y eee
(a?aae)

Nenoaia anoue iiiaeanoai, ia eioi?ii ?aaeecoaony ioiioaiea R : S ( X R Y

Nenoaia – aeaea?oiai i?iecaaaeaiea iiiaeanoa.

aano?aeoii-eiae/aneee

oiiieiae/aneee (nenoaiu a aeaea a?aoeeia, ea?o e o.ae.)

oai?aoeei-eioi?iaoeeiiiue (naoaaua, ea?a?oe/aneea e ?aeyoeeiiiua aacu
aeaiiuo)

ya?enoe/aneee (o?iaaiue eaeae, iuneae, aeiioac, i?aaeiieiaeaiee,
i?iaiicia)

Aii?in 2 : Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaiu e i?eioeeiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Nenoaiu iienuaathony a aeaea ?aaeueii nouanoaothuae nenoaiu n iiiiuueth
nenoaiiuo e?eoa?eaa e eaoaai?ee.

Ia?aiao?u nenoai :

Yeaiaio nenoaiu – /anoue nenoaiu, eiathuay ii?aaeaeaiiia
ooieoeeiiaeueiia iacia/aiea :

aoiienoe/aneea (?) (iaaeaeeiua) yeaiaiou

iiaenenoaiu

i?aaiecaoeey – aioo?aiiyy oii?yaei/aiiinoue, niaeaniaaiiinoue
acaeiiaeaenoaey yeaiaioia nenoaiu, i?iyaeythuayny a ia?aie/aiee
?aciiia?acey ninoiyiee yeaiaioia a ?aieao nenoaiu

no?oeoo?a – niaieoiiinoue aioo?aiieo onoie/eauo naycae iaaeaeo
yeaiaioaie nenoaiu, ii?aaeaeythuay aa iniiaiua naienoaa

ninoiyiea nenoaiu – yoi aaeoi? cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
nenoaio a aeaiiue iiiaio a?aiaie t – noaoe/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea

C(t1) = {P(t1), L(t1), S(t1), N(t1) …}

P(t1) – iiuiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa

L(t1) – eiee/anoai ?aai/eo

S(t1) – naaanoieiinoue

N(t1) – iauai auionea

Nenoaia iiaeao eiaoue ia/aeueiia, i?iiaaeooi/iia e eiia/iia ninoiyiea.

iiaaaeaiea nenoaiu – niaieoiiinoue aeaenoaee, eciaiaiee eco/aaiie
nenoaiu e aa ?aaeoeee ia aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey : eciaiaiea, ?acaeoea,
?ino.

I = f(t, Q)

Q – niaieoiiinoue ia?aiao?ia

Aeeiaie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea nenoaiu. (?)

A oai?ee i?aaiecaoeee, a oai?ee aeaeiauo ea?, oaoiieiaee o?oaea, a
oai?ee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee eniieuecoaony iiaeaeue yeiiiie/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey.

Q – nouanoaaiiua ia?aiao?u – ia?aiao?u, ioia?aiiua aeey aiaeeca
iiaeaee?oaiiai iauaeoa eae iaiaoiaeeiua, oae e aeinoaoi/iua aeey aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee n o/aoii oeaeae iiaeaee?iaaiey. Iie aeeytho ia
onoie/eainoue nenoaiu : anee cia/aiea ia?aiao?a auoiaeyo ca ?aiee
aeiionoeiiai, oi nenoaia ?ooeony.

naycue – yoi oi?ia acaeiiuo ia?aie/aiee ia iiaaaeaiea yeaiaioia ae?oa ia
ae?oaa; i?e ionoonoaee ia?aie/aiee, naycue oiaea ionoonoaoao. (?)

I?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu :

aeaoa?ieieci – caeiiiia?iay naycue, acaeiiiaoneiaeaiiinoue anao yaeaiee

oeaeinoiinoue (yia?aeaeaioiinoue) – naienoaa nenoaiu ia naiaeyony e
noiia naienoa ninoaaeythueo aa yeaiaioia

aiiainoac – naienoai nenoaiu nio?aiyoue a i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey ni
n?aaeie cia/aiea nouanoaaiiuo ia?aiaiiuo a iaeioi?uo i?aaeaeao

caeii eee i?eioeei ?aciiia?acey – aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ oi?aaeaiey
neiaeiuie nenoaiaie iaiaoiaeeii o/anoue aieueoia ?aciiia?acea
anaaiciiaeiuo oaeoi?ia; ?aciiia?acea ninoiyiee nenoaiu iiaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue eae yio?iieth : H = log2(m), aaea m – iiiaeanoai ninoiyiee
nenoaiu.

Caeii ia?aie/aiey ?aciiia?acey (caeii Yoae) – ec anao aiciiaeiuo
ninoiyiee nenoaiu iaiaoiaeeii aua?aoue oi, eioi?ia iaeaieaa iieii
ioaa/aao oeaeyi ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu.

Aii?in 3 : Aeaeu nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

Aeaeu nenoai :

ii i?e?iaea ninoaaeythueo yeaiaioia :

iaoa?eaeueiua (iai?aaie/aneea, i?aaie/aneea e niaoaiiua)

aano?aeoiua (ciaiey, oai?ee, aeiioacu)

ii noaiaie i?aaeneacoaiinoe :

noaoe/aneea

aeeiaie/aneea (yeieiae/aneay nenoaia) :

aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua (ninoiyiea eioi?uo iiaeii oi/ii i?aaeneacaoue)

aa?iyoiinoiua

ii neiaeiinoe :

i?inoua

neiaeiua

aieueoea :

iaee/ea iiaenenoai, eiathueo nianoaaiiia oeaeaaia iacia/aiea,
iiae/eiaiiia iauaio oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth nenoaiu (ie?iaia oicyenoai,
AN)

iaee/ea aieueoiai /enea ?aciiia?aciuo naycae iaaeaeo iiaenenoaiaie

iaee/ea a nenoaia yeaiaioia naiii?aaiecaoeee

o/anoea a ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaia ethaeae, iaoei e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu

o?oaeiinoue a iienaiee nenoaiu

Aii?in 4 : Yeiiiieea eae nenoaia.

Y – i?iecaiaenoai

L – o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu

M – iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu

N – i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu

S – /enoia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea (c/i)

Naycue SX (1) – eaeao eioi?iaoeey i oii ia neieueei aeaiiue
yeiiiie/aneee noauaeo oaeiaeaoai?yao caaeaiiie iio?aaeoaeueneie
iio?aaiinoe.

Aeie X – ?aaoeyoi? e caaeathuee aeie.

Aeie (V) – eiae/aneee aeie “EEE”.

Naycue SX (2) – caaeaao ia?aiao?u aauanoaaiiiai auoiaea YS.

Aeie C – ?aaoeyoi? e caaeathuee aeie auoanoiyuaai o?iaiy.

Yeaiaiou nenoaiiiai aiaeeca :

aoiae nenoaiu : i?e?iaeii-iaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou, oaoiieiaee

auoiae nenoaiu : niaieoiiinoue iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa, neoaeaueo
aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae iauanoaa e aai /eaiia

i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa : ii?aaeaeyaony iiiaiia?aceai iio?aaiinoae
iauanoaa

oeaeue : oi?ie?oaony noauaeoii yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu e aeeeooaony
aiaoieie e aioo?aiieie oaeoi?aie, oii?yaei/eaaao iiiaeanoai ninoiyiee
yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu

I?eciaee yeiiiie/aneeo aieueoeo nenoai :

iaee/ea iiaenenoai, eiathueo nianoaaiiia oeaeaaia iacia/aiea,
iiae/eiaiiia oeaeaaiio iacia/aieth nenoaiu

iaee/ea aieueoiai /enea ?aciiia?aciuo naycae iaaeaeo iiaenenoaiaie

iaee/ea a nenoaia yeaiaioia naiii?aaiecaoeee

o/anoea a ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaia ethaeae, iaoei e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeu
(ioe?uoinoue nenoaiu)

o?oaeiinoue a iienaiee nenoaiu

Eaeoeey 3 25.02.97

Nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey (NO), eo aeaeu e i?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

Ieai.

?ieue oi?aaeaiey a nenoaiao.

Aeaeu nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

I?eioeeiu nouanoaiaaiey e ?aaiou NO.

Aii?in 1 : ?ieue oi?aaeaiey a nenoaiao.

Oi?aaeaiea – au?aaioea e inouanoaeaiea oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo oi?aaeythueo
aicaeaenoaee ia iauaeo, a aeaiiii neo/aa, nenoaio, /oi aeeth/aao nai?,
ia?aaioeo e ia?aaea/o iaiaoiaeeiie eioi?iaoeee, i?eiyoea e ?aaeecaoeeth
niioaaonoaothueo ?aoaiee.

Oi?aaeaiea – ooieoeee nenoaiu, i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia nio?aiaiea aa
iniiaiiai ea/anoaa, eeai ia nio?aiaiea iaeioi?ie i?ia?aiiu, eioi?ay
aeieaeia iaania/eoue onoie/eainoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey (aiiainoac) ,
aeinoeaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee.

Oi?aaeaiea anoue oi, /oi niinianoaoao nouanoaiaaieth e ?aaioa nenoaiu.

Oi?aaeythuea ia?aiao?u – ia?aiao?u aeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey, n iiiiuueth
eioi?uo nicaeaaony aiciiaeiinoue iaiyoue oiae e iai?aaeaiea
yeiiiie/aneeo i?ioeannia. Anoue 3 a?oiiu oi?aaeythueo ia?aiao?ia :

ia?aiao?u noaaeeecaoi?u, eioi?ua ano?iaiu a ia?aoioth naycue NO e
yaeythony aioee?eceniuie

noeioeyoi?u, eioi?ua nio?aiytho e iiauoatho oaiiu ?acaeoey nenoaiu

?aaoeyoi?u, eioi?ua iiaeaea?aeeaatho naaeaine?iaaiiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae

Aii?in 2 : Aeaeu nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

NO – niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo, ooieoeeiiaeueiuo yeaiaioia,
au?aaaouaathueo oi?aaeythuea ia?aiao?u.

2 iniiaiua iiaenenoaiu :

noauaeo oi?aaeaiey (NO)

iauaeo oi?aaeaiey (IO)

Aeaeu NO :

NO i?ia?aiiiua eee aeanoeea – aaeeinoaaiiay i?yiay naycue iaaeaeo NO e
IO, ii eioi?ie iinooiatho oi?aaeythuea aicaeaenoaey, iaycaoaeueiua e
eniieiaieth.

Aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiiaiaeiay NO e iaoiaeu

?aaoee?oaiay NO – eniieuecoao eioi?iaoeeth i ?aaeoeee iauaeoa ia
oi?aaeaiea.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiua e yeiiiie/aneea iaoiaeu; aeeth/aao eioa?anu ethaeae.

Naii?aaoee?othuea NO.

?aaoee?iaaiea aac aiaoaoaeuenoaa aiaoieo nee.

Aaeaioeaiua NO – ioe?uoua nenoaiu; IO iiaeaa?aeai aiciouathuaio
aicaeaenoaeth; NO – auoanoiyuee. Ana aianoa iae?in?aaea.

Aii?in 3 : I?eioeeiu nouanoaiaaiey e ?aaiou NO.

I?eioeeiu io?aaeatho iauaeoeaii i?enouea NO caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey.

I?eioeeiu aeaenoaey NO :

i?eioeei ia?aoiie nayce – ia?aoiia aicaeaenoaea ?acoeueoaoia oi?aaeaiey
nenoaiu ia i?ioeann yoiai oi?aaeaiey, o.a. eniieueciaaiea eioi?iaoeee,
iinooiathuae io iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey.

Ia?aoiay naycue iiaeao auoue aeaaiie aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae ianoiie.

Io?eoeaoaeueiay e iieiaeeoaeueiay ia?aoiay naycue.

Iineaaeiyy oneeeaaao aeaenoaea auoiaeiiai neaiaea, o.a. eiaao n iei
iaeeiaeiaue ciae; ia?aay – ineaaeyao aoiaeiie neaiae. Iieiaeeoaeueiay
naycue oooaeoaao iieiaeaiea nenoaiu. Io?eoeaoaeueiay naycue niinianoaoao
ainnoaiiaeaieth ?aaiiaaney i?e aai ia?ooaiee aiciouathueie
aicaeaenoaeyie. Anee ?acoeueoao ia auoiaea nenoaiu iaiueoa, /ai
o?aaoaony, oi aeie ?aaoee?iaaiey iiaeaao neaiae, oaaee/eaathuee
eioaineaiinoue i?ioeanna; anee ?acoeueoao aieueoa yoaeiia, oi
oi?aaeythuee i?ioeann caoi?iiceony.

i?eioeei aiaoiaai aeiiieiaiey – i?e oi?aaeaiee aieueoie nenoaiie
iaiaoiaeeiu “iaoi?iaeueiua” ei??aeoe?iaee ?aoaiee; iieo/aiiua ec
iiaeaeae (a i?yioth naycue aienuaaaony aiaoiaa aeiiieiaiea).

Iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii.

caeii iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aciiia?acey – ?aciiia?acea oi?aaeythuae nenoaiu
aeieaeii auoue ia iaiueoa ?aciiia?acey iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey – ii?aaeaeyao
o?aaiaaiey e ecae?aoaeueiinoe oi?aaeythuae nenoaiu, iaoneiaeaiiua oai
oiaiueoaieai ?aciiia?acey iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii aeey
yooaeoeaiiai oi?aaeaiey, o.a. naaaeaiea iiiaeanoaa ninoiyiee nenoaiu e
iiaeiiiaeanoao, aeeth/athuaio eeoue ninoiyiey, iioeiaeueiua ii
ioiioaieth e oeaee oi?aaeaiey.

i?eioeei /a?iiai yueea – i?aaenoaaeaiea nenoaiu a aeaea iaeiaai iauaeoa
(“/a?iiai yueea”), i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie, i?e ianoiyuai o?iaia ciaiee,
iauaeo n iaiiciaiiuie aioo?aiieie no?oeoo?ie e i?aaiecaoeeae. Iaeiaei
iiaeii eco/aoue yoio iauaeo ii eciaiaieyi iaaeaeo aoiaeaie e auoiaeaie
nenoaiu.

Aeaeu eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeae :

1. eiiieaena eioi?iaoeeiiiuo caaea/

caaea/e

caaea/e 1 2 3

1

+

2

3 +

(

Iao?eoea acaeiinayce caaea/

2. iiaeaee ioaeaeueiuo ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoai (acaeiinaycue
iiaenenoai)

Iao?e/ii-eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue iicaieyao :

ii?aaeaeeoue iiuiinoue e /enei ?acee/iuo iioieia eioi?iaoeee

noaiaiue acaeiinayce iieacaoaeae e aeieoiaioia

aaiaeiua e auoiaeiua iieacaoaee

Eaeoeey 3 25.02.97

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay iiaeaeue yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu

e aa iacia/aiea a i?ioeanna ENO

4 caaea/e iino?iaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee :

ii?aaeaeaiea no?oeoo?u eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia e naycae nenoaiu

ii?aaeaeaiea ia?ae/iie (enoiaeiie) eioi?iaoeee e aa enoi/ieeia

ii?aaeaeaiea acaeiinaycae, caaea/ oi?aaeaiey

ii?aaeaeaiea ?acoeueoaoiie eioi?iaoeee e aa enoi/ieeia

Iino?iaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee – i?ioeann iiaeaee?iaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

Iaoiaeu iiaeaee?iaaiey :

a?aoi-aiaeeoe/aneea

iao?e/iua

Iino?iaiea iao?e/iie iiaeaee ENO.

I. Ii?aaeaeaiea nienea eee ia?a/iy ?aoaaiuo caaea/ a aeaiiii
ooieoeeiiaeueiii caaia.

II. Ii?aaeaeaiea i?ei?eoaoiinoe caaea/ e eo ioia?aoeee.

U – caaea/e, i?aaeoanoaothuea ?aoaieth caaea/ V V

1 2,3

2 3

3 4,8

4 5,8

5 6

6 7

7 8,9

8 10

III. Iino?iaiea enoiaeiiai a?aoa ?aoaiey caaea/.

IV. Iino?iaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie, eaaae?aoiie, aa?oiae o?aoaieueiie
iao?eoeu.

V

0 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1e neie

0 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2e neie

0 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 3e neie

0 1 1 1 2 1 1 4e neie

0 1 1 1 1 1 5e neie

0 1 1 1 1 6e neie

0 1 1 1 7e neie

0 0 1 8e neie

0 9e neie

V. Iino?iaiea a?aoa caaea/ ii iaoiaeo (aeai?eoio) Aeaioe?iia (?).

1e neie 2eneie 3eneie 4e neie 5e neie 6e neie 7e neie 8e neie 9e neie

Iao?eoea A=[auv] no?ieony oae :

| auv | = 1, anee iaaeaeo aa?oeiaie anoue naycue

| auv | = 0, anee naycue ionoonoaoao

Oneiaea iino?iaiey – ionoonoaea caieioouo eiioo?ia (aa?oeiu ia aeieaeiu
eiaoue “i?aaeeia” a iineaaeothueo neiyo).

Anee ii u-ie no?iea noiia (auv ii V = [1; n] ?aaiyaony ioeth, oi u-ue
iieacaoaeue i?eiaaeeaaeeo e enoiaeiui aeaiiui.

Anee aeey u = v (auv = 0, oi u-y aa?oeia e ?anniao?eaaaiiio a?aoo ia
i?eiaaeeaaeeo, o.a. eiaaony ioeaea i?e iino?iaiee a?aoa.

?acaeaaiea ia neie iaoiaeii Aeaioe?iia :

au/eoatho no?iee, niioaaonoaothuea noieaoeai, a eioi?uo yoa noiia
?aaia 0.

ec inoaaoeony noii ii noieaoeai au/eoathony no?iee, ii niioaaonoaothuei
noieaoeai eioi?uo, iieo/eeny 0 iinea ia?aiai au/eoaiey.

iiia? neiy ii?aaeaeyao ii?yaeie yoaia ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee.

A?aoi-aiaeeoe/aneay iiaeaeue iicaieyao :

ii?aaeaeeoue iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?iaeoe?iaaiey e aiaae?aiey caaea/ NO
e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoai

i/a?aaeiinoue ?aoaiey caaea/ n o/aoii i/a?aaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
i?iiaaeooi/iie eioi?iaoeee

ii?aaeaeeoue iaiaoiaeeioth ia?ae/ioth eioi?iaoeeth ia aoiaea nenoaiu e
iaeaieaa ?aoeeiiaeueiue ninoaa ?aeaeceoia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ianneaia

ia?a/aiue e niaea?aeaiea i?iiaaeooi/iuo ianneaia, enoiaey ec
eiiieaeniiai ?aoaiey caaea/ NO

ii?yaeie nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ianneaia i?e iiyoaiiii aiaae?aiee
iiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee (aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeai)

onoaiiaeoue /enei aiciiaeiuo iooae, naycuaathueo aeaa ethaua iieacaoaey
eee caaea/e

onoaiiaeoue /enei iooae oeene?iaaiiie aeeeiu

onoaiiaeoue /enei yoaiia, a oa/aiea eioi?uo ?acoeueoaou ?aoaiey caaea/
iaiaoiaeeii nio?aieoue a aaca aeaiiuo eee a iaiyoe YAI

eniieueciaaoue i?e enneaaeiaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee i?aaei?eyoey
aeey auyaeaiey iaioaeiuo, aeoaee?othueo iioieia eioi?iaoeee

oeo/oeoue niaea?aeaiea eioi?iaoeee a aeieoiaioao

aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iooai niiinoaaeaiey enneaaeiaaoue ea/anoai
ooieoeeiie?oaiie NO e i?iaeoe?oaiie NO.

Eaeoeey 6 11.03.97

?ieue eioi?iaoeee a oiaiueoaiee iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe

i?e i?eiyoee oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee

Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey – neooaoeey, eiaaea iieiinoueth
eee /anoe/ii ionoonoaoao eioi?iaoeey i aiciiaeiuo ninoiyieyo iauaeoa
(nenoaiu) oi?aaeaiey e aiaoiae n?aaeu.

Iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue naycaia n aiciiaeiie iai?aaeneacoaiinoueth oao eee
eiuo yaeaiee, aa?iyoiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee eioi?uo iaecaanoiu.

(yio?iiey)

Pn – aa?iyoiinoue k-ai ninoiyiey nenoaiu.

Iieiay yio?iiey – ooieoeey io ia/aeueiie yio?iiee nenoaiu,
oa?aeoa?ecothuaeny ia/aeueiui eiee/anoaii eioi?iaoeee i n?aaea aa
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e i nenoaia, e io eiee/anoaa eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia
iiaeii iieo/eoue a oiaea ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu.

O – a?aiy au?aaioee ?aoaiey.

Yi = Yi +Yii + Yino Yi ( I=0

Yii – oaeouay yio?iiey

Yino – inoaoi/iay yio?iiey

Yi = Yi + Yii + Yino

( ( ( (

Ii = Ii(i?) + Iii + Iino

Ii? – ia/aeueiia, ieieiaeueii iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee
(ii?iaiaia), eioi?ia iaiaoiaeeii aeey i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey.

Ii?aae – i?aaeaeueiia eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeee, iieo/aiiia ca a?aiy O e
i?e oaaee/aiee eioi?iai iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue i?eiyoey ?aoaiey ia aoaeao
oiaiueoaoueny, a oaaee/eaaoueny.

Ii – ia?ae/iay e aoi?e/iay eioi?iaoeey, iaeiieaiiay aeey ia/aea
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey.

I?e/eiu iaiieiiou ia?ae/iie eioi?iaoeee :

iaeiiiaoaioiinoue iaiaaeaea?a

iaiieiioa eioi?iaoeee i aiaoiae n?aaea

ianiaa?oainoai ia?ae/iuo aac aeaiiuo

iaaeinoaoi/iua n?aaenoaa ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee

noauaeoeaiua oaeoi?u

Iii – ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue aioo?aiiae iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe iia?aoeaiie
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoeee i oaeoueo oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeeyo a
ooieoeeiie?othuae nenoaia (aooaaeoa?neay, noaoenoe/aneay,
iia?aoeaii-eaeaiaea?iiai o/aoa).

Iaiieiioa Iii ii?iaeaeaao iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay aeeyao ia Ii.
I?e/eiu iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe Iii : ia?aua 5 + aioo?aiiyy i?aaiecaoeey
?aaio, i?aaiecaoeey eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo nenoaiaie.

Iino – iiaeao auoue ?aaia Ye, ii ia anaaaea, – eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay
eiiiaine?oao iaaeinoaoie Ii e Iii oaeeie iaoiaeaie, eae yenia?oiua,
eiooeoeaiua, iaoiaeu, iaoiaeu i?eaea/aiey e aeaiiie caaea/a aiaoieo
eiinoeueoaioia.

Enneaaeiaaiea oi?aaeai/aneie eioi?iaoeee

iaoiaeii aa oi?iaeecaoeee.

Ieai.

O?aaiaaiey e oeaee oi?iaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeee.

Iaoiaeu oi?iaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeee.

Aiaeec no?oeoo?u eioi?iaoeee.

Ecia?aiea eioi?iaoeee, eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec eioi?iaoeee.

Iaoiaeu oiaiueoaiey ?aciiia?acey nenoai oi?aaeaiey iooai eciaiaiey
eiee/anoaa eioi?iaoeee.

Aii?in 1 : O?aaiaaiey e oeaee oi?iaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeee.

I?ioeann oi?iaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeee – iienaiea niaea?aeaoaeueiie
(naiaioe/aneie) eioi?iaoeee oi?iaeueiuie n?aaenoaaie, a /anoiinoe,
iienaiea i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe (nenoaiu) e aa naienoa iooai iaai?a
iieacaoaeae, ia?aiao?ia, o.a. ia?aaiae eioi?iaoeee ec aa eiae/aneiai
i?aaenoaaeaiey a oece/aneia.

I?ioeann oi?iaeecaoeee iaiaoiaeei aeey :

aiaeeca no?oeoo?u e iauaia eioi?iaoeee, oee?eoee?othuae a nenoaia

auyaeaiea eceeoeia eioi?iaoeee

ecaaaeaiea io aeoaee?iaaiey

naeaoea eioi?iaoeee

nieaeaiea o?oaeiaieinoe

O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e oi?iaeecaoeee :

ieieiaeueiay ecauoi/iinoue

eniieueciaaiea aeey iaeneiaeueiiai /enea i?eeiaeaiee eee caaea/

iacaaeneiinoue io i?ia?aiiu ia?aaioee

aeinoiaa?iinoue aeaiiuo

nae?aoiinoue eioi?iaoeee

caueoa io eneaaeaiey e oie/oiaeaiey

ieieiaeueiay noieiinoue ia?aaioee

niiniaiinoue e ?acaeoeth e aaeaioaoeee

Aii?in 2 : Iaoiaeu oi?iaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeee.

I. Eeanneoeeaoeey eioi?iaoeee – eiae/aneay iia?aoeey, eioi?ay
caeeth/aaony a ?ani?aaeaeaiee yeaiaioia ?anniao?eaaaiiai iiiaeanoaa ii
iiaeiiiaeanoaai, eeannai ia iniiaaiee iauaai i?eciaea eee a?oiiu
i?eciaeia.

Iaoiaea eeanneoeeaoeee :

ea?a?oe/aneay eeanneoeeaoeey – no?ieony aeaaeoeoeaii, eiaaea
iiae?acaeaeaiey aunoaai eeanna niaea?aeao iaia?anaeathueany iaaeaeo
niaie eeannu iecoaai ii?yaeea.

Iaeneiaeueiia eiee/anoai yeaiaioia, eioi?ua n/eoathony ii iecoei
nooiaiyi – aieinoue ea?a?oe/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee.

Iieacaoaeue caiieiaiiinoe eeanneoeeaoi?a :

R – oaeoe/aneia eiee/anoai eeanneoeoee?iaaiiuo a?oiie?iaie

E – aieinoue ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaiu eeanneoeeaoeee

L = E -R – ?aca?a aeaiiiai eeanneoeeaoi?a

oanaoiay eeanneoeeaoeey – a iniiaa eaaeeo oanaoiue aiaeec eioi?iaoeee
eee auyaeaiea iniiaiuo naienoa eaoaai?ee iauaeoia.

Eaaeaeue oa?iei (?) oanaoa anoue oieon. Oanaou iiaoo auoue ?acaeou ia
noaoanaou.

iie aic?ano i?ioanney iaoeeiiaeueiinoue niaoeeaeueiinoue

i?ioanney niaoeeaeueiinoue aic?ano iie iaoeeiiaeueiinoue

Eeanneoeeaoeey iicaieyao : aa?aae?iaaoue aeaiiua i?e ia?aoiaea io
yeaiaioia e a?oiiai; oii?yaei/eoue iiiaeanoai iauaeoia; oi?inoeoue
i?ioeann aiaeeca e enneaaeiaaiey.

II. Eiaee?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee – i?enaiaiea neiaieueiuo iaicia/aiee
iaeioi?ui iauaeoai eioi?iaoeee.

Eaeoeey 7 18.03.97

Aeaeu eiaeia :

Ii?yaeeiaue

Na?eeiue

Iiceoeeiiiue (ii?ac?yaeiue)

Aii?in 3 : Aiaeec no?oeoo?u eioi?iaoeee.

Aiaeec no?oeoo?u eioi?iaoeee iaiaoiaeei iaiaaeaea?o aeey nicaeaiey
iioeiaeueiie aacu aeaiiuo aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee.

Oeaeue no?oeoo?ecaoeee – ecia?aiea iauaia eioi?iaoeee. Aaeeieoea
yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee – eioi?iaoeeiiiay niaieoiiinoue – a?oiia
aeaiiuo, naycaiiuo iaeiie iauae oi?iie e oa?aeoa?ecothueo iaeio
nouiinoue.

Niiauaiea – ninoiyuay ec iaeieo ?aeaeceoia eioi?iaoeeiiiay
niaieoiiinoue.

iniiaaiea ?aeaeceou

Aii?in 4 : Ecia?aiea eioi?iaoeee, eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec
eioi?iaoeee.

Ecia?aiea eioi?iaoeee inouanoaeyaony :

ii oi?iai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo niaieoiiinoae

ii niaea?aeaieth, iaoo?aeueiiio iauaio – iiaen/eouaaaony /enei cia/aiee
ii oie eee eiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie niaieoiiinoe, /enei yeaiaioia ianneaa,
/enei iiceoeee, /enei aeaie/iuo ?ac?yaeia eee /enei io?iei-a?ao (?).

Ana eioi?iaoeeiiiua niaieoiiinoe aeaeyony ia iiiaieeaoo?u –
oieaa?naeueiua iiiaeanoaa, aeeth/athuea ana cia/aiey aeaiiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie niaieoiiinoe.

Ianneau – iiaeiiiaeanoai eee a?oiiu /anoiuo cia/aiee iieiuo
iiiaieeaoo?.

N = mn

N – /enei aiciiaeiuo ioia?aaeaaiuo ninoiyiee eee iauai eioi?iaoeee a
neiaieao

m – iniiaaiea nenoaiu n/eneaiey

n – /enei ?ac?yaeia niiauaiee

Eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue aiaeec eioi?iaoeee i?aaeoniao?eaaao aa
aiaeec ii noaaeeueiinoe, ii neiaeiinoe, ii ianniainoe, ii i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu.

Ii noaaeeueiinoe :

iinoiyiiay – eiyooeoeeaio noaaeeueiinoe kno>=0.95

nt – /enei iaeciaiiuo ca a?aiy t iiceoeee a iiiaieeaoo?a

ni – /enei iiceoeee a iiiaieeaoo?a

ia?aiaiiay

5 a?oii iinoiyiiie eioi?iaoeee :

ii?iaoeaii-?anoeaii/iay eioi?iaoeey

eioi?iaoeey, aeathuay i?ecia/ioth ioeaieo iauaeoa

eioi?iaoeey i no?oeoo?iii ninoaaa iauaeoa eee yaeaiey

eioi?iaoeey i iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?ioeannia

ca?aiaa au/eneaiiua ?acoeueoaou caaeaiiuo caaeneiinoae

Ii neiaeiinoe : eiyooeoeeaio neiaeiinoe

nin – /enei iia?aoi?ia eee eiiaiae ?aai/ae i?ia?aiiu

noi?i – /enei oi?i i?iecaiaeiuo iieacaoaeae

Eiyooeoeeaio o?ainoi?iaoeee :

neno – /enei enoiaeiuo aeey ?an/aoa aeaiiuo

n?ac – /enei ?acoeueoaoiuo iieacaoaeae

Eiyooeoeeaio ianniainoe :

niau – iauaa /enei iieacaoaeae ii aeaiiiio ?an/aoo

najhv – iauaa /enei oi?i iieacaoaeae a yoii ?an/aoa

*ai auoa kian , oai auaiaeiaa eiiiuethoa?ecaoeey.

I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue eioi?iaoeee :

Oia? – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ia?eiaea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee (aeaiue,
iaaeaey, aeaeaaea, ianyoe, aiae).

Aii?in 5 : Iaoiaeu oiaiueoaiey ?aciiia?acey nenoai oi?aaeaiey iooai
eciaiaiey eiee/anoaa eioi?iaoeee.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?u ii oiaiueoaieth eioi?iaoeee :

no?oeoo?iua

ieaie?iaaiea

i?aaiecaoeeiiiua

No?oeoo?iua :

?acoe?oiiaiea oe?i : iaaeinoaoie – iioa?y neia?aecia oe?iu

niaoeeaeecaoeey : iaaeinoaoie – iioa?y neia?aecia ?uiea

ia?aaea/a iieiiii/ee aiec : iaaeinoaoie – ioeeiiaiea io ioaaonoaaiiinoe

anaiauay aiaea/aiiinoue a i?ioeann i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

Ieaie?iaaiea :

e?aoein?i/iia ieaie?iaaiea – iioa?y aeaeueiiaeaeiinoe e i?aainoaaiiinoe

aeieain?i/iia ieaie?iaaiea – iioa?y oaeouae eioi?iaoeee

aeaoaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?u :

oi?aaeaiea ii eneeth/eoaeueiui ia?ai

aeanoeia aaeieieno?e?iaaiea

?aaecee

oaieueiaiey

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?u oaaee/aiey ?aciiia?acey :

no?oeoo?iua

eaae?iaua

eioi?iaoeeiiiua

No?oeoo?iua :

iauaaeeiaiea ?aai/eo a?oii aeey iaiaia ciaieyie : oaaee/aiea io/aoiinoe
e oooaeoaiea aa ea/anoaa

?aaioa /a?ac iiiiuieeia

?anoe?aiea anni?oeiaioa – ia?aiai?yaeaiea

Eaae?iaua :

iaei oi?aaeythueo

iaai yenia?oia-eiinoeueoaioia – ?anoao oaiaeaioeeiciinoue e
aacioaaonoaaiiinoue

Eioi?iaoeeiiiua :

eiioa?aioeee

oeo/oaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu ?oeiaiaenoaa

i?aeoeea ioe?uouo aeaa?ae

Eaeoeey 8 27.03.97

Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey nenoai oi?aaeaiey.

Ieai.

Eeanneoeeaoeey iaoiaeia a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaaiuie caaea/aie.

O/ao caeiiiia?iinoae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey nenoai i?e auai?a
iaoiaeia eo aiaeeca.

E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey neiaeiuo nenoai.

Aii?in 1 : Eeanneoeeaoeey iaoiaeia a niioaaonoaee n ?aoaaiuie caaea/aie.

Aeey auai?a iaoiaea aiaeeca nouanoaoao ianeieueei i?ioeaaeo? :

I. Eeanneoeeaoeey caaea/ a NO, i?eiaieoaeueii e eioi?ui auae?aaony
iaoiae; a?oiie?iaea caae/ i?ienoiaeeo :

a ?aieao IO :

caaea/e neioaca

caaea/e aiaeeca

a ?aieao nenoai oi?aaeaiey

caaea/e oi?aaeaiey (a oii /enea oi?aaeaiea neioacii e aiaeecii)

Caaea/e neioaca :

Ii?aaeaeaiea o?aaiaaiee e iaoa?eaeueii aauanoaaiiui auoiaeai nenoaiu

X ( OI ( I/auoiae

eae aeieaeia ooieoeeiie?iaaoue nenoaia, /oiau ia auoiaea iieo/eoue
ii?aaeaeaiiue iaoa?eaeueiue iioie

ii?aaeaeaiea no?oeoo?u e aeeiaieee iauaeoa, ?aaeecothuaai yoe o?aaiaaiey

ii?aaeaeaiea yeaiaioia, iioieia, naycuaathueo yoe no?oeoo?u

ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoeo yeaiaioia

ii?aaeaeaiea niiniaia eiio?iey e ei??aeoe?iaee auiieiaiey aeaiiui
iauaeoii aeaiiuo ooieoeee

Caaea/e aiaeeca :

auyaeaiea yeaiaioia iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey e eo naienoa

aiaeec oa?aeoa?enoee yeaiaioia e naycae iaaeaeo ieie

auyaeaiea no?oeoo?u e aeeiaieee iauaeoa a oeaeii eae aaeeaoeaiie (?)
neia?ae/aneie nenoaiu (ninoiyuae ec iiiaeo yeaiaioia, ii nenoaia ia
anoue noiia yoeo yeaiaioia)

Caaea/e oi?aaeaiey :

au?aaioea oi?aaeythueo aicaeaenoaee

i?aaiecaoeey i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey

II. Eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai, aeey eioi?uo eniieuecothony yoe iaoiaeu ( 3
a?oiiu nenoai :

oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiiay nenoaia (aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiay, onoie/eaay, aeanoeay)

ieioi i?aaieciaaiiay nenoaia (nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea nenoaiu) eee aeeooociua (?aciuoua) nenoaiu
(a neeo naiae ioe?uoinoe)

naiii?aaiecothueany nenoaiu (aeieiae/aneea)

Eeanneoeeaoeey iaoiaeia ENO :

IAEN – iaoiaeu aeoeaecaoeey eiooeoeee e iiuoa niaoeeaeenoia (oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe)

IION – iaoiaeu oi?iaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey nenoai

eiiieaeniua iaoiaeu – eniieuecotho yeaiaiou e IAEN e IION

IAEN (aeey ieioi i?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai) :

iicaiaay aoaea

ii?oieiae/aneee aiaeec

iaoiae aiaeiaee

noeaia?iue iaoiae

no?oeoo?ecaoeey (aea?aai oeaeae, a?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu, naoaaua iiaeaee)

iaoiae Aeaeueoe

iaoiae ?aoathueo iao?eoe

yenia?oiua iaoiaeu

IION :

aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu (iaoiaeu iaoaiaoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey,
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea, iaoiae ea?, enneaaeiaaiea iia?aoeee e ae?.)

noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu (i?eiaiythony e oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiiui nenoaiai,
eioi?ua eiatho /aoeea caaeneiinoe; aeey ieioi i?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai)

oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiua (oai?ey iiiaeanoa) iaoiaeu

eiae/aneea (aeaaa?a Aoey)

eeiaaenoe/aneea (ycuee)

naieioe/aneea iaoiaeu

a?aoe/aneea (eiatho eiee/anoaaiiua iaoiaeu ia?aaioee a?aoia)

Eiiieaeniua iaoiaeu :

eiiaeiaoi?eea (niaaeeiyao (1) e (3) ec IION)

eiieoaoeeiiiia, aeeiaie/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea ( (1) e (7) ec IION, a
oaeaea iaeioi?ua iaoiaeu IAEN)

no?oeoo?ii-eeiaaenoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea (aeeth/aao ineoieiae/aneea
iiiaiou)

a?aoi-naieioe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea (i?ia?aiia ia eiiiuethoa?a,
yenia?oiua iaoiaeu)

Yoaiu auai?a iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey neiaeiuo nenoai :

eeanneoeeaoeey nenoai e ioianaiea enneaaeoaiie e ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeanno

auaeaeaiea caaea/ a ?aieao enneaaeoaiie nenoaiu e ioianaiea eo e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio eeanno, au?aaioea oi?aaeai/aneeo aicaeaenoaee

auaeaeaiea anao naycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie e oeaeyie nenoaiu a aeaea
aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo eee aiaeeoe/aneeo caaeneiinoae (anee auaeaeeee
caaeneiinoe, oi iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu)

ioia?aaeaiea iaeaieaa cia/eiuo yeaiaioia e eo naienoa (aieaa oaeoaeaiiay
ia?aaioea aeey auai?a oeaeae), o.a. ?aeaaaioiuo oaeoi?ia (iaeaieaa
iiaeoiaeyueo aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiuo caaea/, aeinoeaeaiey eiie?aoiuo
oeaeae)

auai? iaoiaea, aaeaeaaoiiai iaoaio eeanno caaea/, eeanno nenoai
(iinoaaeaiiie caaea/a, aua?aiiie nenoaia) e oaeoi?ai, aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiui
caaeneiinoyi

Aii?in 2 : O/ao caeiiiia?iinoae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey nenoai i?e
auai?a iaoiaeia eo aiaeeca.

Iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e auai?a
iaoiaeia :

oeaeaiai?aaeaiiinoue (caeanue eniieuecothony iaoiaeu no?oeoo?ecaoeee)

oeaeinoiinoue (yia?aeaeaioiinoue) – nenoaia iaaaeeaoeaia – ia noiia
ea/anoa ninoaaeythueo aa yeaiaioia

eioaa?aoeaiinoue (ethaay nenoaia ?acaeaaaony, iie?aynue ia naith
i?aaeunoi?eth, i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiay naycue aeieaeia auoue /aoei
ioi?ieaia)

eiiioieeaoeaiinoue (au?aaeaaony iaee/eai nayce iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie
nenoaiu : /ai ieioiaa e eo/oa au?aaeaia naycue, oai eo/oa ooieoeeiie?oao
nenoaia)

ea?a?oe/aneay oii?yaei/aiiinoue, oa?aeoa?iay aeey nenoai oi?aaeaiey.
Naienoai aeaoeeeiai ssiona : eaaeaeue yeaiaio nenoaiu yaeyaony oeaeueth
e n?aaenoaii (anee ?anniao?eaaoue ea?a?oe/aneoth nenoaio). Eaaeaeay
nenoaiu yaeyaony yeaiaioii aieaa oe?ieie nenoaiu.

yeaeoeiaeueiinoue (i?aaeneacoaiinoue ninoiyiey nenoaiu) – ianiio?y ia
aiaoiaa aeeyiea nenoaia ia ia aueaeao ec naiaai oaciaiai i?ino?ainoaa.

iioaioeeaeueiay yooaeoeaiinoue Oeaeoiaia (yooaeoeaiinoue nenoaiu caaeneo
io yooaeoeaiinoe aa ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia; iaeuecy iino?ieoue
yooaeoeaioth nenoaio ec iayooaeoeaiuo yeaiaioia) – iao oi?ioae yeiiiieee
aac eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo eaae?ia, eaieoaea e o.ae.

i?eioeei ?aeo?neaiinoe (ii?aaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie nayce iaaeaeo
yeiiiie/aneeie yaeaieyie e iauaeoaie, i?e eioi?ie ynii, aaea i?e/eia, a
aaea neaaenoaea)

i?eioeei ?aciiia?acey – yoi i?aaeiao e niaea?aeaiea nia?aiaiiie oai?ee
oi?aaeaiey (oiaiueoaiea ?aciiia?acey, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe – i?ioeann
oi?aaeaiey)

Aii?in 1 : E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaeia enneaaeiaaiey neiaeiuo
nenoai.

I. Iicaiaay aoaea. A iniiao aa i?iaaaeaiey caeiaeaiu neaaeothuea
i?aaeiinueee :

aicieeiiaaieth iiaaoi?neeo eaeae i?aiyonoaotho eiio?ieueiua iaoaieciu
niciaiey (i?e iau/iii ianoaeaeaiee)

iioie eaeae neiauaaaony iiaeaaeaieai noa?aioeiiuo oi?i i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

i?eaeiaeueiua eaeae ?iaeaeathony a i?ioeanna iiaoaeaeaiey e naiaiaeiui
annioeeaoeeyi

Aeaa yoaia :

Ianoaeaeaiea i?iaeaiu, caienue ia iaaieoioii (45 ieioo)

Ioeaiea eaeae iooai i?ineooeaaiey caiene (eee i?iniio?a): onoaiiaeaiea
ei??aeyoeeiiiuo naycae iaaeaeo iiaieyie; auai? i?ia?aiiu aeaenoaee

Iniiaiay neiaeiinoue – iaania/aiea aeaaii?eyoiie ianoaiiaee.

II. Noeaia?iue iaoiae – iaoiae ?aaeecaoeee neooaoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea o
i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee. Aace?oaony ia eoa?aoeaiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
iino?iaiey noeaia?eaa n oeaeueth auai?a iiaeoiaeyuae aeueoa?iaoeau
oi?aaeaiey.

I?eioeeiu, eaaeauea a iniiaa iaoiaea :

i?eioeei iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ?ac?aoaiey iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe (eoa?aoeaiue
i?ioeann)

i?eioeei niaea?aeaoaeueiiai e oi?iaeueiiai iienaiey iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey

Niaea?aeaoaeueiia iienaiea – o?acaie, iau/iui ycueii (ia oi?iaeecoaony,
oioy anoue eaeea-oi oi?iaeueiua yeaiaiou – oeaeue oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu;
aa i?eioeeiu; caeiiiia?iinoe, ia?aiao?u, oaeoi?u).

Oi?iaeueiia iienaiea – ii?aaeaeaiea aeaaony oi?iaeueiui ycueii (yoi
iiaeao auoue iaoaiaoe/aneee aiia?ao).

i?eioeei enneaaeiaaiey noeaia?eaa a ?acaeoee.

Oeaeue iaoiaea – iieo/aiea iao/ii iainiiaaiiiai i?iaiica aeey i?eiyoey
oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee.

Noeaia?ee – yoi aeiioaoe/aneay ea?oeia iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey ai
a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa niauoee, ninoaaeythueo yaiethoeeth iauaeoia
oi?aaeaiey.

Aeey iino?iaiey noeaia?eaa iia?e?otho neaaeothueie iiiyoeyie :

aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea oaeoi?u :

aioo?aiiea oaeoi?u – aioo?aiiyy no?oeoo?a nenoaiu, acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
aa yeaiaioaie, caeiiiia?iinoe aa ?acaeoey

aiaoiea oaeoi?u – acaeiiaeaenoaea nenoaiu n nenoaiie aieaa oe?ieiai
eeanna (iae?i- e iee?in?aaeie)

noeaia?iua ia?aiao?u – yoi iai?aaeneacoaiua oaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia
nenoaio

ia?aie/aiea (eaaeaeay nenoaia iaoiaeeony a ?aieao, ia?aie/eaathueo aa
ninoiyiea – yeaeoeiaeueiinoue) :

anoanoaaiiua (iaoneiaeaiiua i?e?iaeiie n?aaeie, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeony
nenoaia, iai?eia?, eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey e o.ae.)

ii?iaoeaiua (naycaiiua n i?aaiaie n?aaeie e anaaiciiaeiuie ii?iaie
iiaaaeaiey – eoeueoo?a, iau/ae, o?aaeeoeee, ii?aeue, ?aeeaey,
i?aanoaaiiinoue)

eiaeeeaoi? noeaia?ey – yoi e?eoe/iue e i?aaeaeueiui ninoiyieyi iauaeoa
oi?aaeaiey ia?aiao?. Yoi ia?aiao?, eioi?ue ia?aie/eaaao ninoiyiea
nenoaiu ii eaeei-oi ii?aaeaeaiiui iai?aaeaieyi (eaeie ii?ia iaeuecy
ia?aoiaeeoue, /oiau ia aucaaoue ?ac?ooaiea nenoaiu).

I?ioeaaeo?a noeaia?iiai iaoiaea – yoi ii?aaeaeaiea aa?aioe?iaaiiiai
i?iaiica, o.a. a?aieoe, ca eioi?ua ?acaeoea nenoaiu aueoe ia iiaeao ii
iauaeoeaiui i?e/eiai. O.a. yoi iino?iaiea o?oaee i?iaiica.

I?ioeaaeo?a :

caaeathony iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiua cia/aiey ia?aiao?ia oao oaeoi?ia,
eioi?ua iieiaeeoaeueii aeeytho ia ?acaeoea nenoaiu, e ieieiaeueiua
cia/aiey oao oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua i?aiyonoaoth aa ?acaeoeth, e a yoeo
oneiaeyo auae?athony “eaeaaeueiia” ec aeiionoeiuo oi?aaeaiea e
niioaaonoaothuaa aio ninoiyiea nenoaiu. Yoa i?ioeaaeo?a iacuaaaony
“ii?aaeaeaiea iioaioeeaea nenoaiu”. Iaeneioi – yoi iaeneiaeueii oi?ioaa.
Aa?iyoiinoue iaoiaeaeaiey nenoaiu a a?aie/aueo ninoiyieyo (max e min)
aeecea e ioeth.

ieieiece?oaony aeaenoaea iieiaeeoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia e iaeneiece?oaony
aeaenoaea io?eoeaoaeueiuo, o.a. ii?aaeaeyaony ieaeiee i?aaeae ?acaeoey
nenoaiu.

A yoii ei?eaei?a iiaeii iieo/eoue iaeaieaa aa?iyoiia ninoiyiea nenoaiu
e iai?aaeoue oneeey ia iiaeaea?aeaiea yoiai ninoiyiey.

Iniiaiie iaaeinoaoie – “o?oaea” i/aiue oe?iea; caaea/a aa?iyoiinoiiai
oa?aeoa?a (i?eiaiythony aa?iyoiinoiua iaoiaeeee).

Eaeoeey 9 01.04.97

Iniiaiua /a?ou IAEN :

annioeeaoeaiinoue iuoeaiey

ianoa?aioeiiinoue iuoeaiey (aeieaeiu ioiaoiooueny io noa?aioeiia)

iao?eaeaeueiinoue iuoeaiey (i?eaeiaeueiinoue)

?ane?aiiuaiiinoue

Yoe iaoiaeu i?eiaiythony a i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao (eee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao), aeey ieioi i?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai
(iiiaineieiuo nenoai, o.e. iie ieioi oi?aayaiu).

eiooeoeey (anee anoue iniiaa – e?eoe/aneay ianna ciaiee – oi eiooeoeey
?aciaueaony)

IION – naycue n aiaoiei ie?ii ia?aie/aia a nenoaiao, oi?ioi
i?aaieciaaiiua nenoaiu :

III. Aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu – i?iaeoe?otho nenoaio, naienoaa eioi?ie
iienuaathony a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi/ae a i?ino?ainoaa e ai a?aiaie.

Naienoaa nenoaia iienuaatho a aeaea aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo aaee/ei
(ii?aaeaeaiiuo).

Iniiao iaoiaeia ninoaaeytho iiiyoey eeanne/aneie iaoaiaoeee.

Yoi ooieoeeiiaeueiua caaeneiinoe :

i?yiua (ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea)

ia?aaieu (yaeaiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a)

a, b – eiyooeoeeaiou, ?ann/eoaiiua

n iiiiuueth noaoenoe/aneie

eioi?iaoeee.

Cao?aou – ia?aaiee/aneea e?eaua.

noaiaiiay ooieoeey (aeey iienaiey eioaineaii ?acaeaathueony i?ioeannia,
ia/aeueiuo yoaiia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea ecaeaeey)

iieacaoaeueiay ooieoeey (caiaaeeyao i?ioeann)

Iniiaa aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia a yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao – ?aa?anneiiiia
o?aaiaiea.

I – oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou :

I = 94 + 0.0022*X1 + 195.4*X2 + 0.03*X3 + 0.5*X4

Yoi /anoiue neo/ae ia i?aaei?eyoeyo yeaeo?iiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

X1 – oiaa?iue auione, oun. ?oa.

X2 – oiiaeiioaea/a

X3 – naaanoieiinoue

X4 – iaoa?eaeiaieinue

IV. Noaoe/aneea iaoiaeu : iniaaiiinoue – iiaoo i?eiaiyoueny aeey
aeeoooceiiiuo e ieioi i?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai (n aa?iyoiinoiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie).

Anee caoeene?iaaoue ana ia?aiao?u e eciaiyoue oieueei iaeei, oi iieo/ei
i?yioth.

O(o) – iia?aoi?, oi?iaeecothuee nenoaio.

Ioia?aaeaiea nenoaiu i?ienoiaeeo n iiiiuueth aa?iyoiinoiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee e nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea ?aciuoie iaeanoe.

Oaaeeoea eniieueciaaiey noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia i?e ?aaeecaoeee
oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee.

Yoaiu i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey

Noaoenoe/aneea iaoiaeu Iiaeaioiaea eioi?ia-oeee Auyaeaiea iai?aaea-iee
aiaeeca Enneaaei-aaiea auyaeaiiuo i?iaeai ?ac?aaioea e i?eiyoea ?aoaiee
I?eiyoea ?aoaiee I?aaieca-oeey auiieiaiey ?aoaiee O/ao e eiio?ieue oiaea
au-iieiaiey Aiaeec yoo-aeoeaiinoe iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1. Noaoenoe/aneia iaaethaeaiea +

+

2. A?oiie?iaea e eeanneoeeaoeey + + +

+ +

3. ?an/ao aaniethoiuo aaee/ei, ioiineoaeueiuo e n?aaeieo iieacaoaeae + +
+

+ +

4. Iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey aeeiaie/aneeo ?yaeia

+ +

+ +

5. Eiaeaeniue iaoiae

+ +

+ +

6. Ei??aeyoeeiiii-?aa?anneiiiue aiaeec

+ +

+

7. Aeenia?neiiiue aiaeec

+ +

+

8. Yenia?oiua iaoiaeu + + + +

9. Oaeoi?iue e eiiii-iaioiue aiaeec

+ +

+

Noaoenoe/aneea iaaethaeaiey – o?iiiiao?aaeiia onoaiiaeaiea
iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo ii?i.

A?oiie?iaea e eeanneoeeaoeey – aeeth/aao iiiaiia?iua a?oiie?iaee e
eeanneoeeaoeee.

Eiaeaeniua iaoiaeu oe?iei eniieuecothony a yeiiiie/aneeo e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo nenoaiao (eiaeaen oeai e o.i.).

(5, 6, 7) – iaeanoue iaoiaeia IAEN.

Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua n iiiiuueth noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia :

Iaoiaeu noaoenoe/aneiai eiio?iey ea/anoaa :

aa?iyoiinoue iieo/aiey aiaeiuo ecaeaeee ia auoiaea iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey

eiio?ieue ea/anoaa aeey aiaeeca eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia

Iaoiaeu ecia?aiey ?enea :

iaeeaeaaiia cia/aiea i?e niioaaonoaothuae aa?iyoiinoe ?enea

Caaea/e ii?aaeaeaiey e ?ac?aoaiey iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe :

H0 = log(m)

H0 – ia/aeueiay yio?iiey

m – ninoiyiee nenoaiu

H = -Px*log(Px)

Iaiyaony iniiaaiea log ( iaiyaony iiiaeanoai.

H = H0 , anee ?aaiiaa?iyoiua enoiaeu, o.a. ana Px = 1/m

*ai aieueoa iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue, oai aaaeiaa aaeeieoea eioi?iaoeee i
ninoiyiee nenoaiu.

Iaoiaeu ii?iaeueiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey noaoenoeee.

Ia?eianeea i?ioeannu (ia?eianeea oeaee).

Yoi neo/aeiue i?ioeann, eiaaea i?e ecaanoiii cia/aiee neo/aeiie aaee/eiu
((t) = ((t) = S , i?e t > t (a iineaaeothuee iiiaio), neo/aeiua aaee/eiu
ia caaenyo io cia/aiee ((u), i?e u<=t (io i?aaeuaeoueo cia/aiee yoie aaee/eiu). O.a. i?e ecaanoiii ianoiyuai aoaeouaa ia caaeneo io i?ioeiai (iiaeai i?aiaa?a/ue i?ioeui e iie?aoueny ia nethieiooiia ninoiyiea nenoaiu)Oeaiue Ia?eiaa - yoi iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ninoiyiee nenoaiu, aeey eioi?ie ecaanoia aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi a iiiaio a?aiaie t eiaao ianoi ninoiyiea St .Pij - aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi nenoaia iaoiaeeony a ia?aoiaea ec ninoiyiey i a ninoiyiea j (aa?iyoiinoue ia?aoiaea nenoaiu ec i a j, niaa?oaaiia nenoaiie ca 1 oaa, aaea j - oeaei/eneaiiua aaee/eiu, o.a. yoi aeene?aoiay oeaiue Ia?eiaa)Aeey oiai, /oiau ?ann/eoaoue ninoiyiea nenoaiu a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie t a oaciaii i?ino?ainoaa ninoiyiee, ioaeia iao?eoea aa?iyoiinoae P = (Pij), aaea ii?yaeie ?aaai /eneo ninoiyiee nenoaiu (a ia/aeueiue iiiaio a?aiaie). Oaeei ia?acii iiaeai au/eneeoue aa?iyoiinoue Pj(k) (a iiiaio a?aiaie t = n)- aa?iyoiinoue ia?aoiaea nenoaiu a ninoiyiea j a iiiaio a?aiaie n.Iaoiaeu aiaeeca eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai a?aiaie (iaoiaeu onoaiiaeaiey iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo ii?i) :iaoiae iiiaioiuo iaaethaeaieeo?iiiiao?aae ?aai/aai a?aiaieoioia?aoey ?aai/aai aeiyAiaeec neeaaeneeo caianiaV. Oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiua iaoiaeu.Nenoaia i?aaenoaaeyaony a aeaea iiiaeanoaa eee iaai?a iiiaeanoa (iiiaiia?iia iiiaeanoai) e ioiioaiee iaaeaeo yoeie iiiaeanoaaie.I?e iiaeiiiaeanoaa - eo yeaiaiou nicaeatho niioaaonoaothuaa iiiaeanoai ec oi/ae, eioi?ua ana i?eiaaeeaaeao yoei iiiaeanoaai.Iai?eia?, ?aai/ea i?ioannee a, o/anoea a e aic?anoa a ninoaaeytho iiiaeanoai I.Oai?aoeei-iiiaeanoaaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiea nenoai eniieuecothony aeey iino?iaiey aac aeaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai (iai?eia?, ?aeyoeeiiiua aacu aeaiiuo).VI. Eiae/aneea iaoiaeu. Ia?aaiaeyo ?aaeueioth nenoaio e ioiioaiea iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie yoie nenoaiu ia ycue iaeiie ec aeaaa? eiaeee (iai?eia?, aeaaa?a Aoey).Eniieuecoaony i?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue yoie aeaaa?u (auneacuaaiey, i?aaeeeaou e o.ae.). Eniieuecoaony aeey eiae/aneiai aiaeeca e neioaca neiaeiuo nenoai (iniaaiii a oaoie/aneeo nenoaiao) e i?e enneaaeiaaiee no?oeoo? nenoai ?aciie i?e?iaeu (oai, aaea iaaiciiaeii i?eiaieoue noaoenoe/aneea e aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu).VII. Eeiaaenoe/aneea e naieioe/aneea iaoiaeu. Aace?othony ia iiiyoeyo Oacao?ona O e a?aiiaoeee.Oacao?on - yoi neiaa?ue aeaiiiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ycuea, iaeanoe, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo neioaene/aneea aaeeieoeu ycuea.A?aiiaoeea - i?aaeea iauaaeeiaiey yoeo niuneiauo (naiaioe/aneeo) aaeeieoe a eiae/aneea o?acu, eioi?ua eiatho iiiyoeeiia iai?aaeaiea.I?eiaiaiea - ?ac?aaaouaathony ycuee iiaeaee?iaaiey nenoai e nenoai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ycuee i?ia?aiie?iaaiey.Eniieuecothony aeey oi?iaeueiiai aiaeeca oaenoia e ycueia, a oaeaea i?ioeannia a neiaeiuc nenoaiao (eiaaea ia oaeaaony i?eiaieoue ae?oaea iaoiaeu).Yoe iaoiaeu oa?aeoa?iu aeey ieioi i?aaieciaaiiuo nenoai.A?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea nenoaiu :iaoiae a?aoiaiaoiae naoae e o.i.No?ieony a?ao acaeiicaiiaeneiinoae yeaiaioia nenoaiu e caoai aiaeece?oaony.Iia?aoi? ia?aaiaeeo nenoaio a niioaaonoaothuaa a?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea :i?aaiea?aiiuaeieoiaioia?aiiuEaeoeey 10 08.04.97Iiaeaee e iiaeaee?iaaiea nenoai oi?aaeaiey.Ieai.Ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeaee e iiaeaee?iaaiey.Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeae.Caeiiu e oaeoi?u yooaeoeaiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.Niaoeeoeea iiaeaeae nenoai oi?aaeaiey oe?iaie.Iniiaiua aeaeu iiaeaeae e oa?aeoa?enoeee.Aii?in 1 : Ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeaee e iiaeaee?iaaiey.Iiaeaee?iaaiea - i?ioeann iino?iaiey oneiaiiai ia?aca enneaaeoaiie nenoaiu (i?ioeanna, yaeaiey).Oeaeue - ioia?aaeaiea iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey nenoaiu a aoaeouai. Iiaeaeue - oneiaiue ia?ac enneaaeoaiie nenoaiu. Iiaeaeue eiino?oe?oaony noauaeoii enneaaeiaaiey oae, /oiau ioia?aceoue oa?aeoa?enoeee iauaeoa (naienoaa nenoai oi?aaeaiey, acaeiinayce iaaeaeo aa yeaiaioaie, no?oeoo?iua e ooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?aiao?u).O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iiaeaeyi :oi/iia io?aaeaiea no?oeoo?u e i?ioeannia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiaeaee?oaiie nenoaiuaeiiouaiey i?e iienaiee nenoaiu iooai iiaeaee?iaaiey aeieaeiu auoue ieieiaeueiu/enei ia?aiao?ia aaeaeaaoii neiaeiinoe nenoaiuaeinoaoi/iay iia?aoeaiinoue, o.e. ?ano?n a?aiaie aeey i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia?aie/aiiaee/ea ia?aiao?a iioeiecaoeee - oeaeue iiaeaee?iaaieyYoaiu iiaeaee?iaaiey :eco/aiea iauaeoa e auaeaeaiea aai iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoeeeiino?oe?iaaiea iiaeaee ia iniiaa aiaeeca (iaaeaeo ia?aiao?aie ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue acaeiinayce)yenia?eiaioaeueiue, i?aeoe/aneee, e oai?aoe/aneee aiaeec i?iaeaiuniiinoaaeaiea ?acoeueoaoia n aeaiiuie ia iauaeoaei??aeoe?iaea iiaeaee a niioaaonoaee n iieo/aiiuie ?acoeueoaoaiei?iaa?ea ea/anoaa ioia?aaeaiey iauaeoa eee aaeaeaaoiinoe iiaeaeeAii?in 2 : Eeanneoeeaoeey iiaeaeae.I?eciaee eeanneoeeaoeee iiaeaee :O/ao oaeoi?a iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe :aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua iiaeaee - aeey aeaiiie niaieoiiinoe aoiaeiuo cia/aiee ia?aiao?ia ia auoiaea nenoaiu iiaeao auoue iieo/ai aaeeinoaaiiue ?acoeueoaoneo/aeiua iiaeaee (aa?iyoiinoiua) - ia auoiaea iieo/athony iaiaeiicia/iua cia/aiey ia?aiao?iaO/ao oaeoi?a a?aiaie :noaoe/aneea iiaeaee - ana caaeneiinoe ioianaiu e iaeiiio iiiaioo a?aiaie e ia iaiythony ai a?aiaieaeeiaie/aneea iiaeaee - iienuaatho nenoaio oi?aaeaiey a aeeiaieea (ai a?aiaie). Aeeiaie/aneoth iiaeaeue iiaeii iienaoue ?yaeii noaoe/aneeo iiaeaeaeO/ao iai?a?uaiinoe iiaeaee?oaiuo i?ioeannia :aeene?aoiua iiaeaee - ana ia?aiaiiua a aeaiiie iiaeaee ioia?aaeaiu aeene?aoiuie aaee/eiaie (oeaei/eneaiiua cia/aiey, nea/eiia?aciua)iai?a?uaiua iiaeaee - ia niaea?aeao aeene?aoiuo aaee/ei, o.a. iiaeaee ioia?aaeathony aeeooa?aioeeaeueiuie e eioaa?aeueiuie o?aaiaieyieOei nayce iaaeaeo iiaeaee?oaiuie yeaiaioaie :eeiaeiua iiaeaee - ioia?aaeatho ninoiyiea eee ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nenoaiu oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ana acaeiicaaeneiinoe a iae i?eieiathony eeiaeiuie. Eeiaeiay iiaeaeue oi?ioee?oaony a aeaea iaeiiai eee nenoaiu eeiaeiuo o?aaiaieeiaeeiaeiua iiaeaee - acaeiicaaeneiinoe ioia?aaeathony iaeeiaeiuie ooieoeeyie (iieacaoaeueiua ooieoeee, ioeueoeieeeaoeaiua ooieoeee : I = a*x1*x2, yeniiiaioeeaeueiua o?aaiaiey)Niinia ia?ae/iiai i?aaenoaaeaiey iiaeaeae :oece/aneea iiaeaee - iaoa?eaeueiua, aauanoaaiiua, iaeaoiua iiaeaee - iino?iaiu oi/ii ii niioaaonoaeth no?oeoo?a nenoai ?acee/iuo i?e?iaeaano?aeoiua iiaeaee eee eiioeaiooaeueiua iiaeaee - i?aaeaa?eoaeueiua, i?eaeeaeaiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i nenoaia oi?aaeaieyNoaiaiue iiaeiaey iauaeoo :aiiiii?oiua iiaeaee - oi?iuaiiay iiaeaeue, - iaeiinoi?iiiaa ioia?aaeaiea iiaeiaeyeciii?oiua iiaeaee - oi/iia iiaeiaea - eaaeaeiio yeaiaioo ec nenoaiu niioaaonoaoao yeaiaio ec iiaeaee e a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaieeAii?in 3 : Caeiiu e oaeoi?u yooaeoeaiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.Ni. O?aaiaaiey e iiaeaeyiAii?in 4 : Niaoeeoeea iiaeaeae nenoai oi?aaeaiey oe?iaie.Iaee/ea yeciaaiiuo e yiaeiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia :yeciaaiiua oaeoi?u - ieacuaatho aicaeaenoaea ia nenoaio ecaiayiaeiaaiiua oaeoi?u - aicaeaenoaea ia nenoaio oi?aaeaiey iineo aioo?aiiee oa?aeoa?Iiiaeanoaaiiinoue iiaeaeaeO/ao nioeeaeueii-oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a oi?aaeaiey oe?iieIaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa ?enea e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe - ciaiea anao aiciiaeiuo ?acoeueoaoia e eo iineaaenoaeeAii?in 5 : Iniiaiua aeaeu iiaeaeae e oa?aeoa?enoeee.Iniiaiua a?oiiu iiaeaeae nenoai oi?aaeaiey i?aaei?eyoeai :i?aaiecaoeeiiiuano?oeoo?iuaooieoeeiiaeueiuaiaoaiaoe/aneeaeioi?iaoeeiiiuaI?aaiecaoeeiiiua iiaeaee. Oeaeue i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey - ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo ?aaioieeaie NO, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuie no?oeoo?aie e neoaeaaie NO.Iniiaiua aeaeu II :I?aaiea?aiiu (i?aia?aiiu, iia?ia?aiiu)O?iiiiia?aiiu e oiiia?aiiu - yoi a?aoe/anee ioia?aaeathuea ?aniieiaeaiea i?aaeiaoia ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaaAeeaa?aiiu, eiiia?aiiu (?), naeoia?aiiu (?), ieaia?aiiuNaoaaua iiaeaeeI?aaiea?aiiu - a?aoe/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey a NO oi?aaeythueo caaiueaa e eniieieoaeae a niioaaonoaee n auiieiyaiuie eie ooieoeeyie.I?aaiea?aiia i?ioeaaeo?u aeaeii?iecaiaenoaa.?oeiaiaee-oaee auno Ioaeaeu Nae?aoa?e Yeniaaeeoeey O/anoie ?aaeno?aoe. O/anoie eiio?iey Ni?aai/iay A?oea1. Yeniaaeeoeeiiiay ia?a-aioea iinooiathuae ei-oi?iaoeee2. ?aaeno?aoeey aoiaeyueo aeieoiaioia3. Eniieiaiea aeieoiai-oiaOneiaiua iaicia/aiey aeey i?aaiea?aii :I?aaiea?aiia i?ioiaeaeaiey i?iaeoia iiaie oaoieee.Yoaiu Eniieieoaee I?eia/aieyi?ioeanna Caeac/ee Aeaaiueieieno? Aeaaiue eiaeaia? Aee?aeoi?einoeoooa Cai. ii iaoea Aeaaiueeiino?oeoi? Ia/aeue-iee EA A?oiia1. Niaeaniaaiea e auaea/a oaoie-/aneeo o?aaiaa-ieeEaeoeey 11 15.04.97Aiaeec NO n iiiiuueth no?oeoo?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey.Ieai.No?oeoo?iua iiaeaee e iniaaiiinoe eo iino?iaiey.Caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey i?a. no?oeoo? NO.I?aaeea iioeiecaoeee i?a. no?oeoo? NO.Nenoaia iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca NO.Iaoiaeu i?a. ?acaeoey nenoai oi?aaeaiey.Aii?in 1 : No?oeoo?iua iiaeaee e iniaaiiinoe eo iino?iaiey.No?oeoo?iay iiaeaeue NO - oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey naycae e ioiioaiee iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie e iiaenenoaiaie NO.No?oeoo?a NO - eiaa?eaioiue aniaeo nenoaiu (iaeciaiiinoue nenoaiu ii ioiioaieth e iaeioi?iio aa eciaiaieth) - oi?iaeueiia ioia?aaeaiea nenoaiu a aeaea a?aoa, aa?oeiaie eioi?iai yaeythony yeaiaiou nenoaiu, a aeoaaie - nayce iaaeaeo ieie.Iniaaiiinoe iiaeaee?iaaiey i?a. no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey - auoaeatho ec niaoeeoeee naieo yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai :aeieaeii auoue o/oaii i?iyaeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai oaeoi?aiaiaoiaeeii io?aaeaiea a iiaeaee i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie ?ani?aaeaeaiiinoe nenoaiuo/ao ?aciiia?acey oneiaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey - i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oaeoi?u ianoieueei ?acee/iu ii naiaio aeaenoaeth, /oi aiai?eoue ia iaeii?iaeiinoe i/aiue o?oaeii.iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?a?aaioee iaiaic?eiiai iauaia eioi?iaoeee - ?aaiaiea ia neaaaeoaa caaii a nenoaiaiaiaoiaeeiinoue ecaaaaoue aeaoi?iaoeee eioi?iaoeee a nianoaaiiuo oeaeyoOaeoi?u, aeeythuea ia i?a. no?oeoo?o nenoaiu e ia aa iiaeaeue :oeaee, noiyuea ia?aae oi?aaeyaiui iauaeoii?ano?nu, iaiaoiaeeiua nenoaia eee iauaeoo oi?aaeaieyoaoiieiaey : ianooaa e oei i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia?aoeeiiiinoue i?ioeanna (eiee/anoai e neiaeiinoue iia?aoeee i?ioeanna)i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa : o?iaaiue auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee, eniieuecoaiie oaoiieiaee, eniieuecoaiuo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ei?ii?aoeaiay eoeueoo?aiae?in?aaea, ie?oaeathuay i?aaei?eyoeaAii?in 2 : Caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey i?a. no?oeoo? NO.Oneiaiua iaicia/aiey :- r - /enei einoaioeee iaaeaeo aeaiiui yeaiaioii NO e eaaeaeui inoaeueiui yeaiaioii NO.- H - e?eoa?ee oi?aaeyaiinoe e naycaiiinoe (iioaioeeae oi?aaeaiey e aaiyooaeoeaiinoue) ( max/- R - ia?aiao? acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie (/enei ?aoaaiuo eee caaea/ oi?aaeaiey)R+RA = 1 , aaea R - aeiey iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo naycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie, RA - aeiey ooieoeee eee naycae oeaio?aeueiiai oi?aaeaiey- I - /enei iauaeoia oi?aaeaieya) r=2I?yiia (oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oi?aaeaiea)[iaeei o?iaaiue oi?aaeaiey]Eaaeaeue yeaiaio naycai n ae?oaei /a?ac oeaio?aeueiue o?iaaiue oi?aaeaiey.a - ia?a?aaaouaaao eieinnaeueiia eiee/anoai eioi?iaoeeer = 2 - ?aaai oaeaiaiiiio /eneo o?iaiae oi?aaeaieyHa>1 – i/aiue aunie, ii ia inouanoaei ec-ca eieinnaeueiiai eiee/anoaa
eioi?iaoeee

a) r = 4

HaIa [ca n/ao iainiaeaiey ooieoeee a a e b]

Eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiia oi?aaeaiea.

A ?aieao eeiaeiiai e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey iauaeou naycaiu /a?ac
2 einoaioeee, a niaoaiiua aii?inu a ?aieao eeiaeiiai e ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
?oeiaiaenoaa naycaiu oieueei /a?ac oeaio?aeueiue i?aai.

a)

I?ioeaaeo?a ?acaeaeaiey ooieoeee iiaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny neieue oaiaeii
aeieai, iai?eia?, aeey o?ao ia?aeeaeueiuo oi?aaeaiee a, b, c n
oeaio?aeueiui oi?aaeaieai a oeaio?a d. A niioaaonoaee n yoei iieo/ei
Ia>Ia, iineieueeo oieueei ooieoeey eii?aeeiaoeee Ra inouanoaeyaony /a?ac
1/4 /anoue, o.a. Rc=1/4, ( ?ieue eii?aeeiaoeeiiiiai oeaio?a
oiaiueoaaony, oaaee/eaaaony ?ieue naiinoiyoaeueiuo oeaio?ia.

Iaeiaei yooaeo nieaeaaony ec-ca ooaeoae oeaio?aeecaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n
aa?eaioii a).

(

ae) I?eaeaiea naiinoiyoaeueiinoe i?aaiai oi?aaeaiey

Hae>=Ia

Iaeeo/oei ia?acii i?iaeaia oeaeinoiinoe nenoaiu ?aoaaony, anee iauaeou
oi?aaeaiey anooiatho a iaiin?aaenoaaiiua nayce ia naiai o?iaia, o.a.
/a?ac iaeio einoaioeeth.

Anee au oaeea nayce ia anooiaee a i?ioeai?a/ea ae?oa n ae?oaii, oi
iioaioeeae naiioi?aaeaiey aue au a 2 ?aca auoa, /ai Ia e oai aieueoa,
/ai iaiueoa aeiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey.

a)

?ac?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/ey /a?ac 3 – a – 1, 2 – a – 1.

Eiioeeeoiay neooaoeey iaaeaeo iauaeoaie 2 e 3.

Eaeoeey 12 24.04.97

Caeiiiia?iinoe ia?aciaaiey i?a. no?oeoo?.

R + Ra =1

caaea/e, ?aoaaiua caaea/e, ?aoaaiua

naiinoiyoaeueii oeaio?aeeciaaiii

I?yiia oi?aaeaiea iaaiciiaeii ec-ca aieueoiai iauaia eioi?iaoeee.

Iioaioeeae oi?aaeaiey (yooaeoeaiinoue oi?aaeaiey) – aiciiaeiinoue
i?eieiaoue iaiaoiaeeiia e aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee
a caaeneiinoe io oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe – oai iaiueoa, /ai aieueoa
o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey, o.e. /anoue iauaeoia ieacuaaaony naycaiiie iaaeaeo
niaie oaeaiaiiui /eneii einoaioeee.

Aeey nieaeaiey “/eiiaie/ueaai ooia” a eeiaeiie i?aaiecaoeee no?iyo
ea?a?oeth ia ii ae?aaiaeaeiiio aeaeo, a ii niaoaiiiio oeio.

I?e /?acia?iii oaaee/aiee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaiueaa yooaeo oi?aaeaiey
nieaeaaony ec-ca oooaeoaiey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey
(eii?aeeiaoeee).

I?iaeaia naycaiiinoe nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey iaeeo/oei ia?acii ?aoaaony, anee
yeaiaiou iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiioaeoe?otho ia naiai o?iaia.

Ec-ca i?ioeai?a/ee, eioi?ua ?aoathony oeaio?aeeciaaiii, iioaioeeae
naiinoiyoaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey nieaeaaony.

Aii?in 3 : I?aaeea iioeiecaoeee i?a. no?oeoo? NO.

Iaeneiaeueii ?acaeaaoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiua nayce iaaeaeo iauaeoaie
oi?aaeaiey, iiea iie ia anooiatho a i?ioeai?a/ea ae?oa n ae?oaii.

Ii ia?a aiciiaeiinoe oiaiueoaoue /enei o?iaiae oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey.

Aeiaeaaoueny iaeneiaeueiie iauae naycaiiinoe aeaaea ca n/ao nieaeaiey
iioaioeeaea iaeiiiuiuo iauaeoia oi?aaeaiey.

A?oiie?iaaoue neoaeao oi?aaeaiey oaeei ia?acii, /oiau acaeiinayce
iaaeaeo ieie o?aaiaaee ieieiaeueiiai niaeaniaaiey a oeaio?aeueiuo
i?aaiao.

Iooe ?aaeecaoeee auoaia?a/eneaiiuo i?aaee :

Nicaeaiea iaoi?iaeueiuo no?oeoo?

Nicaeaiea aieueoaai eiee/anoaa caaiueaa – aa?oeeaeueiay eioaa?aoeey :
nie?auaao /enei o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey; ai?eciioaeueiay eioaa?aoeey
nie?auaao /enei caaiueaa a eaaeaeii o?iaia.

I?eioeeiu iino?iaiey i?ano?oeoo?u NO :

eiiieaeniinoue – ioaao anao oeaeae, ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey

i?ioeeaeoe/iinoue – i?iaiice?iaaiea, ieaie?iaaiea (a iniiaiii
aeieain?i/iia) e iino?iaiea e?aoein?i/iuo ieaiia

iioeiaeueiinoue – aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey iiaeaee, eioi?ay iicaieyao
iioeiece?iaaoue i?ano?oeoo?o

iia?aoeaiinoue – oi?aaeythuaa ?aoaiea ia aeieaeii caiacaeuaaoue

iaaeaaeiinoue – aania?aaieiay ?aaioa nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey, aa aeeao/anoue

aeaeinoue – niiniaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a oneiaeyo ia?aiaiiuo oeaeae
e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo neooaoeee

S ( {L, I, I, O, N, E}

((((((((((((((((

s ( {l, i, o, t, c, e} – iaeiiaa?eaioiinoue nenoaiu, iaaeaeay

L – o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu

I – i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu

I – iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

O – oaoiieiaee

N – aiaoiyy n?aaea

E – i?e?iaeiua oaeoi?u

iai?a?uaiinoue – oaaee/aiea /enea ?aoaaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo caaea/

oeiiainoue – oieoeeaoeey i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee, eniieueciaaiea
noaiaea?oiuo i?eaiia

i?eioeei iiauo caaea/ : ?ooeiiua, o?aaeeoeeiiiua, nenoaiiua,
iioeiecaoeeiiiua caaea/e

Aii?in 4 : Nenoaia iieacaoaeae no?oeoo?iiai aiaeeca NO.

aeaeu i?ano?oeoo? :

eeiaeiay no?oeoo?a (iaeeea i?aaei?eyoey)

ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a (ooieoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaae?iaaiea iieiiii/ee)

eeiaeii-ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a (o?aaeeoeeiiia aeey ?O)

iao?e/iay no?oeoo?a eee eii?aeeiaoeeiiiay

aeeaeceiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a (i?eioeei aeeaaiiaeueiuo naiinoiyoaeueiuo
no?oeoo? – ooaau)

i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaua no?oeoo?u (i?aaeoniao?eaatho oi?ie?iaaiea no?oeoo?u
ii i?ia?aiiai)

ninoaa i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey :

iaeii?aiaiaay no?oeoo?a

iiiaio?iaiaaay no?oeoo?a

iiiaicaaiueaaay no?oeoo?a

Caaii – naiinoiyoaeueiay y/aeea ia aeaiiii o?iaia oi?aaeaiey,
iaaeaeaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiie ooieoeeae oi?aaeaiey

eiee/anoaaiiua ia?aiao?u.

niaoeeaeecaoeey o?oaea a aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey – cae?aieaiea ca
?aaioieeaie, iiae?acaeaeaieyie, neoaeaaie, i?aaiaie, oi?aaeaieyie
ii?aaeaeaiiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aaio, ooieoeee eee iauaeoia
oi?aaeaiey. Cae?aieaiea ooieoeee inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth
?aaeaiaioe?othueo aeieoiaioia (aeieaeiinoiua eino?oeoeee, ooaoiia
?anienaiea, oaoiieiae/aneea ea?ou e o.ae.).

Noaiaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee ecia?yaony ( aeiey niaoeeaeueiuo ooieoeee,
auiieiyaiuo neoaeaie a iauai iauaia ?aaio neoaeau ( rc = Rni/R, Rni –
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua caaea/e, R – iauaa eiee/anoai caaea/.

oeaio?aeecaoeey NO – iino?iaiea NO e i?aaiecaoeey aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
oae, /oi nouanoaoao iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuay e aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaay
naycue eaaeaeiai caaia oi?aaeaiey n oeaio?aeueiui i?aaiii oi?aaeaiey .

Noaiaiue oeaio?aeecaoeee – eiioeaio?aoeey aeanoe ia auoanoiyuai o?iaia
– aeiey ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey, ?aoaaiuo ia aa?oiai o?iaia.

Ra – o?oaeiaieinoue ia aa?oiai o?iaia.

– eiee/anoai o?iaiae a NO

– eiee/anoai caaiueaa ia aeaiiii o?iaia oi?aaeaiea

Iino?iaiea no?oeoo? NO :

Ii?aaeaeaiea iauaeoia oi?aaeaiey e oa?aeoa?a auiieiyaiie oi?aaeai/aneie
?aaiou e aa iauai. Yoaiu, aeaeu, iinoaiiaea caaea/ NO.

?ani?aaeaeaiea ?aaiou iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie iiceoeeyie iaiaaeaeiaioa
(a?oiia caaea/, eiathuay iaeii ooieoeeiiaeueiia iacia/aiea)

Eeanneoeeaoeey iiceoeee iaiaaeaeiaioa e iino?iaiea ia yoie iniiaa
eiae/aneeo a?oii oi?aaeaiey (i?eioeei i?eaioaoeee – auyaeaiea
i?eaioe?othuaai caaia – ii aeaeai ?aaio).

Oaeoi?u, o/eouaaaiua i?e iino?iaiee NO :

No?aoeoeeaoeey – /enei o?iaiae oi?aaeaiey.

Oi?iaeecaoeey – ia neieueei nenoaia aoaeao ath?ie?aoe/ia.

Oeaio?aeecaoeey – ea?a?oey aeiaaaeaiey ?aoaiee aei eniieieoaey.

Neiaeiinoue no?oeoo?u.

Iaoiaeu i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey :

Iaoiaeu oeo/oaiey iaaea?oiiiauo ioiioaiee – nicaeaiea ia?aeeaeueiuo
i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio; iaoi?iaeueiua a?oiiu.

Iaoiaeu nioeeioaoie/aneiai iiaeoiaea – aaoiiiiiua ?aai/ea a?oiiu ia
o?iaia eniieieoaeae; o/anoea ia?niiaea a i?eiyoee ?aoaiee;
ia?ano?oeoo?ecaoeey ?aaiou – iaiiaeaiea eaae?ia e ?ioaoeey ooieoeee;
eciaiaiea e iaiaauaiea niaea?aeaiey o?oaea – i?eaianaiea oai?/aneie
no?oe a eaaeaeoth ?aaioo; oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa o?oaeiaie aeecie
(iee?ieeeiao).

Eaeoeey 13 06.05.97

Aiaeec ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u NO.

Ieai.

Iiiyoea ON NO e aa oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aiaeeca ooieoeee.

Iaoiaeu e iieacaoaee ooieoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca.

Aii?in 1 : Iiiyoea ON NO e aa oa?aeoa?enoeea.

ON NO – ninoaa e niioiioaiea iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie a iaeanoe iiaeaioiaee iainiiaaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo
?aoaiee.

ON NO iiae?acaeaeyaony ii i?ec?aeo auiieiyaiuo ooieoeee :

ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaenenoaiu

iaania/eaathuea iiaenenoaiu

oeaeaaua iiaenenoaiu

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaenenoaiu auaeaeytho ii ooieoeeyi oi?aaeaiey,
eiathuei aaeeioth, oeaeaaoth iai?aaeaiiinoue.

Iaania/eaathuea iiaenenoaiu auaeaeytho ii i?eciaeo ooieoeee,
iaania/eaathueo oneiaey ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiee, au?aaaouaaaiuo a
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoaiao.

Oeaeaaua iiaenenoaiu auaeaeytho ii i?eciaeo oeaeae, ia ?aaeecaoeeth
eioi?uo iie iai?aaeaiu.

.

Iao?e/iay iiaeaeue ON NO.

i/n

i/n Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaenenoaiu Iaania/eaathuea iiaenenoaiu

Oeaeaaua iiaenenoaiu

Ooieoeeiiaeueiu iiaenenoaiu :

iiaenenoaia oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa, OOII

oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia ieaie?iaaiea, OYI

iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii, IOI

oi?aaeaiea nauoii e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth

oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei niaaaeaieai

oi?aaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeae o?oaea e c/i, OIOeCI

oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii, OI

oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii, OI

Iaania/eaathuea iiaenenoaiu :

eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea, EI

oaoie/aneia iaania/aiea, OI

i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, II

i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneia iaania/aiea, IYI

i?aaiaia iaania/aiea, I?I

Oeaeaaua iiaenenoaiu :

oi?aaeaiea iniiaiui i?iecaiaenoaii, OII

oi?aaeaiea aniiiiaaoaeueiui i?iecaiaenoaii, OAI

oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii, OE

oi?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiui ?acaeoeai eieeaeoeaa, ONE?

oi?aaeaiea io?aiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, OIIN

Eeanneoeeaoeey ooieoeee ii neaaeothuei i?eciaeai :

ii caaeneiinoe io iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey :

iniiaiua :

i?iaiice?iaaiea

ieaie?iaaiea

i?aaiecaoeey

eiio?ieue

eii?aeeiaoeey

o/ao Inouanoaeythony a eaaeaeie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaia; eiaa?eaioiu e
eiie?aoiui O iiaenenoaiai; iaania/eaatho oi?aaeyaiinoue

eiie?aoiua : iinoiyiii aeaenoaothuea iia?aoi?u; i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey
eciaiaiey cia/aiey iaeiiai auoiaeiiai ia?aiao?a iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey

ii i?eciaeo niaea?aeaiey oi?aaeai/aneiai o?oaea :

oi?aaeaiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa, OOII

oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia ieaie?iaaiey, OYI

iia?aoeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaii, IOI

oi?aaeaiea nauoii e oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth

oi?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneei niaaaeaieai

oi?aaeaiea i?aaiecaoeeae o?oaea e c/i, OIOeCI

oi?aaeaiea ia?niiaeii, OI

oi?aaeaiea ia?eaoeiaii, OI

ii i?eciaeo iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey :

oi?aaeaiea i?aaei?eyoeai a oeaeii

oi?aaeaiea iiae?acaeaeaieai

oi?aaeaiea oeaoii

oi?aaeaiea a?eaaaeie

oi?aaeaiea o/anoeii

oi?aaeaiea ?aai/ei ianoii

ii aeaeai aeayoaeueiinoe :

yeiiiie/aneea eee oicyenoaaiiua

nioeeaeueiua

i?aaiecaoeeiiiua

ii i?eciaeo iaeii?iaeiinoe ?aaio :

iauea : eeiaeiua ooieoeee eeiaeiiai ?oeiaiaenoaa

niaoeeaeueiua : ii ioaeaeueiui noi?iiai aeayoaeueiinoe

ianeoaeeaathuea

ii oeaeyi aeayoaeueiinoe :

oi?aaeaiea iniiaiui i?iecaiaenoaii, OII

oi?aaeaiea aniiiiaaoaeueiui i?iecaiaenoaii, OAI

oi?aaeaiea ea/anoaii, OE

oi?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiui ?acaeoeai eieeaeoeaa, ONE?

oi?aaeaiea io?aiie ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, OIIN

Ooieoeey oi?aaeaiey – ioiineoaeueii iainiaeaiiia iai?aaeaiea
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, inouanoaeythuaa oi?aaeai/aneia
aicaeaenoaea.

Oeaeue aiaeeca ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u NO :

auyaeaiea aiciiaeiinoae eiioeaio?aoeee iaeii?iaeiuo ?aaio a ?aieao
ii?aaeaeaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee

oaeoaeaiiay niaoeeaeecaoeey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo neoaea

?aoeeiiaeecaoeey ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea iaaeaeo ooieoeeiiaeueiuie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie ?aciuo ea?a?oe/aneeo o?iaiae

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iiaenenoaiu oa?aeoa?ecothony :

niaoeeoe/aneei iauaeoii oi?aaeaiey (i?ioeannii oi?aaeaiey)

niaoeeoe/aneei noauaeoii oi?aaeaiey (inouanoaeyao eii?aeeiaoeeth
oi?aaeaiey)

aoiaeaie e auoiaeaie

aioo?aiiae, n?aaieoaeueii caieiooie eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiie

iniaue e?oa caaea/, ?aoaaiuo a aeaiiie iiaenenoaia

Aii?in 2 : Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aiaeeca ooieoeee.

Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aiaeeca ooieoeee :

ii?aaeaeyaony iieiioa ioaaoa ooieoeee anaie iiae?acaeaeaieyie NO

?aaioa, i OOII OYI IOI

1 + + +

2

3

4

noaiaiue niioaaonoaey no?oeoo?u ooieoeeiiaeueiuo neoaea niaea?aeaieth
?aaiou NO

o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee ?aaio a ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo

– o?oaeiaieinoue ?aaio j-ai iiae?acaeaeaiey

o?iaaiue niaoeeaeecaoeee ?aaio ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee =

o?oaeiaieinoue ii i-ie ooieoeee a j-ii iiae?acaeaeaiee

iauay o?oaeiaieinoue ii i-ie ooieoeee a NO

niioiioaiea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiiai auiieiaiey ?aaio
a ooieoeeiiaeueiii iiae?acaeaeaieyo

noaiaiue niioaaonoaey ooieoeeiiaeueiie iiaenenoaiu iauei e?eoa?eyi
iino?iaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey (oeaio?aeecaoeey, eiioeaio?aoeey,
niaoeeaeecaoeey, aeaeinoue, i?yiioi/iinoue, eioi?iaoeeiiiay
iaania/aiiinoue, yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue)

Yooaeoeaiinoue aaeieieno?aoeaii-oaoie/aneiai ia?niiaea :

niiinoaaeaiea aeaenoaothuae ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u n
?aaeaiaioe?oaiie (oeiiaua, noaiaea?oiua no?oeoo?u)

Aii?in 3 : Iaoiaeu e iieacaoaee ooieoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca.

Iieacaoaee ooieoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca :

eiyooeoeeaio iieiiou ioaaoa ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey :

– eiee/anoai ?aaio i?iaiaeeiuo a aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey niioaaonoaaiii
oaeoe/anee e ii ii?iaoeao.

eiyooeoeeaio iaiieiiou auiieiyaiuo ooioeee :

; Ri – eiee/anoai ?aaio, iacae?aieaiiuo ie oa iaeiei iiae?acaeaeaieai

eiyooeoeeaio aeoaee?iaaiey ?aaio

; RAe – eiee/anoai ?aaio, cae?aieaiiuo ca ianeieueeeie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie

Iniaui iai?aaeaieai aiaeeca ON yaeyaony eco/aiea i?aaiecaoeee ?aaio ii
ianeoaeeaaieth ooieoeeiiaeueiiai aiia?aoa oi?aaeaiey.

I aeae no?oeoo?u II aeae no?oeoo?u III aeae no?oeoo?u

Eaeoeey 14 08.05.97

Enneaaeiaaiea oi?aaeaiey iin?aaenoaii

nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai yenia?eiaioa

Ieai.

Iiiyoea e aeaeu yenia?eiaioia a ENO.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee yenia?eiaio eae eino?oiaio iienea iiauo
n?aaenoa aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey e oanoe?iaaiea a oi?aaeaiee.

Aii?in 1 : Iiiyoea e aeaeu yenia?eiaioia a ENO.

I?eioeei Ieoa?a E. : ii?i/iinoue ea?a?oe/aneie nenoaiu. A ea?a?oee
eaaeaeue eiaeeaeaeooi eiaao oaiaeaioeeth iiaeieiaoueny aei naiaai o?iaiy
iaeiiiaoaioiinoe.

Caeiiu a?oiiiaiai iiaaaeaiey :

caeii iaii?aaeaeaiiiai iioeioia – aini?eyoea ethaeueie aiaoieo
aicaeaenoaee ?acee/ii e /anoi iai?aaeneacoaii, iai?eia?, oi?aaeythuee e
?aaioiee

caeii iaaaeaeaaoiinoe ioia?aaeaiey /aeiaaea /aeiaaeii – /aeiaae ia
iiaeao iinoe/ue ae?oaiai /aeiaaea

caeii iaaaeaeaaoiinoe naiiioeaiee – /aeiaae nai naay ia iiciaao aei
eiioea

caeii ?anuaieaiey niunea oi?aaeai/aneie eioi?iaoeee – oi, /oi
?ac?aaioaii ia aa?oiai oi?aaeai/aneii o?iaia (i?eeacu), eiaao
oaiaeaioeeth eciaiyoueny ii ia?a nieaeaiey io iaeiiai ea?a?oe/aneiai
o?iaiy aei ae?oaiai

caeii naiinio?aiaiey – aaaeouei iioeaii nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey
/aeiaaea yaeyaony nio?aiaiea ee/iiai noaoona, aeinoieinoaa, oaaaeaiey e
o.ae.

caeii eiiiainaoeee – iiaeaea?aeeaaao /aeiaaea ia ii?aaeaeaiiii o?iaia,
eiiiaine?oy aai ineoieiae/aneea, nioeeaeueiua e oinoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee

Yenia?eiaio – i?iau, iiuo, iauaiao/iue iaoiae iieo/aiey a
eiio?iee?oaiuo e oi?aaeyaiuo oneiaeyo iiauo ciaiee i
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycyo iaaeaeo yaeaieyie e i?ioeannaie.

Yenia?eiaio – e?eoa?ee enoeiiinoe aeiioac.

Nioeeaeueiue yenia?eiaio – iaoiae iao/iiai iiciaiey, iniiaaiiue ia
nicaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo aeey eco/aiey eciaiaiey oa?aeoa?enoee
nioeeaeueiiai iauaeoa iiae oi?aaeythuei aicaeaenoaeai.

Anee nioe. yenia?eiaio nii?iaiaeaeaaony yenia?eiaioii a iaeanoe
yeiiiieee, oi iie a eiiieaena i?aaenoaaeytho niaie nioe-yeiiiie/aneee
yenia?eiaio.

Oi?aaeai/aneee yenia?eiaio – i?iaiia aiaae?aiea oi?aaeai/aneiai
iiaiaaaaeaiey n oeaeueth ioeaiee aiciiaeiue iineaaenoaee.

Aii?in 2 : Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee yenia?eiaio eae eino?oiaio iienea
iiauo n?aaenoa aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee yenia?eiaio noaaeo caaea/e :

io?aaioea aieaa aeaenoaaiiuo iaoiaeia eee nenoai iaoa?eaeueiiai
noeioee?iaaiey e iioeaaoeee

ooi/iaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey i?aa e ioaaonoaaiiinoe a NO

niaa?oainoaiaaiea ii?yaeea acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaenoaee a NO

caaea/e eiiioieeaoeee eee niuneiaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey

caaea/e eiaeaia?iie ineoieiaee – aiciiaeiinoe e iioaioeeae i?aaiia
/aeiaa/aneeo /oanoa

caaea/e acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea e iaoeiu

caaea/e iiaiaaaaeaiey e i?iaeaiu eo aiaae?aiey

Noaiu iinoaiiaee yenia?eiaioa :

Eeanne/aneay noaia iinoaiiaee nioe-yeii yenia?eiaioa

Iiae?acaeaeaiea ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiae?acaeaeaiey
Caoeene?iaaiiua

aei yenia?eiaioa iinea yenia?eiaioa eciaiaiey

1. Yenia?eiaioe?othuaa Y – oaeo/anoue eaae?ia Y’ Y’ – Y

2. Eiio?ieueiia (?aaioaao aac yenia?eiaioa) E E’ E’ – E

Yooaeo yenia?eiaioa (Y’ – Y) – (E’ – E)

Ei??aeoe?othuay noaia iinoaiiaee nioe-yeii yenia?eiaioa eee
eaace-yenia?eiaio

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee ei??aeoe?oaiiai yenia?eiaioa :

aaiaeeony oneeaiea eiio?iey iooai aaaaeaiey aeaoo a?oii iiae?acaeaeaiey,
yenia?eiaioe?othueo e n?aaiaiey – aeey oeaaeeaaiey eneaaeathuaai
yooaeoa, ia eioi?ue aicaeaenoaoao nai i?ioeann aeiyenia?eiaioiiai
ecia?aiey.

iaa yoe iiae?acaeaeaiey ia iiaeaa?aathony ecia?aieyi, /oi iicaieyao
iieo/eoue yooaeo a /enoii aeaea

i?e ?an/aoa yooaeoa ca iniiao aa?aony cia/aiea ia?aiao?ia aoi?iai
yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey iinea aiaae?aiey oi?aaeai/aneiai
iiaiaaaaeaiey

aeaiiua i ia?aiia/aeueiuo ia?aiao?ao aoi?iai iiae?acaeaeaiey
i?e?aaieaathony e n?aaeiaa?eoiaoe/aneiio cia/aieth ia?auo aeaoo a?oii,
oiaaea eneaaeathuee yooaeo ecia?yaony ?acieoeie eciaiaiee a ia?aiao?ao
ia?aie e aoi?ie a?oiiu n?aaiaiey

Noaia ei??aeoe?oaiiai yenia?eiaioa.

Iiae?acaeaeaiea ?acoeueoao ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiae?acaeaeaiey

aei yenia?eiaioa iinea yenia?eiaioa

1-y a?oiia Yenia?eiaioaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea ?1.

A?oiia n?aaiaiey ?1. Y1

C1 Y1′

C1′

2-y a?oiia Yenia?eiaioaeueiia iiae?acaeaeaiea ?2.

A?oiia n?aaiaiey ?2. –

– Y2′

C2′

Yooaeo yenia?eiaioa Y2′ – (Y1 + N1)/2

Eneaaeathuee yooaeo ecia?aiey (N1′ – C1) – [ C2′ – (Y1 + N1)/2 ]

Aii?in 3 : Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey e oanoe?iaaiea a oi?aaeaiee.

Nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeyony n oeaeueth auyaeaiey
nioeeaeueiuo iineaaenoaee oi?aaeai/aneeo iiaiaaaaeaiee.

Aaeueoii (a 1870-uo aiaeao ia iniiaaiee i?iaeaeaiiuo nioeeieiae/aneeo
yenia?eiaioia i?aaeeiaeee oai?eth a?oiie?iaee eaeae ii ea/anoao
eioaeeaeoa.

Ia iniiaa yoie oai?ee iiaeii oano (?).

?aaecey oanoia – aui?aaeaiea oaeoe/aneie e?eaie ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii oanoo
a niioaaonoaee n ii?iaeueiui caeiiii ?ani?aaeaeaiey.

Eaeoeey 15 13.05.97

Ioeaiea iioaioeeaea eee ?aeoeiaa NO

Ieai.

Iniiaiua iieacaoaee NO oe?iie

Ii?yaeie ioeaiee ?aeoeiaa NO

Aiaeec ?aeoeiaa e au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aai iiauoaieth

Aii?in 1 : Iniiaiua iieacaoaee NO oe?iie.

Anee FC’ aaeeee, oi i?aaiecaoeey ?aaioaao iayooaeoeaii.

Oie/oiaeaiea ath?ie?aoee aeinoeaaaony eciaiaieyie a i?aaeeao
oi?aaeaiey, a ia caiaiie iaiaaeaea?ia e oi?aaeythueo.

?aeoeia NO – eioaa?aeueiay ioeaiea NO, io?aaeathuay
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneia eniieiaiea NO.

Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua i?e ioeaiea ?aeoeiaa :

ii?aaeaeaiea oiai, ianeieueei aeaiiay NO oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi,
i?aaeuyaeyaiui e iae (iia?aoeaiinoue, aeaeinoue, yooaeoeaiinoue)

ia neieueei o?iaaiue aa iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai eniieiaiey ioaa/aao
nia?aiaiiui aiciiaeiinoyi

auyaeaiea niioaaonoaey iiaenenoai e eiiiiiaioia nicaeaaaaiie eee
aeaenoaothuae NO noi?ie?iaaiiui ia aeaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey a niioaaonoaee
aaciaui iieacaoaeyi (?)

O?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iieacaoaeyi :

eaaeaeue iieacaoaeue aeieaeai oa?aeoa?eciaaoue niaieoiiinoue yeaiaioia,
io eioi?ie caaeneo ?aeoeia nenoaiu

eaaeaeue iieacaoaeue aeieaeai iiaeaeaaaoueny eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea

/enei iieacaoaeae aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ?aeoeiaa aeieaeii auoue ia?aie/aii

aeey ecia?aiey cia/aiee iieacaoaeae aeieaeia i?eiaiyoueny aac?acia?iay
oeaea (?)

iieacaoaee aeieaeiu noeioee?iaaoue aiaae?aiea iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo
aa?eaioia NO

Ri – a?oiiu iieacaoaeae

R1 – o?iaaiue i?eieiaaiuo oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee

R2 – o?iaaiue eniieuecoaiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu

R3 – o?iaaiue iaania/eaathueo iiaenenoai

R4 – o?iaaiue ooieoeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo? NO

R5 – o?iaaiue oaoiieiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

R6 – o?iaaiue nioeeaeueiie aacu NO

R1 = {ri} :

r1 – iao/iay aaca i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

r2 – iaoiaeu e iiaeaee, eniieuecoaiua i?e ?aoaiee caaea/

r3 – o/ao noaiaie ?enea (iainiiaaiu ee ?aoaiey n oi/ee c?aiey ?enea)

r4 – iia?aoeaiinoue i?eieiaaiuo ?aoaiee

r5 – /enei ioeai/iuo ?aoaiee, i?eieiaaiuo iaiaaeaea?ii

r6 – yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

r7 – iiaecia e ia?niaeoeaiinoue ?aoaiey (/ai aeieaia?aiaiiae yooaeo,
oai eo/oa)

R2 = {ri} :

r1 – iaee/ea ii?iaoeaii-ni?aai/iie aacu

r2 – iaee/ea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie aacu aeaiiuo (AAAe)

r3 – noaiaiue eioaineaiinoe eniieueciaaiey aaiea aeaiiuo

r4 – noaiaiue aeinooia e aaieai aeaiiuo nio?oaeieeia NO

r5 – aeeyiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aacu ia onoaiiaeaiea eiiioieeaoeee iaaeaeo
iieueciaaoaeyie : aei 68% – aeey niaoeeaeenoia, aei 95% – aeey aunoaai
oi?aaeythuaai caaia

r6 – yooaeoeaiinoue AAAe

R3 = {ri} :

r1 – o?iaaiue iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee iaania/eaathueo iiaenenoai

r2 – o?iaaiue iaoiaee/aneiai e iaoaiaoe/aneiai iaania/aiey

r3 – o?iaaiue i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey

r4 – o?iaaiue i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai iaania/aiey (?aoeeiiaeueiue o?iaaiue
oeaio?aeecaoeee, niaoeeaeecaoeee, eiioeaio?aoeee ooieoeee, aeaeinoe,
oi?aaeyaiinoe, eniieieoaeueiinoe)

r5 – o?iaaiue yeiiiie/aneiai iaania/aiey

r6 – o?iaaiue eaae?iaiai iaania/aiey

R4 = {ri} :

r1 – i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue ooieoeee NO

r2 – noaiaiue oeaio?aeecaoeee e niaoeeaeecaoeee eniieiaiey ooieoeee

r3 – niioaaonoaea eaaeeoeeaoeee eniieieoaeae auiieiyaiui ooieoeeyi

r4 – iia?aoeaiinoue e ea/anoaaiiinoue ?aoaiee, i?eieiaaiuo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie

R5 = {ri} :

r1 – o?iaaiue oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, eniieuecoaiuo i?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiee

r2 – /enei iao/iiiainiiaaiiuo iaoiaeia i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

r3 – noaiaiue iiaeciu i?ioeaaeo? i?eiyoey ?aoaiee

r4 – oaeiaeaoai?aiea o?aaiaaieyi oaoiieiaee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee
(iia?aoeaiinoue, ?eoie/iinoue, iai?a?uaiinoue, nie?auaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe
oeeeea i?eiyoey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee)

R6 = {ri} :

r1 – o?iaaiue eaae?iaie ?aaiou (oaeo/anoue eaae?ia, aeeiaieea, ninoaa,
no?oeoo?a e eaaeeoeeaoeey eaae?ia)

r2 – nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneay ianoaiiaea a eieeaeoeaa

r3 – noeeue ?aaiou ?oeiaiaeeoaey NO

r4 – ioeaiea e noeioee?iaaiea o?oaea a NO

; ? – ?aaeeciaaiiue, a – aaciaue

R? = ((R1, R2, R3, R4, R5, R6)

, 0<= ri <=1ri - noaiaea?oece?iaaiiia cia/aiea i-ai iieacaoaeyAii?in 3 : Aiaeec ?aeoeiaa e au?aaioea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aai iiauoaieth.Iaoiae naiaioe/aneiai aeeooa?aioeeaea* ***Eaeoeey 16 23.05.97Aiaeec i?ioeannia iainiiaaiey, i?eiyoey eauiieiaiey oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaieeIeai.Nouiinoue e ?aciiaeaeiinoe oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee (O?)Aiaeec ninoaaa O?Aiaeec iaoiaeia iainiiaaiey e i?eiyoey O?O/ao oaeoi?a ?enea i?e i?eiyoeeAii?in 1 : Nouiinoue e ?aciiaeaeiinoe oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee (O?).Yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea eaieoaea.; Ae - ethaie enoi/iee i?eauee, E - eaieoae.Oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea - yoi iaeii?aciaue aeo aicaeaenoaey ia iauaeo oi?aaeaiey, eioi?ue onoaiaaeeaaao i?ia?aiio aeaenoaee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ii?aaeaeaiea e ?aaeecaoeeth eiie?aoiie oeaee, auoaeathuae ec iaueo caaea/, noiyueo ia?aae oi?aaeyaiui iauaeoii.O? aeieaeii auoue iniiaaii ia :aiaeeca eiie?aoiie, neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeeeaiaeeca aeueoa?iaoea ?aoaiey yoie neooaoeeeO?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e O? :O?aaiaaiea iaeii?aciaiai aicaeaenoaey ia iauaeo oi?aaeaieyAeueoa?iaoeaiue oa?aeoa? ?aoaieeO? aeieaeii auoue oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuiEaaeaeia oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea aeieaeii auoue niaaaeaii i?ia?aiiie aeaenoaeeEaaeaeia O? aeieaeii auoue ?ano?nii e i?aaiecaoeeiiii iaania/aiiO? aeieaeii auoue aae?aniuiO?aaiaaiea ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca O?Oi?aaeai/aneay "iyoa?iy" eae i?eioeei o?aaiaaoaeueiinoe e ioaaonoaaiiinoe e O?.O/ao ?enea i?e i?eiyoee O??aciiaeaeiinoe O? ii i?eciaeo no?oeoo?ecaoeee.?aciiaeaeiinoe O? (ii ae?oaei i?eciaeai)I?eciaee eeanneoeeaoeee Oi?aaeai/aneea ?aoaieyIanooaa iauaeoa aeiaaeueiua, eanathueany anaai iauaeoa oi?aaeaieyeieaeueiuaOa?aeoa? oeaee no?aoaae/aneea (>5 eao)

oaeoe/aneea (ia 1 aiae)

iia?aoeaiua (ia 1 ianyoe)

Ia?eiae inouanoaeaiey ia?niaeoeaiua

oaeouea

?aaoee?iai/iua

E?oa ioaaouaaaiuo i?iaeai eiiieaeniua

/anoiua

Iaoiaeu iainiiaaiey oi?iaeeciaaiiua

ya?enoe/aneea

Oneiaey i?eiyoey no?oeoo?eciaaiiua

aa?iyoiinoiua

iieneiaua

Ninoaa aicaeaenoaey i?yiie

aee?aeoeaiue

einaaiiue

Iai?aaeaiea aicaeaenoaey aiaoiaa

aioo?aiiaa

Aeoaeia aicaeaenoaey iaeiio?iaiaaua

iiiaio?iaiaaua

Niinia oeenaoeee ienueiaiiua

onoiua

niaoaiiua

Aii?in 2 : Aiaeec ninoaaa O?.

Aiaeec ninoaaa O? iiaeao auoue ea/anoaaiiui e eiee/anoaaiiui.

Oeaeue aiaeeca : i?iaiaeece?iaaoue O? ia niioaaonoaea i?aaeuyaeyaiui
o?aaiaaieyi

Ea/anoaaiiay ioeaiea inouanoaeyaony iooai eco/aiey niaea?aeaiey O?.

Eiee/anoaaiiay ioeaiea O? : niiinoaaeaiea oaeaeueiiai aana oao eee eiuo
?aoaiee, i?eiyouo ca ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae.

Aiaeec i?aaaioeaiinoe O? – neaaeothuee aeae aiaeeca (?)

Aiaeec ia iao/ioth iainiiaaiiinoue : aiaeec ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia O? e eo
iineaaenoaee

Aiaeec ia niioaaonoaea i?aaiaui ii?iaoeaai

Aiaeec ?ano?niiai iaania/aiey

Aiaeec iainiiaaiiinoe ?aoaiee n oi/ee c?aiey iieo/aiiiai e ?an/aoiiai
yooaeoa

Aii?in 3 : Aiaeec iaoiaeia iainiiaaiey e i?eiyoey O?.

(ni. eaeoeeth “Iaoiaeu aiaeeca NO”)

Aii?in 4 : O/ao oaeoi?a ?enea i?e i?eiyoee.

?ene – yoi aeaenoaea eee i?aaei?eyoea a ?an/aoa ia oaea/o, ii n
eaeei-oi (?) enoiaeii.

?ene (n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiieee) – yoi neooaoeeiiiay oa?aeoa?enoeea
aeayoaeueiinoe, ninoiyuay a iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe aa enoiaea e aiciiaeiuo
iaaeaaii?eyoiuo iineaaenoaeyo a neo/aa iaoniaoa.

?ene iiaeao auoue ?anniio?ai a 3-o iai?aaeaieyo :

Eae ia?a iaeeaeaaiiai iaaeaaiiieo/ey i?e iaoniaoa

Eae aeaenoaea, a?icyuaa iioa?ae

Eae neooaoeey auai?a iaaeaeo aa?eaioaie :

iaiaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui e aieaa iaaeaaeiui

aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiui e iaiaa iaaeaaeiui

?enee auaatho :

Iioeae?iaaiiuie (aeoeaiuie) – yoi ?ene ?ann/eoaiiue ia neooaoeaiua
i?aeiouanoaa a aeayoaeueiinoe, o.a. ia i?aiaeieaiea aa?uea?a

Iaiioeae?iaaiiua (ianneaiua) – yoi ?ene, aicieeathuee a oaeoueo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao, iiae eioi?ue i?eniinaaeeaathony : iieaaia iiaaaeaiea

Ii?aaaeaiiua

Iaii?aaaeaiiua

Nouanoaoao 3 iai?aaeaiey nieaeaiey ?enea :

aeeaa?neoeeaoeey

no?aoiaaiea

i?eia?aoaiea aeiiieieoaeueiie eioi?iaoeee

E ia?aiao?ai ?enea ioiinyony :

Aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey ?aaeecaoeee O?- oae iacuaaaiia iaeeaeaaiia
cia/aiea (iieaciinoue) – Y(O)

Aa?iyoiinoue naieo iineaaenoaee

Pi – aa?iyoiinoue i-ai enoiaea i?eieiaaiiai ?aoaiey.

Oiaaea, Y(O) = P1*x1 + P2*x2 , aaea ?1, ?2 – aa?iyoiinoue 2-o aa?eaioia
enoiaea, o1, o2 – ?acoeueoao io aeaiiiai enoiaea.

E?eoa?ee ioeaiee noaiaie ?enea.

Iiieii iaeeaeaaiiai cia/aiey, e?eoa?eai ioeaiee noaiaie ?enea iiaeao
neoaeeoue oae iacuaaaiay eciai/eainoue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyaony
aeenia?neae, n?aaeiaeaaae?aoe/iui ioeeiiaieai e n?aaeiei ioeeiiaieai.

(2 = P1*[(o1-Y(O))2] + P2*[(o2-Y(O))2]

o1, o2 – aeaenoaeoaeueiua cia/aiey ?acoeueoaoa i-ai enoiaea

Y(O) – on?aaeiaiiia iaeeaeaaiia cia/aiea

– n?aaeiaa ioeeiiaiea

= P1*(o1-Y(O)) + P2*(o2-Y(O))

D = (2 – aeenia?ney

Iaeeaeaaiia cia/aiea (iieaciinoue) yoi aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey eaeiai
eeai aeaenoaey.

Aa?iyoiinoue ? yoi aa?iyoiinoue naieo iineaaenoaee

Iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey aa?iyoiinoe Pi iniiaai ia au/eneaiee /anoiou, n
eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo iaeioi?ia niauoea

Eaeoeey 17 27.05.97

Aeeaaiinoeea e aiaeec yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe NO i?aaei?eyoeyie

Ieai.

Aeeaaiinoe/aneee aiaeec eae aaaeiue yoai

Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa, aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe NO

Aii?in 1 : Aeeaaiinoe/aneee aiaeec eae aaaeiue yoai.

Iaeiei ec yoaiia niaa?oainoaiaaiey NO yaeyaony aeeaaiinoe/aneee aiaeec
(AeA).

AeA – yoi auyaeaiea aeinoieinoa e iaaeinoaoeia aeaenoaothuae NO.

AeA iaiaoiaeei aeey iainiiaaiey i?iaeoa e iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai
aiaae?aiey ia?ii?eyoee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth NO. Ii nooe aeaea AeA yoi
noaaeey nenoaiiiai aiaeeca ()o?aaoaony nenoaiiue iiaeoiae, a eiaiii
?ac?aaioea aea?aaa oeaeae i?iaeai e i?eiaiaiea ?acee/iuo nenoai e
iaoiaeia).

AeA aeeth/aao :

eco/aiea aeaenoaothuaai aeieoiaioiiai?ioa ia i?aaei?eyoee

auyaeaiea oeaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?iu

auyaeaiea niiniaia aeinoeaeaiey yoeo oeaeae

aiaeec iieacaoaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NO

iiaeaioiaea i?aaeeiaeaiee

Noaia aeeaaiinoe?iaaiey NO.

Aii?in 2 : Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa, aiaeeca yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe NO.

Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io aiaae?aiey eiiieaeniiai
?aoaiey i?iaeai.

Yooaeo iiaeao auoue ?ann/eoai ia neaaeothueo noaaeeyo :

ia noaaeee ?ac?aaioee ia?ii?eyoey

ia noaaeee au?aaioee ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth NO

ia noaaeee aiaae?aiey ia?ii?eyoey

1. Aiaeec enoi/ieeia yooaeoeaiinoe NO :

oaaee/aiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea ia?niiaea aneaaenoaea nie?auaiey
iioa?ue ?aai/aai a?aiaie

nie?auaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee

iiauoaiea iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?aaeieo iiuiinoyo

iiauoaiea ea/anoaa e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee

2. I?eaaaeaiea anao yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae e niiinoaaeiiio aeaeo.

I?eaaaeaiea ii a?aiaie (eaieoaeueiua cao?aou) :

ENO = Et * (1 + AI)T-t ; Kt – eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey a t-ii aiaeo, AI –
eiyooeoeeaio i?eaaaeaiey (i?eia? : nnoaeiue i?ioeaio)

AI ( 0.1 ( 0.15

Aeeneiioe?iaaiea (i?eaueue) :

Aeeneiio a?aiaie – yoi iia?aoeey, eiathuay oeaeueth o/anoue
ia?aaiiia?iinoue cao?ao e ?acoeueoaoia, ioiinyueony e ?acee/iui iiiaioai
a?aiaie.

I?eaaaeaiea ii yeaiaioai cao?ao.

Niiinoaaeiinoue yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae aeinoeaaaony iooai
eiaeaenaoeee.

Eiaeaene?othony :

iauaiu iinooieaiey e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia

o?iaaiue oiaa?iuo caiania

eciaiaiea oeai ia iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu

i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea

ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey

i?eaueue

Eniieuecoaiua eiaeaenu :

aeaoeyoi? AAI (iae?iyeiiiie/aneee o?iaaiue) – yoi noaiaiue eioeyoeee ii
anae niaieoiiinoe aeaa, i?iecaaaeaiiuo e iio?aaeaiiuo a ainoaea?noaa.

aa?aaaoiue eiaeaen (io?aneaaie e ?aaeiiaeueiue o?iaaiue)

(o?iaaiue i?aaei?eyoee) – eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue eiaeaen iio?aaeoaeueneeo
oeai (EIOe) :

; P1, P0 – oeaia iuiaoiaai e i?ioeiai aiaea.

E niiinoaaeiiio aeaeo ii oa?eoiui noaaeai c/i inouanoaeyaony iooai
eiaeaenaoeee c/i a niioaaonoaee n i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie iinoaiiaeaieyie.

3. Auai? iieacaoaeae yooaeoa io ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NO.

Nenoaia iieacaoaeae iiaeao auoue ?acaeaeaia ia a?oiiu :

a) iaiauathuea iieacaoaee

Yooaeo io NO :

(I? – i?e?ino /enoie i?eauee (?) ca n/ao aiaae?aiey aeaiiiai ia?ii?eyoey

II – i?iiaaeooi/iia iio?aaeaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa (noieiinoue anao
iaoa?eaeueiuo aeaa e oneoa iio?aaeaiiuo a oa/aiea aeaiiiai ia?eiaea
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NO)

A – aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia

I – iioa?e a noa?a oi?aaeaiey

, ?oa/aiae

N1, N2 – iauai ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aei e iinea niaa?oainoaiaaiey
NO

I1 – i?eaueue, iieo/aiiay a i?ioeii aiaeo aei niaa?oainoaiaaiey NO

N1, N2 – cao?aou ia ?oaeue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee aei e iinea
aiaae?aiey

Eiyooeoeeaio yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe e n?ie ieoiaaiinoe
eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee a NO.

EaeNO = Ei? + Eai ; Ei? (Eai) – eiyooeoeeaio i?iaeoe?iaaiey
(aiaae?aiey) eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee.

Liani – iany/iay c/i ?ac?aaio/eeia

Ni – o?oaeiaieinoue (/aeiaae/ian)

Eae – eiyooeoeeaio aeii-e (aeiiieieoaeueiie ?) c/i

En.i. – io/eneaiea ia nioeeaeueiua ioaeaeu

Ei.?. – eiyooeoeeaio iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia

Eai = Eia + Ee.n. + Eii + Ei.n. + Aiiio + Eioe

Eia – iai?oaeiaaiea

Ee.n. – ee/iua nayce

Eii – i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey

Ei.n. – iai?ioiua n?aaenoaa

Aiiio – iiioaae

Eioe – ioeaaeea

enneaaeiaaiea nenoai oi?aaeaiey

PAGE 33

enneaaeiaaiea nenoai oi?aaeaiey

PAGE 35

ss O I A I E E A
N I I Ae

ianyoe

Iauai

?aaeecaoeee

Z (oeaeue oe?iu)

Oaeoe/anee iieo/aiiia ca o?e ianyoea

i?iaiic

X

Y

Eiaenoe/aneay e?eaay, iieacuaathuay aeeiaieeo eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee

Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey

Iauaeo oi?aaeaiey

Iinoaiiaea caaea/e

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiue aiaeec eioi?iaoeee

Oi?ie?iaaiea enoiaeiuo aeiioac

Ieaie?iaaiea e i?aaiecaoeey

I?iaaaeaiea yenia?eiaioa

Aiaeec e iaiauaiea

I?iaa?ea enoiaeiuo aeiioac

Ieii/aoaeueiay oi?ioee?iaea iiauo oaeoi?ia e caeiiia

Aiaae?aiea iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia

Aeiioaca – ia aiieia aeieacaiiia ninoiyiea nenoaiu a aoaeouai

Aeiioaca i?eieiaaony, ioaa?aa-aony, ei??aeoe?oaony

NENOAIA

x1

x2

x3

y1

y2

y3

X

Y

X = {x1, x2, …, xN}

Y = {y1, y2, …, yN}

Ia?aiao?u

I?eioeeiu

NO

Y

X

G

V

S

N

L

M

1

2

Iaoa?eaeueiue iioie

Eioi?iaoeeiiiue iioie

Aiaoiyy n?aaea

NO

IO

Aiaoiyy n?aaea

NO

IO

Aiaoiyy n?aaea

NO

IO

Aiaoiyy n?aaea

NO

IO

iae?in?aaea

NO

IO

ianoiay

aeaaiay

aieaa aeaenoaaiiay

NO

AAe

IO

1

2

3

4

7

8

9

10

5

6

1

2

3

4

7

8

9

10

5

6

Yi

Yi

Yi’

Ye

0

Ii? Ii?aae
Ii

Yi’

Yi”

I’i? I”i?

Oece/aneay

I?aaiaoe/aneay

Naiaioe/aneay

oi?iaeecaoeey

Eeanneoeeaoeeiiiua

a?oiie?iaee

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea

nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oe?iu

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea

iiaenenoai NO

I?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue IO

I?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue

ooieoeeiiaeueiuo iiaenenoai NO

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay niaieoiiinoue, auaeaeyaiay ii ii?aaeaeaiiie oi?ia
i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee

Aeieoiaio

Oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee

I?aaeiaoiay iaeanoue, oa?aeoa?ecothuay iieacaoaee

Iieacaoaeue – aaoiiiiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay niaieoiiinoue, eiathuay naie
aeai?eoi auaiaea

?aeaeceou (ia ?acaeaathony ia eioi?iaoeeiiiua niaieoiiinoe e
oa?aeoa?ecotho ioaeaeueiua naienoaa iauaeoia eee nouiinoae

Eioi?iaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea

iiaenenoai NO

NO

IO

NO

IO

Iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou oaeeo nenoai iiaoo auoue oi?ioi i?aaieciaaiu

Aieueoia /enei ninoiyiee a oaciaii i?ino?ainoaa. Anee nenoaia aueaeao ec
iaai, oi i?ienoiaeeo ?ac?ooaiea

max

ninoiyiea

min

Sx

O(x)

iia?aoi?

Pi

Pi = a + b*T

T

Pi

Pi = a + b*T+c*T2

T

Pi

Pi = a*Tb

T

Pi

Pi = a*bT

T

Sx

O(x)

iia?aoi?

X1 X2

Nenoaia ioia?aaeaaony a aeaea ?aciuoiai iiaeiiiaeanoaa, a?aieoeu
eioi?iai eiatho aa?iyoiinoiua oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Ana neo/aeiua aaee/eiu eiioeaio?e?othony a n?aaeieo cia/aieyo (iai?eia?,
?ino /aeiaaea, oinoaaiiua niiniaiinoe ethaeae).

I

( Aeaoia?iia iiiaeanoai

I?eia? : ia?niiae aeaiiiai oeaoa

X

a

M

a

a

Sx

O(x)

Eniieuecoaony aeey enneaaeiaaiey nenoai e ?aoaiey caaea/ ii
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?a a eioi?iaoeeiiii-oi?aaeythueo eiiieaenao,
iniaaiii, aaea anoue acaeiiaeaenoaea /aeiaaea e oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

ia/aei

– auaea/a caaeaiey

– ooaa?aeaeaiea caaeaiee

– aaeieieno?aoeaiia aicaeaenoaea ia eniieieoaey

– eiio?ieue ca eniieiaieai

– ?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa caaeaiey

– ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?oeiaiaenoai

– iaoiaee/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai

– i?eiyoea ?aoaiee

– iaeia?aiea aeueoa?iaoeau

– eii?aeeiaoeey

– niaeaniaaiea

– eiinoeueoaoeey

– ia?aaioea aeieoiaioia

– oeenaoeey eioi?iaoeee

– ia?aaioea eioi?iaoeee

– io/aoiinoue

?acoeueoaou iiaeaee?iaaiey

oeaee

H>1 (( (aunieee)

a

1 2 3 4

“*eiiaie/ee ooi”

Rc n

Ra a Rb b – eeiaeiua caaiuey

1 2 3 4

Rc n

r = 2 a – eeiaeiua

b – ooieoeeiiaeueiua

Ra a Rb b

E O

r = 4 r = 2

1 2 3 4

d

r = 2

a b n r = 4

E O1 O2

r = 4 r = 2

1 2 3 4

a

r = 2

R + Ra = 1

R >> Ra

2 3

1 4 r = 1

a

2 i?ioeai?a/ea

1 3

a

2 3

1 4

R = 1

a

1 2 3 4

Ra = 1

I?ino?ainoaaiiay iiaeaeue ON NO

Ooieoeeiiaeueiua

iiaenenoaiu

iaania/eaathuea iiaenenoaiu

oeaeaaua iiaenenoaiu

O.I.

O.I.

O.I.

I.I.

I.I.

I.I.

O.I.

O.I.

O.I.

E.I.

O.I.

O.I.

O.I.

O.I.

E.Oe.

O.I.

E.I.

I.I.

%, i?eauee

20 aeiey oe?i

3 2 1 1 2 3

7% 24% 38% 24% 7%

– IO (oaoiieiaey, iiaua ecaeaeey)

– NO

0 t1

NO

IO

(noauaeo oi?aaeaiey)

(iauaeo oi?aaeaiey)

Aunoaa caaii Iecoaa caaii

Noaiaiue aeaoaeecaoeee (aa oaaee/aiea)

Noaiaiue

iaaeeia

Aeiiaai

/ae auai?

/ae eino?oeoaae

/ae eiio?ieue

A aio y ia?eniaae oaeoth e?eaoth ?oeo (

I?eaao anai eoi o/eo yecaiaiu ( ss?EE

Oi?aaeai/aneia ?aoaiea

No?oeoo?e?iaaiiua (aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiua), o.a. eiathuea iaeiicia/iia
niioaaonoaea auoiaeiuo aeaiiuo enoiaeiui aeaiiui.

I?eia? :

oeiiaua noaiaea?ou, i?aaeea, i?ioeaaeo?u

?an/aoii-aiaeeoe/aneea iaoiaeu

noaiaea?ou iiaaaeaiey (yoeeao, aeaeiaay yoeea)

iioeiecaoeeiiiua iaoiaeu

a?aoe/aneea iiaeaee

Iano?oeoo?e?iaaiiua, o.a. ia eiathuea oaeiai niioaaonoaey.

I?eia? :

iiuoiua ?aoaiey, o.a. ?aoaiey iniiaaiiua ia iiuoa

yenia?oiua iaoiaeu

Neaai no?oeoo?e?iaaiiua O? :

I?eia? :

i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaua iaoiaeu

nenoaiiue aiaeec

aanaaeu e ii?in ?oeiaiaeeoaeae

oanoe?iaaiea

nioeeia?aiiu

1.Oi?ioee?iaea oeaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee

2.Iaci? aeaiiuo i ninoiyiee NO e acaeiiaeaenoaothueo n iae iauaeoia

ia?ae/iua e aoi?e/iua aeieoiaiou

aeieoiaioiiioiee e nayce iaaeaeo ieie

i?aaiea?aiiu e eioi?iaoeeiiiua iiaeaee

3.Auyaeaiea i?iaeai oi?aaeaiey :

ninoiyiea ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa

ninoiyiea ?acaeoey NO

ninoaaeaiea ea?oi/ee i?iaeai

nenoaiiue aiaeec

iino?iaiea aea?aaa i?iaeai

aioo?aiiee e aiaoiee aiaeec i?iaueeai

4.Aiaeec auyaeaiiuo i?iaeai :

acaeiinayce iaaeaeo i?iaeaiaie

i?e/eiu eo aicieeiiaaiey

oaeoi?u, i?aiyonoaothuea ?aoaieth i?iaeai

noaia acaeiinayce i?iaeai (no?ieony aiaeiae/ii eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaee)

iao?eoea acaeiinaycae oaeoi?ia, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue iino?iaia ia aaca
iao?eoeu ?annoaiiaee i?ei?eoaoia

5.Auyaeaiea iaai?a n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu NO

ii?oieiae/aneee aiaeec, n oeaeueth auyaeaiey aeey eaaeaeie i?iaeaiu
aa?eaioia aa ?aoaiey

i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneee ieai ii ?acaeoeth NO

6.?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee aeey aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae

caaea/e oe?iu, noiyuea ia?aae i?iecaiaenoaii

caaea/e noiyuea ia?aae NO

noaia acaeiinayce caaea/

iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ano?oeoo?

auyaeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoaaa neoaea

niaoeeaeecaoeey e oeaio?aeecaoeey

i?aaiea?aiiu i?ioeaaeo? ?aoaiey caaea/

ioeaiea ?enea

7.Oi?ioee?iaea oeaeae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeee

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