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Зодчество и иконопись в православии

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A?oeoaeoo?a i?iaeieaeaao inoaaaoueny iaeienneaaeiaaiiie aeaaie enoi?ee
eoeueoo?u ?onneiai Ca?oaaaeuey a oeaeii. E eoeueoiaia ciae/anoai, eae
aaaeiaeoay /anoue yoie eneeth/eoaeueii aeooaeueiie caaea/e
ioa/anoaaiiiai a?oeoaeoo?iaaaeaiey, ia yaeyaony eneeth/aieai. N iieiui
iniiaaieai oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e i i?aaineaaiii
o?aiino?ieoaeuenoaa a ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea e. XIX a.
ia?aie iie. OO a.: aai a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiay o?aaeeoeey
i?aeoe/anee ia eco/aia.

A 1904 a. ecaanoiaeoei iaoa?ao?aneei a?aaeaeaineei eiaeaia?ii Aan. A.
Einyeiaui aue ?ac?aaioai i?iaeo i?aaineaaiie oea?eae i?e ?onneie
aeeieiiaoe/aneie iennee a Naoea. Ii yoi i?iaeoo ia noaeaeaii auei
inouanoaeoueny. A nayce n e?aeiae neiaeiinoueth ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e
neoaeinoueth n?aaenoa i?aaineaaiie iennee a Ei?aa aiaineoaeaiea oai n
naiiai ia/aea inouanoaeyeinue a i?eniiniaeaiiuo iiiauaieyo:
ia?aiia/aeueii a caeaiee ?onneie aeeieiiaoe/aneie iennee a Naoea, n 1903
a. a a. aeaineie aeiiacee, a oaeaea a i?ioanoaioneeo, aiaeeeaineeo
o?enoeaineeo o?aiao. A ia?aie o?aoe OO a. a naaa?iie Ei?aa oaeaea
nouanoaiaaee i?eoiaeu: a Ioaiueyia, Aiinaia, a iiianouea ssieianeeo
Iiaeia a i?. Naa. Oaiaai. Ca eneeth/aieai niaoeeaeueii iino?iaiiie TH.
I. ssieianeei oea?eae, aa?iyoiae anaai, iie oaeaea ?aciauaeenue a
iiaeoiaeyueo auaoeo iauanoaaiiuo caeaieyo. Anoue aeaiiua, /oi a 1903 a.
ioaoe O?enaio (Uaoeianeee) iino?iee iaeaiueeoth a?aiaiioth /aniaith a
Naoea a /anoue Nayoeoaey Ieeieay, aaea e ia/aeanue aai ienneiia?neay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Oioia?aoee, caia/aoeaaoae au iaeee yoie /aniaie ia
iaia?oaeaii. Aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey, aiciiaeii e auyayo iiaua oaeou
i i?aaineaaiii o?aiino?ieoaeuenoaa a Ei?aa. Oaeei ia?acii, aiai?y ia
enoi?eia?aoee cayaeaiiie i?iaeaiu, eiathony a aeaeo i?aaeaea anaai
Iaiue/aeo?ey e Eeoae, ii eioi?ui iia ian?aaieia aiaa/a ai anao
ioiioaieyo. Iaeiei neiaii o?aaeeoeee aa oeaeaiai?aaeaiiiai eco/aiey iao,
iia oieueei ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny. A nayce n yoei iaiaoiaeeii auaeaeeoue
eiathueany a?oeoaeoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey i?aaineaaiiai
o?aiino?ieoaeuenoaa a Iaiue/aeo?ee e Eeoaa iineaaeieo eao. Iie oeaiiu
naiae iiaeciie, aeooaeueiinoueth, ia?aie iiiuoeie
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aiaeeca. Iaecaaaeii, /oi a ia?aii a
ioa/anoaaiiii a?oeoaeoo?iaaaeaiee niaoeeaeueiii enneaaeiaaiee ?onneie
a?oeoaeoo?u a aeaeueiaainoi/iii ca?oaaaeuea auee aeiiouaiu iaeioi?ua
iaoi/iinoe a ao?eaooeee o?aiia, a noeeenoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaiu a
ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee. Ii iaaei o/eouaaoue, /oi a?oeoaeoo?a i?aaineaaiuo
o?aiia e ia yaeyeanue nianoaaiii oaiie aeenna?oaoeee. Na?ey ioaeeeaoeee
I. I. E?aaeeia iinayuaia ?onneei i?aaineaaiui oea?eayi a Eeoaa
(1997-2000). A ieo aia?aua a o?iiieiae/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeaia
ioiineoaeueii iieiay ia aeaiiue iiiaio enoi?ey i?aaineaaiiai
o?aiino?ieoaeuenoaa n eiioea XVII a. aei 30-o aa. OO aa., a oaeaea
enoi?ey i?iaeoe?iaaiey, aicaaaeaiey e e?aoeee a?oeoaeoo?iue aiaeec naie
e?oiiaeoeo o?aiia Oa?aeia (Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneiai niai?a, oea?eaae Nayoie
Nioee, Aeaaiaauaineie, Eaa?neie, Aeaenaaaneie, Iie?ianeie, Ieeieay
*oaeioai?oea a Caoiia). Aaoi?ii a ?yaea noaoae (2000-2001) i?aaei?eiyo
aiaeec aecaioeeneiai, ?onneiai e iai?onneiai noeeae, aiieiuaiiuo a
i?aaineaaiuo o?aiao Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e. XIX ia?aie o?aoe OO a.: a
Oa?aeia, Aeaeueiai, oea?eayo-oeieao ii eeiee EAaeae, Oieei, Oaeiaeaoy.
Noaaeeanue caaea/a auyaeaiey eo iniaaiiinoae e oeie/iinoe a n?aaiaiee n
o?aiaie ?inneeneiai Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, ioeaiee eo eiiiiceoeeiiiie ?iee
a oi?ie?iaaiee ai?iaeneeo iaii?ai e neeoyoia, a oaeaea iiiuoee
noi?ioee?iaaoue eo cia/aiea a i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey naiaai eoeueoo?iiai
ia?aca aiiaue inaaeaaaiuo oa??eoi?ee.

E a 1934 a. (aeie oaeie ianeuoaiiie ?ac?ooe e oua?aa ii neiaai ?a?eoa) a
?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea aeooiaiia ianeaaeea Na?aey ?aaeiiaaeneiai aeey
aeooiaii-i?aanoaaiiuo eneaiee ?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee e aeooiaainoaa, eae
e a ia/aea OO a., eiaei aeeaie, iai?aoiaeyuee niune.

I?iaeoe?oy e ?anienuaay o?aiu a?oeoaeoi?u e ooaeiaeieee naieie
n?aaenoaaie i?aaenoaaeytho oio aea eaeaae, /oi e ?aeeaeiciua oeeiniou.
Aeey ?onneeo iuneeoaeae, ooaeiaeieeia e ciae/eo eaeaaeueiui aiieiuaieai
neioaca eneonnoa aeaeeony o?ai, niaa?oathuaany oai aiaineoaeaiea.

Iinoaiiaea ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?iaeaiu o?aiiaiai ciae/anoaa ia Aeaeueiai
Ainoiea a oaeie ?aeo?na a eiioaenoa ?onneiai ?aeeaeiciiai eneonnoaa
?innee e. XIX ia/. OO aa.- ii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?anniao?eaaoue
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiioth no?oeoo?o o?aia a aaeeinoaa n aai
aioo?aiiei oa?ainoaii ?inienyie e eeiiiienueth.

I?e yoii aaoi?, iniciaaay aeneiiaoe/iinoue aiaineianeie iniiau
o?aiino?iaiey, iaoneiaeeaathuae eco/aiea ?onneie o?aiiaie a?oeoaeoo?u ai
acaeiinayce n iae, ia noaaeo oeaeue iieiinoueth ?aaeeciaaoue i?eioeei
eiiieaeniiai ?anniio?aiey ?acee/iuo aniaeoia, – n aaaeouae ?ieueth
nae?aeueiiai oaeoi?a. Ia aeaiiii yoaia oai?aoe/aneie ?ac?aaioee i?iaeaiu
a oeaeii (a o?aaothony niaoeeaeueiua ecuneaiey ii iniuneaieth
nae?aeueiiai niaea?aeaiea o?aiiaie a?oeoaeoo?u Iiaiai a?aiaie,
acaeiiaeaenoaey o?aaeeoeeiiiuo oea?eiaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i o?aia e
i?eaiineiuo naaonei-aeai?oeiauo ia?acia, niioianaiiinoe iiaiai neioaca n
eaeaae o?aia e o. ae., ) e ninoiyiey enoi?eei-a?oeoaeoo?iuo
enneaaeiaaiee o?aiia a aeaeueiaainoi/iii ?aaeiia a /anoiinoe (noaaeey
ia?aiia/aeueiiai iniuneaiey) yoi ia?aaeueii, ii e?aeiae ia?a a ?aieao
noaouee. I?eioeei eiiieaeniinoe ?aaeecoaony aaoi?ii a oie ia?a, a eaeie
iicaieytho ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee, eiathueo naith o?aaeeoeeth.

Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneay oea?eiaue (1923-1928) ia eaaii aa?aao Noiaa?e a
Caoiia, aiaoiee iaeee eioi?ie aeiaieueii o?aaeeoeeiiai, oioy e ia eeoai
ia?ainiuneaiey iaeioi?uo eaiiie/aneeo i?eioeeiia ae?aaia?onneiai
ciae/anoaa (neeyiea i?ino?ainoaa o?aiaciie n o?aiii, naiaia?acii
?aoaiiue aa?oiee /aoaa?ee eieieieueie), eiaea aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiue
eeiiinoan, eniieiaiiue ooaeiaeieeaie-eeiiiienoeaie a?aoueyie
Caaei?iaeiuie a aeooa iiaiai a?aiaie. Ieeieay Caaei?iaeiiai iacuaaee
niciaoaeueiui i?iaeieaeaoaeai A. I. Aaniaoeiaa e I. A. Ianoa?iaa ?onneeo
ooaeiaeieeia-eeaea?ia ia/. OO a., ?aaii eae e I. ?a?eo, naycaaoeo naia
i?ecaaiea n aic?iaeaeaieai oea?eiaiiai eneonnoaa. Iaia?oaeaii iiiaeanoai
oaeoia, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo oi, /oi ?onneea ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneea eaeae
ia/. OO a. y?ei e cia/eoaeueii i?aeiieeenue eiaiii a ?aeeaeiciie
aeeaiiene Oa?aeia, e aoeaaeueii n ia?aiai e?oiiiai eaiaiiiai o?aia.

Eniieueciaaiea eiiee n ea?oei ia ?aeeaeiciua nthaeaou ecaanoiuo
ooaeiaeieeia a ea/anoaa o?aiiaie aeeaiiene auei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui
yaeaieai a ?innee ia/. XXa. E caeiiiia?ii, /oi ia anai i?ioyaeaiee
i?aaineaaiiai o?aiino?ieoaeuenoaa a Iaiue/aeo?ee, aea e a ssiiiee, yoa
o?aaeeoeey i?aaie/ii ?acaeaaeanue. A ?innee aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth
iieueciaaeenue ?iniene Aaniaoeiaa, e ainnicaeaaaeenue iie ai iiiaeanoaa
?inneeneeo o?aiia. Oiaea naiia iiaeii neacaoue e i ?onneii Ca?oaaaeuea
ia?aie o?aoe OO a. Ecaanoiua i?eia?u: /anoue ?inienae Aeaaiaauaineiai
o?aia a Oa?aeia yaeythony eiieyie n ?aaio Aaniaoeiaa, a eeiiinoana
ainnicaeaaaaiiai aiiaue a 1929 a. Aine?anaineiai niai?a a Oieei
ooaeiaeieeii I. N. Caaei?iaeiui oaeaea eniieueciaaeenue eiiee n ?aaio
Aaniaoeiaa e Ianoa?iaa.

A oea?eae a /anoue eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e Eaa?neey ooaeiaeieeii A. A.
Ieoaeeiaui auea nicaeaia ?inienue, aeaeaeay io o?aaeeoeeiiiie
eeiiia?aoee. Aianoi eaiiie/aneeo nthaeaoia ec nayuaiiie enoi?ee e aeecie
O?enoa ianoi caieiatho nthaeaou ec ?onneie aieineee enoi?ee, a ia
cae?aieaiiuo ia eieiiiao e ii aa?oo caiaaeiie e naaa?iie noai i?aii?iuo
ieeoao aienaiu eiaia ?onneeo aieiia, iiaeaoeo ca ioa/anoai a n?aaeaieyo
ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea, a iicaeiaa ii a?i/iui naiaeai eiaia iaaoeo e a
ia?aoth ie?iaoth e a?aaeaeaineoth aieiao. Yoi ianoiyuee Iaioaii aieineie
neaau, iiaeiaii ciaiaieoiio, ii iino?iaiiiio iicaea a 1911 a. –
o?aio-iaiyoieeo Niana ia Aiaeao a Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa, oaeaea iinayuaiiiio
iiaeaoei ?onneei ii?yeai a ?onneie-yiiineie aieia. Oaeei ia?acii, o?ai
i?aa?auaaony a iaiyoiee ?onneie enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u. Nae?aeueiia
ia?aieaoaaony, neeaaaony ni naaoneei ia/aeii. Nthaeao e eiiiiceoeey
?inienae Eaa?neie oea?eae oaeeaeoaeueii iaiiieiaao aueeiii-yie/aneia
iieioii A. Aaniaoeiaa Iinea iiaieua Eai?y Nayoineaaiae/a n iieiaoeaie,
(1880), n/eoathuaany a enoi?ee ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ioe?uoeai,
ia/aeii oiai, /oi aiineaaenoaee auei iacaaiiui ooaeiaeanoaaiiui
i?aia?aciaaieai n?aaeu.

A i?e aoiaea a Nioeeneoth oea?eiaue (a?o. N. E. O?aeiai, aea?aayiiay, ia
I?enoaie, 1907) i?eoiaeai ano?a/aee iieioia Iineu Aeaaeeie?iau a
Nioeeneii niai?a a Oea?uea?aaea e E?auaiea eeaaeyi i?e Aeaaeeie?a..
Caeanue oae aea, eae e a Eaa?neie oea?eae, aeiaiaoe/aneea nthaeaou
caoaiaiu aaaeiaeoeie enoi?einioneeie eaeayie a?aiaie. Aeoiaaony, /oi e
Nayoi-Iie?ianeee niai? a Oyiueoeceia iia au aieoe a ia?a/eneaiiue ?yae,
noaey ii neaayueiny iiioiaioaeueiui ?inienyie e eeiiai, nicaeaiiuie
a?oiiie ia?aieeanniuo aeeaiienoeaa (Eoeaaa, Nooiei, Eiuaaneee, Ea?aicei,
Oiea?aa).

Ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe aeaeaoue naie i?iecaaaeaiey, aieueoay /anoue ec
eioi?uo oo?a/aia aacaica?aoii, iaaiciiaeii aeinoiaa?ii noaeeoue i
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?eaiao, eiei?enoe/aneie aaiia, oaoieea. Ii aeinooiiua
iai ii ?aciui enoi/ieeai (aeeth/ay ainiiieiaiey) nthaeaoeea, ia?auaiea e
ii?aaeaeaiiiio e?oao ia?acoeia, ?acia?u, ninoaa, eiee/anoai e ?aciauaiea
?inienae, a oaeaea e aeaei?aoeaiiai i?iaiaioa a i?ino?ainoaa o?aia,
?acia?u (ieceee-aunieee) e o?iaaiue eniieieoaeueneiai ianoa?noaa
eeiiinoana, eniieuecoaiua iaoa?eaeu e oa?aeoa? eo ni/aoaiey aiai?yo i
iiiaii. Iai?eia?, nai oaeo iiyaeaiey iicaeee e ec?acoeia a ioaeaeea
o?aiiauo eioa?uea?ia, aeo?aaeae naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iiauo
aeooiaii-ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo eaeayo, iaoneiaeeaathueo iaiiaeaiea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ycuea, a eiaiii – iiyaeaiea iai?onneie noeeenoeee.

Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao oa?aeioea A. A. Oueioeeiai, aacauacaeii i?iaeeaoaai a
Oa?aeia 30 eao, aaoi?a ieieaoth?iiai ecaeaiey I?aaineaaiua o?aiu Oa?aeia
(1999), i?ae?anii ciaaoei oa?aeineea oea?eae ii ee/iiio iiuoo,
eioa?uea?u ii/oe anao o?aiia, aieueoeo e iaeuo, caneoaeeaatho aunieie
ioeaiee. Aieueoeinoai eioa?uea?ia ec 21 i?eaaaeaiiie a eieaa oea?eaae,
eiaee ii aai neiaai, aeaaieaiiue aeae: aaeeeieaiiua eeiiinoanu (aeeth/ay
naio aea?aayiioth eiino?oeoeeth, ca/anooth auaooth ianoiyuei
i?iecaaaeaieai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa),
aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiua ?iniene e i?aaeiaou oea?eiaiiai iaeoiaea (aioo?e
aiaaoi ioi?ieai, aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiay aeeaiienue, aeaaieaiii oe?aoai,
othoiue e oi?ioi ioi?ieaiiue e o.ae.), aicauoathuea naiae e?anioie,
aucuaathuea naaoeua e ?aaeinoiua /oanoaa o i?eoiaeai. E oio oaeo, /oi
iiiaea i?eciaiiua ianoa?a aeeaiiene – ooaeiaeieee-noaieiaenou,
ainieoaiieee oeaio?aeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo caaaaeaiee ?innee (aaeeie/ii
aa?iiaeneeo), yieciaee/anee a?aeenue ca oea?eiaioth aeeaiienue, ia
aiai?y oaea i ooaeiaeieeao-eeiiiienoeao, ianoa?ao oea?eiaiiai
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa, iiaeoaa?aeaeaao, /oi ?aeeaeiciia
eneonnoai, noaaoaa iaeiei ec aaaeoueo yaeaiee ?onneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?u ia/. OO a., ieiaeioai?ii ?acaeaaeinue e a ?onneii
aeaeueiaainoi/iii ca?oaaaeuea. Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneee eaoaae?aeueiue niai? a
Oa?aeia – iaeei ec i?ineaaeaiiuo o?aiiauo nii?oaeaiee aeaeueiaainoi/iiai
?onneiai ca?oaaaeuey – caieiaao iniaia ianoi a ?yaeo o?aiiauo iino?iae a
iai?onneii noeea. Ai-ia?auo, ii aeinoieii ioe?ue iiaoth no?aieoeo a
enoi?ee i?aaineaaiiai o?aiino?ieoaeuenoaa a Eeoaa, naycaiioth ni
no?ieoaeuenoaii EAaeae. Ai- aoi?uo – aue aicaaaeai ec aea?aaa, /oi a
naiai ?iaea oieeaeueii. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a o?aiiaie a?oeoaeoo?a
?innee e. XIX – ia/. OO a.a. i?ienoiaeeo ia?ainiuneaiea ianeaaeey
aea?aayiiiai ia?iaeiiai ciae/anoaa, iiaua aea?aayiiua o?aiu a ai?iaeao
nii?oaeaeenue ?aaeei. Nia?aiaiieee n/eoaee aai naiui e?oiiui aea?aayiiui
nii?oaeaieai ai anae Ainoi/iie Acee, e, iaaa?iia, auee i?aau: aunioa
niai?a aei e?anoa ninoaaeyea ieiei 30 i (14.5 naae.). Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneee
niai? iaanaaaea inoaeny aeaaiui o?aiii Oa?aeia ai anao niuneao, ianiio?y
ia oi, /oi aiineaaenoaee aue ia naiui aunieei eoeueoiaui nii?oaeaieai
ai?iaea. Iaoa?ao?aneee a?oeoaeoi? Eineo Aeaaeeie?iae/ Iaaeeaaneee –
aaoi? i?iaeoa Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneiai niai?a, iuia caauo, i /ai aiai?eo
ionoonoaea eaeie au oi ie auei enoi?eia?aoee aai oai?/anoaa a iiaaeoai
ni?aai/ieea A?oeoaeoi?u-no?ieoaee Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa na?aaeeiu XIX ia/aea
XX aaea, . Ii iaeei ec oao, eoi noiye a naiii ia/aea aoi?iai ia?eiaea
?acaeoey iai?onneiai noeey – ( e. 1890-o – 1900-a aa.) – eioaineaiiai
?acaeoey, anee i?aaeuaeouaa aeanyoeeaoea, naycaiiia i?aeiouanoaaiii n
Aa?aioeaaneei e?oaeeii, n/eoaoue enoieii iai?onneiai noeey. Ianeieueei a
aeaeueiaeoai a?oeoaeoi? i?eaea?aeeaaeny yoiai noeey iaecaanoii. Caoi
ecaanoii, /oi ii aue a?oeoaeoi?ii Ieaeaai?iaeneie
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-i?iiuoeaiiie aunoaaee 1895-1896 aa., iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae i?iaeoe?iaaieth o?aia, e aa?iyoii a /ai-oi iiaeeyaoae
ia aai noeeenoe/aneia ?aoaiea. Ec ecaanoiuo a ?innee aea?aayiiuo o?aiia
a iai?onneii noeea, Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneee niai? aue iino?iai, iaaa?iia,
iaeiei ec ia?auo. Ia auei aua e oaooaeaaneiai aea?aayiiiai iaaeeueiia
?onneiai ioaeaea a i?ia?aiiii iai?onneii noeea ia aunoaaea a Aeacai
(1901), a eioi?ii ii-iiaiio ia?ainiuneyeenue oi?iu aea?aayiiuo oea?eaae
e aeeeuo aeiiia ?onneiai Naaa?a. Aoeaaeueii aeanyoue-iyoiaaeoeaoue eao
ioaeaeyao i?iaeo oa?aeineiai Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneiai niai?a io aia?aua
iiyaeaoaainy o a?oeoaeoi?ia XIX a. eioa?ana e ia?iaeiiio aea?aayiiiio
ciae/anoao ?onneiai Naaa?a. Nii?oaeaiiue iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
a?aaeaeaineeo eiaeaia?ia A. E Eaaoaaaa e A. E. Aaeuena.
Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneee niai? noae eiiiiceoeeiiiie aeiieiaioie eioaineaii
no?iyuaainy n 1901 a. iiaiai ?aeiia Oa?aeia, eae e auei caaeoiaii ii
ieaio aeaoaeueiie ieaie?iaee Iiaiai ai?iaea 1899 a., a a ia?aciii niunea
– neiaieii naiiai Oa?aeia, e aieueoa ainoi/iie Iineaie, ?inneae. I
Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneii niai?a iai?aiaiii oiiieiaaony anyeee ?ac, eae ?a/ue
caoiaeeo i i?aaineaaee e o?aiao Oa?aeia, ii ianiio?y ia yoi iiauoaiiia
aieiaiea, e ia ia?aue acaeyae, aeinooiiinoue eco/aiey (iiiai/eneaiiinoue
oioia?aoee, ainiiieiaiee), enoi?eei-a?oeoaeoo?iuo naaaeaiee i iai nianai
iaei, e iiuoa naiaai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aiaeeca ii ia eiaao Enoi?ey aai
aicaaaeaiey, aeiaieueii iaiauaiiay e e?aoeay, ecaanoia ii ?yaeo
ioaeeeaoeee, e, iiaeaeoe ca iineaaeiaa aeanyoeeaoea ia auea cia/eoaeueii
aeiiieiaia eee ooi/iaia. I?aaenoaaeyaony iainiiaaiiui a ?aieao aeaiiie
?aaiou oaeaeeoue a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiui e eiino?oeoeaiui
iniaaiiinoyi o?aia naiia i?enoaeueiia aieiaiea. I?iaeo
Nayoi-Ieeieaaaeiai niai?a, iioaeeeiaaiiue a Aeueaiia nii?oaeaiee e
oeiiauo /a?oaaeae ii no?ieoaeuenoao EAAEAe (1897-1903) (NIa, 1903)
iicaieyao aia?aua aeinoiaa?ii noaeeoue i aai ieaia, ?acia?ao e
eiino?oeoeeyo. Iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiay no?oeoo?a o?aia eiaao aeaa
y?ona. Oeaio?e/iue oao?iaue ainueia?ee n?oaa iiaoi?ai aeaaaeaeu: ia
iieiaeia auniou oao?a ieaeiaai y?ona aicaiaeeony aua iaeei oao?iaie
ainueia?ee, niioaaonoaaiii iaiueoae ieiuaaee (iiia?a/iue ?acia? aa?oiaai
ainueia?eea iaiueoa ieaeiaai i?eia?ii ia 5 i). Ainueia?eee ia
?aaiinoi?iiiea, aeeaaiiaeueiua a?aie – iaiueoa. Eiino?oeoeey n?oaa – a
iaei. Aa?oiyy iiaeea?ieciay /anoue n?oaa ?anoe?yaony a aeaea iiaaea.
Aioo?aiiee oaoa? aa?oiaai y?ona ?oaeai ii/oe aei iieiaeiu auniou
aiaoiaai oao?a n iii?ie ia a?aaia-aaeee, ie?aieaeaeueii noiaeyueany,
inoaeueiay /anoue e?iaee no?iieeueiay. Ainueia?ee eiaao n naaa?iie e
thaeiie noi?ii iaaeoaieea i?eaeaeu (ieiei 2 i aeoaeiie), iauaaeeiaiiua n
iiaeoao?iaui i?ino?ainoaii a aaeeiia ia?acaeaeaiiia oeaeia, ii
naiinoiyoaeueii ia?ae?uoua aeaooneaoiuie e?iaeyie. N aeeaaiiaeueiuo
noi?ii ainueia?eea iaaieueoea i?e?oau a aeaea aeaoo aaea?ae n caiaaeiiai
oanaaea e aeaoo cae?uouo iiiauaiee – n ainoi/iiai. Iaae o?aiaciie
?aciauaia eieieieueiy, ia?ae?uoay aunieie eiiueeiaie e?iaeae ia /aou?a
neaoa n iieeoeaie, a eiiae a?acaiu aunieea oaeee o?ao eoeiae/iuo aeaaie.
O?aiacioth ie?oaeatho iaaieueoea i?e?oau e naie n aeaooanoiaeiie
eanoieoeae. Naie ia?ae?uou ai/eie, a oeiiaia eeeaaeaeiiai o?iioiia
eioi?ie naeaeaii oaeoaeaiea a oi?ia o?eoieeeiiai e?anoa aeey ia?aca
Aiaiiaoa?e. Oeaio?aeueiue oaoa? caaa?oaaony eoeiae/iie aeaaeie ia
aunieie oaa. Iyoea?aiiay aineaea ia?ae?uoa eeei/aoie iyoea?aiiie
e?iaeae, oaai/aiiie eoeiae/iie aeaaeie. E?iaey anao iauaiia nii?oaeaiey
iie?uoa eaiaoii n cae?oaeaiiui eiioeii. Ana 5 aeaa niai?a ie?uou
aiaianiie a?aiueth Aa?oeeaeueiua iaee/ieee ieii, noieee iaaania e?ueaoe,
aaea?ae, e?iaee eieieieueie iaai?iua. Ieia o?aia o?ao/anoiua, n
aeo?aaeaie. Aeooay iauaiiay (iaeeaaeiay?) ?acueaa a aeaea ?anoeoaeueiiai
i?iaiaioa (caaeoee noaaeae) oe?aoaao o?iioiiu aoiaeiiai i?eoai?a,
naaa?iiai e thaeiiai i?eaeaeia. A eioa?uea?a aeaei?aoeaioth ?ieue
ea?atho iiy?oniua i?iaiaioaeueiua o?ecu, iiae/a?eeaathuaa iniiaiia
aeaeaiea o?aia ii aunioa. Ii ainiiieiaieyie nia?aiaiieea, Aanue o?ai
oe?aneee aea?aayiiie ?acueaie; ieia aai i?ee?uaaeenue oci?/aouie ?aciuie
?aoaoeai. Caeaiea auei iaeiei ec ia?auo, aaea eiaeinue oeaio?aeueiia
ioiieaiea. ?aaeecaoeey i?iaeoa niai?a auea inouanoaeaia n aunieie
oi/iinoueth, ca eneeth/aieai ianeieueeeo aeaoaeae. Iai?eia?, a i?iaeoa
auei caeiaeaii eaiaoiaia iie?uoea aeaaie. A ea/anoaa i?iia?aca caeanue
aunooiaao iaiauaiiue oei ae?aaiaai naaa?i?onneiai o?aia. A eaoiienyo XI
a. ainueia?eeiaay oea?eiaue oiiieiaaony oaea eae o?aaeeoeeiiiay. A a XV
a ae?aaiei oeiii oaea n/eoaaony ainueia?eeiaay oao?iaay oea?eiaue n 4
i?e?oaaie. Iiaeiaiue oei e?ueueoea a naaa?i?onneie a?oeoaeoo?a oiaea
i/aiue ae?aaiee ecaanoai n XVI a. Aianoa n oai, a ia?aciie no?oeoo?a
nii?oaeaiey iiaeii oniio?aoue e ia?auaiea e iiaiai?iaenei-ineianeiio
ciae/anoao XIV-XV aa. a oa?aeoa?iie iinoaiiaea naiinoiyoaeueiiai iauaia
eieieieueie. O?aaeeoeeiiii aeey ae?aaia?onneiai o?aiiaiai ciae/anoaa e
auaeaeaiea ec iauaai iauaia nii?oaeaiey naiinoiyoaeueiuo iauaiia
i?eoai?ia, o?aiaciie, eieieieueie, aineaeu, e?ueaoe, aaea?ae. I?eiaiai
iaeei ec iaoiaeia ae?aaia?onneiai i?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey ?acia?u ieaia (a
iiia?a/ieea ainueia?eea ieiei 13 i (6.4 naae.)) yaeythony aeaeueiaeoei
iiaeoeai aeey i?iii?oeeiie?iaaiey aa?oeeaeueiuo ?acia?ia (aunioa
iiaeoao?iaiai i?ino?ainoaa ieiei 29 i (8.7 naae.)). Ana aa?oeeaeueiua e
ai?eciioaeueiua ?acia?u – ia niioiioaiee noi?iiu eaaae?aoa e aai
aeeaaiiaee ( ?en. 1.). Naycue e iniciaiiay i?eaioaoeey aaoi?a i?iaeoa ia
iaoeeiiaeueiia ianeaaeea iaioaeaeeii io ono?aieaiiinoe e nicaeaieth
iiaiai, nia?aiaiiiai. Ianiio?y ia yaii /eoaaiua ia?acoeu, aa?iiie/aneee
no?ie e i?iii?oeee niai?a aeoaiei eiaeeaeaeoaeueiu, a aeaoaee –
i?eaeiaeueii ia?ainiuneaiu. *eoaaony oeaeaono?aieaiiia oi?iioai?/anoai
ia o?iaia anaai caeaiey. Aua?aiiue i?eai oaeaiaiey ia?aiiniiau oao?iaiai
ainueia?eea, oi anoue oo?e?iaaiea iniaaiiinoae i?ioioeia, eiiaeie?iaaiea
n ae?oaeie ia?acoeaie oa?aeoa?iaeoee i?eai iai?onneiai noeey. Aeaaiaea?y
yoiio c?eoaeueii oe?oiiyaony ianooaaiinoue. No?aieaiea e aa?oeeaeecio
au?aaeaii ai anai, aeeth/ay aeaoaee (auoyiooua oae aeaaie, aeiaieueii
e?ooua e?iaee). Ie?aieaeaeueiinoue neeoyoa, ieaaiia iaeaa/aiea iann
eaa?oo, i?aiaeaaeaiea e?oiiuo yeaiaioia, iaiiiaineiaiinoue aeaei?a (a
ioee/ea io oieueeei?iie aa?nee ?onneiai noeey aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX a.) e
a oiaea a?aiy aeaei?aoeaeci anao /anoae caeaiey ana noaiiaeony
n?aaenoaii nicaeaiey ia?aca ai?iaea-o?aia. Ii iiiaiauaiiinoue,
neiaeiinoue e aeeaiieniinoue eiiiiceoeee ia i?ioeai?a/eo aa aaee/aaie
o?aaiiaaoaiiinoe. Yoiio a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue niinianoaoao neiiao?e/iinoue
caeaiey. E a ?acoeueoaoa eiiiiceoeey aieaa niieieia e i?aaaeiiiaeiaia a
n?aaiaiee n aieaa iicaeieie, iino?ieeaie a iai?onneii noeea. Caeanue iao
yaiie a?ioaneiainoe, eoai/iinoe e oaao?aeeciaaiiinoe n?aaeu, oae
oa?aeoa?iie aeey iiioiaioaeueiuo ?onneeo aunoaai/iuo iaaeeueiiia
(Aeacai, 1901) e io/anoe aeey ae?oaeo o?aiia. Any nenoaia aioo?aiiae
ioaeaeee o?aia oaeaea i?eaioe?iaaeanue ia ae?aaiee ia?eiae enoi?ee
o?enoeaineiai eneonnoaa. “Iuouaiea auniou, eaaeinoe e i?inoi?a. Ana
aeuoaei ?inneae, aa ae?aaieie o?aaeeoeeyie”, – aniiieiaao A. I. Oaneeia
aoiinoa?o aioo?aiiaai i?ino?ainoaa niai?a, . A Oa?aeia aua ia auei naieo
ooaeiaeieeia e ianoa?ia, ana aeaeaeinue ia caeac a ?innee: e eeiiinoan,
e eeiiu, e eieieiea, e oea?eiaiay ooaa?ue.

Iniiaiay ?ieue a oa?ainoaa o?aia ioaiaeeeanue eeiiinoano. Aoi?inoaiaiiay
– aea?aayiiiio i?iaiaioo, aunieei aeo?aaeai. A oiiieiaaiie Aeueaiia
anoue yneec e eeiiinoana: ?ineioii aeaei?e?iaaiiue, aeaoouy?oniue
(aunioie ieiei 3.5 i, aeeeiie ieiei 7 i), ii o?e eioa?eieoiiee io
Oea?neeo a?ao, oeaio?aeueiay inue aeoeaii iiae/a?eiooa a?i/iui
o?iioiiii. Eieiiee oaiieiia iaai?iua, e ii noeeenoeea i/aiue aeecee
ae?oaei aeaei?aoeaiui aeaoaeyi o?aia. Nio?aieaoeany iaiiiai/eneaiiua
oioia?aoee eioa?uea?ia Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneiai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi
eeiiinoan aue inouanoaeai a niioaaonoaee n i?iaeoii. Iniiaiie nayouiae
o?aia aue aieueoie ia?ac nayoeoaey Ieeieay, eniieiaiiue iaecaanoiui
?onneei ianoa?ii ni no?iaei niaethaeaieai i?aaee noa?eiiie eeiiiiene.
I?eai ?aniieiaeaiey iaeeii/iuo ?inienae ii i?aeiouanoao ia ainoi/iie
noi?iia o?aia iieo/aao oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a e. XIX ia/. OO a . Aai
iiaeii n/eoaoue naiaia?aciie oi?iie aic?iaeaeaiey naienoaaiiiai ?onneei
aea?aayiiui o?aiai iau/ay inoaaeyoue noaiu ia?anienaiiuie.
Niioaaonoaaiii niuneiia?acothuay e eiiiiceoeeiiii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiay ?ieue
eeiiinoana aic?anoaao. A o?aiao ?oaaaea XIX-OO aa. i?e ono?ienoaa ieceeo
eeiiinoania iiyaeyaony o?aaeeoeey ?iniene aeoa?iie aineaeu.

A nayce n yoei, aeoiaaony, /oi ?iniene niai?a auee ieieiaeueiua e
?aciauaeenue ia aeoa?iie noaia. A Aeueaiia nii?oaeaiee eiaaony e i?iaeo
iaoaeee/aneie ia?aaeu, aeecaei anao /anoae eioi?ie no?ieony ia
noeeecaoeee oi?iu e?anoa. Aa aicaaee aie?oa niai?a a 1903 a. Eae oaea
oiiieiaeinue, ana oa?ainoai aeey niai?a ecaioiaeyeinue a ?innee. Oae,
oanoue eieieieia auee ioeeou a ss?ineaaea ia caaiaea I. A.
Ieiayieoieeiaa. Ii yoio oaeo iniaaiiue. Oaa?eee I. A. Ieiayieoieeiaa
auee iaeiie ec naiuo ciaiaieouo oe?i ii ecaioiaeaieth oea?eiaiie ooaa?e
a ?innee. Aeaaiui ooaeiaeieeii aa aue N. E Aaoeia, iineaaeiaaoaeueiue
i?eaa?aeaiaoe iai?onneiai noeey. E eoi ciaao, ia ii aai ee yneecai auee
ecaioiaeaiu eieieiea aeey oa?aeineiai eaoaae?aeueiiai niai?a? A i?iaeoa
aeaoaeueiie ieaie?iaee Iiaiai ai?iaea i?ino?ainoai aie?oa oea?eae (
aoaeouaai Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneiai niai?a E.N.) aue caaeoiaii eae aeaaiay
ieiuaaeue ai?iaea, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia i?eaioaoeee i?iaeoe?iaueeia
ia o?aaeeoeeiiiia aeey ae?aaia?onneiai ai?iaea ooaeiaeanoaaiiia inaiaiea
ai?iaai i?ino?ainoaa. Eeiiia?aoey o?aiia a iai?onneii noeea noieue aea
iiiaiia?acia, eae e iaiiaeyaiia a eoeueoiaii ciae/anoaa ianeaaeea.
Ia?yaeo n oao?iauie oea?eayie auee e iyoeaeaaua, e iaeiiaeaaua o?aiu,
enoi/ieeii aaeioiiaaiey aeey eioi?uo neoaeeei iineianeia ciae/anoai XV
XVI aa. I neaaa ecoieoaeueiie aioo?aiiae ?iniene eaiaiiie oea?eae
Eaa?neie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e (1907) aiai?eeinue auoa. Acyoay ca
ia?acaoe enoiaeiay noaia iyoeaeaaiai iineianeiai o?aia oneiaeiyaony,
eioa?i?aoe?oaony ii-iiaiio. Ia caiaaeiii oanaaea oea?eae iaae i?eoai?ii
auneony caiiieoea, ioaeaeaiii iaiiieiathuay oeie/iue i?eai iiaai?iaenei-
ineianeie oeieu. Eae iauoth eiiiiceoeeth caeaiey, oae e aa ioaeaeueiue
/anoae (eieieieueie) e aeaaea aeaoaeae ( aa?aaaia oeaio?aeueiiai eoiiea,
eoiiea eieieieueie) oa?aeoa?ecoao nooiai/aoinoue iauaiia,
iineaaeiaaoaeueiia iaeaa/aiea eaa?oo. Aa?oeeaeeci, yaeythueeny
eiiiiceoeeiiiie iauiinoueth aeey o?aiia a iai?onneii noeea, i?enoonoaoao
e caeanue, oioy i?iyaeai eia/a, /ai a Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneii niai?a. O?ai
aue aunieee, i?inoi?iue, naaoeue e aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiii ioi?ieaiiue. A
/enoioa i?inouo, ynii /eoaaiuo oi?i, iiiaie?aoii iiaoi?ythueany e?oiiua
aeaoaee, oeaaoiaie eiio?ano nicaeaao aeaei?aoeaeci ia o?iaia caeaiey a
oeaeii, /oi yaeyaony oaea noeeaaie iauiinoueth aeey o?aiia a iai?onneii
noeea. Iiaeaeoe, neiiao?e/iinoue nii?oaeaiey yaeyaony ia oa?aeoa?iie
/a?oie aeey yoiai noeey. Ii noaoon Iaioaiia aieineie neaau iaycuaae
ioaeii auei nicaeaoue no?iaia e aaee/anoaaiiia caeaiea, iiaeiaiia
iacuaeaiiio iiioiaioo. A?eaoo?iue iiyn ii ia?eiao?o iniiaiiai iauaia
Eaa?neie oea?eae – oa?aeoa?iay iniaaiiinoue niai?ia XII a. ai
Aeaaeeie?a, o?aaeeoeeiiii ?anniao?eaaaoayny n XV a. eae neiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeae, . Oaeie yeaiaio aeaei?a eae oe?eiea, eaioie
iiiynuaathuee eieieieueith e iiae/a?eeaathuee oaeu iniiaiiai iauaia
o?aia oeie/iue iioea iineianeiai ciae/anoaa na?aaeeiu XVII a. Ii yoio
yeaiaio iieiinoueth ia?ainiuneai. A a?oeoaeoo?a caeaiey iao aiycie
ionoie noaiu, iao aiaaoiai oci?i/uey. Iaiai?io, aaeieaiaiiua oe?eiee
?aaii eae e ae?oaea iaiiiai/eneaiiua aaeieaiaiiua aeaoaee, iooaiytho
ynoaoeeo e?aniiee?ie/iuo aeaaeeeo noai. Iieacaoaeueiui, oioy e aanueia
neoii ano?a/aaiui a eaiaiiii eoeueoiaii no?ieoaeuenoaa Oa?aeia, yaeyaony
iauaiiue i?iaiaioaeueiue oci? ii ea?ieco noeeiaaoiie /anoe (thaeiiai e
naaa?iiai i?eaeaeia, niueathueony n eieieieueiae) naiiai o?aia, a oaeaea
neiaeiaeoee oci? iiaeea?ieciie /anoe aoiaeiuo iaaania, . Oiaea iiaeii
neacaoue e ia i?iaiaioaeueiie ?iniene, iiiynuaathuae eieieieueith, e i
iicae/iie ioaeaeea, . I?iaiaioo, ?aaii eae e oaeiio iaoa?eaeo eae
iicaeea a ioaeaeea eioa?uea?ia e oanaaeia o?aiia a iai?onneii noeea
ioaiaeeeanue a?oeaaaeiay ?ieue. A iai aeaeaeanue o?aaeeoeey
?aiiao?enoeaineiai e aecaioeeneiai eneonnoaa. A ea?a?oee anao oeiia
o?aiia, ii iunee I. O. Oaaei?iaa, aeaaiia ianoi caieiatho eeaaeaeuaineea
o?aiu, iie – a iaeaieueoae noaiaie i?ioeainoiyo caaaaieth oia?oeo,
aine?aoatho eo a iaiyoe aeeaoueo. O?ai Oniaiey Aiaeueae iaoa?e (1908) ia
Iiaii eeaaeaeua (1902) ia/eiaao ia naaa?i-ainoiea no?aeo Aieueoiai
i?iniaeoa. Aai iainiiaaiii ?anniio?aoue aianoa n iaaea?aoiie
eieieieueiae, i?eiueathueie e iae neoaeaaiuie ei?ionaie, ai?ioaie
ia?aaeu, ?aciauaiiuie ia iaeiie ine e ninoaaeythueie n i?iaeoiaiiui
eaiaeoaooiui aeaaiono?ienoaii eeaaeaeua eeoiaaie, oiioaiaie, o?oeoiaui
naaeii iaii?eaeueii-ia?eiaue ainaiaeue (noaia aaiieaia A. A. O?cia, ).
A?oeoaeoo?iue ainaiaeue o?aiiauo no?iaiee ia/eiaaony n eeaaeaeuaineeo
ai?io, e aeaaea n iiaeoiaea e eeaaeaeuo, ii-iniaiio aeaaiono?iaiiiio.
Ana /anoe e aeaoaee ia?aaeu, ai?io, aeaaiono?ienoai i?iaeoiaiu a
noeeenoeea i?aaineaaiuo eaiiie/aneeo oi?i e oea?eiaiuo neiaieia. Ia
oieueei a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iay eiiiiceoeey ainaiaey, ii e yeaiaiou
aeaei?a, eaeaioe/iua aeey ia?aaeu, eieieieueie e oea?eae,
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i eiiieaeniinoe iiaeoiaea, i?iaeieaeaiiiai e
caaa?oaiiiai ?aeiino?oeoeeae 1940 a.

Eieieieueiy i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaai/aiioth ainueiea?aiiui oao?ii
a?eaaeo ioe?uoiai caiia ia aeaoouy?oniii /aoaa?eea n i?ioiaeiie a?eie.
Enoiaeiui eiiiiceoeeiiiui e aeaei?aoeaiui ia?acoeii iineoaeeee iaeioi?ua
iniaaiiinoe eoeueoiaiai ciae/anoaa XV e XVII a., a /anoiinoe,
iineianeiai. Iauay noaia oao?iaie eieieieueie ?iaenoaaiia ?onneei o?aiai
oa?aeoa?iui ni/aoaieai iauaiia – ainueia?ee ia /aoaa?eea e
?ani?ino?aiaiiui a XVII a. iiiaiy?oniui eieieieueiyi n oai aea ii?yaeeii
ni/aoaiey iauaiia. A?eaoo?iue iiyn aeaei?e?oao /aoaa?ee, a?ee caiia, e
aeaaea oaeeo eoeiae/iie aeaaee. Iauai eieieieueie ieaeieyee aeaa
neiiao?e/iuo e?uea neoaeaaiuo iiiauaiee (eaa?oe?u nayuaiieea,
niio?eoaey, eiioi?a e ae?.), ia?acothueo aeoaieia ea?y. Eaeouaio ii
Aieueoiio i?iniaeoo ia eeaaeaeua – aua ecaeaee neaicue eeaaeaeuaineea
ai?ioa e oe?ieoth i?iacaeioth a?eo eieieieueie ioe?uaaeny aeae ia
caeaiea o?aia, oaeoiai aeiia?aaeiuie eicaie. Eiiiaeoiue iauai n
eoeiae/iie aeaaie ia aunieii naaoiaii aa?aaaia i?aaeaeueii eaeiie/ai.
Aoiaeiay ciia auaeaeaia iaaanii – naiueth n oa?aeoa?iuie aeey
aeiiao?ianeie a?oeoaeoo?u eoaiaeaeiuie iii?aie e aunieie e?auaoie
e?iaeae, oaai/aiiie eoeiae/iie aeaaeie ia aunieie oaeea. Oeaaoiaia iyoii
a oeiiaia o?iioiia e iiaeea?ieciue i?iaiaoaeueiue oci? ec iaoaeea
iooaiytho eaieaea?iinoue oi?i e oeaaoiaiai ?aoaiey. A?oeoaeoo?a o?aia
iaiau/ia, iiaeii aiai?eoue ia ia?auaiee e iiaui enoi/ieeai,
ii-iiaaoi?nee ia?ainiuneaiiui. E?anioa /enoiai eoaiaeaeiiai iauaia
aeaaeeie?i-nocaeaeueneeo e ?aiiaiineianeeo o?aiia auea ioe?uoa a ?innee
i?eia?ii a yoi aea a?aiy – a eiioea 1900-o aa. Oaeei ia?acii,
iaecaanoiue aaoi? o?aia aue ia o?iaia noeeaauo eneaiee a?aiaie. Ii/oe
aaeeinoaaiiui aeaei?aoeaiui yeaiaioii Oniaineiai o?aia yaeyaony
iiyoue-oaee a?eaoo?ii-eieii/aoue iiyn ii ia?eiao?o iauaia e iyoea?aiiie
aineaea. Iioiaea, /oi yoio yeaiaio noae ethaeiui aeaei?aoeaiui iioeaii a
eoeueoiaii ciae/anoaa Oa?aeia. Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneay oea?eiaue a Noa?ii
Oa?aeia i?eia/aoaeueia oai, /oi yoi auea naiay ia?aay oea?eiaue ia
oa??eoi?ee aoaeouaai ai?iaea, eioi?iai, nianoaaiii, oiaaea aua ia
nouanoaiaaei. A?aiy aa iniiaaiey a i?eniiniaeaiiii iiiauaiee oaa?aeue
1898 a. Iiaia eaiaiiia caeaiey Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneie oea?eae a iai?onneii
noeea iiyaeeinue a 1926 a, /oi oiaea yaeyaony i?eia/aoaeueiui: i?ioei
oaea ii/oe 10-eaoea n iiiaioa ianeeuenoaaiiie nia?oe ( ii neiaai A. E.
Ee?e/aiei) iai?onneiai noeey a ?innee. Noaey ii ieaio Oa?aeia 1938 a.,
?aciauaia iia auea ia i?inoi?iie ieiuaaee Noa?iai Oa?aeia, ii ia a
oeaio?a (eae a neo/ay n eaoaae?aeueiui Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneei niai?ii), a ia
aa ia?eoa?ee, ia?auaiiay e iae naiei naaa?iui oanaaeii. Inoaeueiua aea
oanaaeu auoiaeyo ia ia?ae?anoee oeeoe, ia?niaeoeau eioi?uo (i?yiua e ni
niauaieai) iia caiueaao (Iaiciie, Ioeoea?neie, A?iaeneie oeeoe). Yoio
i?eai io?aaeaao oei?aieaoeeny a XIX a. i?eioeei niaaeeiaiey aeaoo
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee: ?aaoey?iie aa?iiaeneie Iiaiai a?aiaie e
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia ae?aaia?onneee i?eai inaiaiey ai?iaeneiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Caeanue oianoii ioiaoeoue, /oi a oeaeii iiaeiaiia
?aciauaiea o?aiia a Oa?aeia ia ia?ae?anoeao oeeoe – auei oeie/iui
(Iao?iiaaeianeay a Noiaa?eeneii ai?iaeea, Iie?iai-Eeueeineay,
Eiaiii-Aiaineaaneay, Nayoi-Eaa?neay a Ainieoaeueiii ai?iaeea e o.ae.).
Ca/anooth ?yaeii aua ?acaeaaeny aieueoie naae eee neaa?
(Nayoi-Aeaenaaaneay ia Oea?eiaiie oe, Niani-I?aia?aaeaineay oea?eiaue ia
A?iaeaeianeii aoeueaa?a e o.ae.). Ii ainiiieiaieyi, oea?eiaiua
iiaeai?uey caieiaee aieueoea o/anoee caiee. A?oeaiua oioia?aoee
oo?a/aiiie Nayoi-Ieeieaaaneie oea?eae iicaieytho aeinoaoi/ii aeinoiaa?ii
noaeeoue i aa eiiiiceoeee e noeeenoeea. Ii ainiiieiaieyi Oueioeeiai,
oea?eiaue, eae nia?oaee, oae e aioo?e, auea ioi?ieaia ne?iiii e
iioiaeeea ia naeueneoth, eaeeo iiiai a ?innee. Aa?iyoii, oei o?aia
i?eoiaeneie iaaaaae iiaeiaiua annioeeaoeee. Ii ia oieueei. Ia?aiia?acii,
io eioi?iai iooieeioeny ciae/ee, caeanue yaii iineoaeeea
iiaai?iaenei-ineianeay a?oeoaeoo?a. Iaae caiaaeiui i?eoai?ii auneony
caiiieoea, noieue oa?aeoa?iay ii oi?ia aeey yoie oeieu. Nii?oaeaiea
au?aceoaeueii ii neeoyoo ca n/ao auaeaeaiey anao iauaiia, ii-?aciiio
ia?ae?uouo, a naiinoiyoaeueiua. Oanaaeu oe?aoatho iiiaiia?aciua ii oi?ia
ieiiiua e aeaa?iua i?iaiu, i?eoioeeai ?aciauaiiua. A oeiiaia aeaoneaoiie
ino?iaa?oie e?iaee caiiieoeu ?inienue. Ianiio?y ia neiiao?e/iinoue
nii?oaeaiey, ana aianoa nicaeaao ociaaaaiue ia?ac ?oeioai?iie aeeaie
iai?aaeeueiie – ?iaeiie naaa?i-?onneie oea?eaooee, eaeeo iiiai a ?innee.
A naiai aeieeaaea i i?iaeoe?iaaiee ai?iaea Aeaeueiaai (1904) aaoi?
aaia?aeueiiai ieaia e i?iaeoa aeaoaeueiie ieaie?iaee E. A. Neieeiianeee
i?ieiiiaioe?iaae ia/aoia no?ieoaeuenoai ia iaeiii ec aicauoaiiuo iano
ai?iaea ?yaeii n o. i. Aiaeeeneei naaeii i?aaineaaiie oea?eae a noeea
ae?aaia?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u XVI a., i?ecaaiiie, ii aai iiaieth, i?eaeaoue
Aeaeueiaio ni noi?iiu ii?y aeae ?onneiai ai?iaea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a
aeieeaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia A?oaiaaei-Ieoaeeianeie oea?eae-oeiea,
a?oeoaeoo?a eioi?ie oiaea eeanneoeoee?oaony eae iai?onneee noeeue. Ii
iicaieei naaa ia yoio ?ac inoaiiaeoueny ia iainouanoaeaiiii i?iaeoa, a
eiaiii auni/aeoa iaeia?aiiii i?iaeoa niai?iiai o?aia aeey a. Aeaeueiaai,
. Iai i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi aeai? enneaaeiaaiey ?ac?aoaao oaeaeeoue
aieiaiea e i?iaeoai, eioi?ua a ?aaiie noaiaie n iino?ieeaie iicaieytho
noaeeoue i ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?iie eoeueoo?a ca?oaaaeuey. A anee
o/eouaaoue oi, /oi i?iaeoiuo iaoa?eaeia ii o?aiino?ieoaeuenoao a
Iaiue/aeo?ee auyaeaii aaeeieoeu, e oi, /oi i?iaeo niai?iiai o?aia a
Aeaeueiai yaeyaony i/aiue ?aiiei aei 1903 a. e a?oeoaeoo?ii
cia/eoaeueiui, oi i?iaaaeaiea oaeiai a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
aiaeeca ia oieueei ?ac?aoeoaeueii, ii e iaiaoiaeeii. A?oeoaeoo?a
iyoeeoiieueiiai o?aia niai?iiai oeia ainoiaeeo e ae?aaiaeoaio oeio –
aeaaeeie?i-nocaeaeueneei o?aiai XII a. (iyoeeoiieueiiio Oniaineiio
niai?o a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, ii e iaeiieoiieueiui Aeieo?eaaneiio ai
Aeaaeeie?a e oea?eae Iie?iaa ia Ia?ee ii i?iii?oeeyi e oeaeueiinoe
iauaia) e iineianeiio Oniaineiio niai?o XV a., eioi?ua aini?eieiaeenue
eae neiaie ?innee. Iiaeii auei au nineaoueny eae ia i?ioioei ia
i?ineaaeaiiue o?ai O?enoa Nianeoaey a Iineaa ( na?. XI X a.), aieaa
aeeceiio ii a?aiaie aiaeece?oaiiio o?aio, ii i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi a
aeaiiii neo/aa aaoi? ia?auaeny eiaiii e ia?acai ia?aienoi/ieea, a
a?aiaeeiciia oiiianeia oai?aiea neoaeeei ia i?ioioeiii, a i?aaie/ii
aini?eiyoui iiuoii inaiaiey yoiai aea ae?aaia?onneiai ianeaaeey.
Oeaeinoiinoue, eiiiaeoiinoue neoeueioo?iiai iauaia, anaoanaaeiinoue,
?ann/eoaiiua ia eaaeia iaic?aiea ni anao noi?ii, iaoneiaeaiu ai iiiaii
i?aaeiieaaaaiui ianoii ?aniieiaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa ai?iaea a oeaio?a
aeaaiie ai?iaeneie e?oaeie ieiuaaee Ieeieaaaneie (a aieaa ?aiieo
/a?oaaeao Niai?iie). I?ynea oanaaeia, ii o?e ia eaaeaeii, caaa?oaiu
iieoe?oaeuie caeiia?aie. O?aaeeoeeiiiue i?eai ae?aaia?onneiai ciae/anoaa
ooaeiaeanoaaiii ia?ainiuneai: iauai caiaaeiiai i?eoai?a ?aaai aunioa
o?aia e ea?aao ?ieue oeaio?aeueiiai i?ynea a eiiiiceoeee oanaaea. Any
eiiiiceoeey o?aia iino?iaia ia ono?aieaiiinoe aaunue. I?aiaeaaeatho
aa?oeeaeueiua /eaiaiey: oceea eiiaoee i?ynae, uaeaaeaeiua ieia, aeeceia
?aniieiaeaiea ae?oa e ae?oao aeaa (aeiaieueii ?aaeeia aeey
iineaeeaneoeenoe/aneiai ia?eiaea), no?ieiua naaoiaua aa?aaaiu, aunieay
iieooee?eoeueiay aineaea, oaeaea aa?oeeaeueii ?an/eaiaiiay, aunieee
oeieieue, e iaeiiaoe, aeaei? a?eaoo?iue iiyn ii ieco oanaaeia (e?iia
ainoi/iiai), aeaau ia /eaieoue iauai caeaiey ii aunioa. A eioa?uea?a
aa?oeeaeeci eiiiiceoeee au?aaeai aua y?/a. Aannoieiiue, eaaae?aoiue a
ieaia iauai ia?ae?uo naiae/aouie aeaeaciaaoiiiuie eiino?oeoeeyie.
I?ino?ainoai o?aiaciie eae oaeiaia ia auaeaeaii, iii neeoi n o?aiii a
iaeii oeaeia. Aunioa iiaeeoiieueiiai i?ino?ainoaa ieiei 26 iao?ia a?iaea
iaiiiai, ii a n?aaiaiee n ieiuaaeueth o?aia 146 i?, cia/eoaeueii e a
oeaeii yaii ainiiaenoaoao. Iethn e yoiio aunioa aai eeethci?ii oaaee/aia
eiioniaeaeiie /anoueth naiae/aoiai ia?ae?uoey, ieaaii ia?aoiaeyuaai a
aa?aaai eoiiea. Aiciiaeii, iaeua naaoiaua eoiiea (eee iaeei ec ieo)
i?aaeiieaaaeinue eniieueciaaoue iiae eieieiea. A no?oeoo?o o?aia auei
aaaaeai ia?aaeeee aeey ae?aaia?onneiai ciae/anoaa yeaiaio iaoiaeiay
aaea?ay. E eneeth/eoaeueiui caeanue yaeyaony naii ?aciauaiea aioo?aiiae
aaea?ae, ii?aaeaeythuaa aa iaci?ioth ooieoeeth – ia o?iaia ia?ae?uoey
(ionthaea-oi e iiaeii auei iiianoue e aieiaui eoiieai). Aaoi? oaeei
?aoaieai naiaia?acii o/ae iniaaiiinoe ianoa aicaaaeaiey o?aia,
i?aaeinoaaea i?ae?anioth aiciiaeiinoue /aeiaaeo iiethaiaaoueny
eneeth/eoaeueiui ii e?anioa eaiaeoaooii. A aiai?y ia?acii, aicianoenue
iaae ie?neie noaoie, eniuoaoue iniaua /oanoaa i?eiiaeiyoinoe e
io?aoaiiinoe.

Iaci?iay aaea?ay – yoi iaeii ec ooieoeeiiaeueiuo e eiino?oeoeaiuo
iiaoanoa nii?oaeaiey, e eioi?ui ioiineony e iaee/ea oaoie/aneiai yoaaea.
Ia n/eoay aaea?ath aaniethoiui iiaoanoaii (aniiiieoue oioy au iaci?ioth
aaea?ath Enaeeaaneiai niai?a), ioaeii iiae/a?eiooue, /oi yoio yeaiaio
iaci?iay ieiuaaeea – aue ?aaeeei a eoeueoiaii ciae/anoaa e a oiaea a?aiy
iieacaoaeueiui aeey ?anniao?eaaaiiai a?aiaie – a?aiaie niceaeaiey
iiaiai. Eneeth/eoaeueiue eaeiieci ieaia, yniinoue e oeaeueiinoue anaai
iauaiiiai ?aoaiey ia noaee, iaeiaei, caeiaii nooinoe e iaacee/aiiinoe
oanaaeia. Ia aeaaeeeo, /enouo noaiao e?ani/iua iyoia iiioiaioaeueiie
aeeaiiene. O?aoanoiaeiua e?ueueoea, iiae/a?eeaathuea oeaio?aeueiua ine
thaeiiai e naaa?iiai oanaaeia, eiatho oa?aeoa?ioth aeaoaeue – no?iaioth
a?eo n aeny/eie ae?ueeaie.

Oaea nae/an, ia yoii yoaia enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaiaeece?iaaa oieueei
oa?aeineee e aeaeueieineee iiuo o?aiiaiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e
no?ieoaeuenoaa, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi iiaeiaiia a?oeoaeoo?iia ?aoaiea
aoiaea noaei oe?iei eniieuecoaiui i?eaiii.

E aua ?ac ia a?eaoo?iii iiyna, eioi?ue eae oaea caia/aeinue auoa,
o?aaeeoeeiiii – ia/eiay n Oniaineiai niai?a ai Aeaaeeie?a –
annioeee?iaaeny n ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeaae. A aeaiiii neo/aa aeaei?
iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?acaeaaao eaeath, iaeiicia/ii au?aaeaiioth e ia o?iaia
iauaia a oeaeii naiae i?eaioaoeeae ia ecaanoiua naiei niaea?aeaieai
ia?acoeu neiaieu ?innee.

O?ai-iaiyoiee Nayoeoaeth Ieeieath e oea?th-io/aieeo eiia?aoi?o Ieeieath
II e aai aaaonoaeoae naiuea (a?o. A.E. ss?ii, 1932 i?iaeo, 1934
iino?iai; nio?aieeny) a Oaioaa yaeyaony iaeiei ec iaiiiaeo i?eia?ia
iiaeiaiiai oeia iai?onneiai noeey ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea. Oeia y?eiai,
aeoaiei e iineaaeiaaoaeueii aiieioeaoaai eiioeaiooaeueiua iieiaeaiey
oeeinioneie e ynoaoe/aneie i?ia?aiiu iai?onneiai noeey. Eiiiiceoeey e
noeeenoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe o?aia noiyo a iaeiii ?yaeo n ecaanoiuie
?aaioaie A. Iie?ianeiai – iaeiiai ec iaeaieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo
i?eaa?aeaioeaa iaoeeiiaeueiinoe a a?oeoaeoo?a, i?iaeoii oea?eae i?e
Aieueoie Eeiaoaineie iaiooaeoo?a (1915) A. e A. Aanieiuo e ae?oaeo, ia
iaiaa ecaanoiuo i?iaeoia e nii?oaeaiee. Eiiiiceoeey e noeeenoeea o?aia
iniiaaiu ia eioa?i?aoaoeee ianeieueeeo i?ioioeiia:
iiaiai?iaenei-ineianeeo o?aiia XIV-XV aa., a oaeaea iineianeeo XVI a., a
eiaiii – oao?iaie oea?eae Aicianaiey a Eieiiaineii. I?ienoiaeeo
iiiaiia?aciia iaiaauaiea ia?acoeia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iie
i?i/eouaathony eeoue ia o?iaia ioaeaeaiiuo annioeeaoeee. Ono?aieaoeeny
aaunue ainueiea?aiiue oaoa? eieiiaineie oea?eae i?aia?aciaai
aiia?aaeaieai aaoi?ii a iiuioth no?ieioth eiiiiceoeeth ec iiaoi?ythueony
ainueia?eeia, iinoaiaiii oiaiueoathueony a aeeaiao?a e ii aunioa. Oaoa?
eae oi?ia ionoonoaoao, aaoiaia?aciue iauai ia o?iaia oeaeiai caeaiey
ainnicaeai iiaie eiiaeiaoeeae ae?oaeo oi?i e iauaiia. I?ynea noai
ainueia?eea, ecia?aoaoaeueii au?anoathuaai ec /aoaa?eea iniiaaiey,
caaa?oaiu aeaieiui ?yaeii eeeaaeaeiuo caeiia?. A neaaeothuai y?ona
ainueia?eea iie oaea caaa?oaiu o?aoeiianoiuie caeiia?aie. A iineaaeiai
y?ona, iiaa?iooii ia 45?, niiaa eeeaaeaeuie. E?oaeua oaeee aeaaie,
ieiiiua i?iaiu i?eoai?ia ioi?ieaiu eeeaaeaeiuie eieioieeaie. I?ienoiaeeo
oo?e?iaaiea iniaaiiinoae oi?iu anao 9 eoiieia, oa?aeoa?iie aeey
ae?aaia-ineianeie a?oeoaeoo?u, – iie neeueii auoyioou aaa?o, iiaeiaii
ycu/eai ieaiaie naa/ae, e eaeaioe/iu eoiieeai aaniaoeianeie oea?eae
Niana Ia?oeioai?iiai a Aa?aioeaaa ciaeiaiai aeey iai?onneiai noeey
nii?oaeaiey. Caiaaeiue i?eoai? oeaio?aeueiiai aoiaea, eae e thaeiue – n
aiae?oaeaiiie ia iaai eieieieueiae iaiiieiatho iiaai?iaenei-ineianeea
o?aiu.

A oaioaeneii o?aia-iaiyoieea Ieeieath II, eae a ie iaeiii ec ?aiaa
i?iaiaeece?iaaiiuo, ino?i au?aceeanue i?eioeeieaeueiay onoaiiaea
iai?onneiai noeey ia aa?oeeaeeci eiiiiceoeee, ia?aaoey?iinoue ?eoieee,
aaoiaia?aciinoue neeoyoa. Oieeaeueiuie auee ia?oaeiay ioaeaeea e
oeaaoiaia ?aoaiea o?aia, ianouaa neiaiee/aneoth iaa?oceo. Aeey
ieineinoae noai eniieueciaaeny iaeeoeiai/iue eaiaiue oeaaoa neiiiaie
einoe, aeey aeaoaeae – na?iai. Eoiiea – ?aciioeaaoiua: oeaio?aeueiue –
ie?uo iicaeeie ae?thciaiai oeaaoa, /aou?a iaeuo eoiiea oaiii-neiaai
oeaaoa n cieiouie caacaeaie, eoiie eieieieueie o?ao oeaaoia Aeiia
?iiaiiauo: aaeue, i?aiaeaaue e /a?iue. Aioo?e o?ai aue, aiaaoi
ioaeaeaiiue eaieie e ec?acoeaie ii noaiai, n e?aneai eciaioouie a?eaie,
i?eaeiaeueiui, ?aciui eeiiinoanii e eeioaie iaiyoieeaie. Iie aue
ioaeaeai iicae/iuie ieeoeaie ii iniaiio ?enoieo – aniiieiaao
nia?aiaiiee. Ia?aoiae io /aoaa?eea e aa?aaaio iiaeeoiieueiiai
i?ino?ainoaa inouanoaeyaony i?eaeiaeueiui niiniaii: /a?ac oao?iaoth
eiino?oeoeeth ec iaeeiiaiiuo e oeaio?o iiaei?oaeiuo a?ie, ?acei
noaeathueony e aa?oo. Iaa ii?aaeaeaiey oneiaiu, oae eae iaeeiiaiiua a?ee
ia ia?aciauaaee nieioiie iiaa?oiinoe. Yoi eiaeaia?iia ?aoaiea oneeeaaei
aia/aoeaiea aunioiinoe, oeaeinoiinoe e ono?aieaiiinoe aaunue –
noieiiia?aciinoe. Ana iiae/eiyeinue niuneiaiio niaea?aeaieth
iiaeeoiieueiiai i?ino?ainoaa. Enoi?ey ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u ciaao i?eia?u
oea?eaae n eniieueciaaieai n/eoathueiny ?aaeeei i?eaia eiioniaeaeiiai
aa?aaaia, c?eoaeueii oneeeaathuee aunioo o?aia, acyoue oioy au oio aea
i?eia? Niai?iiai o?aia aeey Aeaeueiaai, eioi?ue ioaeaeyao anaai 30-eaoea
io y?iiianeiai i?iecaaaeaiey, ii i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi iiuo eiaiii oaeie
eiino?oeoeee aue niaa?oaiii i?eaeiaeueiui, . Eioa?uea?u o?aia auee
ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaiu e aunieii?ioanneiiaeueii eniieiaiu aaaeoueie
ianoa?aie aeeaiiene Oaioay. Eae e iieiaeaii ii eaiiiai i?aaineaaiie
eeiiia?aoee a naiaea oeaio?aeueiiai eoiiea iiiauaeinue iicae/iia
ecia?aaeaiea Iaioie?aoi?a (a?o. A. E. ss?ii), a i?inoaieao iaaeaeo
ieiaie aa?aaaia 12 aiinoieia (ooae. A. A. Canuieei), a /aou?ao ia?onao –
ecia?aaeaiea aaaiaaeenoia (ooae. A. I. Ee/eaei). A iyoao /aou?ao a?ie
aieueoea eeiiu iineianeeo nayoeoaeae. I?eaeaeu o?aia ioaeaeyeenue
a?eaaeaie, ia?aieaiiuie ?aciuie eeeaaeaeiuie iaee/ieeaie ni anoaaeaie
eeii e?oaeie oi?iu (eeiiiienaoe A. I. Oa?eoiiia). Ianiio?y ia aiaaonoai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie ioaeaeee eioa?uea?a (oaaeaa? nia?aiaiiiai oea?eiaiiai
ciae/anoaa): iaee/ea ?inienae, iiiaeanoaa eeii, eaiiiai i?iaiaioa,
aea?aayiiie ?acueau, eie?onoaoeee, ia aiai?y oaea i aaeeeieaiee
i?eaeiaeueiiai aeaooy?oniiai eeiiinoana – aeey iaai oa?aeoa?iu
ioaea/aiiinoue, oneiaiinoue, aeaei?aoeaeci, ecuneaiiue eaeiieci. Yoei
aea oeaeyi neoaeeei e eniieueciaaiea a ioaeaeea o?aia oaeeo iaoa?eaeia
eae iicaeea e ec?acoeu.

O?ai-iaiyoiee, iinayuaiiue oea?th-io/aieeo Ieeieath II e aai naiuea,
aeoaiei neiaiee/ai. Niaea?aeaoaeueii eioa?i?aoe?oy ooaeiaeanoaaiiue ycue
eioa?uea?a, iiaeii aiai?eoue i yaii au?aaeaiiii no?aieaiee iniuneeoue e
?acaeoue o?aaeeoeee ?aiiao?enoeaineiai e aecaioeeneiai eneonnoaa, e
iin?aaenoaii yoiai au?aceoue i?aanoaaiioth nouiinoue o?enoeainoaa.

*aniaiy-iaiyoiee iaoaai iieayiey, iaoae aueie neaau aeieaeai auoue
ne?iiiui eae aeieaeii auoue ana o ian ia /oaeaeia, – neacae aieneii
Aeeieo?ee a aeaiue inayuaiey /aniaie. A?oeoaeoo?o /aniaie, aicaeaeaiooie
ia o/anoea Nei?ayuaineiai iiaeai?uey, ioee/aao ?aoeeiiaeeci eiiiiceoeee,
/aoeinoue ni/eaiaiee, aaiiao?eci iauaiia. Naiaioeea oi?i, aeaoaeae,
aeaei?aoeaiiai oa?ainoaa aeoaiei neiaiee/iu, /oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey
iiaeiaiiai oeia nii?oaeaiee. *aoaa?ee /aniaie ia?ae?uo iieonoa?e/aneei
eoiieii ia aa?aaaia ia ia?onao. Ii noeeeciaai iiae ?aaaeeth ?onneeo
aaeeeee eiycae e oea?ae – iaeei ec neiaieia eaeaieiaaiu Iineaa O?aoee
?ei oaieo Iiiiiaoa. *aniaiy-iaiyoiee io oeeoeu auea ioaeaeaia /oaoiiie
ia?aaeie, oe?aoaiiie eeouie iaaeiuie aeaoaeaauie i?eaie – neiaieii
no?aaee ?onneie neaau ia aeaeueiaainoi/iuo ?oaaaeao. Iaae a?eie ii?oaea,
oaeaea eae e ia ia?aaea, – ecaayiea ?ani?inoa?oaai e?ueuey aeaoaeaaiai
i?ea. Ia aaaeao aeaei?aoeaiuo iieoeieiii, oeaiee?othueo ii?oae e ieoe ,
ecaayiey a aeia?aieece?iaaiiii ianooaaa eiia?aoi?neie e ei?ieaaneie
ei?ii aaioeia oea?noaaiiuo no?aaeaeueoeaa (ooae.-neoeueioi? A. O.
Aeieea?). A oeiiaia aoiaeiie a?ee ii ?aaeeono i?iaiaioaeueiay eaioa
iaaeiene ni neiaaie ec iieeoau. A ieoa ia ainoi/iii oanaaea ia?iiiay
eeiia Nayoiai ?aniyoey O?enoiaa e iaaeienueth a oeiiaia Ainiiaee, i?inoe
ei: ia aaaeyo ai, /oi oai?yo (aaoi? eeiiu – eiieeiy Ieeiieaaea). A
i?inoaieao iaaeaeo eaaea/eie ieiaie aa?aaaia aa?aeueaou e?anoia.
I?iii?oeee eeanne/aneiai i?aea?a e aai ia?aaioea, i?iii?oeee e oi?ia
a?ie, ieii, i?eaeiaeueiay noeeecaoeey eoiiea, neioac ?aciiia?aciaeoeo
ecia?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa (eeouea, aa?aeueaou, i?iaiaio, ?iniene)
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i i?aiaeaaeaiee no?aieaiey nicaeaoue ia/oi iiaia, /ai
iia?aoueny ia ia?acoeu eeanne/aneiai ianeaaeey.

Aeiieie?othuay i?eaioaoeey enneaaeoaiuo o?aiia a iai?onneii noeea ia
i?ei?eoao ii?aaeaeaiiuo ae?aaia?onneeo a?oeoaeoo?iuo oeie, oaeeo eae
iiaiai?iaenei-ineianeay, iineianeay, io/anoe aeaaeeie?i-nocaeaeueneay
/aoei i?ineaaeeaaaony.

A /enei iniaaiiinoae iiaeii ioianoe e i?aeoeeo ainnicaeaiey a 1930-o aa.
i?ineaaeaiiuo o?aiia, /aniaai, ?ac?ooaiiuo a Iineaa. Eae i?aaeei, yoi ia
auee eiiee, ii eniieueciaaiea i?ioioeiia, eniieiaiiuo anai iiiyoiui
niuneii, ?aaeeciaaei no?aieaiea aic?iaeeoue ia i?inoi a?oeoaeoo?ioth
oi?io, ii ?inneth.

I aunieii o?iaia i?ioanneiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u eae i?iaeoe?iaueeia, oae e
no?ieoaeae aiai?eo neaaeothuee oaeo: aieueoeinoai o?aiia, aeaaea
e?oiiuo, i/aiue auno?i no?ieeenue. Neo/aaa ia?ooaiey eiino?oeoeee
iaecaanoiu.

Ynoaoeea e oeeinioey iai?onneiai noeey iaioaeaeeiu io ?onneiai
?aeeaeiciiai ?aiannaina e ?onneie ?aeeaeiciie oeeinioee e. XIX ia/. OO
aa. A eneeth/eoaeueiii aieiaiee e ooaeiaeanoaaiiui aii?inai oi?ie?iaaiey
eioa?uea?iie n?aaeu aeaeueiaainoi/iuo o?aiia a iiin?aaeiaaiiii aeaea
au?aaeaia aai aeooiaii-niaea?aeaoaeueioth iniiaa aa?a aeooiaiuo eeoe,
ciae/eo, eeiiiienoeaa, ia?iaeiuo ianoa?ia a aeaaioai?ii-i?aia?acothuoth
neeo eneonnoaa e e?aniou.

 Ia?aaeei iiaeii neuoaoue ?annoaeaeaiey e aeaaea nii?u i oii, eae eo/oa
ienaoue eeiiu, – a «noa?eiiii» eee «iiaii» noeea. Eiaaea aiai?yo ia
eeiiao a «noa?eiiii noeea», oi iaueiiaaiii eiatho a aeaeo ae?aaiea
i?eieoeau, ii/a?iaaoea io a?aiaie, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie
a?oaieiae/aneee eioa?an e, ca/anooth, oo?e?iaaiiua eiiee n ieo a
eniieiaiee aeiii?iuaiiuo ooaeiaeieeia-aeeeaoaioia. Iiae «iiaui noeeai»
?acoiathony eeiiu aac anyeiai noeey, a y?eeo, eoai/iuo oiiao. Oaeei
iiaa?oiinoiui, iauaaoaeueneei ii?aaeaeaieai eeiiiiene ia?aie/eaaaony
iiiyoea iiiaeo, i?ieciinyueo «i?eaiai?» oiio eee ae?oaiio noeeth.
Iiaeiaiua nii?u /anoi aicieeatho n?aaee i?eoiaeai e aeooiaainoaa, eiaaea
noaiiaeony aii?in ia oe?aoaiee eeiiaie i?eoiaeneie oea?eae. Iaeioi?ua
i?eciatho «oieueei aaniaoeianeee noeeue»!

I?a?aeaiey i «noeeyo» /anoi iaino?ythony, aeioiaey aei ?acaei?ia e ii?/e
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aeia?uie ethaeueie, a i?e/eiie eo neoaeeo, ii aieueoae
/anoe, iaoiaiea ?acee/aoue enoeiiia eneonnoai io ethaeoaeueneiai
iiae?aaeaiey ia/aoiui eeiiai, aoaeue oi a noa?eiiii eee iiaii noeea,
eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, ia anaaaea yaeythony ?ai?iaeoeoeeyie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iiaeeeiieeia, a iiaoo auoue aini?iecaaaeaieai
i?eaeiaeia e eiiee eonoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Ionoonoaea iiaeeeiiuo eeii
e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo eeiiiienoeaa, aeaaeathueo oaoieeie iaeiie eee
ae?oaie eeiiiieniie oeieu, iiaeii n/eoaoue aeaaiaeoae i?e/eiie
iaaethaeaaiiai oiaaeea. Ioi?aaaoenue io ?iaeiie eoeueoo?u, aieueoeinoai
niioa/anoaaiieeia oo?aoeei niiniaiinoue ioee/aoue iiaeeeiiia io
iiaeaeaeee, enoeiiia io eiaeiiai; yoa aieaciue, einioaoayny ?acee/iuo
noi?ii aeecie ?onneeo yiea?aioia, io?aceeanue, ii-aeaeeiiio, e ia
ioiioaiea e oea?eiaiiio eneonnoao, ii?inoea oiaiea ?acae?aoueny a iai
aei oiai, /oi i?aaeeaaaaiua eaoiee/aneeie ecaeaoaeuenoaaie aoiaaeiua
iiaeaeaeee, a inaaaei-noa?eiiii e a inaaaei-iiaii noeea, i?eieiathony
i?aaineaaiuie yiea?aioaie, eae iiaeeeiiua eeiiu. Eiia/ii, iieo/ea
inayuaiea ii oea?eiaiiio /eio, yoe aoiaaeiua ecia?aaeaiey caiaiytho
ianoiyuoth eeiio; ii iaeuecy ia yoii ooaa?aeeoueny e oniieieoueny, ia
iiaeaeaa caiaiu aa ?oeiieniui ia?acii, eniieiaiiui ?oeie ianoa?a… Ia
yoi neaaeoo, – aaea aea yoiai ianoa?a acyoue?.. Iieuecoainy oai, /oi
anoue, ia anaaaea e yoi aeinoaiaoue!.. Aeiaiae oaeie, /oi o?oaeii
aic?aceoue; ii, oai ia iaiaa, iiaeaeaiea inoaaony a neea, e Aia iiiiaeao
aai inouanoaeoue, anee iii aoaeao ai?y/aa e ene?aiiaa. A i?ioeaiii
neo/aa iiaeao oei?aieoueny i?eau/ea oaeiaeaoai?youeny eieoaoeeyie,
iiaeao ao?ioe?iaaoueny naii aeaeaiea iieeoueny ia?aae eeiiaie. Ae?aaiee,
Oea?eiaueth inayuaiiue, eoeueo eeiiiienaiey caaeioiao, a, aianoa n oai,
ooaa?aeeony iaa?aaeaiea e aeiaiaoo eeiiiii/eoaiey, onoaiiaeaiiiio ia VII
Anaeaineii Niai?a. E n/anoueth, n?aaee ?onneeo, aua iiiaea aeaeatho
aeaeaoue a o?aia e aeiia ianoiyuea eeiiu; iao iaaeinoaoea e a aeaeathueo
eo ienaoue; ii ia eiay oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee, ia ciay «acia», ienaoue
eeiiu oieueei «ii aaeioiiaaieth» – iaaiciiaeii. Ia ciay iniiaiuo caeiiia
aeeaiiene, ia o?aie?oynue e ia niaa?oainoaoynue a eco/aiee aa aeaeia e
oaoieee, iaeuecy noaoue ianoa?ii-aeeaiienoeai. Yoiai o?aaoao anyeia
eneonnoai e ?aianei, e oai aieaa iii iaycaoaeueii aeey oao, eoi aa?aony
ecia?aaeaoue nayuaiiua eeee Nianeoaey, Aiaeeae Iaoa?e, aiinoieia e
ae?oaeo oaiaeieeia Aiaeeeo. Caa?aie/iay eeiiiienue inoaaony
ethaeoaeueneie iioiio, /oi a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa e iae iiaeoiaeyo aac
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai iao/aiey: ia eiay o?aie?iaee a ?enoiea, ia /oanoaoy
caeiia aa?iiie/aneiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e?anie e ia oiay oaoie/anee
iieueciaaoueny eie, ieoouea eeiiu «ii aaeioiiaaieth» ia/eiatho
ecia?aaeaoue ia?ac O?enoia, eee Aiaeeae Iaoa?e. I?aaeii/eoathuea ienaoue
a «iiaii noeea», iieuecothony eiieyie ecaanoiuo ecia?aaeaiee Nianeoaey e
Aiaiiaoa?e, eniieiaiiuo ooaeiaeieeii Aaniaoeiaui aeey Aeaaeeii?neiai
niai?a a Eeaaa. Aieueoa anaai eiie?otho n iaiaoeeeo eeoia?aoee.
Eeiiiieniia i?aainoai, naycuaaaoaa ?onneeo ianoa?ia, aeaaea naiiai
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie, n enoieaie aai aicieeiiaaiey, i?a?aaeinue
caa?aieoeae, a iiiuoee aic?iaeaeaiey aai iinyo oa?aeoa? i?iaiue, e
iaaethaeaaony iaeioi?ue oniao eeoue a aaeeie/iuo neo/ayo. Ia iaoae
?iaeeia eeiiiieniia eneonnoai iaiaeiie?aoii aeaeieciaiyeinue:
oaoie/aneea i?eaiu ?aciuo ia?eiaeia ioee/athony iaeei io ae?oaiai oae
aea, eae eciaiyaony e eiiiiceoeeiiiay noi?iia. Ii, aic?inoay ia aeoaieeo
ei?iyo aecaioeeneiai ?aeeaeiciiai eneonnoaa e iieo/eaoay io iaai
aeooiaioth i?aainoaaiiinoue, eeiiiienue iaoa yaeyaony ?acaaoaeaieai oiai
aea ae?aaa, aiieiuathuaai a e?aneao o/aiea I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae.
Ioe?uoay o/aiuie enneaaeiaaoaeyie, nio?aieaoeany noaiiiene ae?aaieo
o?aiia ?onneiai naaa?a naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i aunieie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?a ?onneeo ianoa?ia iiaai?iaeneie oeieu XIV, XV, XVI e io/anoe
XVII noieaoey, eioi?ay, ?ane?uaaynue a naiiauoiuo oi?iao, iaoiaeeeanue a
ianiiiaiiie nayce n cieioui ia?eiaeii aieueoie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie
eoeueoo?u thaeiineaayineeo ianoa?ia, ?acaeaaaoaeny ia Aaeeaineii
iieoino?iaa (iniaaiii a Iaeaaeiiee) io XII aei XV aaea e auaoae a
aeeceii ooaeiaeanoaaiiii ?iaenoaa n aaee/anoaaiiui eneonnoaii ae?aaiae
Aecaioee.

Aeaaeaiee I.I. Eiiaeaeia, I.I. Eeoa/aa, I.A. Iie?ianeee, I.I. Io?aoia e
ae?oaea o/aiua enneaaeiaaoaee ae?aaia-?onneie aeeaiiene (iiae neiaii
aeeaiienue ?acoiaaony noaiiay ?inienue o?aiia e eeii ia aeineao)
ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoatho yoio ia?eiae ?anoeaaoii eeiiiieniiai eneonnoaa ia
?one e aunoei aai i?iyaeaieai. Eiiaoe XVII aaea ?anniao?eaaaony oaea,
eae ia/aei oiaaeea /enoiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa e ?acaeoey
?aianeaiiinoe, iiieceaoae ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aeinoieinoaa eeiiiiene.
I?eciaaay aaoi?eoao oaeeo aeoaieeo ciaoieia e oiieeo oeaieoaeae
eneonnoaa, eae auoaoiiiyiooua enneaaeiaaoaee, oeacuaathueo ia oi, /oi
?aianeaiiinoue auoanieea /enoia ooaeiaeanoai ae?aaieo eeiiiieniuo oeie,
iaeuecy, iaeiaei, ia ioeaieoue e aunieea aeinoieinoaa ?aianeaiiiai
ia?eiaea, ?acaeaaaoaainy ia aeaaiaeaoiuo iniiaao i?aaeoanoaothuae yiioe,
niceaeaaoaeny ia neiaieeea eaoaeiiaiiai o?enoeainoaa. ?aianeaiiue
ia?eiae ia oieueei iiae?aaeae aunieiio iieaoo naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, –
ii eiae e naie iieao e naie ?aciao, au?aceaoeeny a ia?aciaaaoeony e
naiiii?aaeaeythueony ooaeiaeanoaaiii-?aianeaiiuo iai?aaeaieyo, oeieao:
No?iaaiianeie, Nocaeaeueneie, Iineianeie, Oaa?neie, ss?ineaaneie e
ae?oaea, eioi?ua ioee/aynue naiaia?aceai a oaoie/aneeo i?eaiao ienueia,
eiaee iaeii iiiacaiea: iie auee aeoaiei oea?eiaiu! Eeiiiienoeu oiai
a?aiaie ioee/ii iiieiaee aeooiaioth nouiinoue o/aiey O?enoiaie Oea?eae e
n ecoieoaeueiie iaoiae/eainoueth oiaee eeethno?e?iaaoue aai a noaiiiene
e ia eeiiao.

?aianeaiiinoue auoanieea aunieea aeinoieinoaa iaiyoieeia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ?anoeaaoa. Ii eia/a e auoue ia iiaei, – eoi
oaeiaeaoai?ye au ia?iiioth iio?aaiinoue a eeiiao no?ieaoaeny e
?ac?anoaaoaeny a naieo i?aaeaeao na. ?one?

Anee XVII aae n/eoaaony aaeii ?aianeaiiie eeiiiiene, oi iienoeia aai
iiaeii iaeiaiiaaoue aaeii ?aianeaiii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ?anoeaaoa, a
i?aaeaeao anaai inoaeueiiai ia?eiaea aei iaoeo aeiae.

Oiiiyiooua auoa eeiiiieniua oeieu aeaee ioee/iuo ianoa?ia, eioi?ua, ai
aeaaa eeiiiieniuo a?oaeae, oe?aoaee o?aneiaie aeeaiienueth
iiiai/eneaiiua o?aiu iineianeie ?one e i?eeaaaaoeo e iae eiyaeanoa. Ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia XVII aaea eaiiie/aneay no?iainoue eeiiiieniiai noeey
iinoaiaiii oo?a/eaaao naie iaeee; aeooiaii-aneaoe/aneea eeee nayouo
caiaiythony aa?iiaece?iaaiiuie, ii/oe ii?o?aoiuie, ecia?aaeaieyie oeieu
aeaeiaaiiiai eeiiiienoea Na?aa?yiie Iaeaou, Neiiia Ooaeiaa, eioi?ue
iieiaeee iniiaaiea iiaiai iai?aaeaiey, iacuaaaiiai «Ooaeianeie oeieie».

Neeyiea n Iaei?inneae, aaea ?aeeaeiciia eneonnoai ?acaeaaeinue iiae
aeeyieai Iieueoe, ia?aieiaaoae ana, /oi i?iecaiaeeea eaoiee/aneay
Eoaeey, «aeenoaoaeueii» aic?iaeaeaaoay a oi a?aiy, ia noaiao e ieaoiiao
naieo o?aiia e iaeaoeoei, ycu/aneee eeanneoeeci, noaei caiaoii
io?aaeaoueny ia ?aeeaeiciii eneonnoaa iineianeie ?one.

Aae ?aoi?i eiia?aoi?a Iao?a I-ai i?eaeae ciaiaieouo eiino?aiiuo ciae/eo:
O?aceie, Eaaiiia, ?ano?aeee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo, eioi?ua no?ieee aeai?oeu e
o?aiu a iiaeiii oiaaea noeea «Aa??iei» n aioo?aiiae ioaeaeeie caoaeeeaui
«?ieiei» – o?aioeocneei aeaei?aoeaiui noeeai, aieueoa aiaeiui aeey
oe?aoaiey oaioeaaaeueiuo cae, /ai i?aaineaaiuo eeiiinoania. Aa?iiaeneay
a?oeoaeoo?a iio?aaiaaea niioaaonoaothuee noeeue eeiiiiene: iiyaeeenue
ecia?aaeaiey nayouo a iaia?iuo iicao n iiiaaeii-?iciauie eeoeaie, a
i?e/aneao e einothiao niioaaonoaothueo oiio aea naeiiiiio noeeth. Aeey
inouanoaeaiey iiauo caaea/ i?eaeaoaeenue naaoneea ooaeiaeieee, o/aieee
eioi?uo noaiiaeeenue ianoa?aie-eeiiiienoeaie, ?ani?ino?aieoaeyie iiauo
oi?i a eeiiiieniii eneonnoaa. Yoe oi?iu, aianoa n oaoieeie, auno?i
onaaeaaeenue ?onneeie ianoa?aie e eonoa?yie, eioi?ua, ia noaniyynue,
iie?uaaee naiae aa?iiaece?iaaiiie aeeaiienueth noaiu ia oieueei iiauo,
ii e noa?eiiuo oea?eaae, iiaa?o oeaiiuo ?inienae – iaiyoieeia
ae?aaia-?onneiai eneonnoaa. Ioaeaeueiua eeiiu, ecaioiaeyaiua a
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo ianoa?neeo, n i?aoaiceae ia eaeie-ieaoaeue «?aiannain»,
eee «?ieiei», eiaao aeae aanueia iai?eaeaeaoaeueiue; ii, oai ia iaiaa, a
ieo anoue eaeie-oi i?eai, ?aianeaiiay oaaoea.

Io na?aaeeiu i?ioeiai aaea eoaeueyii-iieueneay iaia?a i?eieiaao aieaa
no?iaee iaeee, – neauaaay iaia?iinoue en/acaao, e aa?iiaece?iaaiiay
eeiiiienue noaiiaeony aieaa i?eaieaiie aeey au?aaeaiey i?aaineaaiiai
/oanoaa, oo?aoea, aianoa n oai, anyeia cia/aiea a niunea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oeaiiinoe. I?e anae aacee/iinoe e ayeinoe
onoaiiaeaoaeny iaia?u, iia aoiaeeo a aeeciue, e iae i?eaueaao aeac
i?aaineaaiiai aiaiiieueoea e, oaeei ia?acii, iieo/aao i?aaa ia aeeciue
«iiaue noeeue», i eioi?ii aiai?eeinue a ia/aea noaouee.

Oei?aiaieth aeona e eeiia yoiai aeaea a aieueoie ia?a niinianoaiaaee
iiyaeaoeany a Iaeanna ieaia?aoe/aneea ecaeaiey Oanaiei, Ieauaaaa e
ae?oaeo. Yoe ieaia?aoee, ii aieueoae /anoe, ia/aoaeenue n a?oauo,
eoai/iuo i?eaeiaeia, ii iie ioioii ?aneoiaeenue ia?iaeii aeaaiaea?y
aeaoaaecia e a?inaaoeiny a aeaca y?eei e?aneai. Oai ia iaiaa e yoe
aioeooaeiaeanoaaiiua eeiiu ia ienaeenue ethaeoaeyie-naiio/eaie – i?e
anao naieo iaaeinoaoeao, e a ieo anoue ?aianeaiiay oiaeinoue. A
eeiiiieniuo ianoa?neeo Aoiia, Aaeaaia e iiiaeo ae?oaeo iiianou?ae, a
oaeaea a /anoiuo ianoa?neeo, eeiiiienoeu ?aaeenoe/aneie oeieu ioee/ii
aeaaeaee oaoieeie ianeyiie e?anee; iie oiaee oiiei e ouaoaeueii
auienuaaoue eaaeaeue caaeoie aiein, eaaeaeoth neeaaei/eo a iaeaaeaeao.
Ianoa?a yoie oeieu, eae e a eaaeaeii aeaea, – iaeie auee aunoae
eaaeeoeeaoeee, ae?oaea – iecoae; ii anaaaea auea ?aianeaiiay auo/ea,
ioee/athuay ethaoth eeiio, iaienaiioth a ?innee, io ?aaiou i?aeoeeoaiie
ca ?oaaaeii. Anee ?aiiea noieaoey, niaaeeiythuea ?onneoth oea?eiaioth
aeeaiienue n aunieei ooaeiaeanoaaiii-?aeeaeiciui iiaeuaiii Aecaioee,
yaeythony yiioie /enoiai eneonnoaa ia ?one, a iineaaeothuea a?aiaia
yiioie ?aianeaiiie, oi caa?aie/ioth eeiiiienue iaoaai noieaoey iiaeii
niaei iacaaoue «yiea?aioneei noeeai».

*oi i?ienoiaeeo oai, ia ?iaeeia, – iu ia ciaai; aanueia aiciiaeii, /oi
nia?aiaiiua eaoaeiiau au?aaioaee iiaua neiaieu, aianoi eeii,
i?aneaaeoaiuo aacaiaeiie, niaaoneie aeanoueth; ii caa?aie/iay ?onue, a
oa/aiea ii/oe iieoaaea iiae?aaeay e oie e ae?oaie eeiiiieniie i?aeoeea,
ia niiaea iiaeiyoueny aei o?iaiy ?aianeaiiinoe. Iiae?aaeathuea ae?aaiaio
ienueio, o.a. oa, eoi ieooo a «noa?eiiii noeea», ia iiiye aeaaiiai
aeinoieinoaa aai – oiaiey au?aaeaoue aeooiaioth nouiinoue
ecia?aaeaaiiai, ii ia?aoea aeaaiia aieiaiea ia «iai?aaeeueiinoue», o.a.
ia iniaaiiinoe, i?ioeai?a/auea ?aaeenoe/aneiio iiieiaieth, i?eiyee yoi,
eae aeaaiia, e a naieo eiaeii-noa?eiiuo i?iecaaaeaieyo oneeeee oi, /oi
iiaeii auei au iaieoe, ia ia?ooay iauae eiiiiceoeee e noeey.

I?ioeann oiaaeea e a?oauo iiae?aaeaiee a ?aeeaeiciii eneonnoaa, a aua
aieueoae noaiaie, einioeny no?ai i?aaineaaiiai Ainoiea. A ianoiyuaa
a?aiy a A?aoeee i?ienoiaeeo eneonnoaaiiia aic?iaeaeaiea aecaioeeneiai
noeey, eioi?ia au?aaeaaony a eaea/aiee i?ae?aniuo oi?i e eeiee e aiiaua
noeeenoe/anee ?ac?aaioaiiiai, aeooiaii aicauoaiiiai, oai?/anoaa ae?aaieo
ooaeiaeanoaaiieeia Aecaioee. Nia?aiaiiue a?a/aneee eeiiiienaoe Eiioaaeo,
i?e niaeaenoaee neiiaea Yeeaaeneie Oea?eae, auionoee ?yae ?ai?iaeoeoeee
naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa, – eioi?ua iaeuecy ia i?eciaoue aacaea?iaeoeie
iiae?aaeaieyie ciaiaieoiai a?a/aneiai ooaeiaeieea Iainaeeia, oe?aneaoaai
naieie iaiiae?aaeaaiuie o?aneaie o?aiu aoiineeo iiianou?ae a XIV aaea.
Iieeiiieee Eiioaaeo e aai o/aieee aiai?yo, /oi nayoua «ia aeieaeiu auoue
iioiaee ia ianoiyueo ethaeae», – ia eiai aea iie aeieaeiu auoue
iioiaee?! I?eieoeaiinoue oaeiai oieeiaaiey i/aiue a?aaeeo oai, eoi
aeaeeo e ia iiaa?oiinoii iiieiaao aeooiaioth e ynoaoe/aneoth e?anioo
ae?aaiae eeiiiiene e ioaa?aaao no??iaaou aa, i?aaeeaaaaiua, eae ia?acoeu
yeiau ainnoaiiaeaiiiai aecaioeeneiai noeey. *anoi i?iyaeaiea yiooceacia
e «ae?aaiaio noeeth» auaaao iaene?aiiei, iaia?oaeeaay a noi?iiieeao aai
eeoue i?aoaioeeiciinoue e iaoiaiea ?acee/aoue iiaeeeiiia eneonnoai io
a?oaiai iiae?aaeaiey.

A iiae?aaeaoaeueiuo ?aaioao nia?aiaiiuo eeiiiienoeaa,
«ia?anoeeeciauaaaony» noeeue; iiaeiaoea eaeia ie aoaeue oa?aeoa?iia
iieiaeaiea oaea, aeaau eee ?oe, au?aaeathuaa ia noa?eiiie eeiia
iieeoaaiiia aeaaiaiaaiea, nia?aiaiiue noeeecaoi? iiaeaa?aaao aai
ianoa?ieiie oo?e?iaea, io /aai nayuaiiia ecia?aaeaiea noaiiaeony
niaoiui. Oaeeaeoaeueiay o?aeoiaea neeaaeie iaeaaeae, o?aaothuay iniaiai
eco/aiey, iiaeaa?aaaony oaeie «noeeeciaea», /oi iie aieueoa iaiiieiatho
a?oai-oanaiiua aeinee, /ai neeaaeee oaeeiauo oeaiae. Eeee ia?i/eoi
/a?iyony, «/oiau auei ii noa?eiiiio», oiaaea eae /a?iioa ae?aaieo eeii
ioithaeue ia yaeyaony eo naienoaii, iaiai?io: – oiaei ?an/euaiiua io
/a?iiou eeiiu ae?aaiaai ienueia ii?aaeatho e?anioie eiei?eoa. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aecaioeeneei eneonnoaai caeioa?aniaaeanue e eaoeineay
oea?eiaue, – ia no?aieoeao eaoiee/aneeo ecaeaiee nieioue e ?yaeii
iiiaaeathony eeethno?aoeee, ii/oe eiuoinoaaiii eneaaeathuea ecaanoiua
ia?acoeu eeii ainoi/iie Oea?eae. (Yoe eeethno?aoeee iau/ii iiaeaiiythony
e noaoueyi, eanathueiny «Ainoi/iiai ia?yaea», /ai iaaeyaeii
iaia?oaeeaaaony eneonnoaaiiay caaeaiiinoue i?eaeoiaiiie eaoieeeaie
«?aoeaioeee» i?aaineaaiie eeiiiiene).

Iaaycuaaaiia iiaiea, aoaeoi eeiiu aeieaeii ienaoue oneiaiuie iiaeiaeyie,
a ?acei iaicia/aiiuo eiioo?ao, yeiau au?aaeathueo eaeoth-oi
«yeni?anneth», ioee/athuoth nayouo io «ianoiyueo ethaeae», aucuaaao o
iiiaeo ia?aoiia /oanoai, eioi?ia i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoeeei eeoia?aoe/aneei
eoaeai, eee eiieyi n ieo, e canoaaeyao i?eoiaeeoue e caeeth/aieth, /oi
«iiaue noeeue», «ana-oaee eo/oa»!

Ia aii?in, – eae ioiineoueny e «aaniaoeianeiio noeeth»? – ioaaoei, /oi
oaeiai noeey eeiiia?aoey ia ciaao. Anai eeoue ecaanoii, /oi aeee a
?innee neaaiue ooaeiaeiee Aeeoi? Ieoaeeiae/ Aaniaoeia, iaienaaoeo «O?ao
aiaaou?ae», «Aeaiooeo», «Neaiuo aoney?ia», e /oi ii eeethno?e?iaae
aueeiu e neacee. Aeaaiui iaiyoieeii aaniaoeianeiai oai?/anoaa n/eoaaony
?inienue Aeaaeeii?neiai niai?a a Eeaaa n a?aiaeeiciui cai?anoieueiui
ecia?aaeaieai Aiaiiaoa?e. Aieueoia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee
?ai?iaeoeoeee iaianoiuo ia?acia Nianeoaey e Aiaeeae Iaoa?e n
Ieaaeaioeai. Yoe aeaa aaniaoeianeea eeiiu ano?a/athony iianthaeo e a
aeaea eeethno?aoeee a ?aciuo o/aaieeao, eaeaiaea?yo e ae?oaeo ecaeaiee.
I/aiue /anoi iiaeii aeaeaoue eiiee n yoeo aea eeii ia eeiiinoanao
oea?eaae (iniaaiii a Aia?eea). Yoeie ecia?aaeaieyie ia?aie/eaaaony
aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoueny «aaniaoeianeei noeeai», eae ?oeiaiaenoaii
aeey aieaa oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey. Ana iiiuoee ienaoue «iiae Aaniaoeiaa»,
ia aeatho iieiaeeoaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia e iieo/atho oa?aeoa?
ethaeoaeueneie ionaayoeiu. Oi aea iiaeii neacaoue e i ooaeiaeieea
Ianoa?iaa, iaienaaoai ecaanoioth ea?oeio «Nayoay ?onue» n i?ae?aniui
iaecaaeai ?onneiai naaa?a. Ianoa?ia o/anoaiaae a ?iniene Aeaaeeii?neiai
niai?a e ?anienae oea?eiaue Ia?oi-Ia?eeineie iaeoaee a Iineaa. A ia?aca
Nianeoaey aeey eeiiiienoea yoie oea?eae Ianoa?ia oioae aini?iecaanoe, a
aeeaiieniie iaia?a, caia/aoaeueiue ?oaeaaneee ia?ac O?enoia, iaeiaei
eneacee Aai /a?ou iaaeoiaiiie «ineoieiaeae» ai acaeyaea. Eeiiu Ia?ou e
Ia?ee, ia oii aea eeiiinoana, yaii iaia?oaeeaatho ii?o?aou ciaeiiuo
ooaeiaeieeo eeoe, eae e ana inoaeueiua nayuaiiua ecia?aaeaiey,
eniieiaiiua ei aeey Aeaaeeii?neiai niai?a e aeey Ia?oi-Ia?eeineie
iaeoaee. Ea?oeiu Ianoa?iaa oaeaea eiatho iaeioi?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a
?ai?iaeoeoeeyo, iinyueo iacaaiea – «Ianoa?ianeiai noeey».

Eoae, ioi?aaaoenue io i?e?iaeiuo ei?iae e iioa?ya i?aainoai, naycuaaaoaa
?onneeo ianoa?ia-eeiiiienoeaa n enoieaie aicieeiiaaiey ?onneie
eeiiiiene, iiaeii ee ?ann/eouaaoue ia aa aic?iaeaeaiea caa?aieoeae?
Ii-aeaeeiiio, iao. Ii oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa eeii, i?iecaiaeeiuo ?aciuie
eeoeaie, ia eiathueie oeieu e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie iiaeaioiaee, aiciiaeii –
ii eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea ia iiaeaioiaeo aoaeao ia?auaii aeaaiia aieiaiea.
Anee aeaeathuea ienaoue eeiiu ia iio?oaeyony iaae onaiaieai ?enoiea,
acaeiiioiioaieai e?ani/iuo oiiia, i?iii?oeeae e aiiaua eiiiiceoeeae,
anee ia iinoa?athony, iiiai ?ac, eiie?iaaoue aeaoaee n oi?ioeo, yniuo
?ai?iaeoeoeee (/oi ia o?oaeii oaia?ue i?eia?anoe), oi iaaiciiaeii
?ann/eouaaoue ia oeo/oaiea ea/anoaa caa?aie/iie eeiiiiene.

Aeinoieinoai anyeie eeiiu caaeneo ia oieueei io ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aeona
eee ?aeeaeiciiai aaeioiiaaiey eniieieoaey, ii e io ciaiey oaoie/aneeo
i?eaiia, ia/eiay io i?eaioiaeaiey a?oioia ia aeinea, oiaiey
iieueciaaoueny e?aneaie, eae ye/iuie, oae ianeyiuie e ae?oaeie, oiaiey
cieioeoue, oeeoiaaoue e i?.

Anee ?acaeoay oaoieea ii?aaeaeyao ea/anoai ethaiai ?aianea, oi oai aieaa
yoi ioiineony e ?aianeo ienaiey eeiiu

Nienie eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia:

1.Ee?e/aiei A. E.. ?onneee noeeue. I, 1997. N.288.

2.AEeaaiia A. Ae. ?onneea a Oaioaa: Aeueaii. Oaioae, 1936. N. 39.

3.Nayuaiiee I. Iaaea?ei. Oea?eiaiay aeeciue Oa?aeia. // A. I. Oaneeia.
?onneee Oa?aei. I. 1998. N.27.

4.Ee?e/aiei A. E. ?onneee noeeue. I., 1997. N.288-305.

5.Oeeo. ii: Oaneeia A. I. ?onneee Oa?aei. I., 1998. n. 33.

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