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Возникновение письменности: пиктография

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?aoa?ao ii oaia «Aicieeiiaaiea ienueiaiiinoe: ieeoia?aoey»

O?aei?iaie Ae?iu

*aeiaa/anoai ia ca?a naiaai ?acaeoey o/eeinue aiai?eoue. Nia/aea
aeanoaie, ioaeaeueiuie caoeaie, e?eeaie. Oaeie ycue aeinooiai e
aeeaioiui. Iniaaiii oai, /oi aeeaoo i?aaieciaaiiuie niiauanoaaie.

O iiiaeo ia?iaeia ie?a anoue ieou i ia?aiia/aeao, iiaanoaothuea i oii,
eae oain i?aa?aoeeny a ie? n iaaii, caie?e e anai, /oi anoue ia Caiea.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee enoi?ee Aa?iaeio ?anneacuaae, /oi eiaaea iiaouanoaaiiue
e iaiiaaaeeiue ia?neaeneee oea?ue Aea?ee I a?e i?ioea ei/aaieeia neeoia
aieio, eioi?ay «caoyaeaaeanue e eiioea ae ia auei aeaeii». Neeoneea
oea?e ioi?aaeee e Aea?eth aanoieea n aea?aie. Yoi auee ioeoea, iuoue,
eyaooea e iyoue no?ae. Ia?nu ni?ineee iineaioea, /oi icia/atho yoe
iiaeiioaiey, ii oio ioaaoee, /oi aio i?eeacaii oieueei a?o/eoue aea?u e
e4ae iiaeii nei?aa aica?auaoueny. Ia?nai i?aaenoiyei naiei iiiyoue
cia/aiea yoeo aea?ia…

Ia?nu nia?aee niaao. Aea?ee iieaaae, /oi neeou ioaeatho naay a aai
aeanoue e iioiio i?eianee aio a ciae iiei?iinoe caieth e aiaeo, eai
iuoue aeea?o a caiea, eyaooea iaeoaao a aiaea. Ioeoea, auno?ay, eae
eiiue – ciae aiaaonoaa, a no?aeu icia/atho, /oi neeou ioeacuaathony io
nii?ioeaeaiey. Iaeei ec ioae?uo ioaeae, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeo oea?y, n iei ia
niaeaneeny. Ii enoieeiaae iineaiea neeoia niaa?oaiii eia/a: «Anee au,
ia?nu, eae ioeoeu, ia oeaoeoa a iaai, eee, eae iuoe, ia ca?iaoanue a
caieth, eee, eae eyaooee, ia iinea/aoa a aieioi, oi ia aa?i?oanue
iacaae, ii?aae?iiua yoeie no?aeaie». Aeaeueiaeoea niauoey iieacaee, /oi
i?aa aue eiaiii yoio ioae?aoe: naiioaa?aiiue oea?ue Aea?ee iioa?iae
ii?aaeaiea io neeoia.

?anneac Aa?iaeioa aeiiineo aei ian naaaeaiey ia oieueei ia iaeiii ec
enoi?e/aneeo niauoee, ii e i ae?aaiaeoai i?aaeea ienueiaiiinoe. Aea?u
neeoia auee naiaia?aciui niiniaii ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ue o/?iua
iacuaatho i?aaeiaoiui ienueiii. Eiaaea-oi, ii e?aeiae ia?a, 10 oun. eao
iacaae, n iaai e ia/aeanue enoi?ey ienueiaiiinoe.

Eiia/ii, ienueiaiiinoue ?iaeeeanue ec i?aaeiaia?aiiiai oai?/anoaa,
iai?yae?iiie ?aaiou iunee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iia aeaea aiciiaeiinoue
ainiieueciaaoueny nie?iaeuaie, eioi?ua iaeiieee e naa?aaee aan/eneaiiua
iieieaiey. Iicaieeea iiciaoue i?ioeia e i?eiaueoueny e aa?oeiai iunee.
Ienueiaiiinoue canoaaeea /aeiaaea ?aciuoeyoue i naiii naaa, ioe?uea
niciaiea «oeeinioneie iaeiia?aiaiiinoe» anao iieieaiee. Aio eae aeaeaei
iiaeao caaanoe i?inoay /aeiaa/aneay iio?aaiinoue.

Enoaoe, i ienueiaiiinoe. A i?yiii niunea yoiai neiaa, i?eiyoi aiai?eoue
a oao neo/ayo, anee eiathony aeaa a? i?eciaea: ?eniaaiea e niiauaiea. N
?eniaaieai an? iiiyoii, ii ?anniao?eaaaony iii oe?iei: ooo e ia/a?oaiea
ciaeia, auneaaeeaaiea, au?oaaiea, iaianaiea ca?oaie e o. i. *oi eanaaony
niiauaiey, oi iii iiaei auoue aae?aniaaii eae ae?oaei eeoeai, oae e
naiiio ieoouaio – aeey nio?aiaiey a iaiyoe.

Ii auei au? i?aaeiaoiia ienueii, ocaeeiaia ienueii… E o/?iua nii?yo,
ienueiaiiinoue ee yoi, iioiio /oi ?enoiea aeaenoaeoaeueii iao.

Ia?aiauoiue /aeiaae a naiae aeecie iieueciaaeny ecia?aaeaieai
i?aaeiaoia. Eiiaaea yoi auea na?ey ?enoieia, io?aaeathueo aaaeiaeoea
niauoey a aeecie ieaiaie: ia?anaeaiea n iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia, aieia,
iiaaaea, aieiae… AEeciue aeae?eeo i?aaeeia auea ia iaiaa iieiie, /ai
iaoa.

Ienueii ?enoieaie iacuaaaony ieeoia?aoeae (io eaoeineiai pictus –
aeeaiieniue e a?a/. Grapho – ieoo).

Aeey enoi?eea ienueiaiiinoe aaaeia eioi?iaoeey, caeeth/aiiay a ?enoiea:
anee ia?eniaaiiia ecia?aaeaiea neoaeeo n?aaenoaii ia?aaea/e iunee, oi
yoi, ianiiiaiii, ienueiaiiinoue. Aiciiaeiinoue au?aceoue naie iunee, ia
i?eaaaay e ee/iiio eiioaeoo n ae?oaeie ethaeueie, iaicia/eoue i?aaeiaou
e yaeaiey, iiaaaeaoue i ieo ioaea/?iii io eiie?aoiie neooaoeee – a yoii
anoue /oi-oi iaae/aneia. Nae/an iiaeiaiua ioe?uoey aeinooiiu oieueei
iaeaiueeei aeaoyi, ii e iie i/aiue auno?i caauaatho i ieo.
Ieeoia?aoe/aneia ienueii iaiiieiaao ?aaonu: eaaeaeue ciae eee ?enoiie
ia?aaea?o ia caoe ycuea, ia neiae, a iaicia/aao ii?aaeae?iiia iiiyoea,
eioi?ia a onoiii ycuea niioaaonoaoao neiai. E?iia oiai, ?enoii/iay
caienue niiauaiey iiaeao ia?aaeaoue iuneue oeaeeeii, ia auaeaeyy
ioaeaeueiuo iiiyoee. A ethaii neo/aa a ieeoia?aiia auaeaeeoue ninoaaiua
/anoe, eae a i?aaeeiaeaiee, iaeuecy. Ii iia eiaaoa oaeoth aea niuneiaoth
caeii/aiiinoue, eae e nia?aiaiiia i?aaeeiaeaiea. Aieaa oiai, niuneiaoth
caeii/aiiinoue eiaao ethaie o?aaiaio ieeoia?aiiu.

?enoiie oieueei iaicia/aao iiiyoey, aeaaea ia nio?aiyy eo ii?yaeie a
niiauaieyo, o.e. i?e ethaie ?annoaiiaea nio?aiyaony niune caiene.
Iiyoiio ieeoia?aoe/aneia ienueii ia io?aaeaao onoiie ?a/e.

Aio, iai?eia?, ?enoiie, i?aaeoi?aaeaeathuee neo/aeiiai ainoy, /oi a
aeiia iao aaeu. *aeiaae iiaei?n ?oeo ei ?oo – aaea. *aeiaae ?aca?e ?oee
– ciae io?eoeaiey «iao». Eee eiaeea n ethaeueie iieacuaaao, /oi oicyaaa
oaoaee ia ?uaioth eiaeth. Oaeia niiauaiea eaaei iiei?o eaaeaeue, eoi
niiaeao oaaaeaoue cia/aiea e niune iiaeiaiuo ?enoieia, eaeie au
iaoeeiiaeueiinoe ii ie i?eiaaeeaaeae.

Ii eaaei ?anoeo?iauaathony oieueei eiie?aoiua ecia?aaeaiey. Eae oieueei
aeaei aeioiaeeo aei aano?aeoiuo, ioaea/?iiuo iiiyoee, neooaoeey
eciaiyaony. O?aeoiaie e oieeiaaiee niunea iiaeao auoue iiiaeanoai.
N/eoaaony, /oi aeey oieeiaaiey ieeoia?aii iaeaieaa oaeiaia noeoioai?iay
oi?ia. Ioaeaeueiue ?enoiie – no?iea «Noeoioai?aiey». Aieueoeinoai
aeioaaeoeo aei ian ?enoii/iuo oaenoia – ioioie/uee niiauaiey,
oicyenoaaiiua aeieoiaiou, eiaaioa?iua iiene, caiene iinooieaiee e
?anoiaeia ca?ia, neioa, oo?aaea e ?acee/iuo i?aaeiaoia, ecaioiaeaiiuo
?aianeaiieeaie: eociaoeaie, oea/aie, aii/a?aie; aeiianaiea i aiaauo
iioiaeao, iaaaaao, iiaaaeao; iieeoe/aneea aeiaiai?u, iaoeoeee,
oeueoeiaooiu, ethaiaiua iineaiey e iaae/aneea caeeeiaoaeueiua oi?ioeu.
N?aaee ieeoia?aoe/aneeo oaenoia auee e eaeaiaea?e.

Ieeoia?aoe/aneay ienueiaiiinoue auea iauaaeinooiia, aeaaiaea?y naiae
iaaeyaeiinoe. Ii /ai neiaeiaa noaiiaeeinue iineaiea, oai aieueoa
no?aaeaea oi/iinoue ia?aaea/e naaaeaiee, e ieeoia?aoey i?aa?aoeeanue a
aeaeaia?aoeth – ienueii iiiyoeyie.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1) Yioeeeeiiaaeey aeey aeaoae. sscueiciaiea: ?onneee ycue – 2-a
ecaeaiea, eni?aaeaiiia/ ae. ?aaeaeoi? I.Aen?iiaa. – I., Aaaioa+, 1999 –
704 n: ee.

2) Yioeeeeiiaaee/aneee neiaa?ue thiiai oeeieiaa(ycueiciaiea) I., 1984 –
352 n., ee.

3) Oeeyeiaa A., Iaiueoia A., ?onneay ienueiaiiinoue, I.2004 a., 47 no?.,
ee.

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