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Византийское влияние на культуру Киевской Руси

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Aecaioeeneia aeeyiea ia eoeueoo?o Eeaaneie ?one

Aii?in i aeeyieyo a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa ia iia. N yoei
aii?inii iinoiyiii noaeeeaathony ana enoi?eee eneonnoaa.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, /enoi aaoioiiiia ?acaeoea eneonnoaa, ia iiaeaa?aeaiiia
ieeaeei aiaoiei aeeyieyi, i?aeoe/anee ieeiaaea ia nouanoaiaaei. Iiyoiio,
?anniao?eaay enoi?eth eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?u ethaie no?aiu e ethaiai
a?aiaie ioaeii eco/aoue e ana oa yaeaiey, eioi?ua aeeyee ia eo ?acaeoea.

Anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann iiae/eiai caeiiai ioeuenaoeee. A aaaeaiee
e Oeeinioee enoi?ee Aaaaeue oeacuaae ia ynoaoaoiinoue eae enoi?e/aneee
caeii, ia oi, /oi ia?a?ua a iaeiie enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iie o?aaeeoeee
aea/ao ca niaie ia?aaea/o aa aeinoeaeaiee ae?oaie, a oi a?aiy eae
ieoaiea naieie nianoaaiiuie ieiaeaie iiaeao aanoe e naiiio?aaeaieth
eoeueoo?u AEeciue ia?iaea aaaeao e nic?aaaieth ieiaea, oae eae aai
aeayoaeueiinoue eeiieony e oiio, /oiau inouanoaeoue aai i?eioeei.
Iaeiaei yoio ieiae ia iaaeaao ia?aoii a iaae?a oiai ia?iaea, eioi?ue aai
ii?iaeee e aeae aio nic?aoue, iaiai?io, ii noaiiaeony aeey iaai ai?ueeei
iaieoeii. Ii ia iiaeao ioeacaoueny io iaai, iioiio /oi ii aaneiia/ii
aeaaeaeao aai, iaeiaei ioaaaeuaaiea iaieoea anoue aai aeaaeue, ii a oi
aea a?aiy e iiyaeaiea iiaiai i?eioeeia.

Iaoi/iia e aeene?aaeeoe?iaaiiia iiiyoea aeeyiea oianoii caiaieoue neiaii
aeeaeia, eai a oe?ieie enoi?e/aneie ia?niaeoeaa acaeiiaeaenoaea eoeueoo?
anaaaea aeeaeiae/ii. Yoi iicaieyao iaiiiieoue aano?aeoioth noaio
aeeaeiaa, a oneiaeyo, eiaaea ia?aue ec aa o/anoieeia iaeaaeaao aieueoei
caianii iaeiieaiiiai iiuoa, a aoi?ie caeioa?aniaai onaieoue naaa yoio
iiuo. Iiuo ia?aaeathuae eoeueoo?u iiaeaa?aaaony ?aciiia?aciie
o?ainoi?iaoeee ii caeiiai aini?eieiathuae eoeueoo?u. Au?aaaouaaaony
iauee ycue iauaiey. Aini?eieiathuay eoeueoo?a ia/eiaao iaeaaeaaaoue
/oaeei ycueii eoeueoo?u, o/eony naiaiaeii ei iieueciaaoueny. E /oaeia
noaiiaeony naiei, o?ainoi?ie?oynue e ei?aiiui ia?acii iaiyy naie iaeee.
I?e anae oeiieiae/aneie iauiinoe ?aciiia?aciuo aeeaeiaia eoeueoo?
eaaeaeue ec ieo i?ioaeaao naiaia?acii a niioaaonoaee n
enoi?eei-iaoeeiiaeueiuie oneiaeyie. Yoi neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, eiaaea
iu aiai?ei i aecaioeenei-?onneii aeeaeiaa Eeaaneie yiioe.

Yoio ?onnei-aecaioeeneee aeeaeia ia/aeny e?auaieai ?one. Ia/aeueiay
neooaoeey iciaiaiiaaeanue no?anoiui ii?uaii e ae?oaiio eoeueoo?iiio
ie?o, iaeiieaiiua eioi?ui eoeueoo?iua nie?iaeua eacaeenue naaoii,
enoiaeyuei ec naa?eathuaai oeaio?a. Niioaaonoaaiii naiy iiceoeey
i?aaenoaaeyeanue eae oea?noai oueiu e iaeiia?aiaiii ia/aei iooe.
Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi neiai i?inaaoeoaeue a ?aaiie ia?a i?eiaiyeinue e
naaoeoaeyi, i?eiinyuei naao enoeiiie aa?u a ycu/aneea caiee anay ?one
i?inaaoeoaeth, e?auaieai i?inaaoee ian, – aiai?ee Eeea?eii eiycth
Aeaaeeie?o.

O?iiieiae/aneea ?aiee yiioe Eeaaneie ?one na?aaeeia 1O-O11 a.a. A
enoi?ee neaayineiai ia?iaea 1O aae ioe?uaaao iiaoth no?aieoeo.
Ia/eiaaony i?ioeann niae?aiey ainoi/iineaayineeo ieaiai iiae aaeeiie
eiyaeaneie aeanoueth n iiiiuueth aiaiiie neeu ?iaeaeaaony a Aa?aea?eea
(neaiaeeiaaneia iacaaiea ?one, icia/athuaa no?aia ai?iaeia) iieiaeia
neeueiia ainoaea?noai. Ia/aei yiioe Eeaaneie ?one i?eiyoi ioiineoue eeai
e eaoiieniiio ?anneaco i i?ecaaiee ia eiyaeaiea a Iiaai?iae a 862 aiaeo
aa?yaeneeo eiycae ?th?eea, Neiaona e O?oai?a, eeai ii?aaeaeyoue a?aiaiai
eeaaneiai iioiaea eaaaiaea?iiai aauaai Ieaaa a 882 aiaeo. Caaa?oatho
ia?eiae, eae i?aaeei, eiyaeaieai a Eeaaa ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai
(1019-1054aa.), eiiaaea, i?aaaea, aeiaiaeyo aei a?aiaie Aeaaeeie?a
Iiiiiaoa (1113-1125 aa.).

Ieaiaiiua eiyaeaiey ainoi/iuo neaayi i?aaenoaaeyee niaie ca?iaeuoaaoth
oi?io ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Ieaiaiiua eiyaeaiey iauaaeeiyeenue aianoa, oi
niiaa ia?aa?oiie?iauaaeenue a caaeneiinoe i eiie?aoiuo oneiaee a e?oiiua
noia?nithcu, iaia?oaeeaaaoea /a?ou, ?aiiaoaiaeaeueiie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Iaeiei ec oaeeo iauaaeeiaiee aue nithc ieaiai ai
aeaaa n Eeaaii, noaaoee yae?ii ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. A eiioea
naaeueiiai aaea nouanoaiaaea, niaeanii aecaioeeneei e a?aaneei
enoi/ieeai, aea?aeaaa aieuiyi, yaeyaoayny nithcieoeae Aecaioee.?acaeoea
oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee, ?ino e oe?aieaiea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe o?aaiaaee
eciaiaiee a eaeaieiaee ainiiaenoaothuae oi?iie eioi?ie a n?aaeiea aaea
auea ?aeeaey, e eiycue Aeaaeeie? ?aoee ?aoi?ie?iaaoue ycu/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey Ae?aaiae ?one e n yoie oeaeueth iiiuoaeny nicaeaoue
aaeeiue iaioaii aiaia. Iaeiaei iiiuoea Aeaaeeie?a i?aa?aoeoue ycu/anoai
a ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aeeaeth iioa?iaea e?ao. A 988-989 aa. eiycue
Aeaaeeie? i?iaae aoi?oth ?aeeaeicioth ?aoi?io. A ea/anoaa iiaie ?aeeaee
e auei i?eiyoi o?enoeainoai. A ?acoeueoaoa iinauaiey ?onneeie
iinieuenoaaie ?aciuo ainoaea?noa, aanaae n i?iiiaaaeieeaie
ionoeueiainoaa ec Aieaeneie Aieaa?ee, eoaeaenoaa ec Oaca?ee,
eaoiee/anoaa ec iaioeaa e i?aaineaaea ec Aecaioee eiycue Aeaaeeie? yeiau
aua?ae i?aaineaaea.

Eaoiienaoe a Iiaanoe a?aiaiiuo eao iauyniyao auai? iiaie aa?u ii
aecaioeeneiio ia?acoeo e?anioie aecaioeeneiai aiaineoaeaiey, ii?aceaoae
?onneeo iineia. E i?eoee iu a A?a/aneoth caieth, e aaaee ian ooaea, aaea
neoaeao iie aiao naiaio, e ia ciaee ia iaaa eee ia caiea iu, eai iao ia
caiea oaeiai c?aeeua e e?aniou oaeie, e ia ciaai, eae neacaoue ia yoii,
ciaai oieueei, /oi i?aauaaao oai aia n ethaeueie e neoaeaa eo eo/oa, /ai
ai anao ae?oaeo no?aiao. Ia iiaeai iu caauoue e?aniou oie, eai eaaeaeue
/aeiaae, anee aeoneo neaaeeiai, ia aicueiao ai?ueeiai, oae e iu ia
iiaeai oaea i?aauaaoue a ycu/anoaa. Oa?aeoa? enoi?e/aneiai auai?a
naeaeaiiiai a 988 aiaeo eiycai Aeaaeeie?ii, aue, aaconeiaii, ia
neo/aeiui. Ianoiiieiaeaiea ?one iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii,
ia?ae?anoiia aeeyiea ia iaa ?acee/iuo oeeaeeecaoeee ieiaeioai?ii
aicaeaenoaiaaei ia aeooiaioth aeeciue e eoeueoo?o ?onneiai ia?iaea. N
thaa ec Aecaioee, o?enoeainoai noaei i?iieeaoue ia ?onue aua caaeieai
aei aai ioeoeeaeueiiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey, /oi ai iiiaii i?aaeii?aaeaeeei
auai? eiycy Aeaaeeie?a. Oaniua yeiiiie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e eoeueoo?iua
nayce n Aecaioeae, i?iieeiiaaiea ia ?onue a ea/anoaa aeueoa?iaoeau
ycu/anoao o?enoeainoaa a aai aecaioeeneii aa?eaioa aeinoaoi/ii aeanoei
iaoneiaeee auai? iiaie ?aeeaee. A naienoaaiiia ?onneei
ia?acii-neiaiee/aneia aini?eyoea ie?a, eo iaeneiaeeci, no?aieaiea
aeinoeaiooue aaniethoa iaeiei ii?uaii aiee iaoee aeaaii?eyoioth ii/ao.

Ieiei 988 aiaea eiycue Aeaaeeie? e?anoeeny nai, e?anoee naith ae?oaeeio
e aiy?, a caoai e aanue ?onneee ia?iae. Oio aea Aeia?uiy, aeyaey
Aeaaeeie?a, /oi ?aiueoa i?eioaeaeae iiaai?iaeoeaa iiae/eieoueny Ia?oio
eae aeaaiiio aiao, oaia?ue e?anoee iiaai?iaeoeaa. ?ani?ino?aiaiea
o?enoeainoaa ano?a/aei e i?ioano ia?iaeiuo iann, ii/eoaaoeo naieo
ycu/aneeo aiaia. O?enoeainoai ooaa?aeaeaeinue iaaeeaiii, e ia ie?aeiiuo
caieyo Eeaaneie ?one iii onoaiiaeeinue iicaeiaa, /ai a Eeaaa e
Iiaai?iaea. Ii iienaieth Iiaanoe a?aiaiiuo eao eiycue Aeaaeeie?
e?anoeeny a Iiaai?iaea, a oea?eae nayoiai Aaneeey. Iinea e?auaiey ii
ecaaaeeny io aieacie aeac (neaiiou), /oi aua aieueoa oe?aieei aa?o a
Aiaa. Aa?ioaoenue a Eeaa, eiycue Aeaaeeie? i?eeacae i?eiyoue anaio
ianaeaieth ai?iaea. Oi?iaeueii ?onue noaea o?enoeaineie. Iiaanee
iia?aaaeueiua eino?u, iaie Ia?oia, ii aeieai aua ii aea?aaiyi ianuiaee
ycu/aneea eo?aaiu, iieeeenue Aeaaeaeueaiao, ss?eei e iaith Naa?iaee/o,
ni?aaeyee aoeiua i?acaeieee noa?eiu. sscu/anoai ia/aei naie aeieaee
iooue neeyiey n o?enoeainoaii. Neoaeeoaee ae?aaiae ?aeeaee aieoau
oiiieiathony eaoiienyie aua a O11 aaea eae i?aaiecaoi?u Eeaaneiai
ainnoaiey 1113 aiaea.

I?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa eiaei aieueoia cia/aiea aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey ?onneeo caiaeue. Iii oe?aieyei aeanoue oaiaeaeia iaae
e?anoueyiaie, naiei o/aieai inaauay oaiaeaeueioth nianoaaiiinoue e
iiae/eiaiea aeanoyi. I?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa oe?aieyei ainoaea?noaaiioth
aeanoue e oa??eoi?eaeueiia aaeeinoai Eeaaneie ?one. Iii eiaei aieueoia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia cia/aiea, eioi?ia caeeth/aeinue a oii, /oi ?onue,
ioaa?aioa i?eieoeaiia ycu/anoai, noaiiaeeinue oaia?ue ?aaiie ae?oaei
o?enoeaineei no?aiai, nayce n eioi?uie cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eeenue.

Aeey ?onneiai ia?iaea, n?aaieoaeueii iicaeii anooieaoaai ia iooue
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey, i?eiyoea o?enoeainoaa icia/aei a oi a?aiy
i?eiauaiea e iiiaiaaeiaie e aunieie eoeueoo?a Aecaioee. Ii
o?enoeaiecaoeey ?one ia yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiie ioi?aaiie oi/eie
ieoeueoo?eaaiey ?onneiai ia?iaea. Aeaaea, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi iocuea,
aeeaiienue, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a a?oeoaeoo?a e ii/oe any eeoa?aoo?a
Eeaaneie ?one iaoiaeeeenue a i?aeoa eiaiii o?enoeaineie iunee. I?e
aeaoaeueiii eco/aiee oaaeaa?ia ae?aaia?onneiai eneonnoaa iaia?oaeeaaaony
aeoaieia eo ?iaenoai n ianeaaeeai a?oaeee aoaeue oi canoaaee eieoeeaeu
oaenoia eiea e eaoiienae, o?aneiaua e neoeueioo?iua i?iaiaiou niai?ia, a
oae aea iaeiaee/iue no?ie oea?eiaiuo ianiiiaiee.

E?anioa aecaioeeneiai aiaineoaeaiey, e aa ynoaoe/aneee yooaeo canoaaeee
?onneeo iineia i?aaeii/anoue o?enoeaineoth aa?o aecaioeeneiai ia?acoea.
Caoaa/aiiua yoie e?anioie, ae?aaiea neaayia e ia?aoeee naie na?aeoea e
a?a/aneie ioae?inoe, aini?eiyoie eie, i?aaeaea anaai a oi?ia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth eneonnoaiaaaea A.A.Au/eiaa,
ieaoiiianeay iuneue i Oiaeaeanoaa e?aniou, enoeiu e aiaeanoaa,
naiaia?acii aiieiuaiiia a aecaioeeneii o?aiiaii aeaenoaa, ieacaeinue
i/aiue aeeceie na?aeoeo ae?aaiaai neaayieia. Oaea i?e ia?auo eiioaeoao n
Aecaioeae ?onue aini?eieiaea, aua ia iniciaaay yoiai iieiinoueth, naioth
nooue aecaioeiecia auaeaeaeaiea yiioeeiiaeueii ynoaoe/aneie noa?u ai
aeaao anae aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u. Eiaiii iiyoiio Ae?aaiyy ?onue niiaea
i?iaeieaeeoue iai?a?uaioth eeieth aeooiaiie o?aaeeoeee. E?anioa
a?a/aneiai aiaineoaeaiey noaea iaeiei ec aeaaiuo e?eoa?eaa enoeiiie
?aeeaee. Oaeia i?aeeiiaiea ia?aae e?anioie, au?aaeaiiia a oaenoa
eaoiiene Iiaanoe a?aiaiiuo eao, auyaeyao ynoaoe/aneoth
iiaeaioiaeaiiinoue, iano?iaiiinoue ia aini?eyoey yoie e?aniou, ioithaeue
ia i?inoie, a /?acau/aeii ooii/aiiie, iaeaaeathuae neiaeiie neiaieeeie,
naiaia?aciui ycueii. AEeoaee Eeaaneie ?one iinoaiaiii onaaeaatho
o?enoeaineia ie?iaicc?aiea, niaeanii eioi?iio aini?eieiaaiue ie? ia
iaeaaeaao enoeiiie ?aaeueiinoueth. Ii anoue eeoue io?aaeaiea eiathuaai
i?eniiauoea (oi anoue aa/iia nouanoaiaaiea) ie?a aunoeo enoei,
i?eaeeceoueny e niuneo eioi?uo iiaeii /a?ac aiaeanoaaiiia ioe?iaaiea n
aa?ie, iin?aaenoaii oiiiai nica?oeaiey, ienoe/aneiai i?ic?aiey. Yoe
enoeiu aini?eieiathony /aeiaaeii eae ciaee, neiaieu. Neiaie, oaeei
ia?acii, aunooiae niiniaii iiciaiey, inaiaiey ie?a e aue ii nouanoao
aaeeinoaaiiie nio?aiaiiie nayceie nae?aeueiiai e ie?neiai.

Aecaioeeneay ynoaoeea ieacaea ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia iocueaeueioth
eoeueoo?o Eeaaneie ?one, iaaeieai ii?aaeaeea iooue ?acaeoey ?onneie
iocuee. Oea?eiaiia iaiea, oneuoaiiia ?onneeie iineaie a Eiinoaioeiiiiea,
ii?aceei eo aiia?aaeaiea ianeuoaiiie aei oiai neaaeinoiie e?anioie. Anee
ia?iaeiay ianiue nii?iaiaeaeaea aeeciue /aeiaaea, aeoaiei aoiaeeea a aai
auo, o?oae, ioaeuo, io eieuaaeueiuo aei iioi?iiiuo iea/ae, oi oea?eiaiay
iocuea auiieiyea eioth caaea/o. Anyeia iuia aeeoaeneia ioeiaeei
iiia/aiea – yoe neiaa Oa?oaeineie ianie ec Eaoo?aee aiai?yo i oii, /oi
iocuea iai?aaeaia ia aano?aae?iaaiea. Iaiaoiaeeii caauoue ana caaiou,
nin?aaeioi/eoueny ia iacaiiuo, iacaeaoieo ia?acao.

Yoe ia?acu e a oeaeii yiioeeiiaeueiay noa?a, caeiaeaiiay iocueaeueiie
ynoaoeeie, auee aeoaiei aini?eiyou e ii naiaio aini?iecaaaeaiu
ae?aaia?onneie oea?eiaiie iocueie. Ae?aaiyy Oa?oaeineay ianiue
ciaiaieoiai ?aniaaa iiiiaee/aneay, a iae i/aiue cia/eoaeueiay
aieaeecaoeey. A ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aeai?ia ae?aaia?onneiai iaa/aneiai
eneonnoaa o?iia?ae, noeoe?, e?iinia e ae?oaea aaea neiai noieo ia ia?aii
ianoa, a iocuea, iiae/eiaiiay neiao, eeoue iiiiaaao aai iniuneaieth, a
Oa?oaeineie iania iocuea ea?aao naiiaeaaeathuoth ?ieue. Aicieeaao
iuouaiea ia?aiey, iai?a?uaiiai aeaeaeaiey. Aiaaeueneia iaiea, ia
o?aaothuea iiiaineiaey, iaeieie caoeaie au?aaeaao yenoaoe/anee
iieeoaaiiia ninoiyiea. Iaeiaeey Oa?oaeineie ianie eueaony , eae ?o/ae,
iai?a?uaii ia?aeeaaynue oii/aeoeie, aaeaa iaoeiaeiuie e?aneaie, eae
i?ecua e aicauoaiiiio ia?aco aeecie, ia aeiioneaoue a naieo i?aaao
ie/aai ia iocueaeueiiai, iano?ieiiai, ianicao/iiai, iaaethaeay ca oai,
/oiau iao ia?ac aeecie iaoeeiiii nio?aiye i?aaeeueioth iaeiaeeth e ?eoi.
Iacia/aiea aiaeanoaaiiuo aeiiia i?eaanoe aeooo e aa?iiiee, e
niaeaniaaieth n aiaeanoaii. I?eioeei eaiiia ea?ae aaaeiaeooth ?ieue a
eoeueoo?a Aecaioee, aaea ii neeaaeuaaeny iinoaiaiii, oi?ie?oy ana aeaeu
aiaineoaeaaiuo /eiiiineaaeiaaiee. Eaiii iaeaaeae io?aieoaeueiie
oaiaeaioeeae, ii ia iicaieye i?eaiineoue a oea?eiaioth eoeueoo?o ie/aai
ieceiai aaiaeueiiai, /oaeaeiai ae. Aecaioeeneee eaiii eaa a iniiao
iaa/aneie oea?eiaiie eoeueoo?u Ae?aaiae ?one. Iaeiaei, anee a Aecaioee
iocueaeueii iiyoe/aneee eaiii aiaineoaeaiey neeaaeuaaeny iinoaiaiii ia
i?ioyaeaiee ianeieueeeo noieaoee e ioi?ieeny ieii/aoaeueii eeoue a O
aaea, a Ae?aaiae ?one eaiii aue aini?eiyo oeaeeeii aianoa n e?auaieai
?one e ?anniao?eaaeny caeanue eae ia/oi iacuaeaiia, nayuaiiia. Aai
ia?ooaiea ia ?one iiaei ?anniao?eaaoueny, eae a?anue. Oae iaaieueoea
eciaiaiey iaeioi?uo oaenoia e ia?yaeia a ?acoeueoaoa iiauo ia?aaiaeia,
i?iecaaaeaiiua a na?aaeeia OO11 aaea i?eaaee e ae?aiaoe/aneei niauoeyi,
aucaaa ?aneie ?onneie oea?eae e aeaeaeaiea noa?iia?yaeoeaa.

Iiiaai/iue i?eioeei iocueaeueiie eiiiiceoeee aue acaeinoaiaai
ae?aaia?onneeie iocueaioaie ec Aecaioee. Iaeiaeee iiaeiaiia auee
i?inouie e yniuie, inaiaiea eo i?aeoe/anee auei aeinooiii eaaeaeiio, e
iie ea?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a i?ioeanna aeaiie?aoecaoeee aecaioeeneie
eoeueoo?u ia ?one iinea e?auaiey e aiaae?aiee aa a iocueaeueiue auo
aeiiia?aoee.

Eaeay aiaiaeaiiinoe eneonnoaa Aecaioee iniiaaia ia o?eaaea io Aiaa /a?ac
aiaaeia eee nayouo aiaeanoaaiiia ioe?iaaiea ia?aaeaaony ethaeyi
i?eioeei, eanathueeny anao aeaeia eneonnoaa, a oii /enea e iocuee. Ii
i?aaeaieth ?iiai Neaaeeiiaaaoe iieo/ee aea? inoaaeaiey eiiaeaeia e iaiey
ai nia. I?inioaoenue, ?iiai i?ineaaeyao Aiai?iaeeoeo, yaeaoothny aio ai
nia e ia?aoaao aea? iaeiaea e ianiioai?oea. Ae?aaiyy o?aaeeoeey iaiey
eiiaeaeia ooa?yia. Nio?aieaoeany aei iaoaai a?aiaie ?oeiiene iyoue
eiiaeaea?ae ia iiaeaeathony ?anoeo?iaea. A naiie ae?aaiae ec yoeo
?oeiienae Oeiia?aoneii onoaaa anoue oeacaiey, eaeea /anoe eiiaeaeia
aeieaeai iaoue iaaaoe, eaeea iiaeiaaaoue ethaeea, oi anoue ia?iae.

Ia?yaeo ni neiaeiaeoeie aeaeaie aiaaeiaeaniiai iaiey, acaeinoaiaaiiuie
ec Aecaioee, eioi?ua eae au eaaeaee ia aa?oiai y?ona iocueaeueiie
eoeueoo?u, aai ieaeiee y?on aace?iaaeny ia yeaiaioa?iuo iaa/aneeo
oi?iao. Anee ia?aue i?aaenoaaeye niaie ecuneaiiia iaiea, iaeneiaeueii
i?eaeeaeaiiia e aecaioeeneiio, oi aoi?ie y?on i?aaenoaaeye aieaa
aeaiie?aoe/iue aeae iaiey. Ana iaiea ii?aaeaeyaony neiaeiuie i?ioeannaie
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaa/aneeo oi?i, i?aaenoaaeaiiuo ia aa?oiai e ieaeiei
y?onao, iinoaiaiiie aaeaioaoeeae aecaioeeneeo iocueaeueiuo oi?i,
i?eniiniaeaieai eo e ianoiui oneiaeyi e nicaeaieai ia eo aaca
nianoaaiiie iaoeeiiaeueiie ?onneie eoeueoo?u iaa/aneiai oai?/anoaa.

Ae?aaiyy ?onue aini?eiyea io Aecaioee iocueaeueioth eoeueoo?o
i?aeoe/anee. Aei ian ia aeioee ieeaeea iocueaeueii oai?aoe/aneea o?oaeu,
io?aaeaaoea oai?eth aecaioeeneie iocuee. I?aeoe/aneia inaiaiea
iocueaeueiuo aeai?ia Aecaioee ia ?one oei ia?aeeaeueii n iaeaaeaieai
anaie o?aiy aeaeaie iioaoeee, e a yoii i?ioeanna, ianiiiaiii, aeieaeia
ieacuaaoue aicaeaenoaea ?onneay iaoeeiiaeueiay no?oy, aiciiaeii eaeouay
io ?eooaeueiie ycu/aneie eoeueoo?u. Ae?aaiyy ?onue aini?eiyea
aecaioeeneoth iocueaeueioth eoeueoo?o e iiaoth iocueaeueioth ynoaoeeo
aianoa n e?auaieai eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiue enoi/iee, ec eioi?iai
?acaeeanue iiaay no?oy iocuee, i?ioeaiiinoaaeaoay naay eneiiiui
ia?iaeiui aeai?ai.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1O nicaeaaony neaayineay ienueiaiiinoue ia iniiaa
a?a/aneiai onoaaiiai ienueia n aeiaaaeaieai ianeieueeeo aoea. A?aouey
Ee?eee (827-869aa.) e Iaoiaeee ( 815-885 aa.) i?eauee ec Aecaioee a
Aaeeeiii?aaneoth aea?aeaao ii i?eaeaoaieth eiycy ?inoeneaaa n
ienneiia?neeie oeaeyie a 863 aiaeo. Aeiaiai? 911 aiaea iaaeaeo Ieaaii e
Aecaioeae oaea aue iaienai ia aeaoo ycueao – a?a/aneii e neaayineii . I
aeiaieueii oe?ieii ?ani?ino?aiaiee a?aiioiinoe n?aaee ?acee/iuo neiaa
iauanoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaotho eaoiiene e a?oaieiae/aneea iaoiaeee,
ioiinyueany e O1 aaeo, a oae aea iiiai/eneaiiua iiaai?iaeneea aa?anoyiua
a?aiiou.

A ia?aie iieiaeia O1 aaea a n?aaea ainiiaenoaothuaai eeanna ?iaeeeanue
?onneay eeoa?aoo?a. ?onneay eoeueoo?a N?aaeiaaaeiauey auea yeeoa?iie. A
Ae?aaiae ?one aaaeouoth ?ieue a eeoa?aoo?iii i?ioeanna ea?aea oea?eiaue.
Ia?yaeo ni naaoneie oe?ieia ?acaeoea iieo/eea eeoa?aoo?a oea?eiaiay.
N?aaeiaaaeiaay neiaaniinoue ia ?one nouanoaiaaea oieueei a ?aieao
?oeiieniie o?aaeeoeee. Aeaaea iiyaeaiea ia/aoiiai noaiea iaei eciaieei
neooaoeeth aieioue aei na?aaeeiu OOO aaea. Iaoa?eaeii aeey ienueia
neoaeee ia?aaiaio, oaey/uey eiaea iniaie auaeaeee. A OO OO1 aaeao
iiyaeyaony aoiaaa e iia ieii/aoaeueii auoaniyao ia?aaiaio. Oaea ienaee
/a?ieeaie e eeiiaa?ueth e aieioue aei O1O aaea eniieueciaaee aoneiua
ia?uey. Ae?aaia?onneay eieaa yoi iauaienoay ?oeiienue, ninoaaeaiiay ec
oao?aaeae, noeouo a aea?aayiiue ia?aieao, iaoyiooue oeniaiie eiaeae. A
O1 aaea ia ?one iiyaeythony ?ineioiua eieae n eeiiaa?iuie aoeaaie e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie ieieaoth?aie. Ia?aieao eo ieiauaaeny cieioii eee
na?aa?ii, oe?aoaeny aeai/oaii, ae?aaioeaiiuie eaiiyie, oeieooueth.
Oaeiau eieae Ino?iie?iai Aaaiaaeea ( O1 aae) e Inoeneaaiai Aaaiaaeea (
OI aae ).

A iniiaa eeoa?aoo?iiai ycuea – aeeaie ?acaiai?iue ycue Ae?aaiae ?one,
oi/iaa iaeanoiua aai aeeaeaeou (thaeiua e naaa?iua) Iiaeiai?iauey e
Iiaai?iaea Aaeeeiai. Aianoa n oai a i?ioeanna aai oi?ie?iaaiey aieueooth
?ieue nua?ae aeecei?iaenoaaiiue aio, oioy e eiicaiiue ii
i?ienoiaeaeaieth, ycue noa?ineaayineee, eee oea?eiaiineaayineee. Eiaiii
ia yoio ycue Ee?eeeii e Iaoiaeeai auee ia?aaaaeaiu ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 1O
aaea eieae Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey. Ia aai iniiaa ?acaeaaeanue ia ?one
oea?eiaiay ienueiaiiinoue e aaeinue aiaineoaeaiea. Aoaeo/e iaeiei ec
aeeaeaeoia noa?iaieaa?neiai ycuea, oea?eiaiineaayineee iaeaaeae aieueoei
iaai?ii ioaea/aiiuo iiiyoee, eioi?ua noaee iaiouaieaiui aeinoiyieai
?onneiai ycuea i?ino?ainoai, aa/iinoue, ?acoi, enoeia.

Ae?aaia?onneay eeoa?aoo?a i?aaenoaaeaia eeoa?aoo?ie ia?aaiaeiie e
i?eaeiaeueiie. Ia?aaiae ?anniao?eaaeny eae /anoue nianoaaiiie
iaoeeiiaeueiie neiaaniinoe. Oea?eiaiinoueth ae?aaia?onneie eeoa?aoo?u
iaoneiaeai auai? ia?aaiaeiuo ni/eiaiee, auoiaaaoeo a ?oeiieniie
o?aaeeoeee. Ia/aeueiue yoai ia?aaiaeiie ae?aaianeaayineie ienueiaiiinoe
ii?aaeaeyaony ia?yaeo ni Nayuaiiui Ienaieai i?iecaaaeaieyie
?aiiao?enoeaineeo iooeia oea?eae.

Ia?aua i?eaeiaeueiua ni/eiaiey, iaienaiiua ainoi/iineaayineeie aaoi?aie,
ioiinyony e eiioeo O1 OI aaeia. N?aaee ieo oaeea auaeathueany iaiyoieee,
eae Iiaanoue a?aiaiiuo eao, Neacaiea i Ai?ena e Aeaaa, AEeoea Oaiaeiney
Ia/a?neiai, Neiai i caeiia e aeaaiaeaoe. AEai?iaia iiiaiia?acea
ae?aaia?onneie eeoa?aoo?u O1 OI aaeia iaaaeeei eaoiienaiea, aeeoea e
neiai. Aeaeaiea i?iecaaaeaiee ae?aaia?onneie eeoa?aoo?u ia aeai?u
aeinoaoi/ii oneiaii. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi naie ainoi/iineaayineea
eieaeieee ia eiaee aaeeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeai?iauo eaoaai?eyo. Iaeiei
e oai aea, iaeaieaa iauei oa?ieiii neiai, ienaoaee iacuaaee e
oi?aeanoaaiioth ?a/ue ieo?iiieeoa Eeea?eiia, e aieineoth iiaanoue.

N?aaee aeai?ia ae?aaia?onneie eeoa?aoo?u eaoiienue, ?acaeaaaoayny a
oa/aiee ainueie aaeia (O1 OOO aa.), caieiaao oeaio?aeueiia ianoi. Ie
iaeia aa?iiaeneay o?aaeeoeey ia iaeaaeaea oaeei eiee/anoaii aiiaeia, eae
?onneay. I?aeiouanoaaiii oioy e ia anaaaea, eaoiienaieai ia ?one
caieiaeenue iiiaoe, i?ioaaeoea niaoeeaeueioth auo/eo. Ninoaaeyeenue
eaoiiene ii ii?o/aieth eiycy, eaoiaia eee aieneiia, eiiaaea ii ee/iie
eieoeeaoeaa. Anee eaoiienue aaeanue ii i?yiiio ii?o/aieth, iia iineea
aieaa eee iaiaa ioeoeeiciue oa?aeoa?, io?aaeay iieeoe/aneoth iiceoeeth,
neiiaoee e aioeiaoee caeac/eea. Ii ia neaaeoao i?aoaaee/eaaoue
ioeoeeiciue oa?aeoa? ae?aaia?onneiai eaoiienaiey, eae yoi eiiaaea
aeaeaao enoi?e/aneay iaoea. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aea eaoiienoeu
i?iyaeyee iacaaeneiinoue iunee, io?aaeay oi/eo c?aiey oe?ieeo iann ia oi
eee eiia niauoea, ia?aaeei iiaeaa?aaee e?eoeea aeaenoaey eiycae,
io?aaeay any aeia?aa e iaaeia?aa e ia oe?aoay ieoouaai.

Ae?aaiaeoay ?onneay eaoiienue Iiaanoue a?aiaiiuo eao a i?eaeiaea eiaao
aieaa i?ino?aiiia iacaaiea Na iiaanoe a?aiyiiuo eao, ioeoaea anoue iioea
?onneay caiey, eoi a Eeaaa ia/a ia?aaa eiyaeeoe, e ioeoaea ?onneay caiey
noaea anoue. Aeioea aei ian yoa ae?aaiaeoay eaoiienue a ?oeiieniuo
eiieyo ia noa?oa O1Oaaea. Ec ieo iaeaieaa caia/aoaeueiu aeaa nai?iee
1377 aiaea, oneiaii iacuaaaiue Eaa?aioueaaneie eaoiienueth(1377) ii
eiaie ienoea iiiaoa Eaa?aioey, ia?aienaaoaai aa aeey nocaeaeueneiai
aaeeeiai eiycy Aeieo?ey Eiinoaioeiiae/a (132324 1383), e nai?iee ia/aea
OO aaea iieo/eaoee iacaaiea Eiaoueaaneie eaoiiene ii ianoo o?aiaiey (yoo
eaoiienue o?aieee a Eiaoueaaneii iiianou?a a Eino?iia). A ninoaa
Eiaoueaaneie eaoiiene aoiaeyo Eeaaneay eaoiienue e Aaeeoeei Aieuineay.
Aeaaiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo Eaa?aioueaaneie e Eiaoueaaneie eaoiienyie
ninoieo a eiioea. Eaa?aioueaaneay eaoiienue caeai/eaaaony iai?aaiiui ia
iieoneiaa ?anneacii i /oaeaniii yaeaiee 11 oaa?aey 1110 aiaea iaiaiiii
noieia iaae Eeaai Ia/a?neei iiianou?ai. A Eiaoueaaneii nienea yoio
?anneac caeii/ai e ca iei neaaeoao aua ianeieueei neacaiee, ioiinyueony
e 1111,1112 e 1113 aiaeai. Aaoi?noai Iiaanoe i?eienuaatho iiiaoo Eeaai
Ia/a?neie eaa?u Ianoa?o, nicaeaaoaio aa ieiei 1113 aiaea.

Iniiaiay eaeay i?iecaaaeaiey aeoaiei iao?eioe/ia e aaeeinoai ?onneie
caiee. Eiyaeaneea oniaeoeu e e?iaaaua ?ani?e, ia/aaoea nio?ynaoue oiaaea
?onneoth caieth, inoaeaeathony eaoiienoeai. Oaeei ia?acii, Eeaa noae
ianoii aicieeiiaaiey ia?aiai iaua?onneiai naiaea, iiaanoaothuaai ia
enoi?ee ?onneie caiee a oeaeii.

Ae?oaie ?ani?ino?aiaiiue aeai? ae?aaia?onneie eeoa?aoo?u aeeoea
aoeaaeueii niioaaonoaoao a?a/aneiio aeeciue e eaoeineiio vita.Ii
i?aaenoaaeyao aeeciaiienaiey ciaiaieouo aieneiiia, iao?ea?oia, iiiaoia
iniiaaoaeae oao eee eiuo iiianou?ae, ?aaea aeia?aoee naaoneeo eeoe, ii
oieueei oao, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue oea?eiaueth nayouie. Ionthaea aeeoey a
iaoea /anoi iaicia/athony oaeaea oa?ieiii aeeaia?aoey (io agios nayoie e
grafo – ieoo). Ninoaaeaiea aeeoee o?aaiaaei niaethaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaee e noeey eceiaeaiey iaoi?iieeaiai iiaanoaiaaiey a o?aoueai eeoea,
eiiiiceoeeiiiiai niaethaeaiey o?ao /anoae anooieaiey, nianoaaiii aeeoey
e caeeth/aiey. Ai anooieaiee aaoi? i?ineo i?iuaiey o /eoaoaey ca naia
iaoiaiea ienaoue, a caeeth/aiea iaycaoaeueii aeieaeii auei niaea?aeaoue
iioaaeo aa?ith, iiyoiio auei iaeaieaa ioaaonoaaiiie /anoueth,
o?aaiaaaoae io aaoi?a oi?ioaai ciaiey ?eoi?eee. Aeaaiia aeaenoaothuaa
eeoei ecia?aaeaeinue iai?aeiaeii nayoui, a io?eoeaoaeueiue aa?ie
aaiaeeeny aeey eiio?anoa e aeaenoaiaae ia caaeiai ieaia. AEai? aeeoea
iaiiaeaeaeai, ii eneeth/aao iienaiea noaiiaeaiea oa?aeoa?a e naiaeeony
iau/ii e iiaeai?o iaoa?eaea aeey eeethno?aoeee nayoinoe aa?iy.
Aaeia?aoey, oaeei ia?acii, – eneonnoai aei?aaeenoe/aneia, aeeaeaeoae
ia?aeeaeueth eioi?iio iiaeao auoue ae?aaia?onneay eeiiiienue. A /aeiaaea
ono?aiyeenue ana /a?ou aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, a?aiaiiinoe, ii
noaiiaeony iaiauaiiui aiieiuaieai eeai aeia?a eeai cea. Ii i?aaeaieth,
Ianoi?o eaoiienoeo i?eiaaeeaaeeo aaoi?noai anao o?ao ia?auo aeioaaeoeo
aei ian aeeoee aeaoo aeeoee ia?auo o?enoeaineeo io/aieeia eiycae
a?aoueaa Ai?ena e Aeaaa – Neacaiea i Ai?ena e Aeaaa e aeeoea eaoiaia
Oaiaeiney – iniiaaoaey Eeaaneie eaa?u(AEeoea Oaiaeiney Ia/a?neiai).

?a/e, iacuaaaoeany a noa?eio iio/aieyie e neiaaie, ioiinyony e aeai?o
e?anii?a/ey. ss?eei ia?acoeii yaeyaony Iio/aieyie Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa,
aeioaaeoaa aei ian a Eaa?aioueaaneii nienea Iiaanoe a?aiaiiuo eao. A
ia/aea Iio/aiey iaeei ec auaeathueony eiycae naiaai a?aiaie Aeaaeeie?
Iiiiiao aeaao naiei nuiiaueyi ?yae ii?aeueiuo ianoaaeaiee, a iaceaeaiea
auienaa aeey ieo oeeoaou ec Nayuaiiiai Ienaiey. Iaeiaei i/aiue nei?i yoa
ii?aeecothuay oaia, caaeaiiay oea?eiaiie o?aaeeoeeae, ia?anoaao a
iieeoe/aneia caaauaiea, a o?ie nuiiaueyi, eae eiyaeeoue, oi?aaeyoue
ainoaea?noaii. Eii/aaony Iio/aiea aaoiaeia?aoeae eiycy.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia O1 aaea iaeei ec naiuo aeanoyueo ia?eiaeia e a ?acaeoee
ouny/aeaoiae eoeueoo?u Aecaioee. Yoi auea yiioa ?anoeaaoa, eioi?ay a
Eiinoaioeiiiieueneii eieaeiii eneonnoaa iaoea naia aanueia y?eia
au?aaeaiea ?aoeie?iaaiiiai ioi?ieaiey, aeeth/athuaai /aoeee ecyuiue
ii/a?e. Ia?aiauaiea a?a/aneeo eiea niinianoaiaaei ?ani?ino?aiaieth
i?inaauaiey, nicaeaieth e?oiiuo eeoa?aoo?ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae,
oi?ie?iaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea eaeae, ii ?a/ue eaeao ia i ia?aiauaiee
iieeoe/aneeo oeaio?ia, a i ?ani?ino?aiaiee eoeueoo?iiai ianeaaeey e i
aicieeathueo i?e yoii neiaeiuo naycyo i?eainoaaiiinoe e i?ioeainoiyiey,
aaeeinoaa eoeueoo?, nii?yaeaiiii n eo i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiiinoueth.

Iiae aieueoei aicaeaenoaeai oea?eae iaoiaeeeny ae?oaie aeae ae?aaiaai
eneonnoaa – a?oeoaeoo?a. N i?eoiaeii ia ?onue o?enoeainoaa oe?iei
ia/eiaaony no?ieoaeuenoai eoeueoiauo caeaiee, oea?eaae e iiianou?ae.
Aecaioeeneia ciae/anoai ia iiaei au i?eaeoueny ia ?onneie ii/aa ?aiaa 1O
aaea, o.a. ?aiaa i?eiyoey o?enoeainoaa ia ?one, iii auei /oaeaei e
a?aaeaeaaii no?aia, aaea aua oieueei neaaaeinue eeanniaia iauanoai e
ainoaea?noai. Eiia/ii e oaia?ue ?acaeoinoue nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee
Aecaioee e ?one ia niaiaaeaea a Aecaioee yoi auei neiaeeaoaany
oaiaeaeueiia iauanoai, a ia ?one ia?eiae neiaeaiey ?aiiaai oaiaeaeueiiai
ainoaea?noaa. Ii a iaieo neo/ayo yoi oaea auei eeanniaia iauanoai.
?aciinoue o?iaiae eo nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey oaia?ue ia iiaea iiiaoaoue
i?iieeiiaaieth aiaoieo aeeyiee, oioy e niinianoaiaaei auno?iio
?anoiaeaeaieth iooae ciae/anoaa. Ia ?aiiai yoaia aecaioeeneea ianoa?a
niiaee iaeoe niiniau ?aoaiey caaea/, eioi?ua noaaee ia?aae ieie
ianeieueei eiie caeac. Ionoonoaea nianoaaiiie o?aaeeoeee eaiaiii
ee?ie/iie a?oeoaeoo?u e nianoaaiiuo ianoa?ia i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
no?ieoaeuenoai a Eeaaa ia ?aiiae aai noaaeee auei oeaeeeii a ?oeao
i?eacaeeo a?a/aneeo ciae/eo. Oai ia iaiaa, iieiiai niaiaaeaiey
aecaioeeneeo e eeaaneeo iino?iae aeaaea a yoio ia?eiae ia iaaethaeaaony.
Ia ?one e Aecaioee a yoi a?aiy nouanoaiaae niaa?oaiii eiie nioeeaeueiue
caeac aio/eineee o?ai ?acaeoiai oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa a Aecaioee e
iauaainoaea?noaaiiue o?ai neaaathuaeny oaiaeaeueiie oi?iaoeee ia ?one.
?acieoea a caeaca aucaaea e i?eiaiaiea ?aciuo oeiia o?aia iaaieueoie
o?aoiaoiue a Aecaioee e ia?iiiue iyoeiaoiue n aaea?ayie a Eeaaa.
Iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiaoue a oea?eae aieueoea ii ieiuaaee oi?u (yiii?u) aeey
oea?aiiiee eiyaeaneiai aeai?a aucaaea iiiaiaeaaea, niaa?oaiii ia
i?eiaiyaoaany a yoo ii?o a Eiinoaioeiiiiea. Ionoonoaea ia ?one i?aii?a
canoaaeei ia?aeoe e ee?ie/iui iiaeeoiieueiui noieaai, /oi ?acei eciaieei
oa?aeoa? eioa?uea?a, eiua oneiaey i?eaaee e nicaeaieth eiuo iaiyoieeia,
aeaaea ia naiii ?aiiai yoaia neiaeaiey ?onneiai ciae/anoaa. A aeaeaa
iino?ieee aicaaaeaiiua a Eeaaa iineoaeeee aacie neiaeaiey nianoaaiiie
a?oeoaeoo?iie o?aaeeoeee, oaea ia aecaioeeneie, a eeaaneie, ?onneie. A
oao aea neo/ayo, eiaaea i?eacaeaaoea iicaeiaa a?a/aneea ciae/ea no?ieee
caeaiea eiiai oeia, ia ioaa/aaoea yoie o?aaeeoeee, iie oaea ia ieacuaaee
ia ?acaeoea ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u ieeaeiai aeeyiey. I?eia?ii iiaeao
neoaeeoue niai? Eeaaneiai iiianou?y a Eeaaa, iaaeaeo oai aieiaoaeueiia
eco/aiea aiaoieo aeeyiee a ae?aaia?onneie a?oeoaeoo?a ynii iieacuaatho,
/oi aeeyiea yoe eiaee i/aiue oa?aeoa?ioth iniaaiiinoue iie
aini?eieiaeenue ia ?one i/aiue ecae?aoaeueii. I?eieiaee eeoue oi, /oi
niioaaonoaiaaei nioeeaeueiiio o?iaith e ynoaoe/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi
no?aiu. Iaoeeiiaeueiia naiaia?acea ciae/anoaa ieneieueei ia nieaeaaony
iaee/eai aiaoieo aeeyiee. Iaiai?io, anee yoe aeeyiey aoiaeyo a
i?aaie/aneia aaeeinoai n ianoiuie o?aaeeoeeyie, iie neoaeao eeoue
nicaeaieth aua aieaa y?eeo e ooaeiaeanoaaiii au?aceoaeueiuo iaiyoieeia.

A 989 aiaeo a Eeaaa auea caeiaeaia Aeanyoeiiay oea?eiaue Oniaiey
aiai?iaeeoeu. Ia aa niaea?aeaiea auea ioiouaia aeanyoay /anoue aeioiaeia
eiycy Aeaaeeie?a. A?oaieiae/aneea ?aneiiee e enneaaeiaaiea ?oei yoiai
ae?aaiaeoaai o?aia ?one iicaieeee onoaiiaeoue, /oi yoa iino?ieea
ieiuaaeueth ieiei 900 ea.i, oaai/aiiay ii neiaai eaoiiene 25 aa?oaie,
o.a. aeaaaie, auea a?aiaeeiciie ii caiuneo e eniieiaieth. Oaeaea
iiiaiaeaaui aue niai? Eeaaneie Nioee n 13 aa?oaie,aicaaaeaiiue ai
a?aiaia ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai. Iaeiieiaiiinoue niai?ia Eeaaa e
Eiinoaioeiiiiey i?ecaaia auea ooaa?aeeoue ?aaainoai ?one n Aecaioeae.
Nioeeneee niai? – iaiyoiee ia oieueei ciae/anoaa, ii e ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa. Ai aioo?aiieo iiiauaieyo niai?a nio?aieeenue iicaeee,
iicae/iui aue e iie. Iiiaea o?anee iaienaiu ia ?onneea nthaeaou.
Ecia?aaeaiu naiuey ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, a oae aea auoiaua noeaiu
neiii?ioiua ieynee, ai?ueaa ?yaeaiuo, ioioa ia iaaeaaaey.

A O1 aaea auee iino?iaiu o?aiu a Iieioeea, *a?ieaiaa, Auaeoaeoeeii e
Eeaai-Ia/a?neii iiianou?yo. A Auoai?iaea iiae Eeaaii a /anoue ia?auo
?onneeo nayouo eiycae Ai?ena e Aeaaa aicaiaeeony a?aiaeeiciue o?ai
ieiuaaeueth 600 ea.i. Auaeathueiny i?iecaaaeaieai ciae/anoaa Eeaaneie
?one noae Nioeeneee niai? a Iiaai?iaea. A a?oeoaeoo?iii iaeeea eioi?iai
oaea oaaaeuaathony iaeioi?ua /a?ou aoaeouaai iiaai?iaeneiai
a?oeoaeoo?iiai noeey. Ii cia/eoaeueii no?iaea eeaaneiai, eiaao iyoue
eoiieia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a neiaiee/aneii ii?yaeea, ai?acaei iiuiaa e
no?iaaa neiaeaiiua ec ianoiiai ecaanoiyea noaiu. A eioa?uea?a iao y?eeo
iicaee, a oieueei o?anee, ii ia oaeea aeeiaie/iua, eae a Eeaaa, e
ecauoie i?iaiaioaeueiuo oe?aoaiee ycu/aneie ae?aaiinoe n ynii
i?iaeyaeuaathueiny ?enoieii ocaeeiaiai ienueia.

Ae?aaia?onneay aeeaiienue o?enoeaineie ?one ea?aea a aeecie iauanoaa
i/aiue aaaeioth e nianai eioth ?ieue, /ai aeeaiienue nia?aiaiiay e n
yoie ?ieueth aue ii?aaeaeai aa oa?aeoa?. Iaioaeaeeia io naiiai
i?aaeiacia/aiey aeeaiiene e aeinoeaiooay ath aunioa. ?onue i?eiyea
e?auaiea io Aecaioee e aianoa n iei oianeaaeiaaea i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii,
/oi caaea/a aeeaiiene – aiieioeoue neiai, aiieioeoue a ia?acu
o?enoeaineia aa?io/aiea. Iiyoiio a iniiaa ae?aaia?onneie aeeaiiene e
eaaeeo aaeeeia o?enoeaineia neiai.

Ia?ac ii-a?a/anee – eeiia. E oaea n aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe neiai eeiia
noaei oiio?aaeyoueny e oiio?aaeyaony aei neo ii? eae i?yiia iacaaiea
aeey iieo/eaoeo oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea a aeeaiiene aecaioeeneiai ie?a
ioaeaeueiia naiinoiyoaeueiia ecia?aaeaiea, eae i?aaeei, iaienaiiuo ia
aeinea. Ii a oe?ieii niunea eeiiie, o.a. ia?acii aiieioeaoei neiai,
yaeyaony ana nicaeaiiia yoie aeeaiienueth ecia?aaeaiey, iaioaeaeeiua io
naieo caeaiee o?aiia, iicaeee, o?anee, oe?aoathuea no?aieoeu ?oeiieniuo
eiea. No?aiynue iiae/a?eiooue i?aaeiacia/aiea e oa?aeoa? aeeaiiene
aecaioeeneiai i?aaineaaiiai ie?a, ca/anooth e iae oeaeeeii, a ia oieueei
nianoaaiii e eeiiai ioiinyo oa?iei eeiiiienue.

A iaeanoe Noaieiaie aeeaiiene ia?aui oie/eii aeeyiey aecaioeeneie
aeeaiiene aue i?eaic ia ?onue eeii. Eeiiu yoe ia ?one eiie?iaaee, ei
iiae?aaeaee. Eiaaea iicaeiaa e?iia a?a/aneeo eeii ia ?onue noaee
i?eaiceoue eeiiu ec ae?oaeo i?aaineaaiuo no?ai, noaei aiciiaeiui
ioiaoeoue aeeyiea aeeaiiene e yoeo no?ai. O?enoeainoai yoi ?aeeaey
ioe?iaaiey. E iiiaia iauyniyaony a iae iaaaniui aea?iaaieai. Ia neo/aeii
iaeiei ec aeaaiuo i?acaeieeia yaeyaony nioanoaea nayoiai aeooa ia
aiinoieia, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai iie i?inayoeeenue e iieo/eee aea?
nauoa. Iiiaiou aea?iaaiey nauoa, ioe?iaaiey caia/aoeaiu ia ae?aaieo
eeiiao.

A oa/aiee aeieaeo aaeia aeeaiienue aecaioeeneiai i?aaineaaiiai ie?a, a
oii /enea e aeeaiienue ae?aaia?onneay, ianea ethaeyi, iaiau/aeii y?ei e
iieii aiieiuay eo a ia?acu, aeooiaiua enoeiu o?enoeainoaa. E eiaiii a
aeoaieii ?ane?uoee yoeo enoei ia?aoaea aeeaiienue aecaioeeneiai ie?a, a
oii /enea e aeeaiienue Ae?aaiae ?one, nicaeaiiua ath o?anee, iicaeee,
ieieaoth?u, eeiiu, iaiau/aeioth, iaaeaeaiioth, iaiiaoi?eioth e?anioo.

A iiioiaioaeueioth aeeaiienue oae aea i?iieeaee nthaeaou ec i?eeeaaeiiai
eneonnoaa. I?eia?ii iiaoo neoaeeoue iaeioi?ua i?iaiaioaeueiua ?iniene
o?aiia yaii eiie?othuea aecaioeeneea oeaie. Ia Eeaaneoth ?onue iiiaaeaei
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai thaaee?iuo oe?aoaiee, i?aaeiaoia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ?aianea. Eo oaeaea eiie?iaaee e ei iiae?aaeaee. Oaeei
ia?acii e, caeanue aiaoiea aeeyiey i?iieeaee ia ?onue aieueoae /anoueth
/a?ac i?eaiceiua ia?acoeu, ia eneeth/aiu neo/ae e i?eacaea naieo
ianoa?ia Iai?eia?, aneaae ca aioiauie ecaeaeeyie ec noaeea aonaie,
a?aneaoaie, iinoaeie a Eeaa i?eauee e aecaioeeneea ianoa?a noaeeiaeaeu.
E eiioeo O1 aaea iai?a?uaiue aaic ec Aecaioee noaeeyiiuo oe?aoaiee
noaiiaeony iaiaa ?aaoey?iui. Iineaaeiee ?ac i?eauaoea a Eeaa
aecaioeeneea iicae/enou caeii/eee naith ?aaioo a 1106 aiaeo. Ana
iio?aaiinoe a ecaeaeeyo oaeiai ?iaea oaeiaeaoai?yea i?iaeoeoeey
nianoaaiiuo eeaaneeo ianoa?neeo.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoeueoo?a anyeiai ia?iaea neeaaeuaaaony ec noiiu oeaiiinoae,
oianeaaeiaaiiuo io i?ioeuo a?aiai, nianoaaiiiai aeeaaea nia?aiaiieeia,
caeinoaiaaiee io ae?oaeo eoeueoo?. Oae eoeueoo?a Eeaaneie ?one
oianeaaeiaaea eoeueoo?o iiiaeo ainoi/iineaayineeo ieaiai, ninoaaeaoeo
yae?i ainoaea?noaa, iia eniuoaea aeeyiea aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay
ieacaea ia iaa caiaoiia aeeyiea. Aiaoiaa eoeueoo?iia aoi?aeaiea
aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u nua?aei ?ieue eaoaeecaoi?a, auaaei e ae?aiioiiai
?aaiiaaney, iii iaiaaoeei ae?aaia?onneoth eoeueoo?o. Enoi?ey eoeueoo?u
oaaaeaeaao, /oi eioaineaiia onaiaiea /oaeie eoeueoo?u aeaao ia
neaaeothuai aeoea ?acaeoey iiuiue aua?in nianoaaiii a ie?oaeathuaa
eoeueoo?iia i?ino?ainoai. A naaoa neacaiiiai ?onnei-aecaioeeneee e
?onnei-aaeeaineee aeeaeiae, noiyuea o enoieia ?onneie eoeueoo?u,
ia?anoatho auoue yieciaeaie, nouanoaaiiuie aeey eco/aiey aeaeaei
i?ioaaeoeo yiio, a aoiaeyo a /enei aeieaiaeaenoaothueo no?oeoo?iuo
oaeoi?ia enoi?ee ?onneie eoeueoo?u. A yiioo Eeaaneie ?one aue caaeai oei
eoeueoo?ii enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?onneiai ia?iaea, a eioi?ii oanii
ia?aieaoaeinue o?enoeainoai e ycu/anoai.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A. E. Aaaia? Aecaioey e ?onue I. 1989a.

2. E.N. *e/o?ia Iieeoe/aneay eaeaieiaey n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Aecaioey e
?onue.

3. A.E. A?iieueaeia Aaaaeaiea a eoeueoo?ieiaeth I. 1993 a.

4. A.I. Ia?eiaa Eoeueoo?ieiaey I. 1995 a.

5. Aecaioey. N?aaeecaiiiii?uea. Neaayineee ie? Ecae. Iineianeee
oieaa?neoao 1991 a.

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