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Виды и техники изобразительного искусства

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E????ay ??? ? ?e????ee ia ??:

A?u e ???e ???????? ????a

I?i

1. A?u ???????? ????a e ? ?????e

a) A?AOEEA

a) AEEAIIENUe

a) NEOEUeIOO?A

2. O??? ???????? ????a

3. N??e ?????

1. A?u ???????? ???o? e ? ?????e

I?? ? ???? ??/ ??? ????, ??th?o ??ae ???? ?????? ?????y, y?y?ny ??????
???? ????. A?????ue y?e ??? ?y?? n ?????i ???u ????o e ??????i-y?????o
????e. O?????a ???? ????th?? ????y ????? ?c ????y e ??????? ???oyi
?????o ????i a ???? ??? ??????y. O?? ???i, ????ny ???? ??????ue ???ey
??a ???e e???a.

Aeey ?? ??u ???? ??i ?iy? ????i ?????? y?? ????? ???????y a ?????????
??????. Ci?ue e ???? ?? ???i ? ??a ????. O??i a ??? ???ey ??????i-?iy???
???? ???e ?i?o ???? ??i ???? y?????th ???? i?y??? ????a.

E???? (????? ???i?, ???????a ???????? a ??????? ???o.) ????? e ?????y ?e
???a ????y??? ??o ??e ??a, ?????? ???o ?????i ?????i?ueth ??? (????i ??,
??????i a ???? ???????i ?????.

A?u ????a – y? ?????e ????any, ??u ????? ?y????e, ???th?a ?????ueth
??????? ????? ????? ????ey e ???ath??y ? ???? ? ??????i ????ey (??i a
?????, ?? a ???, ?????? e ???????a ????u a ???????i ????a e o. ae.).

A ?????e ????????? ????? ????ue ?????ay ??a e ???a ee?????e ????, ?oy
??? ? ?o ?? ?o e ?a ?e ??????. Ia??? ???????? ??? y?y?ny ?i ae??? ? ?e
???.

A ??oth – ??yo ???????? ?e ?????? ?? ????. Aeey y?e ??? ???? ??????
y?y?ny ??????i?a ????? a ????e ???????i ??? – E??????? ????i,
Ae?????-????ia ????i, A?????, O????y.

Ei ??? ??? ??ny?y ????a ?e ?????? ?? ????. A ?o ?th/?? ???? ?????o
?????th?yny ? ???e ????ey – I??a, E????a.

O??th ??? ????eytho ???????i-????a ??, ???a ???th?y ??a ??????? ?e ?????
?????e – O????ey, E????a, O????? ????i, E??????.

N?a????a ????o ??a ???oa ???i ?i, ?i ? ?? ? ?o ??? ?????? ????? ? ??o ??
??????oth ????eth?th ???o ??. O?oth ???o ??o ???ue ??? ?y ?ae?????y ????
?????? a ??i, ??iy?y ? ?ae??? ?ae? ????a.

E??????? ????i-??? ??a ???????i ?????, ?????aey?o ????i a???y?th
????????. I?????y ????a ?atho ????oth ??o, ? ??iyth?thny ? ???e e
??????. E ???????? ????o ??ny?y: ????, ???a, ?????.

A) A?AOEEA

A??? (a ???? n ????? – “??, ??th”) – y?, ??? ??i ???e e ??????? ????
?????ey (??th?, ????ey). I? ???? ? ?????yo ???ey ??????e ?ae?????e ??u
??i ??????y ??? ? ???a ??e, ???a e iy?i, ????o ? ?????ue ??a.

A??? ??????? ????. A??? ???e ???ny ??????ue ????y e ?????? ??u ????a,
??i ????ue e ??????? ? ??a e ???e. I???? ??? ?? ?????? ????i: ? ?a ??a
?? ???u ??o.

N???? ???e – ???? ?????y. I?, ?????aey ??u ????a, ???? ? ??????, ?????a
??a e ?? e o. ae. AE???ue ??????o ???? ?????y ??? ??, a ??a e ??c ?? ?a
???? ???? ????a, ? y?????th ????, ???y? ? ?????? ?????, ? ??a???a ?e
?????? ???th??.

A ???? ??????i ???ey a ???? e a ???oth ???o ?? ????ue ??, e ??? ?a e
???a ??nyo e ???e ???? ???e – ???ue, e ???th ??th?, e ???? ?aey?? ????
-???? e ??ue. A ????e ????? ? ???oa???th ????tho ????a ??e ??ey ? ???
???e. A ??o ?????: ???a – y? ?ae ??i?e, a a ??? – y? ????e ??? ????????
????a.

A) AEEAIIENUe

AE???ue – ?????a ???c???? ????i, ????a ???? ??th??ny a ??????e ?e ???
??ie, ????? ? ?????ue ?????a ????i ??, ???????o ????? ?????? ????a.

AE???ue ????ey?ny ?:

– ??????oth – ??? (? ??. Fresco) – ???? ? ??e ????? ???? ??a???e ? ?? e
???a (? ?????? mosaiqe) ?????a ? ???o ???, ???u (N??? – ???a ?????
???.), ?????? ???.

– ????th (? ??a “???”) – ???i ???a ????y ? ????a.

AE???ue ?????? ??????? ???e (AE?? (?????a genre, ? ?o. genus, ?????e
??ae generis – ?ae, ?ae) – ???????, ?????e ?????y ????? ??????a ? a?o
??o ????a.):

– I??? – ???ay ??? ???? ??????a i ???i i??a ????, ????ue ????? ?? ????,
?????ue ?i ????????, ????i-y?????? ??c.

– I??ae – ??????o ???th?e ?? ai ?? ?????? ?i ??. E????? ???? ???a
???ey?ny ???? ????.

– I?th?i? – ?????a ????a a?a, ??? ??a, ???, ???a. I???o ?iy? ??????a e
??ae ?????? y??.

– E?????e ?? – ?????? ? ?o???? ??? ???? ??e ????.

– A??? ?? – ???? ?????oth ??ue eth?e, ??, ???, ???? ?? ?e ??i y??a.

– E???? (a ???? n ????? “?????e ??c”) – ???ay ?? ????ue ???? ? ??
?????ey.

-A???? – ?????a ????i, ?e ???? ??y ???????i ?????ey.

A XX a. ???? ???? ?iy?ny ?ae ?ey?? ???a ?????? ????a (?y??? ??- e ??i
?????), ?i ???? e ?y??eth ??o ?? ????a – I??????a ????i.

A) NEOEUeIOO?A

N????a – ???????i – ???????a ????i, ??e?th?a ?? a ?????? ???o.

I???? ?????e, ???y??e a ?o???a, y?yth?y ???, ???, ???, ???. Ia ?????i
y?? ???ey ????, ?????? ????a ?????ue ????? ?????, ?????? ?y ???ey ?????:
??ue, ???e, ??i e ???.

N????o ?a ???? ??????e ?o???u: ???ay ????ay (???ay) e ??ao:

– ???? – ???e ???,

– ???? – ??? ???,

– ?????o – ???e ??ao.

Ii ?????th ????? ??? ?i?????y, ?????ay, ????y.

I??????y – ?????ny ?y ????a ?? e ???? ???, ?????y ???/?? ??? ??, ???e e
o.i. E ??????? ????? ??ny?y:

– ?iy??e,

– ????u,

– ????u.

N???ay – ????? ? ??? n ??? ???y?y e ??????a ?y ????y ????? ????e.

Ae?????y – ?????ny ?y ????y ?? (???? ??? ????).

2. O??? ???????? ????a

O??? ???? – ?????? ???a ??????y ??????? ????? e ???a.

O?????a ???e ????: y????a, ????y, ????y (?????y), ???y e ae??o ??a. N XV
?? ????ny ??ey?? ???a ???? ??y?? ????; a XX ?ea ?y?yth?y ??????a ??? ?
?y?th?i ????i ? ????a (???e, ??e? e ?.). A??, ????, ????th ?? e
???????th ???o — ???ue — ??a ??nyo e ????.

A???ue

A???ue – ???? ?????? ????. I???a ???? ???? – ?????? e ?????ue ?????y.

A???ue — ?? ? n????o ????? ???. E???ny ???? e ???? ????y ????th ????a.
A????ay ???? ???o ????? ???ey ??ueth, ????? ???y ?? e ??a, ??ey ???a
????ey ??? e ????y ????? ?iy ? ???. A ???? ????? ????i ???a: ??? ii ??e
???, ??? ? ??e ??? (“A la Prima”), ??????a ?????o ?????, ??, ?????ay
????, ??? ??e ??ueth, ???a, ????, ??????a ????a, ??, ????? ????e ???e.

A???ue, ????y ? ????y ???? e ???? ????y, ????ay ????ay ???a. A????ay
???? ???o ????? ???ey ??ueth, ????? ??iey ?? e ??a, ??ey ???a ????ey ???
e ????y ????? ?iy ? ???.

Aeey ?????e ??? ??? y?y?ny ??i ? ????o ?????. A?? ? ????, ?i, ???
,????ue, ?????ue, ????a. A ?????e ? ???a ??? ?????a ??? ?-???o ??ny?y ?
???, ???ath?y, ???tho.

A ???? ????? ?i??? ??????? ???a: ??? ? ??e ??? (“A la Prima”), ??? ? ??e
???, ??a?, ????, ??????a ?????o ?????, ??, ??? ??e ??ueth, ??????a
????a, ??, ?????ay ????, ?e???a ????e ???e.

O??? ? ???o ????? ????? ???? e ???o ????a ???? yo??u. E?????? y?? ???
???o ?a?y ???e ????e ??? e ??a ??????y ??? ???.

C??? – ??ue ????? ??i a ?a??e. I??? ???? ??? ???ytho y?a?? ????? ??, ??,
??.

I???i ?????ny ? ??? a ?a??e ???, ? e a ?????e ????. I????i ?ae? ??????
????y ??, ???, ??, ???a, ???o ??, ????? ???y, ??u.

A???th?a ???? ?? ????th?y ?y ????y ????? y???a a ????. N ???th ?? ??i
???? ?a ???e, ???? ????th ????th ?a? a ???a, ????ny ????a ????.

I?????y ???? ????a ? ??o. A ?????? ???? ????th?y ?a ??????? ??? ??? n
????th.

E???o

E???o – ???? ?y ????y. ????tho ????e ??????? e ??i?. ???? ????? ???y?ny
ia ??? n ??????? ????e, ????o iy?i, ???? ????e.

A????? ????e – ?ae ???o ?????, ???????. I??u ??????y ?????o ?????
??????: ????? ???a ?????i ????? a??, ??? ????? a ?? ?????i ?????, ???
????? ? ??? ?i?a, e ?.

???e ???y? ???a.

N ???th ????a ??i ???? ????? ??i ????, ???? ??. A ???a ????th?y ????e
????? ? ???e iy???.

I??atho ??? ?ae ??e??? ???? n ???????i ???a, o.a. ???a ???o ???? ???? n
??????? ??e ????ey, ??? ????? ???e iy??? H, HB, B, F, ??a a ???i ???a, a
???i ?a io?o??tho ??e ???? ??i??, a ???u ????a ????th?y ?????, ?e
??????e ????tho ??a iy?? ????e. N?? ???e y? 9H, ??e iya?e 9B.

A ???a ????? ????? ?e ??i ??? ??? ?????e e ???o? ?????? ?????oth ???o,
??u ? ???? iy?a, ?e ???e ??o ??y?? ??? e ?????. ?????? a ?????i ???a ??a
? ?????ny ? ?i ? ????. Aeey ????y ?? ???y?ny ??i ????e. O??e ??o ??
?a???? ? ?????th, ??a, ??y????, ??? ????a. I????? ??? (???????, ??????,
????a) ???ey?ny ???, ????e ?a??a, ????i ?????e a ???a.

I??? ????? ????ny ??ue ?????? e ?????i ?a?i. A?ue n ???th ????a ??i ????
????i ????, ???o e ????? ?????y, ???? ????e.

???? ????? ???ey?ny ?????, ?e ???e ? ??y? ?ith ????, ? ??????y ?? ?e ?i
???e ??e e ???y?ny ???i.

I??

AE???ue ??? ? ??? – ??y ??ey?ay ???a ????. AE???ue ??? ?? ???o ??????
??i n???a ?????y e ???? ????ey ???ath?? ??. I???? ?e ????a ????? ??e,
??? ???? ??i ??o, ???? ???a ?????, ?????, ??????a ????? ?e ?ith?o ???,
????a ???? ????ey ??? – ?a y? ?????? ???a ???? ??? ???y? ????o ??e e
???? ?????, ??i ?????? i????a, ????e ??u, ???ue ?eth?th ??????, ????
????i ???? ???th?? ??.

I?ey?y ???? ??o n?th ?????ue – ???a ???y a ????i ??a (2-3), ???o ?ith
????? ????ue ????i ?? a ?????e ? ??e???o ?????, ?y?? ??? ???a ??? ???y ?
????? ?? ? ????? ???.

I???a ????? ?y ??y?e ???? y?y?ny ?iy?e ??o. E?y?a ???i i???, ????ny ??e
????. E?y?a ?e?u ??tho ????e ?????e. Aeey ???? e ???? n ????e ?????e
????tho ???????, ??a ???e ?e?. E??????? ??o ???? ?y ???? n ????? ????
(??e, ??u, ???uey), ????e ???? e ???? ????ii. ??? a ???ne ??????? ???a
?????, ????y ??? ???e ?iy?, ?y?? ??????ue ?iy?? ?iy ????a ???a ?y???.
N??n a ???? ??i ?i????y ???a ????o ???. O? ? ??a, ???? ??? ??i ?y
???????e ????.

O???? ??o – ???e e ????e ????, ???? ?y ???? ????? ???e.

A ???? ??? ???coth?y ??a ??a ??? ?e ????a, ???, ???o, ???, e ?? ???.

O??u ??tho ?oy?? ? ??? e ? ????e. O??u ? ???a ?i?a e ??? ? ??tho ???o
????, e ? ???atho ???a 50*70. I? ??? e ???a a ???????a. O??u ? ????? ??a
???a, ???a ??? ? ????? ??o ????ue ???a 1,2i ? 1,5i . C????ay ???a
i??ey?ny a ??.

I?? ???e ??? ??? ????atho e ???tho. Y? ????? ?y ??, ??u ??y?y ??? ?
???a? ??o, e ??u ??? ??? ??a ? ??o.

E??? ??y?? ???? ?? ??i ??o, ?????ay ??o ? ????a. A ??y?e ???? ????tho
???o ??? ?????. I???i – ????? ? ??? ??e a ?? ?? ?e ???e n ????e ???.
???y ??a ????a ???? ???ny ????e ???u, ?????e, ?????. I????i ??i ?e?
???oue ???, ???a ??e. E??a ????a ??i ??a ?????? ?y ???ey ??? ??e –
??????, ??c????o, ????o.

I???

I??? – ?? ? ??ue ????o ??a ???????o ?????. AE???ue ???ueth ???? e ??a.
O???ue e ?y??? ???e ???e ???o e???i ???ue, ?a-? ?????ue e ?????. A ???a
“??e” ???e ??? ?????ny ??i “?????e”, ?i i???o y??o iy?? ????a e ????
??a. I??? ????y ? ?????th ???. Oe?o ??? ??o ????. O??? ??, ????y ??? ???
??a?, ???? ?????? ?????, ???yy ?e ???ay ???? y??? ???a. E?o?u ???ueth
???eyth?y ????? e ??yony ?ae ???i.

O??? ???e ????a ???th ??ey??? e ???? ??? ???? a XVIII ??. I??? ????
??n?? ????ue eth?? nth?? ??????oth iy??? e ????. A y?e ???a ??i ???
eth?a nth?? – ? ???? aei ???? eth?e.

I?????a ???e – a a??? ???a ?y ????a: ?a ???y? ???ue e ?????ue ??a ?????
??, a eth?e ??? ????? e ??a??y? ???. I??? ???y? ?????e ???? e ???a. Ath
??i ???? e ???, ???? ????? ?e ????? iy??, ??e e ??? e??th.

I??u ??? ???ueth ??????. I????a ??? ??ath?y ????, ?????? ?????, ????
????, o???? ?????e ????e-??y?, iy??e ????e. O??? ???e ??ue ??ay e ???y a
??o ????yo ????? “?????e” ??a ? ?ao. I??? ??????y iy??e, ????, ?n????e.

Aeey ??? ?????e ?????e ????? ????y, ????th?a ???ue, ??y??oth?a ? ???eth.
I???th ???tho ? ?????o ??? ???, ??o e? “??ii”, a??i, ????y, ? ???, ????i
???a, ??a, ?????, ???. I???? ????ai y?y?ny ??a, ? ???e ???? ????a ???a
??????e ?????ey. ???? ???ueth ???eytho ?????? ?????e, ??y??oth?? ?u??th
???e.

I??????? ???? ???e ?e Y?? Ae?a. Ae?a ???e ??? ??? e ?????? ????, ?i
???e? ?o ???ny a ???e ????? y?a??. I??? ?a ???e ???ueth ? ?? ?e ????,
????i ???? e ?e ??i??u ? ??o. A ??o ???o ???o, ????th?o ?????e ?????i
??e, Y.Ae?a ?e ???i ???? ???? ?? e ???? ??u. *?? ???ue ???i ??? ??e e
????ue ? ??e?ny, ???? ????ye ???ue ??y?e ??e, ???uay ? a ??a ???a ??y?e
???, e ??ueth ???e ? ? ??o. A ???a 2007-? ? ???? Sotheby’s a E??? ???ue
Ae?a “O? ????? a ????? th??” ?? ???a ? $7, 87 ?i. A ???e a

???e ???? ??a ???a, ?e ?a?i, N??, E???, E????, I??a-A??i.

N???

Oe???y ??a ???u, ????a ?y ????y, ? ?????i ? a???i e ????. N ???th ???u
??? ???th?y ?? ??????i ??, ?y?io ?????a ???? ???? ??yaeyo ??ue ?????i.
O??? ???a n ??? n ???th ???u ???? ???y n y?? A????ey (E???i ? A??,
??ayeue). I??? ???o ???tho n ??i ?e ??uey??i ?????. Aeey ?????y ???e
??????e ???e ???? ???eyth?y ????? ?e ???th?y ?ae ???.

N??? ???? ?a n ?????. E??i ??a ???a ????a ??? a ???e ?? ????i ??a. O???
?????i?? ???a ???a ???? ???? a Y?? A????ey. O???? A????ey ?????e e ???
?????? ???o “?ao ?????”: ?e ???? ???e ???? ?e ??? e ??i ? ?????ith ???,
a ??i ??i ??i ???ey? ??? ???e.

N?? “???a” ????? ? ????? “?????” – “???i-???e”. Y? ????e ???-????? ??a.
N??? ???????y ? ???????e ??? ??u e ??u. E? ???ue, ??ue e ??, ???a y?ya?y
iy?? ?????, ???? ?e ????n?a ????y ??a ??????? ?e ???o ???.

N ???th ???u ??? ???th?y ?? ??????i ??, iiy?? ?????a ???? ???? ??yaeyo
??ue ?????i.

O??? ??? ???? o????a ????? ???o ??? e ???a?e ? ???? ??i ????? ????a
???u. E???a ???e ???? ???th?y ? ?????? ??, ???? ??a e ????o ????o
???yth?y ??ue e ?e (???a “?? ?????”).

Aeey ???a ???tho ???o ??? ???a, ???e ??a ???? ?????yi ???. I????, ?????
?? ??? ???? ?????e ???ie, a ??? – ???? ????-????? ?e ??a ??e.

E??a ???o ????otho n ??i, ?th?i ???? ???e. E???o ??? e o???o ???? ???o
??? ????? ??i ???i.

Aeey ?????y ???e ae?????? ???e ???? ??i ??a?? ????? ?e ????ue ?ae ???.

O???

O??? (? ????? “temperare” — ???y?) – ?y?th?a ???? ???, ??iy?a ? ?????e
?e ??????e y???e. Aei ????????ey ??y?o ??? ss. A?-Y?? (XV a?) ??????y
y??y ???a ?? ??i ? ???? ??ey?? e ???????? ??a ???? a A??a, ? ????? ?a
???? ?? ????.

Ai ??? ???? XIX ?? ??????a, ?????a a ????? ??y?e ????, ????i ???i ???a
??o ?y?th?o ???a ?y ???, e c??ay ???a, ??? ??????y ?????ey ???e ??????
???yo ? ?ay, ?i? ????? e ?? ???n.

A ????????ue ??y?e ???? e ????e ???a ??y ??a? ? ???o ? ????a ?????? ???u
????ey ????, ?????yy ?o a y?i ????e ??oth ???o, ???th ? ??o ?????? ?c
?y?? ??? ?y ????e ????. O??? a ???a ? ??a ??? ????. O???? ??e?, ????
??i, ? ???ii?e ? ???tho ??y?e ????, a a ????e ???iy??? e ??????e, ????a
??? ?? ????aeyo ??y?a.

I???? e ???e ???e ??????, ?, ?e ???i, ???e y?y?ny ???? ??. Oe?o e ???a
??? ??tho ???th ?eue. E???? ????u e ???e ???eyth?y a?? ???e.

N???ay ???a a ?????e ? ????a o??? ????ey?ny ? ?a ??: y??i e ???e.

Y??i – ? ?????? estamper – ?????, ?????ue – ??ne ? ???. I??????a e?????
???ny ? ???????i ? ???, a ? ???? ???-?? ???? ????a, n ???e ??i ???e
????ny, ????a?ny n ???th ???. I? y?i ??i ???? ? ?? y???y? ???a, a ??i, ?
?? ?????? ?????a ?????a. I???? ???y?ny e a ????? ???a, a ???a, ???e
?eth???e. Ii ?i ???ay ??a ???????y n ????a, ?????? ?????, ????????, ????
??i. A ????e ? ???a ?y y??? ???ay ??a ?cae??y ??i ?????, ?y?? i????y
?yae y???y?a ????o ??????

????a ????? ??????? ????, ????th ???yth?o ??e e ???????? ????e ????? ???
???.

N? ???n ???ey ???? ??u ec ??ai-?? ???? ????a – ???, ???a, ????a – ????ny
??????i (? ?????? ??a graver – ????). ???? ??a?ny n ???th ????y,
??????ey ??i-?? ??? ?????? – ??e, ???. I?e???ey ???e, ???o??a n a??????e
???? ??u, ???tho ??th?e.

???y ??th? – ???e e ?i ??aey?y ? ??i ???;

???ay ??th? – ??? ????o ?????ue ???a – ???e ?? ??iy ??;

?????y ??th? – ??? ???y? ????ey, ?no?e ?? ??iy ??.

A ?????e ? ????a, ? ???ai ????y ???ay ??a ???atho ??? ?? ??th?:

E????y – ???? ??? y?y?ny ?????ue e?iy (???iy?). E??ue ??ue ??? ????ny e
??????ny. E????? ? ???????e ??? ????y ?????e ??? ???????e ??th ?e ?????.
E??ue ?????y ??e, ??a ?????ny ???, ???th?y ??? e ??a ?????o ???o. E????y
????? a 1798 ??. A 19 ?? ???? ???????a a ????e e ????i-?????e ?????
???a. (O????? ???? I?? Ae??: “I???a ???n, ?? ???” 1834a., “O?? O????i,
15 ??ey 1834 ??” 1834a., n 1837 ? 1851a. – ??????? 30 ???????o ??e –
“??? I??”, “I???? ??”, “Ae????y??? ???”, “Aeay?? ????ey”.)

A???ey – ???y ???, ???a ????ey ?a???a ?????, ? ??? ??y ????a?y ?th???ay
????.

E????ey – ??th? ? ???, ????ny ?????i ???. E?n? ?????ny ? ?i??? ???? ??e.
I? ??? ? ??aa ??? ??th?y ???e, ????? ???. I??? ????eytho ??e ????e ???e
???? ???e ??y?. E????ey ?y??? a ???a ?? a ?y? n ??????ueth ??????ey.
(A????a ????e A???o Aeth??: “*??a ??i?a” 1498a. e A?n A???i I??? ??y
??th? “I??u ???” 1524-1525a.a. )

E???ath? – ??th? ? ????a. Ii ???a ??ue ??? e ?????e. E???i – ????e,
????e ????. E???ath? ??a ??? a ????? ? ????th n ?e????e ?-? ???????
??????y ??????i ????a (??????, ????? ??th?o ?c? ??????o ???i).

A?ath? ? ???o ???y?ny ? ??a, ??, ae??a, ??e. A?ath? ? ???o ???y ? ??? n
????? e ?????ey. N????o ???a ????? ??? y?? ?? ??th? – ???a ??e ?? (????
??? e ????e ???a, ?e ?e ia ??o ???? ???), ??i-??i (“??ay ???”), ??o,
?a???, iy?? ?e (?e ???e ?e).

I?? – ? ?????? eau-forte – ???y ???a. ???? i??????ny ??????? ??e a ??
????-???? ??, ???ath?? ??????th i???o. I?????a ??a ?????ath?y ????, a
????? o????? ?????a ???y?ny ???e e ??????y ? ???. (O????? ???? AE? E??:
??y “A??? ???ey ??u” 1633a., ??y “I??a” 1622a.)

N?ay ?? – ???e ????y ???????i ? i??e, ??i ??????ey ???i ??ae? ?? ???a ?
?????e ??????e ??e.

I??-??i – ? ??uey??? mezzo – ???e e tinto – ????e. A? ?????e ??th?, a
???e ?????e ??????e ??e ?????? ???ony ??????ue, ?th?y ?e ??? ???? ???
?i. O??? ??e, ?????oth?a ???i ??? ???a ?????th?y, ????ath?y, ???th?y.

A???? – ? ??uey??? aquatinta – ??ae ?????ey, ????? ? ??????? ???? ?????e
??????e ???? n ?????? ?o???? ?e ?????e ??th e n ?????? ????? n ???th ??e
????????th?i ??i. E?? ???? ????? ???? ? ???i ? ???.

*? ???ny ???e ?????, ? ? ?? ??i ?????? ? ??e?? ????i. N???i ??? ????
???o ????? ??i ???ue ? ?e ??oth?a ???:

E?? ?? ????a ????atho ?th ??? (????a ??u, ??y, ???).

E?? ??? ????a ?????o ??ue (????).

E?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?ae?? ??? (??a a ???).

N???i ???o ???? ???a ???o?u ?????y ? ?e, ? ?a ??? ???? ???:

E?? a iy?? ????? (??, ??a) — ???a, ???th ? ???? a ??i ??? “????e”.

I???? ???o ????? (???, ?i?ue, ???ay ??ue), ?e “?????” a ?y?i ??? y??
??a.

I??? e ???a a ???a.

N??e ?????

1. A. A. E????? Ia ???????i ??n??

2. E. A. I???ay E??????? ???o?. E???? a ??e ????

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