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E????ay ??? ? ?????? ? ??:

A????a ae??u O????

I?i

1. I??? I??e-????e

2. I??? A??i

3. I??? I??

4. I??? N???

5. I??? ????e

6. A????

N??e ?????

1. I??? I??e-????e

Ae??u a E??e ???th?y ???i (? ?o. palatium; ?nth? e ?n?? ??i «???»). O?
???? ????? ???i ?????y ? O???? a XV a. A? ?????y? y?yth?y ??? ?????
????? ??? ??ey ? ?e y??, ???? ????? ?? n ???e ?y???e ????, ???a?a ??a (?
?o. rusticus — «???», «??????») ?y ????e ???, o. a. ??y n ??i-???? ?e
???? e??? ?????ueth, a ??a ??? ????? ?????? ???.

N?ay ?????y ????a ???a A????? e ?i ???i?? ??????y I???? ? A?????
(1396—1472), ?e???? ?????a ??e I?e?, — ?????? a 1444—1460 ?. ???i I??e —
????e (????e — ???y ????? ?a??? ???). Cae?? ????a? ? ?? ?? ??, ?i ??o
?????ue n ????? ???? ???ue a ??i ?????e O???? ?i ??? ??i, ???? ???ey,
???????? ???e. ??i ??????? ?y?a e ??i ??????o ???o ?? ? ??? (?? ???yth?o
?????? ????? ???a ? ?a ??e ???e ????), ?y??? ????? (? ?? e ???) ?????
??a ??atho ?a???? ????? ??. I?i?i ????o ?? ????? ?? n ???? ? ??? y??,
???? n ??? — ? ???, ???? ???e n ????e — ? ???i. I???ey ???i, ????i, y??
??? ????u: ??u i?e??? ????, ?????? ???e ???? ?i?? ????y?, ?? ???u ?????
????, ?? e ??e ?atho ????a ????ey, a ??? e ?a? ??????? ???? ? ??? ???
??a. Ae??ay ???a I??e ????a ?????e ???? A??? A???.

I??? I??e — ????? ????i ???? ?e ??????a ??? ??????o ???a. E ???eth I????
??? ??? N??? (???i?e a 1481 a.), ???e ?y??tho n ??? ?????a e ????? A????
? I??i (1442— 1497). A ????o ??eyo ??ue ?? ??i ??? ????? ???a ?????
???eyi, ? a ??i ??? ???? ??? ?????, ?i ???o ???e?? ??????e e y?????e.

N?? ????a ????ey ???a e ?? ???o ???? ???o ??? ????i ???. A????y y?? ????
???o ???, ?????o ???? ????e, ??ae ??ey ??y?e ??a ??y??. O?? ????e ??? ?e
????i a ??a XV a. a ???i ?i Ae???e a O???; y?i ????? ????e ??? E??? e
I????e.

A ???e ??i i??? ???? ????ay A????y ??? a I????i E??a, ?????y ??uey???
????e a 1487—1491 aa.

2. I??? A??i

Y? ????????a ??? 1299 a., ?a ???? ???, ????? I?? ??? (Palagio novo).
I??? ????????a ?a?a A???? ??i N??i ???i. A XV a. ????e ???u ?uy?? ?ay
????e (signori), a ?? ??? ??i ????ny I??? ??a N???y, ?a ?i ??i ???? e
???e ??ae ???i. I?? ?i ??? ?a ?i?e ??????ue a I??? Ae??a (????eth ???a):
???e ???a O????e E??i I ???? nth? a 1540 a. ? ??? ???? ??? (???y I???
I??e-????e). Ii a 1565 a. ? ????e ????e ?ith ????eth a I??? I?oe, ???e
aue ?y y?? ??e?i, a ???e I?? ??? ???? ??a?ny ??i e ?? N??i ???i (I???
A??i).

N?????? ????????? ??ey — ????? ??????a O???? ?? ???? ???y? A???i ? E??i
a 1298 a.

I??? A??i a? ???? ? ???o ??a ???i ????????i ??? I??? O??? a ??? A????, ?
??y?o ???i ??? e ???y ?????i ? ??? ??a ??u. I??o ??????? ??? ??u: a ??a
y? ?y?????, ? ??? ???u ? oan?o ????i ?eyo ?i ? ?e ??a. O????y ???e ???y
?e ? ???y?ny ? ???? e ? ??a, ??? ???e ????o 94 i, ???yy ?????a ????e
????. A 1667 a. ? ??a ?? ???a?? ?? ??? ??????i ???a A.Eaae??, ???a ? ?o
?? ?aeyo.

?y?i ? ????? «Ae???» ????y ?? a ????? ???, ?????e I???? a 1453 a. a ??a
???i A????ey. Ii ??ath ??????ey O???? I ? I??e n E??? A????? Ae??? A??e
????? ??u ??? A?u, E?? e A??. A??e ?e ????? ?????? E??i I e ?????
??????e ??? n ???i ????e ???a. O? ? ???a ??i, ??ue ??? ???? ????y ???
????ny ??? y?e ??????? ????? ???o ????.

A??????a ???u ? ???a e n??o ??????i N??a iy??o, ??????o??y ?y ????ey
????e A???i I???? N??a ??a ????? ???ey I??e a 1494 a. ? O????, ????tho i
?yieyo ?????i ???a E??i I. ???u ? ??????th ?? ????ye A??e n ????e. I?
????? ?y?a ?????a i ??o ???????? ????y, ?eth?y ????a a ? ??y ???u «A??
?e A???» E???i ? A?? e «A?? ?e E??? I?????i. ???u A?a? ?? ???? ?????????
??u??i e ??o ???a e ?i ?????a. N?? ????o ??? ???o ???? ?????oth ???
I?????i «A??, ???th?e ??oth ??», a ??a ??th «O??o O???? ?ae I??»
(Ae????uey, ????e a ??a A????).

A C?a E?a X ????y ???a A??e «I?? I???, ?a ????? ??u ? ?? ???? ??o, ?i
???i ?y ?????, ?????ey ??????? ???? ???th?y ??y????th ???a e ????
??????th ??u.

C? No?? ???i ???????e ????, ????th?? ??? (? ???a), ??th, ??ue e ?? — a
??? A??u I??????.

Ec ???? ?????y ????? ?ae ? ???? N??-E??, N? I??? ?ue I?? e ???? O??
A????a.

A I??? A?e? ?? A???-?e n ?????? ??a O???? ? ???i ???????i ???a, e C?
??e, ???e ??a-? ?e ????i n A???-??i a ?? ??a. Ae?a ??e ??ue ???eytho, a
?????e ????y ??ue, ???y a A???-?e. Ia ???a C?a ??e ????i ???e ??? ??e ?
?i? ?? — ?? ?????o ??? A?o, ????? ??????i ???? a ? ???a n ?????e e
???????? ? i?????? ???. Ia ??? ?? — ????y ??? Ae???i A????i n ????iey?
???i ???? O???? na. Ae???y ??? ? ?y?? E??? e N??? e ??? ???? ????? (A??,
Oe???a, N???a e ?.), ???a ??? ?? ????y? ????? ??? ? ??? ???????o ???a.
E????th C?a ??e ???o?o «TH??» Ae????. *?? C? ???y?e, ?a ????i ath?
I????e e ??o ?i ???o, ??i i??? a C? I????i, ?a ????y ?a??ay ??a ??.

A ????e ?????o ?????? I?a?i A??i ??aey?y ???e N????e e A??.

3. I??? I??

I??? I?? — ??e ???e ? ?? ????th?o ??a???? ???i, ?? ? ??o ??????
??????????? O????. I???ny ? ???e I??? I??; ??? ??ey ???ath?y N?u A??e.

C??a ???i ?????e ???a ???i ???? I??e, ??i ???? E?????o ???? e, ???oe,
??uey??e ?????e ???e. N??iy y? ?? ? ??o ???o ???? ????? O????. C?? ????u
I????ay ???y, A??ay ?a????? ????a, I?? ???a, I?? ???a, I?? ??o e A??ay
??th? – ????? a E??e ????, ??y??? ?o?? ??.

O? ?? ????a ??? ? ???? ???, ???ath?y ?? ??ae, ??? ????e ? ??? e ???a, ?y
?? e ???ny y?o ???. E??i I??e N??? ?e ???, ?i ?????e ???ua y???u ??????
??? (??o, ?e I??? A??i) ?e ????? a 1444 a. ??ai ???i ???, ????? ???y ?ae
i???? I??e-????e. N?????? n Iaae?e ????i I?? ? ??? ????, ? ?o ? ???i
???a, ?i? ????ue ??????i.

A ????, ???, n ?????, Y???a O???ay, ???a E??i I, ????a ??aoe a 1549 a. N
1558 a. ???? ??? ? ?????th ??ey ?ae ?????? A????, a ??i ?i ????e, ? n
???i ???????i ???a. O? ??? ?? ? ??o ?????o ??????o ???a n ???i ??? 205 i
e ???e 38 i. *??ia ???? ??? ??? e ?e ?i ??e, ???y ???o ? ????? ?? A????,
????? ????y ??a??th ??? ??????o ?ey??a e ???o?? ??.

????? ???? ????y a ??a ?a ?e ????e Appartamenti Monumentali: ??y e
????ay ???a, ??? ???? e ???? ??, ?????? ??? e ????y ????y ???.

I??a ????i ????e I????? ???e, ?????o a ??a ???i, ???o ??????, a ?y ???
??? ???eyth?e ?i ?y ????? ??????? ???a??e. I??? ???ey ????atho ??????ea
?eu, ?????a I??i ? E??? (?? A??u, A???a, I??, TH??? e N???). N???ue y?
?????oth a ??i ?? ????th ??? ??? I??e, a E?????a ???e ????e ?; ???, e???
????e ? ?????? ????eth e ??o. Iie ??? ?? ???ue ??i ?????? ?eyi, ?i ? ??a
? ?????? n ?o ?? ? ?iy?nue, ??y ??????? ?? a ??th ??n?? y?? ?????i ???ey
?????? ????a. Ie a ??i ??a ?? ?o n???o ??? ??ayey, ?e ??ue (? 11); ??a
??, a ???a ????i ?a??? ??? O???, ??ue ?????? ?a?u ?????a O????i e
Ae????, ??a? ???? e A? Ae??, E???? e Io??i, a ??a ?????ey ??????o
?i????, ??o, ?e ??? O????i, A??a ?? N??, O? A????i, A???i e, ???oe, ???
I???i.

A A??? ?????? ????a a ???? ?????? ?????ey ??uey??o ?a???a XIX a. A???
?ey?a ? ?th ??ueyi?oth ???? a ??a ?? ?? ???a ??????y ??? ????? ?ae ????i
«I??y??». O?? ???? ?a ???? ? ????th ??? ??? y??e ????e iy??e.

A I?? ???a ????y ????ay ????y ?c, ????y E??? A?????i. C?? ?? ??????a
???, ?? ???e N????, ???u ? A???e e A??? XIV a. Ae????? ??e, ???a e
???y?a ???y, ???ay ??ue — ??ue ??i ?e ??i, ?i ??? ??a ?c??th?y. A y?e
?????? ???u ??? ????a ????a. Oe???? ???y ??o? ?e i???a ??ay? ? ?i?i ??i,
? ? ?a ? ?o ?????o ??uey??, ?? y???y? ? A???e e ??? ??i. C?? ??i
?eth???ny i??oth?? ???ueth N???e, ????? ???i e ?????? ??y?.

4. I??? N???

I??? N???— ??a???? ??? (???i) y?? ?????a. C??a ?? ????i ? ??? O??? N?i?e
???????? ? ???o Ae???i ? N???i a 1489—1539 ?. Ii ??e ??a ????y e ??????i
????i ???i ???i A????ey.

O??? N??? ???? ?? ?/?a ??????a ???i ? 6 ???a 1492 a. a ???i ?????? n
???????i ????i. Ca ???oe ????? ????a N??oee A???? ? I??i ?ye ??? I??e,
????e ?? ?e I??? I??e-????e, ???? ???? ?e I????.

C??a ?????? ????e ????e a???, ????? ??ue ?????a ?????a. A? ????o
???ath?e ??? ???i E???.

O??? N??? ??, ? ????? ????y ??????a ??? ???i.

5. I??? ????e

I??? ????e— ??? y?? A????ey ? O????, ???????ue E??i A???? A???e ??o 1446
e 1451 ?. e ?????? A???i ????? ? ??? ?????a e ???? y?? A????ey Ae???e
????e (? ??? n ?yo? Ae???e ????e).

O?? ??ey ????y ??i ? ??uo ???? ???? ?????u y?? A????ey, c ?ey??? e
??????i a ???? ???? y???? ?????. ??????? ??u ????yo ?????a ??, ???ii ??a
???e ?? ? ??a ???i y??, ? ???i ?????ny ????. E??e ? ??o y??e ??ey, ????a
???ai E??ay, ?????i ?ey??? ??? ? ??o ?????? ???a: ? ??? y?? — ?????, ?
??? A???e ???ee a??i ?????i ??? ?ey??u n ?????? ????th, ??????e ? ??i, a
??? y?ae ???? ????? ??? a ????i ????? ????. Ie? ? ??? e ???i y??o ???u
?ae ???.

A????e ??? ??? ????? ??ee A?i?????i ?? A????? (Ospedale degli Innocenti
— A???? ????). A??a ??y?i, ?i ?i ?????? ?e ? A???e. I???a I??? ??o E??y
????e (Loggia Rucellai), ?a ?????ue ??? e ???u ?y ???? ????a, ???ia??ue
???u.

Ae????a, ??????oth?o i ????? E??e e I??? E??i A???? A???e, ?o, ? ?e
????? Ae??? A??e a ??i «AE?????? ???? ????? ??uey??o ?????, ?y??e e
???», ???? a 1568 ??.

6. A????

A????, ????e ??a ?e ??? A???? ?e I???e ??? — ??????? ??e ? O????, ??a
??? ???? e oth??e.

N?? «Bargello» ????? ? ???-??i??i bargillus (? ???? bargi ?e ????i
burg): o.a. ???e ?e ?????ay ??y. A ???a ?? y? ???? ??????ue e ???? ????,
????? ?? e ??e («E??? ?a???y»). Ai O???? ? ??? ????ny ? ???i ???, ??u
??y????ue ?iy??eyi ???????. Y? ????ue ????? ?????? ?????eth ???e. I???a
«A????» ??a ?? ????? ? ?? E???a. Ae??oe A???? ?e ???a ???? ?y Capitano
del Popolo (????i ????) e ?ae ??? ????e ???e. N 1261 a. ?? ?????e ???u e
????? ????? ???. I??? ????y ?? ? i?i ?ae. C??a A???? ????i ????ii ?e
????a I??? A??i. A 1574 ?? I??e ????? ???o e ????? a A???? ?????ey ???e.
C??a ???i oth??e, ??e ??n??? ? ??a ??ey, ? ?? ???e, ??a ?e ?? ???? ????
I??i-E????i a 1786 ??. I??ey ?????ue a A???? ? 1865 ??.

A???, ??a ??? ?? ????i a 1256 a., ?i ??i 2 y??. O??e y?ae, ?i??? ? ???o
???, ?e ???? ??a ??? 1323 a.

N 1865 a. ??? ?? ????? a ?oe????e ??e (??. Museo Nazionale del Bargello)
?y ??? ??uey??e ????? XIV — XVII ??a. A ??a ?o?y?y ??a ???ey I?????i ?e
A?o, I??? n ????, A?o e Ae??-A???. E?? ??, ????y ?eth?? Ae??a e Nay??
A??ey ??? Ae????, A?? ??? N????, ath? E??i I I??e ??ou *??? e ?.

N??e ?????

1. O???ey. E??ey, ????i, ????

2. ???i Ae?i “I???e ? O????

3. N.A????e “O???ey. E??ey. A?????. E????”

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