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Ценности русской культуры

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2

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea 2

1. ?onneay eoeueoo?a eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey 3

2. Nioeeiaeeiaieea ?onneie eoeueoo?u 6

3. Ia?iae e eioaeeeaaioeey 11

Caeeth/aiea 14

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u 15

Aaaaeaiea

Enoi?ey ?onneie eoeueoo?u, aa oeaiiinoe, ?ieue e ianoi a ie?iaie
eoeueoo?a a ia/aea 90-o aa. XX a. aucaaea aieueoie eioa?an e eae
i?aaeiao iao/iiai eco/aiey e a ea/anoaa o/aaiiai eo?na. Iiyaeeinue iiiai
iao/iie e o/aaiie eeoa?aoo?u, inaauathuae iaoo enoi?eth e eoeueoo?o. Aa
iniuneaiea a iniiaiii iie?aeinue ia o?oaeu iuneeoaeae ?onneiai
“Aeooiaiiai ?aiannaina” eiioea XIX – ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX a. Iaeiaei e
eiioeo 90-o aa. yoa caeioa?aniaaiiinoue noaea niaaeaoue. Io/anoe iioiio,
/oi auei en/a?iaii /oanoai iiaeciu i?aaeaea cai?aoiuo eaeae, a
nia?aiaiiiai, i?eaeiaeueiiai i?i/oaiey iaoae eoeueoo?iie enoi?ee iiea ia
iiyaeeinue.

Oeaeue ?aoa?aoa – i?iaiaeece?iaaoue oeaiiinoe ?onneie eoeueoo?u.

Caaea/e:

Eco/eoue eeoa?aoo?o ii oaia;

?ane?uoue iniiaiua iiiyoey;

?anniio?aoue iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey ?onneie eoeueoo?u;

1. ?onneay eoeueoo?a eae iauaeo enneaaeiaaiey

Iiiyoey “?onneay eoeueoo?a”, “?onneay iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a”,
“eoeueoo?a ?innee” – iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae neiiieiu, a iiaeii a
ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiuo oaiiiaiia. Iie io?aaeatho ?aciua ninoiyiey e
ninoaaeythuea iaoae eoeueoo?u. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi i?e eco/aiee ?onneie
eoeueoo?u a oeaio?a aieiaiey aeieaeia auoue nianoaaiii eoeueoo?a,
eoeueoo?iua o?aaeeoeee ainoi/iuo neaayi eae nithca ieaiai, ?one/ae,
?onneeo. Eoeueoo?a eiuo ia?iaeia a aeaiiii neo/aa i?aaenoaaeyao eioa?an
eae ?acoeueoao e i?ioeann acaeiiaeeyiey, caeinoaiaaiey, aeeaeiaa
eoeueoo?. A aeaiiii neo/aa iiiyoea “?onneay eoeueoo?a” neiiieie/ii
iiiyoeth “?onneay iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a”. Iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a ?innee”
aieaa oe?ieia, oae eae aeeth/aao a naay enoi?eth noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
eoeueoo?u Ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa, ioaeaeueiuo eiyaeanoa,
iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo ainoaea?noaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee – Iineianeiai
ainoaea?noaa, ?inneeneie eiia?ee, Niaaoneiai Nithca, ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee. A yoii eiioaenoa ?onneay eoeueoo?a aunooiaao eae iniiaiie
nenoaiiia?acothuee yeaiaio eoeueoo?u iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa.
Iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueioth eoeueoo?o ?innee iiaeii oeiieiaece?iaaoue ii
?acee/iui iniiaaieyi: eiioanneiiaeueiiio (i?aaineaaiua, i?ioanoaiou,
ionoeueiaia, aoaeaeenou e o.i.); ii oicyenoaaiiiio oeeaaeo
(caieaaeaeue/aneay eoeueoo?a, neioiaiae/aneay, ioioie/uey) e ae?.
Eaii?e?iaaoue iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? eoeueoo?u iaoaai
ainoaea?noaa, eae e ?ieue ?onneie eoeueoo?u a yoii ainoaea?noaa aanueia
iai?iaeoeoeaii. Eioa?an e iniaaiiinoyi eoeueoo?u ?aciuo ia?iaeia ?innee
a aieueoae noaiaie i?iyaeytho yoiia?aou e a iaiueoae noaiaie
eoeueoo?ieiae. Iaeiia?aiaiiia auoiaaiea ?aciuo eoeueoo?, niaoaiiua
a?aee, ?aciiiai?aaeaiiua o?aaeeoeee a ?aieao iaeiie naiuee, naeaiey,
ai?iaea o?aaotho aieiaoaeueiiai ioiioaiey enneaaeiaaoaeae. Io
aa?iiiecaoeee yoeo ioiioaiee, acaeiiiai iiciaiey ai iiiaii caaenyo
aeia?ua ioiioaiey a no?aia, oniaoiia ?aoaiea caaea/ ii ?acaeoeth
eoeueoo?u ?innee.

Eco/aiea ioa/anoaaiiie eoeueoo?u – caaea/a ia oieueei ia?aciaaoaeueiay.
Iia oanii naycaia n ae?oaie – ia iaiaa aaaeiie, au?anoeoue iineoaeae
?onneie eoeueoo?u, i?iaeieaeaoaeae aa o?aaeeoeee, /oi aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue aa nio?aiaieth eae /anoe ie?iaie eoeueoo?u, ?anoe?aieth
a?aieoe ?onneie eoeueoo?u, aeeaeiao eoeueoo?.

“I, naaoei naaoeay e i?ae?anii oe?aoaiiay caiey ?onneay! Iiiaeie
e?anioaie i?ineaaeaia ou: ica?aie iiiaeie neaaeoueny, ?aeaie e
enoi/ieeaie ianoii-/oeiuie, ai?aie, e?oouie oieiaie, aunieeie
aeoa?aaaie, /enouie iieyie, aeeaiuie caa?yie, ?aciiia?aciuie ioeoeaie,
aan/eneaiiuie ai?iaeaie aaeeeeie, aaeaieyie neaaiuie, naaeaie
iiianou?neeie, o?aiaie aiaeueeie e eiycueyie a?iciuie, aiy?aie /anoiuie,
aaeueiiaeaie iiiaeie. Anai ou i?aeniieiaia, caiey ?onneay, i i?aaiaa?iay
aa?a o?enoeaineay! “ Eeoa?aoo?a Ae?aaiae ?one. O?anoiiaoey. I., 1990. N.
175..

Yoe no?iee, i?iieeiooua aeoaieie ethaiaueth e naiae caiea, iiaeii
n/eoaoue yiea?aoii e aeaiiiio oaenoo. Iie ninoaaeytho ia/aei ae?aaiaai
eeoa?aoo?iiai iaiyoieea “Neiai i iiaeaaee ?onneie caiee”. E niaeaeaieth,
nio?aieeny oieueei io?uaie, eioi?ue aue iaia?oaeai a ninoaaa ae?oaiai
i?iecaaaeaiey – “Iiaanoe i aeeoee Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai”. A?aiy iaienaiey
“Neiaa” – 1237 – ia/aei 1246 a.

Eaaeaeay iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a – yoi oi?ia naiiau?aaeaiey ia?iaea. A
iae i?iyaeythony iniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, ie?inica?oeaiey,
iaioaeeoaoa. Ethaay eoeueoo?a oieeaeueia e i?ioiaeeo naie, iaiiaoi?eiue
iooue ?acaeoey. Yoi a iieiie ia?a ioiineony e e ?onneie eoeueoo?a. Aa
iiaeii n?aaieaaoue n eoeueoo?aie Ainoiea e Caiaaea eeoue a oie ia?a, a
eioi?ie iie acaeiiaeaenoaotho n iath, ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia aa aaiacen e
yaiethoeeth, naycaiu n ?onneie eoeueoo?ie iauae noaeueaie.

Iiiuoee iiiyoue ioa/anoaaiioth eoeueoo?o, ii?aaeaeeoue aa ianoi e ?ieue
a e?oaa eiuo eoeueoo? nii?yaeaii n ii?aaeaeaiiuie neiaeiinoyie. Eo
iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia neaaeothuea: neeueiia oyaioaiea
enneaaeiaaoaeae e eiiia?aoeaenoneiio iiaeoiaeo, iinoiyiiie iiiuoea
n?aaieoaeueiiai aiaeeca iaoae eoeueoo?u e eoeueoo?u Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e
ii/oe anaaaea ia a iieueco ia?aie; eaeaieiaecaoeey eiie?aoiiai
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea e aai o?aeoiaea n oao eee eiuo
iiceoeee, a oiaea eioi?ie iaeie oaeou auaeaeaathony ia ia?aue ieai, a
oa, eioi?ua ia aienuaathony a eiioeaioeeth aaoi?a, eaii?e?othony.

I?e ?anniio?aiee eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna a ?innee yaii
i?ineaaeeaathony o?e iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea.

Ia?aue iiaeoiae i?aaenoaaeai noi?iiieeaie iaeiieeiaeiie iiaeaee ie?iaie
enoi?ee. Niaeanii yoie eiioeaioeee ana i?iaeaiu ?innee iiaoo auoue
?aoaiu iooai i?aiaeieaiey oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai, eoeueoo?iiai ionoaaaiey
eee iiaea?iecaoeee.

Noi?iiieee aoi?iai enoiaeyo ec eiioeaioeee iiiaieeiaeiinoe enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey, niaeanii eioi?ie enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa ninoieo ec enoi?ee
oeaeiai ?yaea naiiauoiuo oeeaeeecaoeee, e iaeiie ec eioi?uo ioiineony e
?onneay (neaayineay – I.ss. Aeaieeaaneee eee i?aaineaaii-o?enoeaineay –
A. Oieiae) oeeaeeecaoeey. I?e/ai, iniiaiua /a?ou eee “aeooa” eaaeaeie
oeeaeeecaoeee ia iiaeao auoue aini?eiyoa eee aeoaiei iiiyoa
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eiie oeeaeeecaoeee eee eoeueoo?u, o.a. yaeyaony
iaiiciaaaaiie e ia aini?iecaiaeeiie.

O?aouey a?oiia aaoi?ia iuoaaony i?eie?eoue iaa iiaeoiaea. E iei
ioiineony e ecaanoiue enneaaeiaaoaeue ?onneie eoeueoo?u, aaoi?
iiiaioiiiiai o?oaea “I/a?ee ii enoi?ee ?onneie eoeueoo?u” I.I. Ieetheia,
eioi?ue ii?aaeaeee naith iiceoeeth eae neioac aeaoo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo
eiino?oeoeee ?onneie enoi?ee, “ec eioi?uo iaeia auaeaeaaea aia?aae
noiaenoai ?onneiai i?ioeanna n aa?iiaeneei, aeiaiaey yoi noiaenoai aei
oiaeaeanoaa, a ae?oaay aeieacuaaea ?onneia naiaia?acea, aei iieiie
ian?aaieiinoe e eneeth/eoaeueiinoe”. Ieetheia caieiae i?eie?eoaeueiia
iieiaeaiea e no?iee ?onneee enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann ia neioaca iaaeo /a?o,
noiaenoaa e naiaia?acey, iiae/a?eeaay /a?ou naiaia?acey “ianeieueei
aieaa ?acei, iaaeaee /a?ou noiaenoaa” Ieetheia I.I. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee
?onneie eoeueoo?u: A 3 o. I., 1993. O. 1. N. 61.. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue,
/oi auyaeaiiua Ieetheiaui a ia/aea XX a. iiaeoiaeu e eco/aieth
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna ?innee nio?aieee, n iaeioi?uie
iiaeeoeeaoeeyie, naie iniiaiua /a?ou aei eiioea iaoaai aaea.

Aieueoeinoai aaoi?ia, ?anoiaeyueony a ioeaieao e ia?niaeoeaao
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee, auaeaeytho, oai ia iaiaa, ?yae
iaueo oaeoi?ia (oneiaee, i?e/ei), ii?aaeaeythueo iniaaiiinoe
(ionoaeinoue, caaea?aeeo, naiiauoiinoue, naiaia?acea) ?onneie enoi?ee e
eoeueoo?u. N?aaee ieo: i?e?iaeii-eeeiaoe/aneee, aaiiieeoe/aneee,
eiioanneiiaeueiue, yoie/aneee, iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiie e
ainoaea?noaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ?onneiai iauanoaa.

2. Nioeeiaeeiaieea ?onneie eoeueoo?u

Nioeeieoeueoo?iay enoi?ey ?innee ioee/aaony, ii iiaieth iiiaeo
enneaaeiaaoaeae, aeene?aoiui (i?a?uaenoui) oa?aeoa?ii. Auaeathueeny
oeeinio XX a. I.A. Aa?aeyaa ienae, /oi a ?onneie enoi?ee “iaeuecy iaeoe
i?aaie/aneiai aaeeinoaa”. Ii ian/eouaae “iyoue ?aciuo ?innee: ?inneth
eeaaneoth, ?inneth oaoa?neiai ia?eiaea, ?inneth iineianeoth, ?inneth
iao?ianeoth eee eiia?aoi?neoth e, iaeiiaoe, iiaoth Niaaoneoth ?inneth”
Aa?aeyaa I.A. Enoi?ey e niune ?onneiai eiiioiecia. I., 1990. N. 7..

Eaaeaeue ec iyoe ia?eiaeia aeaenoaeoaeueii ?acei ioee/aeny io
i?aaeuaeouaai e io iineaaeothuaai e oa?aeoa?eciaaeny nioeeieoeueoo?iui
naiaia?aceai e aioo?aiiei aaeeinoaii. E a eaaeaeii neo/aa ia?aoiae aea
io iaeiiai caieiooiai a naaa nioeeieoeueoo?iiai yoaia e iineaaeothuaio
inouanoaeyeny ia iinoaiaiiui, yaiethoeeiiiui iooai, a a ?acoeueoaoa
aeinoaoi/ii ?aceie, aiacaiiie “eiiee” oeaeinoiie e aaeeiie
nioeeieoeueoo?iie nenoaiu (aeey aa iaicia/aiey i?eiyo naaiaeiy oa?iei
“ia?aaeeaia”). A enoi?ee ?onneie eoeueoo?u oaeeo “eiiie”
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie ia?aaeeaiu iiaeii ian/eoaoue aeinoaoi/ii iiiai:

1 – E?auaiea ?one,

2 – ia/aei iiiaiei-oaoa?neiai iaoanoaey,

3 – nicaeaiea Iineianeiai oea?noaa e ooaa?aeaeaiea ?onneiai
naiiaea?aeaaey,

4 – ?aeeaeiciue ?aneie e ia/aei iao?ianeeo ?aoi?i,

5 – inouanoaeaiea e?anoueyineie ?aoi?iu (ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa),

6 – Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey 1917 a.,

7 – “Aaeeeee ia?aeii” (ia/aei niaaoneiai oioaeeoa?ecia),

8 – aaaono 1991 a. – ia/aei aeaiie?aoe/aneeo, eeaa?aeueiuo ?aoi?i a
?innee. Ana iie iineee ?ac?ooeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e eiaee aeaeaei eaeouea
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea iineaaenoaey: ioeac io noa?ie eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee, caiaia iianaaeiaaiie (iauaeaiiie), neiaeeaoaeny a oa/aiea
?yaea eao e ia?aaeaaaaoaeny io iieieaiey e iieieaieth eoeueoo?u, o.a.
anaai oiai, /oi yaeyaony iniiaie onoie/eainoe iauanoaa, i?eaeaao ethaeyi
iuouaiea oaa?aiiinoe e aiciiaeiinoe yaiethoeeiiiiai, iinooiaoaeueiiai
?acaeoey.

E ana aea e “iyoue ?aciuo ?innee” Aa?aeyaaa eee eiia /eaiaiea iaoae
ouny/aeaoiae enoi?ee ia i?ioeai?a/eo aa aini?eyoeth eae aiieia
ii?aaeaeaiiiai aaeeinoaa ?inneeneie oeeaeeecaoeee, iaiiaoi?eiiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiaia?acey. Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi e yoi naiaia?acea e
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneay i?aainoaaiiinoue iniiauaathony ia iaioaeeoaoa
ia?iaea, eioi?ue, ianiio?y ia iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey, nio?aiee naie
ei?aiiua ea/anoaa, noi?ie?iaaiiua ca iiiai aaeia. Iiiyoea “iaioaeeoao” a
iao/iii iauaiee iaicia/aao oa?aeoa?iua aeey ethaeae ii?aaeaeaiiie
enoi?e/aneie yiioe oiaiea iuneeoue, aeaenoaiaaoue, /oanoaiaaoue e
aini?eieiaoue ie? ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii. Iaioaeeoao au?aaeaao naay a
ieoieiaee, a i?aaenoaaeaieyo i ie?a e /aeiaaea, oieueeei?a, a
aiaineiaee, ?aciuo oai?eyo e o/aieyo, eneonnoaa, eeoa?aoo?a,
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo niiniaao iiaaaeaiey e acaeiiiiieiaiey, iau/ayo
iaono?ienoaa ee/iie e iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Ec aaeeinoaa anao
ninoaaeythueo aicieeaao iaiiaoi?eiue iaeee iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u.
Aiciiaeii, eiaiii ia o?iaia iaioaeeoaoa a iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?a
cae?aieyaony e nio?aiyaony aa?iinoue nianoaaiiiio iooe ?acaeoey,
aeeceiai e caiaaeiiio, ii ainoi/iiai.

Aeaa i?ioeaiiieiaeiua oaiaeaioeee – caiaaeiay e ainoi/iay – aanueia
nouanoaaiii iiaeeyee ia oi?ie?iaaiea ?onneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a,
iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u.

Eoeueoo?a ?innee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiiauoiia, oieeaeueiia yaeaiea a
i?aaeaeao aieaa e?oiiie aa?iiaeneie iauiinoe. Naiiaeinoaoi/ia aa
n?aaeiaaaeiaay eoeueoo?a, ioia/aiiay e?oiiuie aeinoeaeaieyie n
au?aaeaiiui iaoeeiiaeueiui ia/aeii: a aeeaiiene, a?oeoaeoo?a, a
iao?eioecia i?icae/aneie e iiyoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, a iniaii
oaieiai-ienoe/aneii iai?aaeaiee oeeinioee, eiaaoei naiaia?aciue auoiae a
iiaeuaia oeeinioneie iunee aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX – ia/aea XX a., ieacaaoei
aeoaieia aeeyiea ia caiaaeioth oeeinioeth XX a. A Iiaia a?aiy ?inney
niiaea ia oieueei aieoaoue eaeae caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai I?inaauaiey, ii
ia?ainiuneeoue e ia?a?aaioaoue eo ia iaoeeiiaeueiie iniiaa, ?acoeueoaoii
/aai noaea eeanne/aneay ?onneay eoeueoo?a XIX a., a caoai – ia ?oaaaea
aaeia – Na?aa?yiiai aaea. Ioaeaaay aeieaeiia iieiaeeoaeueiiio aeeyieth
aeeaeiaa eoeueoo?, iiiaea ioa/anoaaiiua o/aiua ia/aea XX a. n/eoaee, /oi
onaiaiiue e ia?a?aaioaiiue /oaeie eoeueoo?iue iiuo aeeth/aaony a
nianoaaiioth iaoeeiiaeueioth o?aaeeoeeth.

Ia?yaeo n ioia/aiiui naiaia?aceai ?onneie eoeueoo?u, aaconeiaii,
nouanoaotho e iauea n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie iai?aaeaiey a ?acaeoee
eeoa?aoo?iiai i?ioeanna, noiaeiua oi?iu e ia?aeeaee yeiiiie/aneie,
iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie. Ethaiaue e iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?a
aeieaeia ni/aoaoueny e aanoe e oaaaeeoaeueiiio ioiioaieth e ae?oaei
eoeueoo?ai. Oieueei ia yoie iniiaa aiciiaeai aeeaeia eoeueoo?.
I?aaeinoa?aaay io iaoeeiiaeecia e “noaaa?ey iao?eioecia”, E.I. Oienoie
ienae: “Aeoii, eiaaea iaeei /aeiaae n/eoaao naay eo/oa ae?oaeo ethaeae;
ii aua aeoiaa, eiaaea oeaeue ia?iae n/eoaao naay eo/oa ae?oaeo ia?iaeia”
Oienoie E.I. Iooue aeecie. I., 1993. N. 157..

Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/eouaaoue iniaaiiinoe
eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ?innee auea auneacaia e I.I.
Ieetheiaui a 1930 a. N?aaieaay iooue, i?ieaeaiiue ?inneae e Caiaaeii, ii
enoiaeee ec oiai, /oi aieueoeinoai i?ioeannia niiinoaaeiu eee iiaeiaiu,
ii a eaaeaeie no?aia iie iieo/eee “iniaue” oa?aeoa?. Auynieoue yoio
oa?aeoa? aeey ?innee, e anoue caaea/a enoi?eea ?onneie eoeueoo?u.
Ieetheia ioia/ae, /oi, enneaaeoy iniaaiiinoe ?onneie eoeueoo?u, iaeuecy
caauaaoue, /oi “?a/ue eaeao i iaoeeiiaeueiie iniaaiiinoe
iaua/aeiaa/aneiai i?ioeanna, a aiana ia i /ai-oi eneeth/eoaeueiii e
niaoeeoe/aneii, ninoaaeythuei eaeia-oi oiaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai
i?ioeanna ia?aae ae?oaeie “oeeaeeeciaaiiuie” ia?iaeaie. I?eciaoue
?onneee ia?iae niiniaiui e “eoeueoo?a” – cia/eo i?eciaoue aai niiniaiui
e “oeeaeeecaoeee”” Ieetheia I.I. I/a?ee… I., 1994. O.2, /. 2. N.
467-468..

Eoeueoo?o Ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa iiaeii oneiaii ?acaeaeeoue ia
aeaa ia?aaiicia/iuo ii a?aiaie ia?eiaea: nianoaaiii ae?aaiinoue
(noaiiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiinoe a ia?eiae ycu/anoaa) e N?aaeiaaaeiauea,
ia/aeueiue iiiaio eioi?iai iiaeii ii niiinoaaeaieth n Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie
ioianoe e iiiaioo i?eiyoey o?enoeainoaa. Aeaiiia ?acaeaeaiea aaaaeaii
aeey oiai, /oiau iiaeii auei niiinoaaeoue aeeyiea o?ao iniiaiuo
iauai?eiyouo ninoaaeythueo ia?aiia/aeueiiai noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey
eoeueoo?u aa?iiaeneiai N?aaeiaaaeiauey ia i?eia?a Caiaaea e
Ae?aaia?onneiai ainoaea?noaa. Yoi: 1 – aioe/iia ianeaaeea; 2 – eoeueoo?a
aa?aa?neeo, ycu/aneeo ieaiai – aa?iaioeaa, ainoi/iuo neaayi e o.i., o.a.
ei?aiiay, ecia/aeueiay, eneiiiay eoeueoo?a; 3 – o?enoeainoai.

Ae?aaiyy ?onue noi?ie?iaaea naie e?eoa?ee aeia?a e cea, yoe
aeia?iaeaoaee niaianoeeenue e n eo o?enoeaineei iiieiaieai. I/aiue /aoei
iie au?aaeathony a iienaiee ?ycaineeo eiycae, iiaeaoeo a aeoaa n
iiiaieaie a “Iiaanoe i ?aci?aiee ?ycaie Aaouai”: “Auee iie ?iaeii
o?enoiethaeau, a?aoiethaeau, eeoeii i?ae?aniu, i/aie naaoeu, aci?ii
a?iciu, naa?o ia?u o?aa?u, na?aeoeai eaaee, e aiy?ai eaneiau, e
i?eacaeei i?eaaoeeau, e oea?eaai i?eeaaeiu, ia ie?iaaiea nei?u, aei
ainoaea?neeo iioao ioi/e, ?aoiiio aeaeo eneoniu, e ia?aae a?aoeae naiae
e ia?aae iineaie aaee/aau. Ioaeanoaaiiue oi eiaee, a i?aaaea-enoeia
i?aauaaee, /enoioo aeooaaioth e oaeanioth niaethaeaee… A n iiaaiuie
iieiaoeaie /anoi aeeenue ca nayoua oea?eae e i?aaineaaioth aa?o. A
io/ecio naith io a?aaia aaceaiinoii iaa?aaaee” Eeoa?aoo?a Ae?aaiae ?one.
N. 190-191.. A yoii aicauoaiiii e iiyoe/aneii i?ineaaeaiee aa?iaa iiaeii
i?ineaaeeoue e ea?a?oeth i?aanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae, e aeaiue oaaaeaiey e
iaaoei e oeacaiea ia oi, /oi i?aaineaaea e XIII a. noaiiaeony aaaeiie
ninoaaeythuae ?onneie aeooiaiinoe. Aiciiaeii, ia ana iie niioaaonoaiaaee
yoiio iienaieth, ii iie iiaeaee ca ?iaeeio e aeieaeiu inoaoueny naaoeuie
e i?ae?aniuie a iaiyoe iioiieia.

A noa?a aieiaiey o/aiuo anaaaea aue oaiiiai ?onneie ?aeeaeiciinoe,
iniaue oei ia?iaeiie aeooiaiinoe, eioi?ue iacuaaee e “aeaiaaa?ea”,
“ia?yaeiaa?ea” e o.i. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ia?iaeiay ?aeeaeiciinoue
i?ioeai?a/eaa: n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?aaineaaea aeey e?anoueyi yaii
ninoaaeyei aeinoaoi/ii aunieoth aeooiaioth oeaiiinoue, n ae?oaie –
neaaue eioa?an e ciaiea oea?eiaiuo aeiaiaoia, eeoo?ae/aneeo oaenoia e
o.i. e no?iaia neaaeiaaiea ia?yaeiaie noi?iia aa?io/aiey. Ia?aoeiny e
iniaaiiinoyi i?aaiecaoeee aeooiaiie aeecie ia?iaea ia o?iaia aa
ia?ae/iiai caaia – i?eoiaea. Oai oea?eiaiia ono?ienoai ieacaeinue
aiaae?aiiui a ia?ae/iua e?anoueyineea ie?u. Noi?ie?iaaeanue naiaia?aciay
iauanoaaiii-eaeaieiae/aneay y/aeea – “ie?neay oea?eiaue”, a eioi?ie
iauaaeeieeenue ooieoeee a?aaeaeaineea e ?aeeaeiciua, i?eniiniaeaiea e
ianouiui cai?inai e eioa?anai iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie, i?aaiaie,
naiaeii-auoiaie aeecie. Nia?aiiua enneaaeiaaoaeyie iaoa?eaeu (I.I.
Iaaeia-Neeueaaineee, A.E. Eiiaiaa, A.E. Eeeaaiia e ae?.) aiai?yo i
oaniaeoae nayce “ie?neie” e aeooiaiie aeecie a e?anoueyineie n?aaea.
?anniao?eaay ?onneoth ?aeeaeiciinoue e “iaeoeueoo?iinoue” a eiioaenoa
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai iaioaeeoaoa, O.A. Noaioi ioia/ae, /oi ?onneee
ia?iae, aeaaiaea?y aa?a nio?aiee oeaeinoiinoue ie?inica?oeaiey.
Iaia?aciaaiiinoue caaea?aeaea i?ioeann “iaacaeooaiuey e ?anoea?eiaeaiey
ia?iaeiiai niciaiey”, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey caiaaeiiai “i?inaauaiiiai
?aoeeiiaeecia”, iiyoiio “oaiiioa ?onneiai i?inoiai /aeiaaea eae yaeaiea
aioo?eoea?eiaiie aeecie nei?aa eoeueoo?a, /ai iaeoeueoo?iinoue”
Noaioi O.A. Iunee i ?innee // Iiaue ie?. 1991. ? 6. N. 223..

3. Ia?iae e eioaeeeaaioeey

?onneay eoeueoo?a a ia?eiae Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa neiaeeeanue eae
naiiauoiay iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a. Yoi auea eoeueoo?a o?enoeaineay,
i?aaineaaiay, o?aaeeoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, eioi?ay iaoiaeeeanue, eae e
ae?oaea aiaeiae/iua eoeueoo?u, a aaeeinoaa n aa?ie. A XVII a. a ?onneie
eoeueoo?a ia/aeny i?ioeann naeoey?ecaoeee. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth
Iiaiai a?aiaie aue ?ac?ua o?aaeeoeeiiiie e iiaie eoeueoo?u,
naeoey?ecaoeey eoeueoo?u, “?ac?ua” eioaeeeaaioeee, eioi?ay auea
niceaeaoaeueieoeae iiaie, naaoneie eoeueoo?u, e ia?iaea, inoathuaainy
iaeioi?ia a?aiy aa?iui noa?ie, o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?a-aa?a.
Naeoey?ecaoeey ?onneie eoeueoo?u oiaea auea enoi?e/aneie
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Iaeiaei a eaaeaeie no?aia yoio i?ioeann a Iiaia a?aiy
i?ienoiaeee ii-?aciiio. Ia?aoeiny aua ?ac e iiaieth I.I. Ieetheiaa. Ii
n/eoae, /oi a ?innee naeoey?ecaoeey, “?ac?ua” eioaeeeaaioeee e ia?iaea
i?iecioae ia ii/aa aa?u. ssaiui i?iyaeaiea yoiai auea Ieeiiianeay
?aoi?ia i?e oea?a Aeaenaa Ieoaeeiae/a, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie /anoue
ianaeaiey ooea a “?aneie” e noaea noa?iia?yaeoeaie. A ioee/ea io
eaoiee/anoaa, i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue a ?innee auea neaaaa e ia niiaea
anneieee?iaaoue naaa eoeueoo?o oie n?aaeu, a eioi?oth iia iiiaea, eae
yoi naeaeaea caiaaeiay oea?eiaue. I?aaineaaea ia niiaei enei?aieoue
noa?ia ?onneia ycu/anoai, ionthaea iiauoaiiia cia/aiea ?eooaeueiie
noi?iiu a ?onneie oea?eae, au?iaeaeaiea ?aeeaeiciinoe a ia?yaeiinoue,
iaaeaeo oai eae eaeaeiay noi?iia ?aeeaee inoaaaeanue aeey ia?iaea
iaiiciaiiie. E?iia oiai, ?onneia i?aaineaaea auei eiina?aaoeaii e ia
aeaeaei iaiyoueny a niioaaonoaee n aeooii a?aiaie. Iii oanii naycaei
naay n ainoaea?noaii aua a ia?eiae Iineianeiai ainoaea?noaa, a a
?acoeueoaoa Neiiaeaeueiie ?aoi?iu yoa caaeneiinoue aua aieaa
oe?aieeanue. A ?acoeueoaoa ?onneia i?aaineaaea aeey ?onneie
eioaeeeaaioeee ia?anoaei nouanoaiaaoue. Naeoey?ecaoeey ii?iaeeea a
?innee ?aeeaeiciue eiaeeooa?aioeci. “?ac?ua” iaaeaeo ia?iaeii e
eioaeeeaaioeeae a ?innee naiaeeony e oiio, /oi iaaeaeo oai eae ia?iae
inoaeny i?e naiae “auoiaie” aa?a, eioaeeeaaioeey inoaeanue aac eaeie au
oi ie auei ?aeeaee. Naeoey?ecaoeey ?onneie eoeueoo?u auea, iineieueeo
?a/ue eaeao i ?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee, oae neacaoue, /enoi
io?eoeaoaeueiie. Oae eae oea?eiaue ia auea niiniaia iaaycaoue naie
nianoaaiiua eaeae, oi e inaiaiaeaeaiea (yiaineiaoeey) io oea?eae ia
nii?iaiaeaeaeinue au?aaioeie ieeaeiai iieiaeeoaeueiiai eaeaaea.

Ieetheia ieoao i “eioaeeeaaioeee” e i “ia?iaea” a oeaeii. Iaeiaei a
n?aaea ?onneie eioaeeeaaioeee auee ethaee, eioi?ua ioee/aeenue
iaiaueiiaaiiie iai?yaeaiiinoueth e aeoaeiie ?aeeaeiciuo eneaiee.
Iaeioi?ua aica?auathony e “o?aaeeoeeiiiie” aa?a, e aa enoieai, ae?oaea
eaeoo ii iooe aiaino?ieoaeuenoaa. ?onneay oeeinioey ia/aea XX a. aeaea
aeanoyuea i?eia?u iienea enoeiu ia iooe ?aeeaeiciiai iniuneaiey ie?a
(N.I. Aoeaaeia, I.A. Aa?aeyaa, I.A. Oei?aineee). Ii yoe eaeae inoaeenue
ia i?eiyouie ia?iaeii e eioaeeeaaioeeae e ooaa?aeeeanue eaeay
?aaiethoeeiiiiai, a ia aeooiaiiai i?aia?aciaaiey ?innee.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?aia?aciaaiee e ?aoi?i XVIII a. a ?innee i?iecioea
naeoey?ecaoeey eoeueoo?u, aaeeiay eoeueoo?a-aa?a ?acaeaeeeanue ia
naaoneoth, a?aaeaeaineoth eoeueoo?o e aeooiaioth. Yoi yaeaiea
caeiiiia?ii aeey anao no?ai. O?aaeeoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a ooiaeeo a i?ioeia.
Ii a ae?oaeo no?aiao a eoiaa noi?ie?iaaeanue iaeia eoeueoo?a. E i?e anao
?acee/eyo ethaeae ia?aciaaiiuo, iai?eia?, Aieueoa?a e n?aaeiaai /aeiaaea
(iauaaoaey), “/aeiaaea n oeeoeu”, iaa, eaaeaeue ii-naiaio,
i?aaenoaaeoaee iaeiie eoeueoo?u. A ?innee neiaii ia iaeia eoeueoo?a, a
aeaa. Yoio auaiae aue naeaeai aeaaii. Aai ?acaeaeytho iiiaea
enneaaeiaaoaee ?onneie eoeueoo?u. Iaeiaei yoa iniaaiiinoue iaoae
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay ieacaea iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea ia iaoo enoi?eth e
eoeueoo?o, ?acaeaeyy, a ia iauaaeeiyy iaoeeth, eiiaaea aeaaea a naiua
neiaeiua ia?eiaeu (?aaiethoeee), ana aea o?aaoao i/aiue na?ueaciiai
aiaeeca e, /oi ia iaiaa aaaeii, eiie?aoiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii
i?aiaeieaieth yoiai ?ac?uaa, i?eia?u eioi?iai iiaeii iaeoe e a
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?a.

Caeeth/aiea

?onneay eoeueoo?a, aaconeiaii, aaeeeay aa?iiaeneay eoeueoo?a. Iia
yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiie e naiiauoiie iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?ie,
o?aieoaeueieoeae iaoeeiiaeueiuo o?aaeeoeee, oeaiiinoae, io?aaeaieai
iniaaiiinoae iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. ?onneay eoeueoo?a a i?ioeanna
naiaai noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey eniuoaea ia naaa aeeyiea iiiaeo eoeueoo?,
aieoaea a naay iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou yoeo eoeueoo?, ia?a?aaioaea e
ia?ainiuneeea eo, iie aioee a ninoaa iaoae eoeueoo?u eae aa i?aaie/aneay
ninoaaiay /anoue.

?onneay eoeueoo?a ia yaeyaony ie eoeueoo?ie Ainoiea, ie eoeueoo?ie
Caiaaea. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie naiinoiyoaeueiue
oei eoeueoo?u. A ?acoeueoaoa ?aciuo i?e/ei ?onneay eoeueoo?a ia
?aaeeciaaea iieiinoueth naieo aiciiaeiinoae, naiaai iioaioeeaea.

E niaeaeaieth, iiuo ?acee/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee a ?innee ineiaeiai oai, /oi
ethaua eciaiaiea i?iecaiaeeeenue ianeeuenoaaiiui iooai eeai ?aceei
neiiii, caiaiie, io?eoeaieai, iooi?aeaieai nouanoaothuae eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee. Eoeueoo?iay enoi?ey no?aiu iaiaeiie?aoii iiaeoaa?aeaeaea ia
i?aeoeea aeaaeueiinoue oaeiai iiaeoiaea, eioi?ue aucuaae ia oieueei
oie/oiaeaiea i?aaeoanoaothuae eoeueoo?u, ii e i?eaiaeee e eiioeeeoo
iieieaiee, eiioeeeoo noi?iiieeia “iiaei” e noa?eiu. Aua iaeia aaaeiaeoay
caaea/a – i?aiaeieaoue eiiieaen iaiieiioeaiiinoe, eioi?ue noi?ie?iaai o
/anoe iaoaai iauanoaa ii ioiioaieth e naiae no?aia e eoeueoo?a. Ii
oaeaea ia niinianoaoao aeaeaeaieth aia?aae. Ioaaoiie ?aaeoeeae ia iaai
yaeythony i?iyaeaiey iaoeeiiaeecia e ?aceiai io?eoeaiey ethauo
caeinoaiaaiee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A?aey? I.A. E??ey e ??e ???? ?????. – I., 1990.

2. Eeth???e A.I. N?.: A 9 o. – I., 1987. O.1.

3. E????a Ae??ae ??e. O????ey. – I., 1990.

4. E??? I.I. O??ey ??eth??i ??a. – I., 1991.

5. E??i TH.I. I???a ??????i ?ey?y ? ???th ???? a ??????? ????e / A???y e
??ue. – I., 1989.

6. I?th?a I.I. I??e ? ???e ???e ????: A 3 o. – I., 1993. O.1.

7. N??i O.A. I?? i ???e // I?? ??. 1991. ? 6.

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