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O?aaeeoeeiiiua i?acaeieee eiie-cu?yi

?iaeeeueiay ia?yaeiinoue

?iaeaeaiea oanii naycaii a o?aaeeoeeiiiie eoeueoo?a eiie n
i?aaenoaaeaieyie ia eiii ie?a, e any ?iaeeeueiay ia?yaeiinoue, a a?
i?aeoe/aneii e neiaiee/aneii aniaeoao, iai?aaeaia ia iaania/aiea
aeaaiiieo/iiai iiyaeaiey iiai?iaeaeaiiiai ia yoio naao e i?eniaaeeiaiea
aai e nioeeoio. A?oae/iua acaeyaeu ia iioonoi?iiithth i?e?iaeo ?aaaiea
nio?aieeenue a o?aaeeoeeiiiii iauyniaiee iiyaeaiey iiai?iaeaeaiiuo.

Eiie-cu?yia iauyniyee aeaoyi: “?aa?iie iiyaeyaony ec aeoiea aea?aaa”,
“?aa?iea iaoiaeyo iaaeaeo ae?ia a iieaieoea”, /oi a eiioaenoa
i?aaenoaaeaiee i aea?aaa eae naycothuai caaia iaaeaeo ieoieiae/aneeie
ie?aie niiinoaaeii n i?aaenoaaeaieyie i aai iiyaeaiee ec eiiai ie?a.

Ia aii?in ?aaaiea i iooe aai iiyaeaiey ia naao iaoa?e oaeaea ioaa/aee:
“Ou iiyaeeny ec iiae iiaeiuoee”, /oi oiaea naycaii n neiaieeeie
/oaeaniiai ?iaeaeaiey (Eiiaeia 1996, N.16). Oa?iei /o?ea, iaicia/athuee
caeiiii?iaeaeaiiiai ?aaaiea e ia ycueiaii o?iaia ainoiaeyuee e
neaayineiio iaicia/aieth i?aaeeia “/o?”, “i?auo?”, oeacuaaao ia aa?o a
i?ienoiaeaeaiea ?aaaiea, ia eiathuaai iooea, ec ie?a i?aaeeia (Naiaiia
1992, N.99). Ia yoii aea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao e au?aaeaiea, eiinoaoe?othuaa
nia?oue ieaaeaioea: “Iounue iaoin, iooe ioiin” (Ec caiee auoae, a caieth
e aa?ioeny).

Ia?yae ?iaeaeaiey ?aaaiea ia/eiaeny caaeieai aei ?iaeia. Oaea a ?eooaea,
ioia/aaoai ianooieaiea oeceieiae/aneie c?aeinoe aeaaooee, iaoue
oi?ioee?iaaea aei/a?e aeaaiiiaeaeaiey ioiineoaeueii aoaeouaai
aeaoi?iaeaeaiey. I?e iiyaeaiee o aeaai/ee ia?auo iany/iuo iaoue aa/a?ii
naia ?an/anuaaea ae a?aaiai aieinu, e, caieaoay eino, aeaeaea aei/a?e
?anoe caei?iaie aeaiueiie, eaaei ?iaeaoue aeaeaiiuo e caei?iauo aeaoae,
eiaoue iieiea eae a iieiiaiaeiie ?aea, a caoai anoaaeyea a?aaaiue
aei/a?e a aieinu (Neai/eia 1998, N.19).

Neiaieeeie ieiaei?iaeey ianuuai naaaeaaiue ia?yae: iaaanoa e aeaieoo
noaeeee ia/eiioth ooao, /oiau aeaoae iiiai auei; ia?aae auoiaeii e
aaioeo ia eieaie iaaanoa naaeaee ?aa?iea; aieueoia cia/aiea
i?eaeaaaeinue ieua, naycaiiie n ieiaei?iaeeai, ieiaeiaeoinoueth,
?iaeaeaieai (eo?eiua yeoea, ooeiua aocee, ca?ii e o.ae.). N yoiai aea
a?aiaie i?iyaeyeanue caaioa i caei?iauea aoaeouaai ?aaaiea. Au? i?e
auai?a noi?oaa iaa noi?iiu eioa?aniaaeenue iaee/eai a ?iaeo iaaanou eee
aeaieoa o?iie/anee aieueiuo, oinoaaiii ionoaeuo, “i?eiaaei/iuo” e i?e
onoaiiaeaiee oaeiai oaeoa io a?aea noa?aeenue aicaea?aeaoueny,
iineieueeo, ii ia?iaeiui aicc?aieyi, iiaeiaiua caaieaaaiey iiaee
ia?aaeaoueny ii ianeaaenoao.

A?aee iaaeaeo ?iaenoaaiieeaie aeiioneaeenue ia ?aiaa /aoaa?oiai-iyoiai
iieieaiee, a ia Oaei?a – iyoiai-oanoiai. Aanieiaeea iianaianoii
n/eoaeinue aieueoei ian/anoueai e ?anoeaieaaeinue eae ?acoeueoao ii?/e
eee iaeacaiea ca a?aoe. I aacaeaoiuo noi?oaao aiai?eee: “Aa?ianiu eoe,
ynueeoe iounue ii?oooe aoe/aniu (Anee au iiaee, iie au ec aea?aaa
/aeiaaea naeaeaee)”. Aeey ea/aiey aanieiaeiuo aeaiuei ia?iaeiua
a?a/aaaoaee aioiaeee ioaa?u eaaa aayi oo?oi (?aaaiea-aeae-o?aaa),
aeiauaaiea eioi?ie auei naycaii n neiaiee/aneei ia?auaieai e neeai eiiai
ie?a: a ii/ue ia Eaaiia aeaiue ciaoa?ee a /enouo iaeaaeaeao
ia?aieaaeyeenue /a?ac ?aeo ia eoaa e, eaey ii e?oao, niae?aee o?aau,
iaaeaeyaiua iaae/aneeie neeaie. ?aaoey?iia oiio?aaeaiea ioaa?a eaaa aayi
oo?oi aeieaeii auei niinianoaiaaoue ianooieaieth aa?aiaiiinoe.
Aini?eyoea aanieiaeey eae Aiaeueaai iaeacaiey ii?aaeaeeei e
niioaaonoaothuea niiniau ia?aoaiey “/aaei?iaeey” – ioiaeeaaiea a?aoia ai
a?aiy iieaiee, e?anoiuo oiaeia, iinauaiee nayouiue, ia?auaiee n
iieeoaaie e Aiaeueae iaoa?e, nayoie Ia?aneaaa (Oa?aiia 1995, N.14).

O?aaeeoeeiiii iaeaieaa iiaeoiaeyuei ianoii aeey ?iaeia n/eoaeenue oeaa
e, iniaaiii, aaiy, eioi?oth aeey aeaaiiieo/iiai ?ac?aoaiey io a?aiaie
?iaeaieoea aeieaeia auea i?ioiieoue naia, naiinoiyoaeueii iaiinea ae?ia
e aiaeu. A aaith ?iaeaieoea aeieaeia auea eaeoe ainie. Anee ?iaeu
i?ienoiaeeee a aeiia, oi iau/ii aeaiueia ?iaeaea ia ii?iaa aeeeiai
iiiauaiey. Ia Oaei?a caoeene?iaai iau/ae ?iaeaoue a iiaeiieuea eee ia
e?uoea ethea a aieaaoe. O i?eeocneeo eiie-cu?yi e eiie-ia?iyeia
caoeene?iaaiu ?oaeeiaiou eoaaaeu – iooeo ?aaaiea aeaaaee e?ooi
iinieaiiue oeaa n ai?/eoeae eee ianeii, eioi?ue ii aeieaeai aue nuanoue
(Iaeeiia 1991, N. 18). ?iaeeaoaainy ?aaaiea iiaeoooa iiaeoaaouaaea ia
?oee ni neiaaie “Aeaniy, O?enoin, eocue iyi aea ao? ooae, eiacyn iyae.
(Aeaaineiae, O?enoin, aeieaieaoey e n/anouey, auaeeaao ionoue)”, e
inouanoaeyea ia?ae/iue ooiae ca iei: ia?aaycuaaea ioiiaeio eueiyiie
ieoeie (/anoi auaea?iooie ec iiaeiea ?oaaoee iaoa?e) eee aieinaie
?iaeaieoeu, ia?a?acaea aa iiaeii eee iiaeieoeaie ia ?annoiyiee 3-4
iaeueoeaa, iaiuaaea e caai?a/eaaea iiai?iaeaeaiiiai, /oiau “ioaoe
neeueiaa ethaee”, a noa?oth iooeianeoth ?oaaoo.

O i?eeocneeo eiie-cu?yi e eiie-ia?iyeia nouanoaiaae iau/ae ia?a?acaoue
eee i?eaycuaaoue ioiiaeio e i?aaeiaoo, ioiinyuaiony e aeaeaaiie aeey
?aa?iea i?ioannee. Ioiiaeio aeaai/ee ia?a?acaee ia i?yeea, aa?aoaia,
ioiaaooth – i?yoaee a yue/ae oaaeiie iaoeiee, a eoaeaeue, /oiau
iiai?iaeaeaiiay noaea oi?ioae oaaae, i?yoie. Ioiiaeio iaeue/eea
ia?a?acaee ia i?eeeaaea ?oaeuey, ia oiii?a, i?eaycuaaee e ieoao, /oiau
eiae oaeiaieuenoaea e o?oaeo. Anee ?iaeeoaee ia/oaee aeaeaoue naiaai
?aa?iea o/?iui /aeiaaeii, oi ioiiaeio i?eaycuaaee e eieaa, anee
aeooiaiui eeoeii – oi e oea?eiaiiio eieieieo. Ianoiyiioth ia ioiiaeia
aiaeeo, aeaaaee auieoue iooeo, /oiau cae?aieoue aai i?eaycaiiinoue e
ieaaeaioeo.

Iineaae ca?uaaee a caieth ai aeai?a, aieaoea eee oeaao iiae iaaic,
aeaeay aai iaaeinooiiui aeey oie/oiaeaiey e eieaeianoaa. Anee ?aaaiie
?iaeaeaeny a iineaaea, oi iineaae aunooeaaee e nio?aiyee, n/eoay, /oi io
iaai caaeneo caei?iauea e aeaaiiieo/ea ?aaaiea. Ia Oaei?a e
iiai?iaeae?iiiio i?eeeaaeuaaee iieaii ni neiaaie: “?anoe e aoaeue
niieiai, iiaeiaii yoiio iieaio”. Anee ?aa?iie aue neaa eee o ?iaeaieoeu
?aiaa oie?aee aeaoe, eniieiyeny ?eooae aai “ia?a?aaeeaaiey” – neeoen iu?
eyaecoei (i?ioaneeaaiea neaicue oiioo). Iiaeoooa ia?aaeaaaea
iiai?iaeae?iiiai neaicue oiioo aeaiueia, a naiuea eioi?ie ?inee e?aieea
e caei?iaua aeaoe. Oa iaoaaouaaea aai ?oeaie ni neiaaie: “Ia nieoen
aneui ainueoa, euaece iaiai auaeioeiu, iaae niaec e oaeoe auaeioe.” (ss
aai naaa aa?o, eae iie ?anooo, oae ionoue e yoio ?ano?o) e iaaycuaaea
iiyneii. N?aco iinea ?iaeia eiie-cu?yia ieo?eaaee aeaiueio e ?aa?iea
aeuiii io iiaeaeaaaeueieea (Noa?oeaa 1929, N. 46), a eiie-ia?iyee
ii?uneeaaee eee iiuaaee eo aiaeie, iaa?aiiie ii niaoeeaeueiui i?aaeeai.

A aa?anoyiie ninoae iaae?aee o?e-aeaayoue ai?noae aiaeu, aaaey n/?o n
io?eoeaieai (ia iaeia, ia aeaa, ia o?e e o.ae.), aiaeo /a?iaee
i?eai?oiae ii oa/aieth, neeaaee a ninoae ii eieoth, i?eaiaa?eaay: “Eae
aiaea ia eieoa ia caaea?aeeony, oae ia ?aaa Aiaeeae (eiy ?iaeeeueieoeu)
ie o?iee, ie i?eci?u ia aea?aeeoanue” (ssiiae/ N. 71). A eiie ycuea
ia?yae e?auaiey iacuaaaony ioaeaaieueiui nouanoaeoaeueiui iu?ooei
(iu?o/oei), /oi a aoeaaeueiii ia?aaiaea iiaeii o?aeoiaaoue eae ‘aaiae’
eee ‘aaaaeaiea’ /aeiaaea a aa?o. A n?aaea eiie noa?iia?yaeoeaa ia?yae I.
iaoaoi?e/anee iacuaatho “eieuyn iunueeeiu” (aoea. ‘iiiaaiea iia’).
I?ienoiaeaeaiea yoie iaoaoi?u, aa?iyoii, naycaii n aeaeaeneeie
nthaeaoaie i /oaeaniii nianaiee /a?ac i?aiaeieaiea aiaeiie i?aa?aaeu e
aeooiaiii aine?aoaiee /a?ac iiiaaiea a aiaea (Aeaeey: Iaa. III, 4; Eiai.
III, 5; Aoan., 26; En. XII, 3).

*aeiaaea, ia eiathuaai aeooiaiiai naia, ii niaa?oathuaai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue ia?yae I. ca i?aaeaeaie o?aia, iacuaatho iu?ounue –
aoea. ‘oio eoi aaiaeeo eiai-eeai’. Aei ia?aie /aoaa?oe XX aaea
iianaianoii o eiie-cu?yi e eiie-ia?iyeia (eae o i?aaineaaiuo, oae e o
i?eaa?aeaioeaa noa?iia?yae/anoaa) I. iiai?iaeae?iiiai niaa?oaeinue ia
o?aoee e ainueiie aeaiue iinea ?iaeaeaiey ?aa?iea.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaa?oaiey I. ia ainueiie aeaiue iauyniyaony
o?aaeeoeeiiiuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i oii, /oi “… e nai Eenon O?enoin ia
ainueiie aeaiue aue e?au?i”. Eioa?anii, /oi ia Oaei?a iae?au?iiai
ieaaeaioea aei aeanyoe aeiae oooeeai iacuaatho ‘/oaeei’. A aeaiiii
neo/aa ia?ac iae?au?iiai ieaaeaioea io/?oeeai niioiineony n ia?acii
/oaee – ieoieiae/aneeo ia?aii?aaeeia eiie, iiaeaoeo, niaeanii iaeiiio ec
oieueeei?iuo nthaeaoia, ioeacaaoenue i?eiyoue e?auaiea. Iiae/??eeaaaony,
/oi “e?au?iua ieaaeaioeu ia oii naaoa aoaeoo eaoaoue eae aiaaeu e
niae?aoue ieuo n ?aeneeo aea?aaueaa, a iae?au?iua ieaaeaioeu aoaeoo
iiecaoue ii caiea e aneaioth niae?aoue oi, /oi aoaeao iaaeaoue n ?aeneeo
aea?aaueaa”.

O ia/i?neeo eiie e?anoeee a eaiooea eee oiioena – aieueoie aea?aayiiie
eoiaee ie?oaeie oi?iu, naeoie ec niniiauo aeinie e ne?aie?iiie
/a?aiooiauie iaiaeaie. Eoiaeue noaaeee a aeiia iiae iaoeoeae, aeeaea e
ia/e. Niaeanii /eio e?auaiey, ii /aou??i noi?iiai naaoa ia e?iiea eoiaee
onoaiaaeeaaee caaeae?iiua naa/e. O eiie noa?iia?yaeoeaa Aa?oiae e
N?aaeiae Ia/i?u ioia/aiiia i?aaeienaiea iau/ii ia niaethaeaeinue.
Eoiaeue iaiieiyee aiaeie, i?eian?iiie ?aii oo?ii ?iaeeoaeyie eee
aoaeoueie aaaeaiue-aaaeae ec eieiaeoea eee i?ioi/iiai enoi/ieea aiaeu. A
iineaaeiai neo/aa, eae ioia/atho eioi?iaiou, aiaeo i?aaeienuaaeinue
ca/a?iuaaoue iaycaoaeueii i?ioea oa/aiey. Ia?aae niaa?oaieai ia?yaea
eoiaeue, iaiieiaiiay neaaea iiaeia?aoie aiaeie, o?iae?aoii inayuaeanue
eaaeaiii, oeathuae niieie oaieiuo aea?aaueaa eee iiaeaeaaaeueieeii.
Eeoei ie?auaaiiai i?e niaa?oaiee ia?yaea aeieaeii auoue ia?auaii ia
ainoie, “iineieueeo ia ainoiea Ainiiaeue aeea?o”. Aaaeaiue eee aaaeae
caaycuaaee ia ?aa?iea aaeoai io ia?ia ian (iaoaeueiiai e?anoa),
aoeiueaei (iaoaeueiue iiyn), nieao?iiua ec ia oa?noyiuo ieoae, e
iaaeaaaee ia?iyiue aeoe?oei (niaoeeaeueioth oieuiaoth ?oaaoeo, noeooth
aaaeaiue ii noa?eiiiio iie?ith: n iieaie aei eieai, n oe?ieeie ii
eieioue ?oeaaaie, aac oci?ia, aac ai?ioa, n au?acii ia a?oaee e aeaoiy
oan?ieaie-caayceaie, aac ioaiaeoe).

Aiineaaenoaee, ia?iyiue aeoe?oei o?aieeanue ?iaeeoaeyie e ia?aaeaaaeanue
e?au?iui, eiaaea aei/ue auoiaeeea caioae, a iiac?ineaaoee nui iaanaaaea
inoaaeye ?iaeeoaeueneee aeii.

Naaaeaaiay ia?yaeiinoue

Aei 30-40-o aiaeia OO aaea o ia?iaeia eiie nio?aiyeenue o?e iniiaiuo
oi?iu caeeth/aiey a?aea: naaaeueaa n i?eaeaiui, naaaeueaa n eaeuiii e
naaaeueaa n iioeuaieai. Naaaeueaa n i?eaeaiui auea ?ani?ino?aiaia o anao
yoiia?aoe/aneeo a?oii eiie, oiaaea eae naaaeueaa n iioeuaieai e?aaea
auea caoeene?iaaia a iniiaiii o noa?iia?yae/aneiai ianaeaiey ?. Aaoea e
a eiie-ia?iyoeeeo n?eao ii ?aeai sscueaa, Eiueaa e Aa?oiyy Eaia. A?ae
oiueaieai aue aeinoaoi/ii ?ani?ino?ai?iiui yaeaieai au? a 1920-1930-o
aiaeao.

Iioeuaiea aeaaooee iiaei auoue niaa?oaii n a? niaeaney eee
ianeeuenoaaiii. A ia?aii neo/aa i?e/eiie iiaei neoaeeoue aeeceia
?iaenoai (aei 6-7 eieaia) iieiaeiai /aeiaaea n ?iaeii aeaaooee, aai
aaaeiinoue eee aea iaaeaeaiea ?iaeeoaeae aeaaooee ii?iaeieoueny n aai
naiue?e. Iioeuaiea aeaaooee iiaei auoue niaeaniaaii n ?iaeeoaeyie
aeaaooee e aeeeoiaaeinue yeiiiie/aneeie niia?aaeaieyie: naaaeueaa, oaeei
ia?acii, i?ioiaeeea aac aieueoeo cao?ao.

Ianeeuenoaaiiia iioeuaiea aeaaooee i?ienoiaeeei a oii neo/aa, anee o
aeaieoa auei iaei oainia a? aunaaoaoue: aeaieo aue noa?oa iaaanou,
iaeiciaeii ae, aaaeai eee i?inoi ia i?aaeeny. E?iia oiai, oiueaiea
iaaanou n/eoaeinue i?eciaeii iniaiai iieiaea/anoaa aeaieoa e iaaeanii
iiiu?yeinue iauanoaii. Ieaoa ca iaaanoo oaea a eiioea OIO aaea ia eiaea
iniaiai cia/aiey a ia?yaeiaie aeecie eiie. A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iia
nio?aiyeanue a naaaeaaiie ia?yaeiinoe a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec aai
yeaiaioia. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiie oi?iie caeeth/aiey a?aea auea
o?aaeeoeeiiiay naaaeueaa n i?eaeaiui.

O?aaeeoeeiiiay naaaeueaa eiie XIX – ia/aea XX aaea i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
neiaeiue eiiieaen oea?aiiiee, aeeth/ay oea?eiaiia aai/aiea, iai?aaeaiiue
ia iieo/aiea iauanoaaiiuo e ?aeeaeiciuo naieoeee aeey caeeth/aiey a?aea.
O?aaeeoeeiiiay naaaeueaa ninoiyea ec o??o iniiaiuo yoaiia: iiaeaioiaea e
naaaeueaa, naia naaaeueaa e iineanaaaeaaiua ia?yaeu. Eaaeaeue ec yoeo
yoaiia, a naith i/a?aaeue, eiae naith no?oeoo?o. A yoai iiaeaioiaee e
naaaeueaa aoiaeeee naaoianoai, naiai?, i?iuaiea iaaanou n
?iaenoaaiieeaie, ia?yaeu eaioia naaaeueau, aeeth/ay aaith iaaanou, e
i?iuaeueiue oaeei n ea?euaie.

Iniiaiuie iiiaioaie yoaia naaaeueau auee ia?aaea/a iaaanou aeaieoo,
aai/aiea, ie? o iaaanou e ie? o aeaieoa, oeeaaeuaaiea iieiaeuo niaoue,
ia?yaeu aoi?iai e o?aoueaai aeiy naaaeueau.

A o?aoee yoai aoiaeeei aiuaiea iieiaeuo o o?ue e ia?yaeu aiaeiaueiu
naaaeueau. A naith i/a?aaeue, eaaeaeue ec ioia/aiiuo iiiaioia
naaaeaaiiai ?eooaea ninoiye ec eiiieaena ia?yaeiauo aeaenoaee,
oea?aiiiee, iau/aaa, oa?aeoa?iuo oieueei aeey ii?aaeae?iiie ianoiinoe,
naea eee aea?aaie.

Niaethaeaiea anao oea?aiiiee n/eoaeinue iaycaoaeueiui, iineieueeo
i?aaeeueiinoue auiieiaiey eo ii oiaeo ?eooaea aeieaeia auea
aa?aioe?iaaoue iieiaeui n/anouea e aeaaiiieo/ea noi?oaeaneie aeecie,
noaaeeueiinoue a?aea, a oaeaea iaaciianeoue eo io aicaeaenoaey ceuo nee
ai a?aiy naaaeueau.

E?iia oiai, o?aaeeoeeiiiay naaaeueaa i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
oaao?aeeciaaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea, a eioi?ii eaaeaeiio ec o/anoieeia
ioaiaeeeanue ii?aaeae?iiay ?ieue, i?e/?i eaaeaeay ?ieue o?aaiaaea io
eniieieoaey ciaiey iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?yaeiauo aeaenoaee e aa?aaeueiuo
oaenoia.

Iia?aaaeueii-iiieiaeueiay ia?yaeiinoue

Iia?aaaeueiue ?eooae eiie (aecaaoei

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