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Типология и периодизация культуры

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Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1. Eoeueoo?a eae i?aaeiao eoeueoo?ieiae

2. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo?.

2.1. Iniiaaiea oeiieiaee eoeueoo?u.

2.2. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo? (ia?a/eneaiea).

2.3. Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua n iiiiuueth iaoiaea oeiieiaee eoeueoo?.

3. Ia?eiaeecaoeey enoi?ee eoeueoo?u.

2.1. Ia?eiaeecaoeey ?onneie eoeueoo?u.

Caeeth/aiea.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Aaaaeaiea

A iauaeaiiii niciaiee «eoeueoo?a» aunooiaao eae niae?aoaeueiue ia?ac,
iauaaeeiythuee eneonnoai, ?aeeaeth, iaoeo e o. ae. Eoeueoo?ieiaey aea
eniieuecoao iiiyoea eoeueoo?u, eioi?ia ?ane?uaaao nouiinoue
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey eae ?aaeecaoeeth oai?/anoaa e naiaiaeu. Eiaiii
eoeueoo?a ioee/aao /aeiaaea io anao inoaeueiuo nouanoa.

Eiia/ii, caeanue iaaei ?acee/aoue, ai-ia?auo, naiaiaeo eae iaiouaieaioth
aeooiaioth iioaioeeth /aeiaaea e, ai-aoi?uo, iniciaiea e iniciaiioth
nioeeaeueioth ?aaeecaoeeth naiaiaeu. Aac ia?aiai eoeueoo?a i?inoi ia
iiaeao iiyaeoueny, ii aoi?ia aeinoeaaaony eeoue ia n?aaieoaeueii
iicaeieo noaaeeyo aa ?acaeoey. Aeaeaa, eiaaea iu aiai?ei i eoeueoo?a, oi
eiaai a aeaeo ia eaeie-oi ioaeaeueiue oai?/aneee aeo /aeiaaea, ii
oai?/anoai eae oieaa?naeueiia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o.

Iiiyoea eoeueoo?u iaicia/aao oieaa?naeueiia ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o,
/a?ac eioi?ia /aeiaae nicaeaao ie? e naiiai naay. Eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a —
yoi iaiiaoi?eiay Anaeaiiay, nicaeaiiay ii?aaeaeaiiui ioiioaieai /aeiaaea
e ie?o e e naiiio naaa. Eiuie neiaaie, eco/ay ?acee/iua eoeueoo?u, iu
eco/aai ia i?inoi eieae, niai?u eee a?oaieiae/aneea iaoiaeee, — iu
ioe?uaaai aeey naay eiua /aeiaa/aneea ie?u, a eioi?uo ethaee e aeeee, e
/oanoaiaaee eia/a, /ai iu. Eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a anoue niinia oai?/aneie
naii?aaeecaoeee /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio iinoeaeaiea eiuo eoeueoo? iaiaauaao
ian ia oieueei iiaui ciaieai, ii e iiaui oai?/aneei iiuoii.

Iaeiaei iiea /oi iu naeaeaee eeoue ia?aue oaa e i?aaeeueiiio iiieiaieth
e ii?aaeaeaieth eoeueoo?u. Eae ?aaeecoaony oieaa?naeueiia ioiioaiea
/aeiaaea e ie?o? Eae iii cae?aieyaony a /aeiaa/aneii iiuoa e ia?aaeaaony
io iieieaiey e iieieaieth? Ioaaoeoue ia yoe aii?inu e icia/aao
ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eoeueoo?o eae i?aaeiao eoeueoo?ieiaee.

1. Eoeueoo?a eae i?aaeiao eoeueoo?ieiaee.

Ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o ii?aaeaeyaony niuneii. Niune niioiineo ethaia
yaeaiea, ethaie i?aaeiao n /aeiaaeii: anee ia/oi eeoaii niunea, iii
ia?anoaao nouanoaiaaoue aeey /aeiaaea. *oi aea oaeia niune aeey
eoeueoo?ieiaee? Niune — yoi niaea?aeaiea /aeiaa/aneiai auoey (a oii
/enea aioo?aiiaai auoey), acyoia a iniaie ?iee: auoue iin?aaeieeii a
ioiioaieyo /aeiaaea n ie?ii e n naiei niaie. Eiaiii niune ii?aaeaeyao,
/oi iu euai e /oi ioe?iai a ie?a e a naieo naaa.

Niune iaaei ioee/aoue io cia/aiey, o. a. i?aaeiaoii au?aaeaiiiai ia?aca
eee iiiyoey. Aeaaea anee niune au?aaeaaony a ia?aca eee iiiyoee, nai ii
naaa ii aiana iaiaycaoaeueii yaeyaony i?aaeiaoiui. Iai?eia?, iaeei ec
naiuo aaaeiuo niuneia—aeaaeaea ethaae— aiana ia i?aaeiieaaaao
i?aaeiaoiue ia?ac eaeiai-eeai /aeiaaea (eia/a eaaeaeue ec ian ca?aiaa
ciae au, eiai ii iiethaeo). Iiaeeeiiue niune aae?aniaai ia oieueei
?acoio, ii e iaeiio?iee?oaiui aeoaeiai aeooe e iaiin?aaenoaaiii (iiieii
iaoaai iniciaiey) cao?aaeaaao iaoe /oanoaa e aieth. Niune ia anaaaea
iniciaaony /aeiaaeii, e aeaeaei ia anyeee niune iiaeao auoue au?aaeai
?aoeeiiaeueii: aieueoeinoai niuneia oaeony a aanniciaoaeueiuo aeoaeiao
/aeiaa/aneie aeooe. Ii e oa ae?oaea niuneu iiaoo noaoue iauacia/eiuie,
iauaaeeiyy iiiaeo ethaeae e aunooiay iniiaie eo iuneae e /oanoa. Eiaiii
oaeea niuneu ia?acotho eoeueoo?o.

*aeiaae iaaeaeyao yoeie niuneaie aanue ie?, e ie? aunooiaao aeey iaai a
naiae oieaa?naeueiie /aeiaa/aneie cia/eiinoe. A ae?oaie ie? /aeiaaeo
i?inoi ia ioaeai e iaeioa?anai. I. A. Iaua?yeiaa ni?aaaaeeeai auaeaeyao
aeaa enoiaeiuo (aaceniuo) oeia oeaiiinoiiai ioiioaiey — ie? iiaeao
aunooiaoue aeey /aeiaaea eae «naia» e eae «/oaeia». Eoeueoo?a anoue
oieaa?naeueiue niinia, eaeei /aeiaae aeaeaao ie? «naiei», i?aa?auay aai
a Aeii /aeiaa/aneiai (niuneiaiai) auoey. Oaeei ia?acii aanue ie?
i?aa?auaaony a iineoaey /aeiaa/aneeo niuneia, a ie? eoeueoo?u. Aeaaea
caacaeiia iaai eee aeoaeiu ieaaia i?eiaaeeaaeao eoeueoo?a, iineieueeo ei
ioaeaia /anoeoea /aeiaa/aneie aeooe, iineieueeo iie ianoo /aeiaa/aneee
niune. Anee au ia auei yoiai niunea, oi /aeiaae ia caniao?eaaeny au ia
ii/iia iaai, iiyou ia ienaee au noeoia, a o/aiua ia ioaeaaaee au
eco/aieth i?e?iaeu ana neeu naiae aeooe e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia niaa?oaee
au aaeeeeo ioe?uoee. Oai?aoe/aneay iuneue ?iaeaeaaony ia n?aco, e /oiau
iia iiyaeeanue, ioaeai eioa?an /aeiaaea e caaaaeeai ie?a, ioaeii
oaeeaeaiea ia?aae oaeiaie auoey (ia c?y Ieaoii aiai?ee, /oi iiciaiea
ia/eiaaony n oaeeaeaiey). Ii eioa?ana e oaeeaeaiey iao oai, aaea iao
eoeueoo?iuo niuneia, iai?aaeythueo oiu e /oanoaa iiiaeo ethaeae ia
inaiaiea ie?a e nianoaaiiie aeooe.

Ionthaea iiaeii aeaoue oaeia ii?aaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u. Eoeueoo?a — yoi
oieaa?naeueiue niinia oai?/aneie naii?aaeecaoeee /aeiaaea /a?ac
iieaaaiea niunea, no?aieaiea ane?uoue e ooaa?aeeoue niune /aeiaa/aneie
aeecie a niioianaiiinoe aai ni niuneii nouaai.

2. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo?.

2.1. Iniiaaiea oeiieiaee eoeueoo?u

E?eoa?eaa, eee iniiaaiee, oeiieiaee eoeueoo? iiaeao auoue iiiai,
iai?eia?: naycue n ?aeeaeae; ?aaeiiaeueiay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eoeueoo?u;
?aaeiiaeueii-yoie/aneay iniaaiiinoue; i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e enoi?e/aneiio
oeio iauanoaa; oicyenoaaiiue oeeaae; noa?a iauanoaa eee-aeae
aeayoaeueiinoe; naycue n oa??eoi?eae; niaoeeaeecaoeey; o?iaaiue
ianoa?noaa e oei aoaeeoi?ee e ae?.

Eiaaea aiai?yo i ooaeiaeanoaaiiie, yeiiiie/aneie eee iieeoe/aneie
eoeueoo?ao, niaoeeaeenou iacuaatho eo eeai ?aciiaeaeiinoyie eoeueoo?u
iauanoaa, eeai noa?aie eoeueoo?u iauanoaa. Ae?aooea ?anniio?ei aeaaiua
?aciiaeaeiinoe (noa?u) eoeueoo?u.

A eoeueoo?ieiaee ia neiaeeeinue aaeeiiai iiaiey i oii, /oi n/eoaoue
aeaeaie, oi?iaie, oeiaie, io?aneyie eoeueoo?u, a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec
aa?eaioia iiaeii i?aaeeiaeeoue neaaeothuoth eiioeaiooaeueioth noaio.

Io?aneyie eoeueoo?u neaaeoao iacuaaoue oaeea niaieoiiinoe ii?i, i?aaee e
iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho ioiineoaeueii
caieioooth iaeanoue a ninoaaa oeaeiai.

Oeiaie eoeueoo?u neaaeoao eiaiiaaoue oaeea niaieoiiinoe ii?i, i?aaee e
iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho ioiineoaeueii caieiooua
iaeanoe, ii ia yaeythony /anoyie iaeiiai oeaeiai.

Ethaoth iaoeeiiaeueioth eee yoie/aneoth eoeueoo?o iu iaycaiu ioianoe e
eoeueoo?iui oeiai. E oeiai eoeueoo?u iaaei ioiineoue ia oieueei
?aaeiiaeueii-yoie/aneea ia?aciaaiey, ii oaeaea enoi?e/aneea e
oicyenoaaiiua.

Oi?iu eoeueoo?u ioiinyony e oaeei niaieoiiinoyi i?aaee, ii?i e iiaeaeae
iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua iaeuecy n/eoaoue iieiinoueth aaoiiiiiuie
ia?aciaaieyie; iie ia yaeythony oaeaea ninoaaiuie /anoyie eaeiai-eeai
oeaeiai. Aunieay eee yeeoa?iay eoeueoo?a, ia?iaeiay eoeueoo?a e ianniaay
eoeueoo?a eiaiothony oi?iaie eoeueoo?u iioiio, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iniaue niinia au?aaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey.

Aeaeaie eoeueoo?u iu aoaeai iacuaaoue oaeea niaieoiiinoe i?aaee, ii?i e
iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua yaeythony ?aciiaeaeiinoyie aieaa iauae
eoeueoo?u. E iniiaiui aeaeai eoeueoo?u iu aoaeai ioiineoue:

a) aeiieie?othuoth (iauaiaoeeiiaeueioth) eoeueoo?o, noaeoeueoo?o e
eiio?eoeueoo?o;

a) naeueneoth e ai?iaeneoth eoeueoo?u;

a) iauaeaiioth e niaoeeaeece?iaaiioth eoeueoo?u.

Iniaiai ?acaiai?a o?aaotho aeooiaiay e iaoa?eaeueiay eoeueoo?u. Eo
iaeuecy ioianoe e io?aneyi, oi?iai, oeiai eee aeaeai eoeueoo?u,
iineieueeo yoe yaeaiey ni/aoatho a naaa a ?aciie noaiaie ana /aou?a
eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo i?eciaea. Aeooiaioth e iaoa?eaeueioth eoeueoo?o
i?aaeeueiaa n/eoaoue eiiaeie?iaaiiuie, eee eiiieaeniuie, ia?aciaaieyie,
noiyueie a noi?iia io iauae eiioeaiooaeueiie noaiu.

?aciiaeaeiinoueth aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u aunooiaao ooaeiaeanoaaiiay, a
?aciiaeaeiinoueth iaoa?eaeueiie — oece/aneay eoeueoo?a.

2.2. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo? (ia?a/eneaiea).

OEIIEIAEss EOEUeOO?, eeanneoeeaoeey ?acee/iuo aeaeia e oi?i ianoiuo e
ie?iauo ?aeeaee. O.E. no?ieony ia iniiaaiee ianeieueeeo e?eoa?eaa:

naycue n ?aeeaeae (eoeueoo?u ?aeeaeiciua e naaoneea);

?aaeiiaeueiay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eoeueoo?u (eoeueoo?u Ainoiea e Caiaaea,
n?aaeecaiiiii?neay, eaoeiiaia?eeaineay);

?aaeiiaeueii-yoie/aneay iniaaiiinoue (?onneay, o?aioeocneay);

i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e enoi?e/aneiio oeio iauanoaa (eoeueoo?a
o?aaeeoeeiiiiai, eiaeono?eaeueiiai, iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa);

oicyenoaaiiue oeeaae (eoeueoo?a ioioieeia e niae?aoaeae, iai?iaeieeia,
caieaaeaeueoeaa, neioiaiaeia, eiaeono?eaeueiay eoeueoo?a);

noa?a iauanoaa eee aeae aeayoaeueiinoe (eoeueoo?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiay,
iieeoe/aneay, yeiiiie/aneay, iaaeaaiae/aneay, yeieiae/aneay,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay e o.i.);

naycue n oa??eoi?eae (naeueneay e ai?iaeneay eoeueoo?a);

niaoeeaeecaoeey (iauaeaiiay e niaoeeaeece?iaaiiay eoeueoo?a);

yoie/aneay i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue (ia?iaeiay, iaoeeiiaeueiay, yoie/aneay
eoeueoo?a);

o?iaaiue ianoa?noaa e oei aoaeeoi?ee (aunieay, eee yeeoa?iay, ia?iaeiay,
ianniaay eoeueoo?a) e ae?.

Io?aneyie eoeueoo?u neaaeoao iacuaaoue oaeea niaieoiiinoe ii?i, i?aaee e
iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho ioiineoaeueii
caieioooth iaeanoue a ninoaaa oeaeiai. Yeiiiie/aneay, iieeoe/aneay,
i?ioanneiiaeueiay e i?i/ea aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae aeatho iniiaaiea
auaeaeeoue eo a naiinoiyoaeueiua io?anee eoeueoo?u. Oaeei ia?acii,
iieeoe/aneay, i?ioanneiiaeueiay eee iaaeaaiae/aneay eoeueoo?u — yoi
io?anee eoeueoo?u, iiaeiaii oiio eae a i?iiuoeaiiinoe nouanoaotho oaeea
io?anee, eae aaoiiiaeeano?iaiea, noaieino?iaiea, oyaeaeay e eaaeay
io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oeie/aneay i?iiuoeaiiinoue e o.ae. Oeiaie
eoeueoo?u neaaeoao eiaiiaaoue oaeea niaieoiiinoe ii?i, i?aaee e iiaeaeae
iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho ioiineoaeueii caieiooua iaeanoe,
ii ia yaeythony /anoyie iaeiiai oeaeiai. Iai?eia?, eeoaeneay eee ?onneay
eoeueoo?a — oaeea naiiauoiua e naiiaeinoaoi/iua yaeaiey, eioi?ua ia
i?eiaaeeaaeao e ?aaeueii nouanoaothuaio oeaeiio. Ii ioiioaieth e iei
?ieue oeaeiai iiaeao ea?aoue oieueei eoeueoo?a anaai /aeiaa/anoaa, ii
iia yaeyaony nei?aa iaoaoi?ie, iaaeaee ?aaeueiui yaeaieai, iineieueeo
?yaeii n eoeueoo?ie /aeiaa/anoaa iu ia iiaeai iinoaaeoue eoeueoo?o
ae?oaeo aeeauo nouanoa e n?aaieoue n iae. Ethaoth iaoeeiiaeueioth eee
yoie/aneoth eoeueoo?o iu iaycaiu ioianoe e eoeueoo?iui oeiai. Oa?iei
«oei» i?aaeiieaaaao, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u — ?onneoth,
o?aioeocneoth eee eeoaeneoth — iu iiaeai n?aaieaaoue e iaoiaeeoue a ieo
oeie/iua /a?ou. E oeiai eoeueoo?u iaaei ioiineoue ia oieueei
?aaeiiaeueii-yoie/aneea ia?aciaaiey, ii oaeaea enoi?e/aneea e
oicyenoaaiiua. A oaeii neo/aa eaoeiiaia?eeaineay eoeueoo?a, eoeueoo?a
iinoeiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa eee eoeueoo?a ioioieeia e niae?aoaeae
aeieaeiu eiaiiaaoueny eoeueoo?iuie oeiaie.

Oi?iu eoeueoo?u ioiinyony e oaeei niaieoiiinoyi i?aaee, ii?i e iiaeaeae
iiaaaeaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua iaeuecy n/eoaoue iieiinoueth aaoiiiiiuie
ia?aciaaieyie; iie ia yaeythony oaeaea ninoaaiuie /anoyie eaeiai-oi
oeaeiai. Aunieay eee yeeoa?iay eoeueoo?a, ia?iaeiay eoeueoo?a e ianniaay
eoeueoo?a eiaiothony oi?iaie eoeueoo?u iioiio, /oi iie i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie iniaue niinia au?aaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai niaea?aeaiey. Aunieay,
ia?iaeiay e ianniaay eoeueoo?a ?acee/athony iaai?ii i?eaiia e
ecia?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai i?iecaaaeaiey, aaoi?noaii,
aoaeeoi?eae, n?aaenoaaie aeiianaiey aei c?eoaeae ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo eaeae,
o?iaiai eniieieoaeueneiai ianoa?noaa. Aeaeaie eoeueoo?u iu aoaeai
iacuaaoue oaeea niaieoiiinoe i?aaee, ii?i e iiaeaeae iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua
yaeythony ?aciiaeaeiinoyie aieaa iauae eoeueoo?u. E i?eia?o,
noaeoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oaeoth ?aciiaeaeiinoue ainiiaenoaothuae
(iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie) eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay i?eiaaeeaaeeo aieueoie
nioeeaeueiie a?oiia e ioee/aaony iaeioi?ui naiaia?aceai. E i?eia?o,
iieiaeaaeiay noaeoeueoo?a nicaeaia aic?anoiie a?oiiie ethaeae io 13 aei
19 eao. Eo aua iacuaatho oeiyeaeaea?aie. Iieiaeaaeiay noaeoeueoo?a ia
nouanoaoao a io?uaa io iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie, iinoiyiii acaeiiaeaenoaoao e
iiaeieouaaaony ath. Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue i eiio?eoeueoo?a. Oaeei
eiaiai iacuaatho iniaoth noaeoeueoo?o, aioaaiienoe/anee iano?iaiioth ii
ioiioaieth e ainiiaenoaothuae eoeueoo?a. E iniiaiui aeaeai eoeueoo?u iu
aoaeai ioiineoue: a) aeiieie?othuoth (iauaiaoeeiiaeueioth) eoeueoo?o,
noaeoeueoo?o e eiio?eoeueoo?o; a) naeueneoth e ai?iaeneoth eoeueoo?u; a)
iauaeaiioth e niaoeeaeece?iaaiioth eoeueoo?u. Aeooiaioth e
iaoa?eaeueioth eoeueoo?o iaeuecy ioianoe e io?aneyi, oi?iai, oeiai eee
aeaeai eoeueoo?u, iineieueeo yoe yaeaiey ni/aoatho a naaa a ?aciie
noaiaie ana /aou?a eeanneoeeaoeeiiiuo i?eciaea. Aeooiaioth e
iaoa?eaeueioth eoeueoo?o i?aaeeueiaa n/eoaoue eiiaeie?iaaiiuie eee
eiiieaeniuie ia?aciaaieyie, noiyueie a noi?iia io iauae eiioeaiooaeueiie
noaiu. Eo iiaeii iacuaaoue neaiciuie yaeaieyie, i?iiecuaathueie e
io?anee, e oeiu, e oi?iu, e aeaeu eoeueoo?u. ?aciiaeaeiinoyie aeooiaiie
eoeueoo?u aunooiaao ooaeiaeanoaaiiay, a ?aciiaeaeiinoueth iaoa?eaeueiie
— oece/aneay eoeueoo?a.

2.3. Caaea/e, ?aoaaiua n iiiiuueth iaoiaea oeiieiaee eoeueoo?.

Nioeeieoeueoo?iue ie? aunooiaao ia?aae enneaaeiaaoaeyie ai anae naiae
iaiaeii?iaeiinoe e iiiaeanoaaiiinoe. Aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai e
ieiaeioai?iiai eco/aiey oaiiiaia eoeueoo?u i?eiaiyaony iaoiae
eeanneoeeaoeee, eee oeiieiaee. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo?u ?aoaao caaea/e
oii?yaei/aiiiai iienaiey e iauyniaiey ?acii?iaeiiai ii ninoaao
iiiaeanoaa iauaeoia eoeueoo?u. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo?u — iaoiae iao/iiai
iiciaiey, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeeo ?an/eaiaiea nioeeieoeueoo?iuo nenoai
e iauaeoia e eo a?oiie?iaea n iiiiuueth iaiauaiiie eaeaaeece?iaaiiie
iiaeaee eee oeia; ?acoeueoao oeiieiae/aneiai iienaiey e niiinoaaeaiey.
I?e yoii a iao/iii niiauanoaa eae aieaa eee iaiaa ?aaiii?aaiua
nouanoaotho ?acee/iua iniiaaiey aeey oeiieiaee eoeueoo?u. Iniiaaieyie
aunooiatho ii?aaeaeaiiua niaieoiiinoe iieacaoaeae, aeeth/athuea a naay
cia/eiua oa?aeoa?enoeee enneaaeoaiuo eoeueoo? a niioaaonoaee n
iinoaaeaiiuie caaea/aie. I?a?iaaoeaie enneaaeiaaoaey yaeyaony auai?
iniiaaiey aeey oeiieiaee, i?e/ai oaeeo iniiaaiee, eae aoaeao iieacaii
aeaeaa, iiaeao auoue ianeieueei. Nia?aiaiiia eoeueoo?ieiae/aneia ciaiea
i?aaenoaaeaii ?acee/iuie oeiieiaeyie, eeanneoeeaoeeyie eoeueoo?. Yoi ia
icia/aao, /oi iaeie ec ieo aieaa i?aaeeueiu, /ai ae?oaea. Niune
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi naie enneaaeiaaoaeueneea caaea/e aeeeootho
iaiaoiaeeiue iaai? iieacaoaeae, eioi?ua e aunooiatho iniiaaieai aeey oie
eee eiie oeiieiaee eoeueoo?u. “A naaiaeiyoiae iiciaaaoaeueiie ia?aaeeaia
enneaaeiaaoaeueneea iaia?aiey ?anniao?eaathony eae cia/eiue oaeoi?,
aeeythuee ia aanue oiae iao/iie ?aaiou, aeeth/ay iieo/aaiua aeaiiua e eo
eioa?i?aoaoeeth. Iiyoiio iaaiciiaeia “iauaeoeaiay” eeanneoeeaoeey
eoeueoo? “naieo ii naaa”, eaeiauie iie yaeythony “ia naiii aeaea””1.

3. Ia?eiaeecaoeey enoi?ee eoeueoo?u.

Ia?eiaeecaoeey eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna – yoi niinia aai
no?oeoo?e?iaaiey. Oieueei a caaeneiinoe io ii?aaeaeaiey
nenoaiiia?acothuaai yeaiaioa eoeueoo?u e iiaeii iauynieoue
“ioeuenaoeeth” eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai aeaeaeaiey, auaeaeeoue e
iainiiaaoue ia?eiaeu enoi?ee eoeueoo?u ii?aaeaeaiiie a?aiaiiie
i?ioyaeaiiinoe. Iineieueeo ia ?ieue oaeiauo nenoaiiia?acothueo
yeaiaioia, e?eoa?eaa ia?eiaeecaoeee auaeaeiooi e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie
aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/iia eiee/anoai i?eaioe?ia, oi e aa?eaioia
ia?eiaeecaoeee eae enoi?ee eoeueoo?u a oeaeii, oae e enoi?ee ?acee/iuo
ninoaaeythueo enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna oaeaea eiaaony aaeeeia iiiaeanoai.
A?aiy /aeiaaea, eoeueoo?u, enoi?e/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey ia?eiaeece?othony
ii-?aciiio. Aeey eaaeaeiai aa?eaioa ia?eiaeecaoeee, oaeaea eae e aeey
oeiieiaee eoeueoo?u, nouanoaaiiui e ii?aaeaeythuei yaeyaony auai?
iniiaaiey, eioi?ia iaoiaeeony, eae i?aaeei, eeai a iaoa?eaeueiie, eeai a
aeooiaiie noa?a, eeai i?eiueaao e iaeiie ec ieo.

Niune ethaie ia?eiaeecaoeee – aoaeue oi aeiaaeueiay ia?eiaeecaoeey
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna a oeaeii, ia?eiaeecaoeey i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
eaeie-eeai eieaeueiie eoeueoo?u eee aeaaea au/eaiaiea yoaiia oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe o/aiiai, ooaeiaeieea, yoaiia ?acaeoey iao/iie oai?ee eee
i?ioeannia aeai?iia?aciaaiey a eneonnoaa e o.ae. – caeeth/aaony a iienea
iaiaoiaeeiiai iiaenii?uey a oii?yaei/aiee oaeoia, eo iniuneaiee,
eeanneoeeaoeee. Ia?eiaeecaoeey – “yoi neiaii iaianaiiue ia eaeueeo
/a?oaae enoi?ee”. Ia?eiaeecaoeey aaiaeeony n oeaeueth aieaa aeoaieiai
eco/aiey aeeiaieee ?acaeoey, onoaiaaeeaaao aaoe (n?acu enoi?ee),
oi?iaeecoao i?ioeann, naiaeeo e noaia, ioaeaeaynue io eiie?aoiuo
iiae?iaiinoae. Aaconeiaia i?eaeeceoaeueiinoue oaeeo /eaiaiee, oae eae
i?ioeann iiiaininoaaai e aai enoi?e/aneea ?yaeu nouanoaotho ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee. “*a?oaae” oneiaai, e aai iaeuecy i?aa?auaoue a
iacuaeaioth noaio. Oai ia iaiaa, a?aiaiiia ?an/eaiaiea enoi?ee ia
iaiieiaiiua niaea?aeaoaeueiui niuneii ia?eiaeu, yoaiu, yiioe e o.i.
niiniaii aianoe oii?yaei/aiiinoue a oaiii?aeueioth iai?a?uaiinoue,
aaneiia/iinoue i?ioeanna, aaea eaaeaeue io?acie a?aiaie iaoneiaeai
i?aaeuaeouei e i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iineaaeothuee.

A iao/ii iainiiaaiiie noaia iaiaoiaeeia io/aoeeai au?aaeaiiay “ooieoeey
oeaee”, oi anoue aaia?aeecothuay oaiaeaioeey, oa?aeoa?iay e aeey
aeaiiiai ia?eiaea, e aeey eco/aaiiai i?ioeanna a oeaeii. Oi, /oi
ia?eiaeecaoeey aeieaeia enoiaeeoue ec iauaeoeaii-caeiiiia?iiai
aeaeaeaiey, ia eneeth/aao aeiiouaiey o?iiieiae/aneie i?eaeeceoaeueiinoe
iacaaiee oiai eee eiiai ia?eiaea (“eoeueoo?iia aeanyoeeaoea”, “/aoaa?oue
aaea”, “aae” ia anaaaea niaiaaeatho n o?iiieiae/aneeie, iaicia/aiey
“aeaaaeoeaoua aiaeu”, “ia?aay o?aoue aaea” e o.i., oaeei ia?acii,
oneiaiu). I?e yoii nouanoaaiiua i?ioeannu caieiatho ia?iiiue eioa?aae
a?aiaiiuo ianooaaia.

Ana nouanoaothuea noaiu ia?eiaeecaoeee eae iauaai, oae e /anoiiai
ii?yaeea oycaeiu n oao eee eiuo iiceoeee, iineieueeo aaniethoece?otho
eaeie-eeai iaeei, eeai ianeieueei “enoi/ieeia yia?aee”, “iaoaieciia”,
inouanoaeythueo aeaeaeaiea.

A ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea iiieiaiea iiae eoeueoo?ie noa?u /aeiaa/aneiai
auoey a oeaeii icia/aao, /oi aeaoa?ieiaoeey ?aaeueiinoueth eoeueoo?u
ieacuaaaony aieaa cia/eoaeueiie, /ai caaeneiinoue niciaiey e
iiaaaeai/aneie iioeaaoeee ethaeae io nouanoaothueo iauanoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee e naycaiiuo n ieie iaoa?eaeueiuo eioa?ania.

E?eoa?ee ia?eiaeecaoeee, iniiaaiiue ia nii?yaeaiee anao noa?
nioeeieoeueoo?iie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea (a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
aeooiaii-?aeeaeiciie, i?aanoaaiiie, iao/ii-eioaeeaeooaeueiie,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie, e eeoue iioii yeiiiie/aneie, iieeoe/aneie,
oaoieei-i?iiuoeaiiie e ae?.) a neeo naiaai oieaa?naeecia iiaeao
i?eiaiyoueny e ?anniio?aieth eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna ai anae iieiioa,
o/eouaay i?e yoii aai iiiaiaa?eaioiue, ?aciieeeee, ia?aaiiia?iue
oa?aeoa? ii ioiioaieth e ?acee/iui eiiiiiaioai eoeueoo?u, e ?acee/iui
eieaeueiui eoeueoo?ai; iicaieeo aiaeece?iaaoue enoi?eth eoeueoo?u n
nianoaaiii eoeueoo?iie oi/ee c?aiey, aeaeaaoueny a iai?aaeaiee iienea
oieaa?naeueiie eoeueoo?iaaae/aneie iaoiaeieiaee. ?yae noa?
nioeeieoeueoo?iiai auoey /aeiaaea auaeaeaiu ia neo/aeii, “iiae noaeueaie
/aeiaaea iaeuecy iiieiaoue eeoue noaeueau nioeeaeueiinoe… iaiuneeii
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa yoi aoaeouaa aac i?enoaeueiiai aniao?eaaiey a
noaeueao /aeiaaea eae iineoaey aeooa, o.a. ee/iinoe”. Niiniaiue e
?aoeaenee /aeiaae i?eiaaeeaaeeo eae ie?o i?e?iaeiiio, oae e
naa?oi?e?iaeiiio. I iineaaeiai I. Iaia?aeaoaeee aiai?ee eae i
“iaaeaeeiie oaeiie ?iaeeia”, “…ana iu – iineieueeo iu nouanoaa
niciaoaeueiua – eiaai aoi?oth ?iaeeio, e eae aeooiaiua nouanoaa, eae
ethaee yaeyainy eiaiii aa a?aaeaeaiaie”. Iiieiay eoeueoo?o eae
iauaeoeaaoeeth aunoeo oi?i niciaiey, iu iiae/a?eeaaai aeaieo?ae/aneoth
?ieue aeooa, eioaeeaeoa, o?ainoeaiaeaioe?iaaiey a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa.

Iaoee i /aeiaaea, a oaeiauie yaeythony ana aoiaieoa?iua iaoee, ia iiaoo
ia eiaoue iaoiaeieiae/aneie oi/eie ion/aoa naiiai /aeiaaea eae oai?oea
eoeueoo?u. Iineieueeo noauaeoii e iauaeoii enoi?ee eoeueoo?u aunooiaao
i?aaeaea anaai /aeiaae, oi o?aaoaony ?anniio?aiea enoi?ee eoeueoo?u n
oi/ee c?aiey /aeiaaeiaaae/aneie i?iaeaiaoeee. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a iniiaa
“nioeeieoeueoo?iiai e?eoa?ey” iaiaoiaeeii aeieaeiu i?enoonoaiaaoue
ineoieiae/aneea /a?ou yiioe, enoiaeiua oeiu iuoeaiey, ainiiaenoaothuea a
eiie?aoiii iauanoaa (eieeaeoeaiay iaioaeueiinoue), aeaaainoaothuee oei
/aeiaaea a ?aciia enoi?e/aneia a?aiy, noaiaiue “aeooiaiie yiaineiaoeee”
/aeiaaea, oi anoue eaaeaeay enoi?e/aneay, eoeueoo?iay yiioa aeieaeia
auoue aio?iiieiae/anee o?aeooaia. Eae ienae AE. Ia?eoai, “ia/aee e
iaaeaaeaeu iaoaai a?aiaie, aaconeiaii, eiatho naiei ia/aeii
iaoa?eaeueiua i?e/eiu, yeiiiie/aneee e oaoie/aneee oaeoi?u, eioi?ua
ea?atho nouanoaaiioth ?ieue ia anai i?ioyaeaiee /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. Ii
a ?aaiie noaiaie iie i?ienoiaeyo ec ie?a eaeae, ec oie ae?aiu, a
eioi?oth aiaea/ai aeoo, ec iaaeaeeiuo nee, eioi?ua aicieeatho e
?acaeaathony a iaoeo oiao e na?aeoeao. Enoi?ey ia yaeyaony iaoaie/aneei
?acaeoeai niauoee, a oeaio?a eioi?uo /aeiaae anaai eeoue i?enoonoaoao
eae iaeoi iinoi?iiiee. *aeiaa/aneay enoi?ey a aa iiaeeeiiie nouiinoe
eiaiii /aeiaa/aneay, iia – enoi?ey iaoaai nianoaaiiiai auoey, enoi?ey
yoie i?ac?aiiie ieioe, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony a ?aaneie caaeneiinoe,
iaeaaaaiie i?e?iaeie e nianoaaiiuie neaainoyie, ii eioi?ay, oai ia
iaiaa, yaeyaony ianoii iaeoaiey aeooa e i?inaauaaony ei, a, e?iia oiai,
iaaeaeaia iianiie i?eaeeaaeae naiaiaeu. Iao ie/aai aieaa aaaeiiai, /ai
niauoey, eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo a oie iaaeaeeiie anaeaiiie, eioi?ie
yaeyaony /aeiaa/aneee oi”.

Ecia?eoue e ia?eiaeece?iaaoue aeeciue /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa? Aiciiaeia ee
iinoaiiaea iiaeiaiiai aii?ina, aiciiaeii ee iaia?oaeaiea ioaaoa ia iaai?
A eeoea eoeueoo?iie ?aaeueiinoe iu eiaai aeaei n /?acau/aeii aunieei
o?iaiai auoey, iaeiaeaiea ia i?ioeann ?acaeoey enoi?ee eoeueoo?u
iauynieoaeueiuo noai, no?iyueony “io ecaanoiiai”, o?aaoao ia iaiaa
/?acau/aeiie inoi?iaeiinoe.

?acee/iua eneonnoaiaaae/aneea oai?ee i?aaeeaaatho naie e?eoa?ee aeey
iauyniaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai aeaeaeaiey – oei
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai niciaiey, iiyoeea, noeeue, eioiiaoeeiiiia iuoeaiea,
eiaeea ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia e o.ae. Iai?eia?, ia?eiaeu ?acaeoey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo noeeae e aeai?ia; oeiieiaey eoeueoo?iuo yiio e
ia?eiaeecaoeey eeoa?aoo?iiai i?ioeanna Ae.N. Eeoa/aaa, I.I. Ae?ieaeiai,
TH. No?iaoeaaa; eioiiaoeeiiiay oai?ey A. Anaoueaaa,
ineoieiai-yia?aaoe/aneay eiioeaioeey A.E. ssai?neiai, eioa?i?aoaoeey
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai iocueaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai iuoeaiey a
no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiaoe/aneii oeeeeiia?eiaee/aneii eeth/a, auaeaeaeaiea
o?aoaaeiauo oac e eaeae eo nenoaiaoe/aneiai iieeooieoeeiiaeueiiai
iaeiaeaiey a enneaaeiaaiee N.I. Iao?eeiaa; “iiaua iocuee” O.A.
*a?aaeie/aiei e o.ae.

Aiaeec eneonnoaiaaae/aneeo oai?ee (iai?eia?, a iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee
caeiiiia?iinoae eeoa?aoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai, iocueaeueii-enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeannia) iiaeao auoue i?aaei?eiyo ia oieueei n iiceoeee
iee?i-eiiia?aoeaenoeee n oeaeueth auyniaiey eo acaeiiaeiiieieoaeueiinoe
e niioiioaiey n oai?eyie aieaa iauaai ii?yaeea, ii e n ia?niaeoeaie
iaia?oaeeoue a iaeanoe eneonnoaa iaoiaeieiae/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo e
iainiiaaieth eoeueoo?u eae iniaie, ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiie ?aaeueiinoe,
ia oieueei ei??aeoe?othuae enoi?e/aneoth aeeiaieeo, ii iaeaaeathuae
naiae nianoaaiiie i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeeae e, e?iia oiai,
aeaoa?ieie?othueie neeaie e aiciiaeiinoyie (oaeea eaoaai?ee eae oei
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai niciaiey, iiyoeea, noeeue iiaoo neoaeeoue iiaeaioiaeie
e ?aoaieth oaeiai ?iaea caaea/e). Ia iao acaeyae, yoi ii?aaaeaiii,
iineieueeo eneonnoai yaeyaony ia?aciui naiiniciaieai eoeueoo?u,
au?aaeaao i?ioaeathuea a iae i?ioeannu n iniaaiiie oi/iinoueth
i?iieeiiaaiey a naioth nooue yoeo i?ioeannia. Ii iiaieth I.N. Eaaaia,
eneonnoai, “aoaeo/e eiooeoeaiui, a ia aeeneo?neaiui, iiciaieai,
iia?aaeaao … aieaa iaaeeeoaeueiia iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneia iuoeaiea,
ioaeaeathuaany a iaeeueiii iaoa?eaea aeey aiaeeca e iaiauaiee”. Oaeei
ia?acii, iniuneaiea noaaeee ?acaeoey eneonnoaa niiniaii noaoue iaeaieaa
io/aoeeaie iniiaie aeey ia?eiaeecaoeee eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna a oeaeii. Eneonnoai yaeyaony iieacaoaeai “aaeaa iaiaoeaoeony,
aua iainiciaaaaiuo oaiaeaioeee a eoeueoo?a, iineieueeo iii naycaii ia
noieueei n aa aiaoieie oi?iaie, neieueei n iaioaeueiui o?iaiai”, “e?ecen
eneonnoaa – neiioii eoeueoo?u…”.

A enoi?ee eoeueoo?u iaiaei i?eia?ia “ia?aoeeiiaeueiinoe e niiioaiiinoe”,
ianiioaaonoaee e i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo ?acaa?ouaaieai ai a?aiaie
niaoeeoe/aneie ?aaeueiinoe eoeueoo?u e iauaeoeaii-aiaoieie, eacaeinue
au, ii?aaeaeythueie aaoaie iauaenoi?e/aneie aeecie aieioue aei i?eia?ia
i?ioeaiiai?aaeaiiinoe iauaenoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie e eiiaiaioiiai a?aiaie
eoeueoo?. ?acoeueoaoii e eeethno?aoeeae aeaenoaey aiaeeoe/anee
iai/aaeaeiuo nee, i?iyaeaiey aanniciaoaeueiuo oai?/aneeo eiioeuenia
yaeyaony oaiiiai “inaaiai a?aiaie”. E.A. Aaneeaiei iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi
oaeia ie?iaie ine inoaaony ia?acaaaeaiiie.

Naiinoiyoaeueiinoue eoeueoo?iie enoi?ee, aa iacaaeneiinoue io
“i?aaie/aneeo” caeiiiia?iinoae e i?eiaiyaiua e iae yieoaou oeia
“aeeooociinoue”, “?aciuoinoue” iiaoo auoue aini?eiyou eae iniiaaiea aeey
ioeaca io iao/iie no?iainoe enneaaeiaaiey. A nayce n yoei neaaeoao
caiaoeoue, /oi a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey aic?in eioa?an e oae
iacuaaaiiio aiaiao/iiio ciaieth. “Ioi?aaiie oi/eie aiaiao/iiai ciaiey
yaeyaony oaaaeaeaiea a oii, /oi a ie?a anoue Oaeia (! – A.A.), eioi?oth
ia a ninoiyiee ?ane?uoue ie /aeiaa/aneia iiciaiea, ie /aeiaa/aneay
ioae?inoue. “…A ioiioaiee aeeauo iauaeoia (/aeiaaea, aeinoa?u, iauanoaa
e ae?.) eiaeea ii iiiaei i?e/eiai ia ?aaioaao”.

Ia iie acaeyae, ion/ao eoeueoo?iie oaiii?aeueiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao iaeio
ec ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiie oeeinioneie iaoee, iineieueeo neeoeii
/anoi i?eoiaeeony noaeeeaaoueny n “i?iecaieii” eoeueoo?iie enoi?ee, n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie o?oaeiinoyie i?e iiiuoea iauyniaiey niauoee eoeueoo?iie
enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa n iiceoeee, a iniiaa eioi?uo eaaeeo aa?a a
?aoeeiiaeueiinoue ie?icaeaiey. Ethaie iiuo i?eiauaiey e i?iaeaiai
no?iaiey iaiiaoi?eiie ?aaeueiinoe eoeueoo?u naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia
oaeeaeoaeueiie aa iiaeaeaeiinoe ii ioiioaieth e ?aaeeyi
anoanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai auoey, aa (eoeueoo?u) eiiaiaioiie
i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Enoiaey ec auoaneacaiiiai, iaeiaeaiea noai ia?eiaeecaoeee, i?eiyouo a
eneonnoaiciaiee (iniaaiii – a iocueiciaiee) ia enoi?eth eoeueoo?u
niiniaii noaoue eneiiie, i?e yoii iao/ii aa?eoeoee?oaiie, iniiaie
/eaiaiey eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna.

2.1. Ia?eiaeecaoeey ?onneie eoeueoo?u.

Ia?aay e?oiiaeoay oaca ioaaouaaao ii/oe o?e ouny/e eao ycu/aneiai
aeiainoaea?noaaiiiai nouanoaiaaiey, a aoi?ay — ouny/o eao o?enoeaineiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai.

Aoi?ay oaca — o?enoeaineay, caiyaoay ouny/o eao, — iiaeii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia o?e ia?eiaea.

Ia?aue ia?eiae ?acaeoey ?onneie eoeueoo?u naycai n aeeianoeae
?th?eeiae/ae (IX—XVI aa.). Ii ?acaeaaaony ia aeaa aaaeiaeoeo yoaia —
eeaaneee e iineianeee. Yoio ia?eiae iacaai aeiiao?ianeei. Iniiaiay
eoeueoo?iay aeiieiaioa — i?eaioaoeey ?onneiai eneonnoaa ia Ainoie, a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia Aecaioeth. Aeaaiie noa?ie, aaea oi?ie?iaaeanue
oai?/aneay iuneue e aaea n iaeaieueoae neeie i?iyaee naay iaoeeiiaeueiue
aaiee, yaeyeinue ?aeeaeiciia eneonnoai.

Aoi?ie ia?eiae naycai n aeeianoeae ?iiaiiauo (1613—1917). Aeaoiy
iniiaiuie eoeueoo?iuie oeaio?aie, ii?aaeaeyaoeie iauoth iai?aaeaiiinoue
e noeeaaia naiaia?acea ?onneie eoeueoo?u a yoio ia?eiae aunooiaee Iineaa
e Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a. Ia?aoth ne?eieo a yoii aeoyoa ea?ae Iaoa?ao?a.
Ia?eiae iacaai iao?ianeei, iineieueeo eiaiii ?aoi?iu Iao?a I iiaa?ioee
eoeueoo?o iaoae no?aiu ia Caiaae. Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii eoeueoo?iuo
caeinoaiaaiee e iiae?aaeaiee a yoi a?aiy noaiiaeony Caiaaeiay Aa?iia.
Aeaaiie noa?ie, aaea oi?ie?iaaeanue oai?/aneay iuneue e aaea n
iaeaieueoae neeie i?iyaee naay iaoeeiiaeueiue aaiee, yaeyeinue naaoneia
eneonnoai.

O?aoee ia?eiae ia/eiaaony iinea Aaeeeie Ieoya?ueneie ?aaiethoeee oea?eci
aue naa?aioo. Aeaaiui e aaeeinoaaiiui eoeueoo?iui oeaio?ii niaaoneiai
eneonnoaa noaiiaeony Iineaa. Eoeueoo?iui i?eaioe?ii ia yaeyaony ie
Caiaae, ie Ainoie. Iniiaiay i?eaioaoeey — ia iienee nianoaaiiuo
?aca?aia, nicaeaiea naiiauoiie, iniiaaiiie ia ia?enenoneie eaeaieiaee,
nioeeaeenoe/aneie eoeueoo?u. Iineaaeithth iaeuecy iacaaoue a no?iaii
niunea ie ?aeeaeiciie, ie naaoneie, iineieueeo iia oaeeaeoaeueiui
ia?acii niaaeeiyao oi e ae?oaia, ia iioiaea ie ia oo, ie ia ae?oaoth.

Ii?aaeaeythuei iiiaioii eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey niaaoneiai iauanoaa (a
i?aaeaeao aai ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?aieoe) iaaei n/eoaoue ?acaeaeaiea
iauaai eoeueoo?iiai i?ino?ainoaa ia eoeueoo?o ioeoeeaeueioth e eoeueoo?o
iaioeoeeaeueioth, cia/eoaeueiay (anee ia ainiiaenoaothuay) /anoue
eioi?ie i?aaenoaaeaia aeenneaeaionoaii e iiieiioi?ieciii. Ca i?aaeaeaie
ainoaea?noaa, ?aca?inaiiay ii no?aiai Aa?iiu e Aia?eee, oi?ie?iaaeanue
iiuiay eoeueoo?a ?onneiai ca?oaaaeuey, eioi?ay, eae e iaioeoeeaeueiia
eneonnoai aioo?e NNN?, iaoiaeeeanue a aioaaiiecia n ioeoeeaeueiie
eoeueoo?ie.

Caeeth/aiea

Eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaao ia?aae /aeiaaeii eae niuneiaie ie?, eioi?ue
aaeioiiaeyao ethaeae e niea/eaaao eo a iaeioi?ia niiauanoai (iaoeeth,
?aeeaeicioth eee i?ioanneiiaeueioth a?oiio e o. ae.). Yoio niuneiaie ie?
ia?aaeaaony ec iieieaiey a iieieaiea e ii?aaeaeyao niinia auoey e
ie?iiuouaiey ethaeae.

A iniiaa eaaeaeiai oaeiai niuneiaiai ie?a eaaeeo aeiieie?othuee niune,
niuneiaay aeiieiaioa eoeueoo?u. Niuneiaay aeiieiaioa eoeueoo?u — yoi oio
aeaaiue niune, oi iauaa ioiioaiea /aeiaaea e ie?o, eioi?ia ii?aaeaeyao
oa?aeoa? anao inoaeueiuo niuneia e ioiioaiee. I?e yoii eoeueoo?a e aa
niuneiaay aeiieiaioa iiaoo ?aaeeciauaaoueny ii-?aciiio, ii iaee/ea
niuneiaiai aaeeinoaa i?eaeaao oeaeinoiinoue anaio, /oi aeaeatho e /oi
ia?aaeeaatho ethaee. Iauaaeeiyy e aaeioiiaeyy ethaeae, eoeueoo?a aeaao
ei ia oieueei iauee niinia iinoeaeaiey ie?a, ii e niinia acaeiiiai
iiieiaiey e niia?aaeeaaiey, ycue aeey au?aaeaiey oii/aeoeo aeaeaeaiee
aeooe. Iaee/ea niuneiaie aeiieiaiou eoeueoo?u nicaeaao naio
aiciiaeiinoue eoeueoo?ieiaee eae iaoee: iaeuecy n?aco ioaaoeoue
eoeueoo?o ai anao aa aniaeoao, ii iiaeii auaeaeeoue, iiiyoue e
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue aeiieie?othuee niune. A aeaeueoa iaaei oaea eco/aoue
?acee/iua niiniau aai ?aaeecaoeee, ia?auaoueny e aeaoaeyi e eiie?aoiui
oi?iai aai aiieiuaiey.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Aaaaeana?ueyi I.A. Eoeueoo?ieiaey: O/aaiee aeey nooae. oaoi. aocia. –
I.:Auno. oeiea, 1999;

2. Aa?aeyaa I. A. Oeeinioey naiaiaeu. Niune oai?/anoaa. — I., 1989;

3. Ae?ieaeiai I.I. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo?iuo yiio ?onneie enoi?ee // ?onneay
eeoa?aoo?a. 1991;

4. Eaaai I.N. Oeeinioey eoeueoo?u. NIa., 1996;

5. E?aa/aiei A.E. Eoeueoo?ieiaey: O/. iiniaea aeey aocia. –
I.:Aeaaeaie/aneee i?iaeo, 2001;

6. Iaaeoaa A. I. Eoeueoo?a eae oeeinioneay i?iaeaia // Aii?. oeeinioee.—
1982.

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