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Структура и состав современного культурологического знания

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NO?OEOO?A E NINOAA NIA?AIAIIIAI EOEUeOO?IEIAE*ANEIAI CIAIEss

No?oeoo?a e ninoaa nia?aiaiiiai eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai ciaiey. I?e
eco/aiee yoie oaiu iaiaoiaeeii oynieoue, ii/aio aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a eoeueoo?ieiaee eae naiinoiyoaeueiie iaoee, eaeia aa i?aaeiao e
no?oeoo?a, eae eoeueoo?ieiaee naycaia n ae?oaeie iaoeaie, eco/athueie
eoeueoo?o, i?aaeaea anaai n oeeinioeae eoeueoo?u, nioeeieiaeae eoeueoo?u
e enoi?eae eoeueoo?u. Iniaia aieiaiea a yoie oaia oaeaeyaony aiaeeco
eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee. Iia nua?aea aaaeioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee
eoeueoo?ieiaee eae naiinoiyoaeueiie iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu. Eiaiii a
?aieao eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee auee ?ac?aaioaiu iniiaiua iiaeoiaeu e
enneaaeiaaieth eoeueoo?u, i?eioeeiu e iaoiaeu aa eco/aiey. Ioaeii
oynieoue iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee, naiaia?acea
eaaeaeiai ec ieo, eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae.

· EOEUeOO?IEIAEss EAE IAEANOUe CIAIEE, AA I?AAeIAO E NO?OEOO?A

· NAssCUe EOEUeOO?IEIAEE N Ae?OAEIE IAOEAIE.

· EOEUeOO?IAss AIO?IIIEIAEss: YOAIU AA ?ACAEOEss, INIIAIUA OEIEU E
IAI?AAEAIEss

· IAOIAeU EOEUeOO?IEIAE*ANEEO ENNEAAeIAAIEE

1. EOEUeOO?IEIAEss EAE IAEANOUe CIAIEE, AA I?AAeIAO E NO?OEOO?A

Aei iaaeaaiaai a?aiaie eoeueoo?a eco/aeanue, a oii /enea e a aunoae
oeiea, a ?aieao aeaaii neiaeeaoeony iao/iuo aeenoeeieei: oeeinioee,
enoi?ee, eeiaaenoeee, yoiia?aoee, eneonnoaiciaiey, a?oaieiaee.
O?aaeeoeeiiiua iaoee eco/aee ioaeaeueiua aeaeu e yeaiaiou eoeueoo?u:
ycue, i?aai, ii?aeue, eneonnoai. Iaeiaei, iinoaiaiii auynieeinue, /oi
oaeie iiaeoiae ocie e ia aeaao oeaeinoiiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i eoeueoo?a
eae yaeaiee neiaeiii, iiiaia?aiiii, i?aaenoaaeaiiii ai anao noa?ao
iauanoaaiiie aeecie. A na?aaeeia XX aaea ia/aeinue oi?ie?iaaiea
eoeueoo?ieiaee eae iauae, eioaa?aeueiie iaoee i eoeueoo?a, eae
naiinoiyoaeueiie iao/iie aeenoeeieeiu. Eoeueoo?ieiaey iinoaiaiii
ia?aoaao naie noaoon, i?aaeiao, niioaaonoaothuea aio iaoiaeu
enneaaeiaaiey. Nai oa?iei “eoeueoo?ieiaey” noae oiio?aaeyoueny aua n
ia/aea XIX noieaoey. A ia/aea XX aaea aia?eeaineee o/aiue E. Oaeo
(1900-1975) aaae oa?iei “eoeueoo?ieiaey” a oe?ieee iao/iue iai?io e
iainiiaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue iauae oai?ee eoeueoo?u.

Aieueoie aeeaae a ?ac?aaioeo enoi?e/aneeo e oai?aoe/aneeo i?iaeai
eoeueoo?u aianee e iiiaea ae?oaea caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneea o/aiua. N?aaee ieo
– aiaeeeneee yoiia?ao e enoi?ee eoeueoo?u Y. Oaeei?, e?oiiue aiaeeeneee
?aeeaeiaaae e yoiieia Ae. O?yca?, iuneeoaeue – aoiaieno, enneaaeiaaoaeue
eoeueoo?u A. Oaaeoea?, ieaea?eaiaeneee enoi?ee eoeueoo?u E. Oaeceiaa,
e?oiiua aia?eeaineea aio?iiieiae O. Aian, A. E?aaa?, E. Eeaeoii,
eniaineee oeeinio O. I?oaaa – e – Aannao.

A iaoae no?aia eioa?an e iauae oai?ee eoeueoo?u noi?ie?iaaeny a 50 – a
aiaeu XX aaea. A 60 – a aiaeu iiyaeeenue niaoeeaeueiua ?aaiou, a 70 – 80
– a aiaeu noaee ia?eiaeii eioaineaiiai e aeeiaie/iiai ?acaeoey iauae
oai?ee eoeueoo?u. E?oiiaeoea i?aaenoaaeoaee ioa/anoaaiiie
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneie oeieu – N.N. Aaa?eioeaa, N.I. A?oaiianeee, I.I.
Aaooei, A.A. Aiaiethaiaa, I.I. Aaeaeaiei, I.N. Ao?aae/, I.N. Eaaai, I.E.
Eii?aae, Ae.N. Eeoa/aa, A.O. Einaa, TH.I. Eioiai, Y.N. Ia?ea?yi, A.I.
Iaaeoaa e ae?.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy eoeueoo?ieiaey aua iieiinoueth ia ioaeaeeeanue io
oeeinioee e eiie?aoiuo iaoe. Iia oi?ie?oaony ia aaca yoeo iaoe e iiiaia
aa?ao o ieo: eaoaai?eaeueiue aiia?ao, i?eioeeiu, iaoiaeieiaeth e
iaoiaeeeo enneaaeiaaiey.

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia eoeueoo?ieiaey i?aaenoaao eae iaoea, eco/athuay
eoeueoo?o eae neiaeioth nenoaio, iaoiaeyuothny a iinoiyiiii ?acaeoee e
ai acaeiinaycyo n ae?oaeie nenoaiaie e iauanoaii a oeaeii.

Eoeueoo?ieiaey aeeth/aao aeaa iniiaiuo ?acaeaea:

– oai?aoe/aneoth eoeueoo?ieiaeth;

– yiie?e/aneoth e i?eeeaaeioth eoeueoo?ieiaeth.

E oai?aoe/aneiio o?iaith ioiinyony ana aeaeu iiciaiey eoeueoo?u, eioi?ua
iaania/eaatho ?ac?aaioeo e iino?iaiea iao/iie oai?ee eoeueoo?u, o.a.
eiae/anee i?aaieciaaiiie nenoaiu ciaiee i eoeueoo?a, aa nouiinoe,
caeiiiia?iinoyo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey. A nenoaia oai?aoe/aneiai
iiciaiey eoeueoo?u ?acee/atho iauoth e /anoiua oai?ee eoeueoo?u. E
iniiaiui i?iaeaiai iauae oai?ee eoeueoo?u ioiinyony i?iaeaiu aa
nouiinoe, no?oeoo?u, ooieoeee, aaiacena, enoi?e/aneie aeeiaieee,
oeiieiaecaoeee. *anoiua oai?ee eoeueoo?u eco/atho ioaeaeueiua noa?u,
aeaeu e noi?iiu eoeueoo?u. A eo ?aieao enneaaeothony yeiiiie/aneay,
iieeoe/aneay, i?aaiaay, i?aanoaaiiay, ynoaoe/aneay, ?aeeaeiciay
eoeueoo?a, eoeueoo?a auoa, noa?u ianeoaeeaaiey, oi?aaeaiey, eoeueoo?a
ee/iinoe, eoeueoo?a iauaiey, oi?aaeaiea eoeueoo?ie.

E yiie?e/aneiio o?iaith ioiinyony oa oi?iu iao/iiai iiciaiey eoeueoo?u,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iaania/eaaaony iaeiieaiea, oeenaoeey, ia?aaioea e
nenoaiaoecaoeey iaoa?eaea i eiie?aoiuo eoeueoo?ao e eo eiiiiiaioao.
Yiie?e/aneee o?iaaiue aeaao iaeaieaa eiie?aoiia, aeaoaeueiia e
iiiaiia?aciia ciaiea i eoeueoo?a.

I?eeeaaeiay eoeueoo?ieiaey eniieuecoao ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ciaiey i
eoeueoo?a a oeaeyo ?aoaiey i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/, a oaeaea aeey
i?iaiice?iaaiey, i?iaeoe?iaaiey e ?aaoee?iaaiey eoeueoo?iuo i?ioeannia.

Oai?aoe/aneee e yiie?e/aneee o?iaie enneaaeiaaiey eoeueoo?u i?aaie/anee
acaeiinaycaiu e i?aaeiieaaatho ae?oa ae?oaa. Yiie?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey
aeatho iaoa?eae aeey oai?aoe/aneeo iaiauaiee e yaeythony e?eoa?eai
i?iaa?ee enoeiiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe oai?aoe/aneie eiioeaioeee. Oai?ey
eiae/anee iauaaeeiyao yiie?e/aneea aeaiiua e aeaao ei niuneiaia
iauyniaiea, eioa?i?aoaoeeth.

E?iia oiai, oai?ey iai?aaeyao yiie?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. Iniciaao eee
ia iniciaao yoi enneaaeiaaoaeue, ii eiaiii oai?ey,oai?aoe/aneee caiunae,
eaeay aeatho i?eaioe?u ii iiaiaeo oiai, /oi eco/aoue, eae eco/aoue e
aeey /aai eco/aoue.

2. NAssCUe EOEUeOO?IEIAEE N Ae?OAEIE IAOEAIE

?anniio?ei iiae?iaiaa oa iaoee, ia aaca eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony
eoeueoo?ieiaey e n eioi?uie iia oanii naycaia. Aaaeiia ianoi a nenoaia
iaoe i eoeueoo?a caieiaao oeeinioey eoeueoo?u. Aeieaia a?aiy
iauaoai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?u ?ac?aaaouaaeenue a ?aieao oeeinioee
eoeueoo?u. Nae/an, eae oaea auei ioia/aii, eoeueoo?ieiaey ia?aoaao
naiinoiyoaeueiue noaoon, ii ii – i?aaeiaio nio?aiyao oaniua
oai?aoe/aneea ioiioaiey n oeeinioeae eoeueoo?u. Oeeinioey eoeueoo?u
aunooiaao eae i?aaie/aneay ninoaaiay /anoue oeeinioee, eae iaeia ec
ioiineoaeueii aaoiiiiiuo aa oai?ee. Oeeinioey eoeueoo?u i?aaenoaaeyao
aunoee, iaeaieaa aano?aeoiue o?iaaiue enneaaeiaaiey eoeueoo?u. Iia
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iaoiaeieiae/aneie iniiau eoeueoo?ieiaee.

A oi aea a?aiy oeeinioey eoeueoo?u e eoeueoo?ieiaey ?acee/athony ii oai
onoaiiaeai, n eioi?uie iie iiaeoiaeyo e enneaaeiaaieth eoeueoo?u.
Eoeueoo?ieiaey ?anniao?eaaao eoeueoo?o a aa aioo?aiieo naycyo, eae
naiinoiyoaeueioth nenoaio, a oeeinioey eoeueoo?u aiaeece?oao eoeueoo?o a
niioaaonoaee n i?aaeiaoii e ooieoeeyie oeeinioee a eiioaenoa oeeinioneeo
eaoaai?ee – oaeeo, eae auoea, niciaiea, iiciaiea, ee/iinoue, iauanoai.

Oeeinioey – yoi iaoea i iaeaieaa iaueo i?eioeeiao e caeiiiia?iinoyo
auoey e iiciaiey. Iia no?aieony au?aaioaoue nenoaiiia e oeaeinoiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i ie?a. A oeeinioey eoeueoo?u no?aieony iieacaoue, eaeia
ianoi caieiaao eoeueoo?a a yoie iauae ea?oeia auoey. Oeeinioey iuoaaony
ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, iiciaaaai ee ie?, eaeiau aiciiaeiinoe e a?aieoeu
iiciaiey, aai oeaee, o?iaie, oi?iu e iaoiaeu. Oeeinioey eoeueoo?u, a
naith i/a?aaeue, no?aieony ii?aaeaeeoue naiaia?acea e iaoiaeieiaeth
iiciaiey eoeueoo?iuo yaeaiee. Yoa i?iaeaia ?ac?aaaouaaeanue, a
/anoiinoe, a ?aieao aeaaeaie/aneie “oeeinioee aeecie” e a
iaieaioeainoaa. Aaaeiui ?acaeaeii oeeinioee yaeyaony aeeaeaeoeea eae
o/aiea i anaiauae nayce e ?acaeoee. Oeeinioey eoeueoo?u ?ane?uaaao, eae
aeeaeaeoe/aneea i?eioeeiu e caeiiu i?iyaeythony a eoeueoo?ii –
enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna. Iia ii?aaeaeyao iiiyoey eoeueoo?iiai i?ia?anna,
?aa?anna, i?aainoaaiiinoe, ianeaaeey. Oaeei ia?acii, oeeinioey eoeueoo?u
?anniao?eaaao eoeueoo?o a nenoaia oeeinioneeo eaoaai?ee e a yoii aa
ioee/ea io eoeueoo?ieiaee.

A nenoaia ciaiee i eoeueoo?a iniaia ianoi caieiaao nioeeieiaey
eoeueoo?u. Cia/aiea yoie iaoee a iineaaeiaa a?aiy aic?anoaao. Niaoeeoeea
nioeeieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea e iauanoao caeeth/aaony a eco/aiee aai eae
oeaeinoiie nenoaiu. Ana iauanoaaiiua iaoee a ?aieao naiaai i?aaeiaoa
iuoathony i?aaenoaaeoue eco/aaioth eie noa?o e noi?iio iauanoaaiiie
aeecie eae oeaeia. Nioeeieiaey (e a yoii aa niaoeeoeea) eco/aao iauanoai
eae oeaeia a aeaoo iai?aaeaieyo:

1. Auyniyao nayce eii?aeeiaoeee e noai?aeeiaoeee iaaeaeo eiiiiiaioaie
nioeeaeueiie nenoaiu.

2. Aiaeece?oao ianoi e ?ieue ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia nenoaiu a
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa, eo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiue noaoon a
nioeeaeueiie nenoaia.

A niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeoeeie nioeeieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaea nioeeieiaey
eoeueoo?u

– enneaaeoao ianoi ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia e noa? eoeueoo?u, a oaeaea
eoeueoo?u a oeaeii a nioeeaeueiie nenoaia;

– eco/aao eoeueoo?o eae nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea, ii?iaeaeaiiia
iio?aaiinoyie iauanoaa;

– ?anniao?eaaao eoeueoo?o eae nenoaio ii?i, oeaiiinoae, niiniaia
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaeia e ?acee/iuo iauiinoae, a oaeaea
nioeeaeueiuo einoeoooia, au?aaaouaathueo e ?ani?ino?aiythueo yoe
oeaiiinoe.

Eae e nioeeieiaey a oeaeii, nioeeieiaey eoeueoo?u iineo iiiaio?iaiaaue
oa?aeoa?. ?acee/ea iaaeaeo aa o?iaiyie caeeth/aaony a noaiaie
enoi?e/aneie iauiinoe aiaeece?oaiuo yaeaiee. A ?aieao nioeeieiaee
eoeueoo?u auaeaeytho o?e o?iaiy:

1. Iauanioeeieiae/aneay oai?ey eoeueoo?u, eco/athuay ianoi e ?ieue
eoeueoo?u a aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa.

2. *anoiinioeeieiae/aneea oai?ee eoeueoo?u (nioeeieiaey ?aeeaee,
nioeeieiaey ia?aciaaiey, nioeeieiaey eneonnoaa e ae?.). Iie enneaaeotho
ianoi e ?ieue ioaeaeueiuo noa? e aeaeia eoeueoo?u a aeecie iauanoaa, eo
nioeeaeueiua ooieoeee. Iai?eia?, nioeeieiaey eneonnoaa eco/aao ioiioaiey
eneonnoaa e c?eoaey, aeeyiea nioeeaeueiuo oneiaee ia i?ioeann nicaeaiey
e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa, i?iaeaiu aini?eyoey e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aeona. E?iia oiai, i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?u ?anniao?eaathony
a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo aniaeoia e a eiaeono?eaeueiie nioeeieiaee,
nioeeieiaee ai?iaea, nioeeieiaee naea, nioeeieiaee iieiaeaaee,
nioeeieiaee naiuee e ae?oaeo /anoiinioeeieiae/aneeo oai?eyo.

3. Eiie?aoiua nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey eoeueoo?u. Iie caieiathony
nai?ii e aiaeecii eiie?aoiuo oaeoia eoeueoo?iie aeecie.

A ioee/ea io oeeinioee eoeueoo?u nioeeieiaeth eoeueoo?u ioee/aao
i?aeoe/aneay iai?aaeaiiinoue. Nioeeieiaey eoeueoo?u iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaia n ?aoaieai i?aeoe/aneeo i?iaeai. Iia i?ecaaia enneaaeiaaoue iooe
e niiniau oi?aaeaiey eoeueoo?iuie i?ioeannaie, au?aaaouaaoue
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii eiiieaeniiai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u.

Oaniua nayce nouanoaotho iaaeaeo eoeueoo?ieiaeae e enoi?eae eoeueoo?u.
Enoi?ey eoeueoo?u eco/aao i?ino?ainoaaiii – a?aiaiiua iiaeeoeeaoeee
ie?iaiai eoeueoo?ii – enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u
ioaeaeueiuo no?ai, ?aaeiiia, ia?iaeia. Noaaeeaeueii – ?aaeiiaeueiue oei
eoeueoo?u, enoi?e/aneay yiioa, eoeueoo?iia i?ino?ainoai, eoeueoo?iia
a?aiy, eoeueoo?iay ea?oeia ie?a – eeth/aaua iiiyoey enoi?eei –
eoeueoo?iiai enneaaeiaaiey. Enoi?ey eoeueoo?u iaoiaeeony ia nouea
enoi?e/aneie iaoee, n iaeiie noi?iiu, e eoeueoo?ieiaee, n ae?oaie.

Ieiaeioai?iue iiaeoiae e aiaeeco enoi?ee eoeueoo?u aue i?aaeeiaeai
o?aioeocneeie enoi?eeaie, iauaaeeieaoeieny aie?oa aeo?iaea “Aiiaeu
yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie enoi?ee”. Ii aue iniiaai a 1929 aiaeo I.
Aeieii (1876 – 1944). Enneaaeiaaiey oeieu “Aiiaeia” iicaieeee acaeyiooue
ia i?iaeaio enoi?ee eae ia acaeiiioiioaiea ?aciuo eoeueoo?. Aeieaeai
auoue aeeaeia eoeueoo?, eiaaea iaeia eoeueoo?a caaeaao aii?inu e
iieo/aao ioaaou io ae?oaie eoeueoo?u /a?ac enoi?eea, no?aiyuaainy e
i?aaeaeueiie iauaeoeaiinoe, n aieiaieai ioiinyuaainy e e oaenoai, e e
neiaa?th eoeueoo?u, e e i?oaeeyi o?oaea, e e ea?oai, niyoui n ae?aaieo
iieae, e e oieueeei?o. Ana yoi auei i?iaeaeaii a ?aaioao I. Aeiea. A
eeanne/aneii o?oaea “Oaiaeaeueiia iauanoai” ii i?eaeaeaao aeey
enneaaeiaaiey oaiaeaeecia ia oieueei i?aaiaua, oicyenoaaiiua aeieoiaiou,
ii e eeoa?aoo?iua i?iecaaaeaiey, yiin, aa?ie/aneea i?aaeaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, oeiea “Aiiaeia” ?ac?aaaouaaea iiiaioaeoi?iue iiaeoiae e
aiaeeco enoi?e/aneeo yaeaiee. I?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai iai?aaeaiey n/eoaee,
/oi nioeeaeueiua oaeou aeieaeiu auoue enneaaeiaaiu eiiieaeniui ia?acii.
Aeaaioth ?ieue caeanue ea?aao niaaeeiaiea nioeeaeueiiai e eoeueoo?iiai
aiaeeca. Eaeae yoie oeieu iiaeoaaoeee enoi?eee iiiaeo no?ai, e naaiaeiy
yoi iai?aaeaiea n/eoaaony iaeaieaa i?iaeoeoeaiui. Aeaiiua
iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu eniieuecotho a naieo enneaaeiaaieyo e
?inneeneea o/aiua. Yoi ?aaiou ii n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?a Caiaaea A.ss.
Ao?aae/a, ii aa?iiaeneiio Aic?iaeaeaieth E.I. Aaoeeia, aioe/iie e
aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?a N.N. Aaa?eioeaaa, enoi?e/aneie eoeueoo?ieiaee
I.I. Aaooeia.

2. EOEUeOO?IAss AIO?IIIEIAEss: YOAIU AA ?ACAEOEss,

INIIAIUA OEIEU E IAI?AAEAIEss

Aaaeiia ianoi a nenoaia iaoe i eoeueoo?a caieiaao eoeueoo?iay
aio?iiieiaey.

Aio?iiieiaey – iaeanoue iao/iiai iiciaiey, a ?aieao eioi?ie eco/athony
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua i?iaeaiu nouanoaiaaiey /aeiaaea a i?e?iaeiie e
eneonnoaaiiie n?aaea.

Aio?iiieiaey iiae?acaeaeyaony ia oece/aneoth e eoeueoo?ioth. Oece/aneay
aio?iiieiaey eco/aao anoanoaaiioth i?e?iaeo /aeiaaea, eoeueoo?iay
aio?iiieiaey ?anniao?eaaao eneonnoaaiiue ie? /aeiaaea, eneonnoaaiioth
n?aaeo aai iaeoaiey. Eae naiinoiyoaeueiay iaeanoue iao/iiai
enneaaeiaaiey eoeueoo?iay aio?iiieiaey noi?ie?iaaeanue ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia XIX aaea. A no?oeoo?a eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee oeaio?aeueiia
ianoi caieiaao yoiieiaey eee yoiia?aoey – iaoea i aeecie yoiinia,
ia?iaeia. Ia?aiia/aeueii iia caieiaeanue iienaieai aeecie “i?eieoeaiuo,
aeeeeo” ia?iaeia.

YAIETHOeEIIECI

A ?aieao eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee noi?ie?iaaeinue ianeieueei iao/iuo
iai?aaeaiee. Ia?aay iao/ii – oai?aoe/aneay oeiea, eioi?ay aicieeea a
?aieao eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee, iieo/eea iacaaiea yaiethoeeiienoneie.
Iniiau yaiethoeeiiecia auee caeiaeaiu ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX aaea a
?aaioao A. Niaina?a (1820 – 1903), Y. Oaeei?a (1832 – 1917) e E. Ii?aaia
(1818 – 1881).

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII e ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. a iaoeao i i?e?iaea: a
ano?iiiiee, aaieiaee, oeceea, oeiee, aeieiaee – noaee ooaa?aeaeaoueny
eaeae yaiethoeeiiecia. Iinoaiaiii eaeae ?acaeoey i?iieeee e a iiieiaiea
/aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. A 1768 a. oioeaiaeneee oeeinio A. Oa?athnnii
?acaeaeee enoi?eth ia yiioe aeeeinoe, aa?aa?noaa e oeeaeeecaoeee,
?acee/aaoeany iaaeaeo niaie oa?aeoa?ii oicyenoaa e noaiaiueth ?acaeoey
ioiioaiee nianoaaiiinoe. O?aioeocneee i?inaaoeoaeue AE.A. Eiiaei?na
ioa?aeoa?eciaae ono?ienoai iauanoaa a eaaeaeoth ec yiio. A 1836 a.
aeaoneee o/aiue E.TH. Oiinai iainiiaae a?oaieiae/aneei iaoa?eaeii
nenoaio o?ao aaeia – eaiaiiiai, a?iiciaiai e aeaeaciiai, a aai o/aiee
E.ss. Ai?ni nicaeae iaoiae aeaoe?iaee a?oaieiae/aneeo iaiyoieeia. Anei?a
o?aioeocneee a?oaieia A. aea Ia?o aunooiee n ooaa?aeaeaieai, /oi
iaoiaeeiua i?e ?aneiieao a?oaua eaiaiiua i?oaeey o?oaea i?eiaaeeaaeao
ia?aiauoiiio /aeiaaeo. I?eaeeceoaeueii oiaaea aea auee iaeaeaiu einoiua
inoaiee naiiai yoiai /aeiaaea. Ana yoi naeaeaei aiciiaeiui i?eiaiaiea
yaiethoeeiiecia e eco/aieth /aeiaaea e aai eoeueoo?u.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. eaeae yaiethoeeiiecia i?iieeatho a
yoiia?aoeth. I?e/ai yoiia?aou iuoaeenue ia?aianoe a naith iaoeo caeiiu
aeieiae/aneie yaiethoeee, iiae/a?eeaaee, /oi eco/atho eoeueoo?o
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuie iaoiaeaie. Iai?eia?, Y. Oaeei? n/eoae, /oi ana
yaeaiey eoeueoo?u – iaoa?eaeueiua iauaeou, iau/ae, aa?iaaiey –
ninoaaeytho oaeea aea aeaeu, eae aeaeu ?anoaiee eee aeeaioiuo, e oae aea
eae iie, ?acaeaathony iaeie ec ae?oaeo. Cia/eo, enoi?ee eoeueoo?u
aeieaeai i?eiaiyoue oo aea iaoiaeeeo, /oi e anoanoaieniuoaoaeue. Y.
Oaeei? iieaaae, /oi ioaeii nenoaiaoece?iaaoue eoeueoo?iua yaeaiey ii eo
aeaeai, ?aniieaaaoue yaiethoeeiiiuie ?yaeaie – io aieaa i?inouo aeaeia e
aieaa neiaeiui e i?ineaaeeaaoue eo i?ia?ann – i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai
auoaniaiey iaiaa niaa?oaiiuo aeaeia aieaa niaa?oaiiuie. Oaeei? n/eoae,
/oi nouanoaoao aaeeinoai /aeiaa/anoaa e aaeeiiia?acea aai eoeueoo?u ia
noiaeiuo nooiaiyo ?acaeoey. Ana ia?iaeu e ana eoeueoo?u niaaeeiaiu
iaaeaeo niaie a iaeei iai?a?uaiue e i?ia?anneaii ?acaeaathueeny
yaiethoeeiiiue ?yae.

Oaeei? iiieiae, /oi a eoeueoo?a iiiai ia oieueei iaua/aeiaa/aneiai,
oieaa?naeueiiai aeey iaeieo e oao aea noaaeee ?acaeoey, ii e
niaoeeoe/aneiai aeey ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeia. Yoa iuneue Oaeei?a aiieia
ioaa/aao eiioeaioeee nia?aiaiiie yoiia?aoee – eco/aoue e iauaa, e
iniaaiiia a eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia. Iiieiae Oaeei? e oi, /oi yaiethoeey
eoeueoo?u – yoi ia oieueei aa naiinoiyoaeueiia, iacaaeneiia ?acaeoea, ii
e ?acoeueoao enoi?e/aneeo aicaeaenoaee e caeinoaiaaiee. Aiaeeeneee
o/aiue n/eoae, /oi oioy a eoeueoo?ii – enoi?e/aneii i?ioeanna eiatho
ianoi oaeou eoeueoo?iie aeaa?aaeaoeee, ?aa?anna, iaeiaei iauay eeiey
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u – i?ia?anneaiay. Oaeei? iiae/a?eeaae cia/aiea
enoi?e/aneeo eiioaeoia aeey nio?aiaiey “ieiaeia i?ia?anna”. Eoeueoo?iua
aeinoeaeaiey iaeiie no?aiu oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiythony a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao,
oaeei ia?acii cao?oaeiyaony oo?aoa eoeueoo?iiai aeinoiyiey /aeiaa/anoaa,
aeaaea anee eaeay-oi aai /anoue yoi aeinoiyiea oo?aoeea.

Oaeei? aaae a iaoeo iiiyoea “ia?aaeeoee”. Ii o?aeoiaae eo eae “aeeaua
naeaeaoaeuenoaa, iaiyoieee i?ioeiai”, eioi?ua naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i
aaeeinoaa enoi?eei – eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna. Iie auee naienoaaiiu aieaa
?aiiae noaaeee eoeueoo?u e a neeo i?eau/ee ia?aiinyony a ae?oaoth, aieaa
iicaeithth noaaeeth. A ?aaioa “Ia?aiauoiay eoeueoo?a” i?eaaaeaii iiiai
i?eia?ia ia?aaeeoeia, a oii /enea oaeea. Aea?aayiiia naa?ei aeey
aeiauaaiey iaiy o?aieai oiio?aaeyeinue a aeiiaoiai auoo o iiiaeo
i?eieoeaiuo eee ae?aaieo ieaiai, a o iiaaeoeo eiaeonia nio?aiyaony eae
inayuaiiue a?aiaiai niinia caaeeaaiey /enoiai aea?oaaiiiai iaiy, a
Oaaeoea?ee nouanoaoao a aeaea ea?ooee. Nia?aiaiiua aca?oiua ea?u naycaiu
n eneonnoaii aaaeaiey, eioi?ia auei ecaanoii oaea aeeea?yi.

Oaeei? n?aaieaae ia?aaeeoie n ?oaeeiaioii a aeeaii i?aaiecia. Aiaeec
ia?aaeeoeia iicaieee o/aiiio iauynieoue i?ienoiaeaeaiea oeaeiai ?yaea
iiaiai?ie, iineiaeoe, iau/aaa, ea?, yoeeaoiuo i?aaee. Eae ieacaeinue, o
ieo ae?aaiyy enoi?ey. Ecia/aeueii iie eiaee ieoieiae/aneia niaea?aeaiea,
iaaeaeyeenue iaae/aneei niuneii. Ii ni a?aiaiai iie ana aieaa
i?eia?aoatho iaoaoi?e/aneee oa?aeoa?, ia?aoiaey a iaeanoue iiycee. Yoi
neoaeeo aeieacaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi aeey iiieiaiey nia?aiaiiiai
ninoiyiey eoeueoo?u ioaeii ia?auaoueny e ?aiiae eoeueoo?a, eaeie au
i?eieoeaiie e aeiae/iie iia ie eacaeanue.

Oaeei? nicaeae ia?aoth ?acaa?ioooth oai?eth i?ienoiaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey
?aeeaee. Ii aaae a yoiia?aoeth iiiyoea “ia?aiauoiue aieieci”. Aieieci
i?ienoiaeeo io eaoeineiai neiaa “aieia” – aeooa eee “aieion” – aeoo.

Aieieci – yoi aa?a a nouanoaiaaiea aeooe e aeooia.

Ii iiaieth Oaeei?a, ?aeeaey i?iecioea io aa?u ia?aiauoiiai /aeiaaea a
niiniaiinoue aeooe, aeooa ioaeaeyoueny io oaea.

Aeieacaoaeuenoaii yoiai aeey ia?aiauoiuo ethaeae auee oaeea
iaaethaeaaiua eie oaeou, eae niiaeaeaiey, aaeethoeeiaoeee,
neo/aeeaoa?ae/aneiai nia, eiaeiie nia?oe e ae?oaea iaiauynieiua yaeaiey,
eioi?uie iuia caieiaaony ia?aineoieiaey. Iie aeieacuaatho, /oi a
eaaeaeii /aeiaaea eiaaony iniaay noanoaioeey – aeooa, eioi?ay iiaeao
iieeaeaoue naith oaeanioth iaiei/eo. Ec i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeooa
?acaeeenue i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ioaeaeueii nouanoaothueo aeooao, noaaoeo
ieeoeaoai?aieai i?e?iaeiuo noeoee, ?anoaiee e aeeaioiuo. Ionthaea eaeao
i?yiay eeiey e iieeoaenoe/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi i iaioaiia aiaia,
ieeoeaoai?yaoeo neeu i?e?iaeu, e iiiioaenoe/aneie aa?a a aaeeiiai aiaa.

Oaeei? iieacae naycue aieiecia n ae?oaeie ?aeeaeiciuie i?aaenoaaeaieyie
ia?aiauoiinoe – oaoeoeciii e oioaieciii.

Oaoeoeci – yoi aa?a a naa?ouanoanoaaiiua naienoaa iaeioi?uo
iaiaeooaaeaiiuo i?aaeiaoia.

Oaoeoai iia noaoue ethaie i?aaeiao, ii/aio – eeai ii?aceaoee
aiia?aaeaiea /aeiaaea: eaiaiue iaiau/iie oi?iu, eonie aea?aaa, /anoe
oaea aeeaioiiai. Ia?aaeei oaoeoai ieacuaaeny neo/aeii aua?aiiue
i?aaeiao. E anee aai aeaaeaeueoeo niioonoaiaaea oaea/a, cia/eo, oaoeo
iaeaaeaao iaae/aneie neeie. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa aai caiaiyee ae?oaei. Aei
iaoeo aeiae aeioei iiiaeanoai oaoeoae a oi?ia aioeaoia – iaa?aaia.
Aioeaoii neoaeeo i?aaeiao, eioi?iio i?eienuaathony iaae/aneea naienoaa
ioa?auaoue io /aeiaaea ian/anouey e i?eiineoue oaea/o.

Oaoeoai eiiaaea noaiiaeeanue /anoue /aai – oi aieueoiai: iai?eia?,
eaiaiue n ii/eoaaiie ai?u, eoni/ae nayuaiiiai aea?aaa eee ecia?aaeaiea
ii/eoaaiiai aeeaioiiai. Oaoeo iia auoue i?inoi ?enoieii eee aeaaea
oaooe?iaeie ia oaea. Iniaay a?oiia oaoeoae naycaia n ?ani?ino?aiaiiui o
iiiaeo ia?iaeia eoeueoii i?aaeeia. Eo ecia?aaeaiey noaiiayony oaoeoaie,
eioi?ui iieeaiythony. Eiiaaea yoi eaeieu – /aeiaaeiiiaeiaiua oeao?ee ec
eaiiy, aea?aaa, aeeiu, a eiiaaea i?aaeea ecia?aaeaao niaoeeaeueiue ciae,
eae yoi auei i?eiyoi, iai?eia?, a Eeoaa. Y. Oaeei? ioiinee e iaeanoe
oaoeoecia e iiiai/eneaiiua oi?iu iia?aaaeueiuo ia?yaeia, nouanoaothuea o
?aciuo ia?iaeia. Iau/ae nio?aiyoue iaeioi?ua /anoe oaea oia?oaai eee
aeaaea a ioieoeoee?iaaiiii aeaea ana aai oaei eae aianoeeeua
naa?ouanoanoaaiiuo nee nouanoaiaae eiaaea – oi a Ia?o e Aaeioa. A iniiaa
nouanoaiaaiey oaoeoae oaeiai ?iaea eaaeeo iuneue i ?aaeueiii i?enoonoaee
aeooa a aacaeeciaiiuo i?aaeiaoao, eiaaea – oi auaoeo aeeauie.

Ae?oaie ?aiiae oi?iie ?aeeaee yaeyaony oioaieci.

Oioaieci – nenoaia ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i ?iaenoaa iaaeaeo a?oiiie
ethaeae (iau/ii ?iaeii) e oioaiii – ieoe/aneei i?aaeeii, /aua anaai
eaeei – eeai aeeaioiui eee ?anoaieai.

E oioaio ioiineeenue eae e aeia?iio e caaioeeaiio i?aaeeo e
iie?iaeoaeth, eioi?ue iaa?aaaao ethaeae – naieo ?iaenoaaiieeia – io
aieiaea, oieiaea, aieaciae e nia?oe. Iaeeaaeuaaaony cai?ao (oaao) ia
oaeenoai oioaia e oiio?aaeaiea aai a ieuo. Oioaieci – yoi ?aeeaey
?aiia?iaeiaiai iauanoaa, aaea e?iaii?iaenoaaiiua nayce yaeythony naiuie
aaaeiuie iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Iiaeiaiua aea nayce /aeiaae oniao?eaaao e a
ie?oaeathuai ie?a, ii iaaeaeyao anth i?e?iaeo ?iaenoaaiiuie ioiioaieyie.
AEeaioiua e ?anoaiey, ninoaaeythuea iniiao aeecie ioioieea e niae?aoaey,
noaiiayony i?aaeiaoii eo ?aeeaeiciuo /oanoa. Ii ia?a enoi?e/aneiai
?acaeoey aieueoeinoai ia?iaeia oo?aoeei oioaienoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey.

E?iia Y. Oaeei?a e?oiiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai yaiethoeeiiecia XIX aaea aue
aia?eeaineee yoiia?ao E.A. Ii?aai. Ii eniieueciaae oio aea iaoiae, /oi e
Oaeei? (enneaaeiaae yaiethoeeth e?iaii?iaenoaaiiuo ioiioaiee); n/eoae,
/oi /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai eiaao aaeeiue iooue ?acaeoey. Ii?aai iieiaeee
ia/aei ?ac?aaioea enoi?ee ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa. Aeaaiue o?oae Ii?aaia –
“Ae?aaiaa iauanoai” (1877). A oiaea naieo enneaaeiaaiee aia?eeaineee
o/aiue i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii, /oi ?iae aue oieaa?naeueiie e ae?aaiaeoae
i?aaiecaoeeae /aeiaa/anoaa, a ?aieao eioi?ie iiaeaea?aeeaaeenue ii?yaeie
e i?aainoaaiiinoue. Ii?aai iainiiaae eaeath i nouanoaiaaiee ia ?aiieo
noaaeeyo ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa iaoa?eineiai ?iaea, o.a. iao?ea?oaoa.
Ii?aai n/eoae, /oi a ia?aiauoiii iauanoaa iooeianoai ia iiaei auoue
aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeaii, iiyoiio aaeeinoaaiiui iaaeaaeiui i?eciaeii
i?ienoiaeaeaiey auea naycue n iaoa?eineie naiueae. I?aa?auaiea
iaoa?eineiai ?iaea a iooeianeee Ii?aai iauyniye iaeiieaieai
nianoaaiiinoe a ?oeao ioae/ei e aeaeaieai ia?aaeaoue aa ii ianeaaenoao
aeaoyi.

Aia?eeaineee yoiia?ao iieaaae, /oi a ?iaeiaii iauanoaa ia nouanoaiaaei
ainoaea?noaa, iauanoaaiiue no?ie aue aeaiie?aoe/aneei,
iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue auai?iinoue aeanoe. Ii?aai aeae ia?eiaeecaoeeth
enoi?ee ae?aaiaeoae eoeueoo?u ii i?eciaeo ecia?aoaiee e ioe?uoee.
Aeiauaaiea iaiy, ecia?aoaiea eoea, aii/a?iia ?aianei, caieaaeaeea,
neioiaiaenoai, ia?aaioea aeaeaca noaee aaaeiaeoeie aaoaie a enoi?ee
ae?aaiae eoeueoo?u. Ii?aai aue aeecie e oiio iiieiaieth enoi?eei –
eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna, eioi?ia iicaea ?ac?aaaouaaee E. Ia?en e O.
Yiaaeuen. Aeaaiie aeaeaeouae neeie i?ia?anna Ii?aai n/eoae ?acaeoea
oaoieee e iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oai?ey Ii?aaia niaea?aeaea
iieiaeaiey, aeeceea e i?inaaoeoaeuenoao e eiiioiecio. Ii aai iiaieth,
oeaeue i?ia?anna – iauaa aeaai /aeiaa/anoaa. *aeiaa/anoai a naiai
?acaeoee i?eaeao e oaeiio iauanoaaiiiio no?ith, eioi?ue a aunoae oi?ia
aic?iaeeo naiaiaeo, ?aaainoai e a?aonoai ae?aaieo ia?iaeia.

AeEOOOCEIIECI

A ia/aea XX a. a i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue yaiethoeeiiecio, eioi?ue caieiaeny
enneaaeiaaieai aioo?aiieo eciaiaiee a ioaeaeueiuo eoeueoo?ao,
oi?ie?oaony eiioeaioeey aeeoooceiiecia.

Aeeooocey – yoi ?ani?ino?aiaiea eoeueoo?u ec iaeiiai oeaio?a a ae?oaie.

Oaeie iiaeoiae iicaieee ia?aoeoueny e eco/aieth acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo
eoeueoo?aie, ?ane?uoue iaoaieci inaiaiey aeinoeaeaiee ae?oaeo ia?iaeia,
aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue iauanoao ia i?ioiaeeoue ana noaaeee
nioeeieoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey. Iniiaiuie n?aaenoaaie ?ani?ino?aiaiey
/oaeie eoeueoo?u aeeoooceiieci i?eciaaae aieiu e caaiaaaiey,
eieiiecaoeeth, oi?aiaeth e iea?aoeee, aeia?iaieueiia iiae?aaeaiea,
acaeiiia i?eciaiea e o.ae. A ?aieao aeeoooceiiecia ?ac?aaaouaaeny
iiaeoiae, niaeanii eioi?iio ?ani?ino?aiaiea eoeueoo?u i?ienoiaeeei ec
iaeiiai oeaio?a “eieuaaee oeeaeeecaoeee”, ia ?ieue eioi?ie iau/ii
auaeaeaaeenue Ooia?, Ae?aaiee Aaeiao, Eeoae. I?aaenoaaeoaee
aeeoooceiiecia – Ae. Nieo, A. Ia??e, A. ?eaa?n.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaotho naeaeaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi oaeea
eoeueoo?iua yaeaiey, eae oaoiieiaee aeeciaiaania/aiey, neiaiee/aneea
nenoaiu, nioeeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey aicieeatho iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa
a i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie. A oaeea eoeueoo?iua yaeaiey, eae oei
caieaiieueciaaiey, iiciaaaoaeueiua, ?aeeaeiciua, ynoaoe/aneea oi?iu /aua
anaai aicieeatho a ?acoeueoaoa caeinoaiaaiee, /ai naiinoiyoaeueiiai
?acaeoey, iacaaeneiiai ecia?aoaiey. Iai?eia?, aoaeaeeci aicieeaao a 6 a.
aei i. y. a Eiaeee, a 1 a. i. y. yoa ?aeeaey i?eoiaeeo a Eeoae, a 6 a.
i. y. – a ssiiieth. A yoeo no?aiao aoaeaeeci noae iaeiie ec aeaaiuo
?aeeaee, ieacae ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u.
Ana o?aaeeoeeiiiua yiiineea eneonnoaa (eeaaaia, /aeiay oea?aiiiey, naae
eaiiae e ae?.) naieie enoieaie naycaiu n aecai – aoaeaeeciii. Yoa
?aeeaey, eioi?ay ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeeea oa?aeoa? eeoaeneie e yiiineie
eoeueoo?u, aicieeea ia a ?acoeueoaoa naiinoiyoaeueiiai ?acaeoey yoeo
no?ai, a iooai caeinoaiaaiey.

Yoio i?eia? iieacuaaao, /oi caeinoaiaaiey, enoi?e/aneea eiioaeou ea?atho
aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u. Iiyoiio eiioeaioeey aeeoooceiiecia
eiaao ?aoeeiiaeueiia ca?ii. Ae?oaia aeaei, /oi iaeuecy ?anniao?eaaoue
aeeoooceth eae aaeeinoaaiiue e iniiaiie iaoaieci ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u.

NO?OEOO?II – OOIEOeEIIAEUeIUE AIAEEC

A 30 aiaeao XX aaea a ?aieao eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee noi?ie?iaaeinue
iiaia iai?aaeaiea – no?oeoo?ii – ooieoeeiiaeueiue aiaeec. Aai
i?aaenoaaeoaee – A. Iaeeiianeee (1884 – 1942), I. Ieae (1901 – 1971), ?.
Aaiaaeeeo. A ia/aea XX aaea ?anoe?yaony acaeiiaeaenoaea caiaaeiuo
iauanoa n eoeueoo?aie ?acee/iuo no?ai e ia?iaeia. I?aaenoaaeoaee aiaei –
aia?eeaineie aio?iiieiae/aneie oeieu iaeiieee aieueoie yoiia?aoe/aneee
iaoa?eae, iienuaathuee iau/ae, i?aau, ia?ac aeecie o.i. i?eieoeaiuo
ia?iaeia: eiaeaeoeaa Naaa?iie e THaeiie Aia?eee, aano?aeeeneeo
aai?eaaiia, ao?eeaineeo ieaiai. Iicaeiaa auee i?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey
iaeuo ia?iaeia Eiaeee, no?ai THai – Ainoi/iie Acee.

A ?aaioao caiaaeiuo yoiia?aoia, eoeueoo?iuo aio?iiieiaia iinoaiaiii
ooaa?aeaeaaony “iaaeneieiae/aneia” iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u.

Niaeanii yoiio iiieiaieth ethaie enoi?e/anee nouanoaothuee niinia
/aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aeieaeai auoue i?eciai eoeueoo?iui,
iacaaeneii io a?aiaie e ianoa naiaai aicieeiiaaiey. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey
ia?ac aeecie ao?eeaineeo, aano?aeeeneeo, aceaoneeo eee ao?eeaineeo
ieaiai e ia?iaeiinoae ia iaiaa eoeueoo?ai, /ai ia?ac aeecie nia?aiaiiiai
aeeoaey Aa?iiu. A ?aieao yoiai iai?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo ioeac io
i?eioeeiia enoi?ecia e yaiethoeeiiecia, i?iaicaeaoaaony eoeueoo?iue
?aeyoeaeci, niaeanii eioi?iio eoeueoo?u auaatho ia eo/oeie e ooaeoeie, a
oieueei ?aciuie. N/eoaaony, /oi iao aaeeiie aeey anaai /aeiaa/anoaa
eoeueoo?u, iineaaeiaaoaeueii ?acaeaathuaeny io iaeiiai enoi?e/aneiai
yoaia e ae?oaiio, a anoue eeoue niaieoiiinoue ?aaiioeaiiuo, oioy e
ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa eoeueoo?.

Eoeueoo?a iiieiaeanue eae aaeeiue naii?aaoee?othueeny i?aaieci, eae
niiniau ?aaoeyoeee e eii?aeeiaoeee acaeiiioiioaiee eiaeeaeaeia iaaeaeo
niaie e n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie.

Eoeueoo?a ?anniao?eaaeanue eae aaaeiia n?aaenoai aaeaioaoeee,
i?eniiniaeaiey e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea. Caaea/a eoeueoo?ieiaa ninoieo a
iienaiee, eeanneoeeaoeee e oeiieiaecaoeee iiiaiia?aciuo oi?i eoeueoo?iie
aeecie ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia.

A ea/anoaa iaoiaea eco/aiey ioaeaeueiuo eieaeueiuo eoeueoo? caiaaeiuie
eoeueoo?aio?iiieiaaie aue auaeaeioo i?eioeei ooieoeeiiaeecia.

Ooieoeeiiaeeci – yoi i?eioeei, niaeanii eioi?iio eoeueoo?a aeieaeia
eco/aoueny eae naiinoiyoaeueiay, oeaeinoiay nenoaia, aeeth/athuay
ii?aaeaeaiiue iaai? yeaiaioia, iaoiaeyueony iaaeaeo niaie ai
acaeiicaaeneiinoe e auiieiythueo ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee.

A. Iaeeiianeee enoiaeiui i?aaeiaoii naiaai enneaaeiaaiey naeaeae ia
eoeueoo?o, a /aeiaa/aneea iio?aaiinoe. Ii ?acee/ae ia?ae/iua
aeieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe – a ieua, a i?iaeieaeaiee /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea,
a aeeciaiiuo oaeianoaao e aoi?e/iua iaaeaeieiae/aneea iio?aaiinoe – a
iiciaiee, iauaiee, oai?/anoaa. Eaaeaeay ec iio?aaiinoae ii?iaeaeaao
niioaaonoaothuea eoeueoo?iia ia?aciaaiea, naiaia?aciue eoeueoo?iue
einoeooo. Iai?eia?, eioaa?aoeaiua iio?aaiinoe (iio?aaiinoue a ae?oaii
/aeiaaea, a nioeeieoeueoo?iii niiauanoaa) iaoneaaeeaatho aicieeiiaaiea
oaeeo yaeaiee eoeueoo?u, eae ycue, ?aeeaey, ainoaea?noai, iio?aaiinoe a
oaeianoaa – a?oeoaeoo?o e o.ae. Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeue yeaiaio
eoeueoo?u auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth, a eoeueoo?a a oeaeii
aunooiaao a aeaea nenoaiu einoeoooia. ?acee/ey iaaeaeo eoeueoo?aie
ii?iaeaeaiu ?acee/eyie a niiniaao oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae.

Ooieoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae /?acau/aeii iaiaaoee yoiieiaeth. Ii
niinianoaiaae iieo/aieth iao/iiai, yiie?e/anee aeinoiaa?iiai ciaiey i
eoeueoo?ao ae?aaieo ia?iaeia. Ii iiiia i?aiaeieaoue iai?eyoea eoeueoo?
iaaa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia, eioi?ua ?anniao?eaaeenue ?aiueoa eae
i?eieoeaiua, neaai?acaeoua. Yoi neoaeeei ii?aaaeaieai aeey ?aaeeia
eieiieaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey a yoeo no?aiao.

Iaeiaei, oaeie iiaeoiae iaia?oaeee e naith ia?aie/aiiinoue,
iaeiinoi?iiiinoue. Iaeiinoi?iiiaa oaea/aiea yoei iaoiaeii i?eaaei e
oiio, /oi yoiieiae aiiaua caauee i nioeeaeueiie e eoeueoo?iie yaiethoeee
e nouanoaiaaiee, e?iia aeaiiiai ia?iaea, /aeiaa/anoaa. Ec iiey c?aiey
enneaaeiaaoaeae en/acee iiiyoey “enoi?ey”, “?acaeoea”,
“caeiiiia?iinoue”.

Iaeeiianeee n/eoae, /oi a eoeueoo?a ia iiaeao auoue ie/aai eeoiaai e
neo/aeiiai. Aeaaea ia ia?aue acaeyae aanniuneaiiua yaeaiey e i?aaeiaou
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u eiatho naie niune, naith
ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth. N oeeaeeeciaaiiie oi/ee c?aiey iiaeeaaeao
inoaeaeaieth e ono?aiaieth ?acee/iua i?aae?annoaeee, ioaeeaoea ii?iu,
?eooaeu eieaeianoaa, i?aneaaeiaaiea aaaeuei, iioaiea ia?aiaeaee,
eanoiaua ia?aie/aiey. Iaeiaei, aeey yoiia?aoa eee ?aeeaeiaaaea,
?annoaeaeathuaai ii ooieoeeiiaeueiie iaoiaeeea, oaeiai ?iaea yaeaiey
auiieiytho cia/eioth ooieoeeth, oae eae oe?aieytho aa?o ethaeae a
ecaaaeaiea io iaianoae e iaacaiae, niinianoaotho niei/aieth iaueiu,
i?eaeatho iniuneaiiinoue ie?o, a eioi?ii /aeiaae aeeaao. I?e
ooieoeeiiaeueiii iiaeoiaea io?eoeaaony ioeaii/iay ooieoeey iiiyoey
“eoeueoo?a”, o?aaieaathony a eoeueoo?iii ioiioaiee ?aciua iauanoaaiiua
yaeaiey e ninoiyiey, e yoi aeaeaao iaaiciiaeiui eo n?aaiaiea,
niiinoaaeaiea, ioeaieo.

Eaeae, aeeceea e ooieoeeiiaeecio, ?ac?aaaouaae a naieo ?aaioao
e?oiiaeoee aia?eeaineee aio?iiieia O. Aian (1858 -1942). Ii n/eoaaony
ia?aui i?ioanneiiaeueiui aio?iiieiaii NOA. Oae aea, eae e i?aaenoaaeoaee
ooieoeeiiaeecia, ii caieiaeny eioaineaiie yoiia?aoe/aneie ?aaioie a
?acee/iuo ?aaeiiao ie?a, eco/ae en/acathuea o?aaeeoeeiiiua eoeueoo?u.
Enneaaeiaaiey Aiana oaaaeeee aai a oii, /oi eaaeaeue ia?iae, eaaeaeay
yoie/aneay a?oiia eiatho naith oieeaeueioth enoi?eth e eoeueoo?o.
Eoeueoo?a caaeneo eae io naiaia?acey aioo?aiiaai ?acaeoey, oae e io
aiaoieo aeeyiee.

A oiaea naieo enneaaeiaaiee Aian i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo i oii, /oi ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie caeeth/aaony ia a i?e?iaea oia, a a ?acaeoinoe oie eee
eiie iioeaaoeee, eioi?oth e ioaeii eco/aoue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue. Eiaiii
?acee/ey a iioeaao, o.a. caeioa?aniaaiiinoe, iai?aaeaiiinoe oia, /oanoa,
iiaaaeaiey iauyniytho ?acee/ey a nenoaiao oeaiiinoae. Iauaeoeaiia
enneaaeiaaiea aiciiaeii, ii iiaieth Aiana, eeoue ia oeaiiinoiie aaca
oiai ia?iaea, eioi?ue iu eco/aai. Aian o?aaiaae, /oiau enneaaeiaaoaeue
inaiaiaeeeny ioeaiie, naycaiiuo n aai nianoaaiiie eoeueoo?ie.
Ioeacaaoenue io eaeae aeooiaii – i?aanoaaiiiai i?aainoiaenoaa
aa?iiaeneeo ia?iaeia, ii i?eoae e ?aeyoeaecio, o.a. i?eciaieth
ioiineoaeueiinoe anao eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae. A yoii ioieoa acaeyaeu
Aiana iiaeaa?aeenue ino?ie e?eoeea. Aaaeue ii oaeoe/anee ioaa?a
nouanoaiaaiea eaeeo au oi ie auei iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae. Anee
anoaoue ia yoo oi/eo c?aiey, oi neaaeoao i?eciaoue, /oi iao aaeeiie
i?aanoaaiiie iniiau aeey acaeiiaeaenoaey ?acee/iuo /aeiaa/aneeo a?oii, a
cia/eo, ii?aaaeai ethaie i?iecaie a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo e
aioo?eiaoeeiiaeueiuo aeaeao. A oi aea a?aiy n?aaieoaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey
?acee/iuo oeiia ii?aee iieacuaatho, /oi ei i?enoue e iaeioi?ua iauea
i?eioeeiu. Iie auee auyaeaiu o?aioeocneei yoiia?aoii – yaiethoeeiienoii
O. Eaoo?ii (1831 – 1902). Eaoo?ii noi?ioee?iaae naiue iniiaiuo
i?eioeeiia iaua/aeiaa/aneie ii?aee:

– aeaeae aeia?i;

– ia aeaeae cea;

– aeaaiaea?e ca aeia?i;

– eiiiaine?oe iaianaiiue oiaie eiio – oi oua?a;

– aoaeue ni?aaaaeeeaui;

– aoaeue aa?iui;

– naiiniaa?oainoaoeny.

N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?aciuo ?aeeaee oae aea iieacuaaao, /oi
niaea?aeaueany a ieo i?aanoaaiiua caiiaaaee i/aiue aeecee ae?oa e
ae?oao. Caiiaaaee “ia oaee”, “ia oe?aaee”, “ia i?aethaiaeaenoaoe”
ano?a/athony ii/oe ai anao ?aeeaeiciuo o/aieyo. Ana yoi iieacuaaao, /oi
a ii?aee e eoeueoo?a a oeaeii anoue ia oieueei iaoeeiiaeueiia,
oieeaeueiia, ii e iaua/aeiaa/aneia niaea?aeaiea.

Iaeia ec caneoa Aiana caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi ii iiae/a?eeaae
iaiaoiaeeiinoue enneaaeiaaiee ii aeeoeueoo?aoeee.

Aeeoeueoo?aoeey – oa ?acoeueoaou e aeeyiey, eioi?ua aicieeatho a
i?ioeanna eiioaeoia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie eoeueoo?aie.

I?e enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey eco/aeenue iauiinoe
?acee/iiai ?iaea, a /anoiinoe aeeyiea ai?iaeneeo eoeueoo? ia naeueneea
eee aeeoeueoo?aoeee iaioeaa e yiiioeaa a A?aceeee. Auei ioia/aii, /oi
iiae oaeii c?aiey aeeoeueoo?aoeee iiaeao auoue eco/ai aanue i?ioeann
o?aaiecaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa eiioaeoia iaaeaeo ?aciuie eoeueoo?aie
i?ienoiaeeo:

1. Io/oaeaeaiea – iioa?y ia?iaeii naiae eoeueoo?u iiae aeeyieai /oaeie
eoeueoo?u.

2. Iiaay i?eaioaoeey – nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a eoeueoo?a- aini?eaiieea
iiae aeeyieai /oaeie eoeueoo?u.

3. Ii/aaiie/anoai – niciaoaeueiay, i?aaieciaaiiay iiiuoea /eaiia
iauanoaa aic?iaeeoue e oaaeiaa/eoue ii?aaeaeaiiua aniaeou aai eoeueoo?u.

4. Iiaiia?aciaaiea – aicieeiiaaiea oaeeo /a?o eoeueoo?u, ii?i e
o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?uo ?aiaa ia auei ie a iaeiie ec nii?eeanathueony
eoeueoo?.

OAI?Ess EOEUeOO?IUO A?AAEIA

Naiui ecaanoiui o/aieeii O. Aiana aue A.E?aaa? (1876 – 1960). A naieo
?aaioao ii auoiaeeo ca i?aaeaeu iau/iie yoiia?aoe/aneie oaiaoeee e
ia?auaaony e i?iaeaiai oai?ee e enoi?ee ie?iaie eoeueoo?u. Yoei
i?iaeaiai ii iinayoee o?oae “Eiioeao?aoeee eoeueoo?iiai ?inoa”. Eae e
ae?oaea i?eaa?aeaioeu oeieu Aiana E?aaa? ioeacaeny io eaeae yaiethoeee,
i?ia?anna, noaaeeaeueiinoe ?acaeoey. Ii i?aaeii/eoae eco/aoue eoeueoo?o
aac anyeeo ai?ei?iuo (o.a. ca?aiaa caaeaiiuo) noai. E?aaa? auaeaeioe
iiiyoea “eoeueoo?iue a?aae”.

Eoeueoo?iue a?aae – yoi /aoei ii?aaeaeaiiay aaia?aoe/aneeie a?aieoeaie
oa??eoi?ey, ia eioi?ie nin?aaeioi/ai cia/eoaeueiue iannea noiaeiuo
yeaiaioia eee /a?o eoeueoo?u.

Ii aaiaeeo oae aea iiiyoea “eoeueoo?iue oeaio?” – iaeanoue iaeaieueoaai
nin?aaeioi/aiey i?eciaeia e iiiyoea “ia?aeiaeueiay iaeanoue” – aaea
ano?a/athony e niaoeaathony /a?ou ninaaeieo a?aaeia. Enoi?eth eoeueoo?u
E?aaa? naiaeeo e ia?aiauaieth eoeueoo?iuo yeaiaioia ec iaeiiai a?aaea a
ae?oaie. I?e yoii ii i?eoae e auaiaeo i oii, /oi iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou,
iai?eia?, aeeiyiay iinoaea eee eoee ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?acoea, eaaei e
?aaiiia?ii ?ani?ino?aiythony ii aeeceaaeauei oa??eoi?eyi, oiaaea eae
ae?oaea, e i?eia?o, oi?iu iino?iae eee oeiu iaeaaeaeu, “i?eaycaiu” e
iaeiiio ianoo e ia caeinoaothony ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie. Ii iiaieth E?aaa?a,
a eaaeaeie eoeueoo?a anoue aioo?aiiyy iniiaa, a?oaoei, niaieoiiinoue
ineoieiae/aneeo /a?o e oeaiiinoiuo onoaiiaie, eioi?ua oi?iicyo eee
onei?ytho aeeoooceth eoeueoo?iuo yeaiaioia. Aeeooocey ano?a/aao
nii?ioeaeaiea oai, aaea a aini?eieiathuae eoeueoo?a eiathony yeaiaiou,
ooieoeeiiaeueii noiaeiua n oaie, eioi?ua a iaa i?eaiinyony. Iai?eia?,
o?enoeainoai ia i?eieiaaony a eoeueoo?ao eneaia, eioi?ua oaea eiatho
naith nayuaiioth eieao, i?iieeioooth ianneaineie eaeaae. Ii iii
?ani?ino?aiyaony n?aaieoaeueii eaaei n?aaee ia?iaeia n iieeoaenoe/aneeie
?aeeaeyie, iai?eia?, n?aaee yiiioeaa.

?acaeoea eoeueoo?u iaoneiaeaii aioo?aiieie eiiiaaoeeyie e aiaoieie
caeinoaiaaieyie. Iaeie eiiiaaoeee onei?ytho ?ino, ae?oaea iiaoo aai
caiaaeeyoue. Iiyoiio iiaia ia anaaaea eo/oa noa?iai. A nayce n yoei
E?aaa? aaiaeeo iiiyoea “eoeueieiaoeey”.

Eoeueieiaoeey – yoi oaeay oi/ea, a eioi?ie eiiaeiaoeey yeaiaioia
ieacuaaaony iaeaieaa oaea/iie, aeaaii?eyoiie aeey ?anoeaaoa oao eee eiuo
noa? e aeaeia eoeueoo?u – iaoee oeeinioee, eneonnoaa.

Eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a, ?acaeaaynue, aeinoeaaao eoeueieiaoeee a niioaaonoaee
ni naiae nenoaiie oeaiiinoae. A caoai i?ienoiaeeo o?ainoi?iaoeey
eoeueoo?iie iiaeaee, ia?ano?ieea aa oeaiiinoiie nenoaiu. Oaeei ia?acii,
E?aaa? aeaeaao auaiae i oii, /oi eoeueoo?u ia oie?atho; iiiaea eoeueoo?u
eiaee ia iaeei, a ianeieueei “ieeia ?acaeoey”. Oae, a Eeoaa eo auei
aeaa, a ssiiiee /aou?a, a Aiaeee o?e, a Aa?iaiee /aou?a.

E?aaa? n/eoae, /oi ana eoeueoo?u a /ai – oi iaaeinoaoi/iu. Ie iaeia ia
?acaeaaao anao aeaeia oai?/anoaa. O a?aaia ia auei neoeueioo?u e
aeeaiiene, o aaeioyi e ?eieyi – oeeinioee, a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia –
iaoee.

IAIYAIETHOeEIIECI

A 60 – o aiaeao XX aaea noi?ie?iaaeanue nia?aiaiiay iiaeeoeeaoeey
yaiethoeeiiecia, iieo/eaoay iacaaiea iaiyaiethoeeiieci. Aic?iaeaeaiea
eioa?ana e eaeayi eeanne/aneiai yaiethoeeiiecia enoiaeeei ec ?aaio
aia?eeaineiai o/aiiai E. Oaeoa e auei iiaeaea?aeaii oaeeie eoeueoo?iuie
aio?iiieiaaie, eae A. Aaeaea, ?. ?aiii?o, I. Oa??en e ae?.
Iaiyaiethoeeiieci nio?aiee iniiaiua iinooeaou eeanne/aneiai
yaiethoeeiiecia, ii iiiuoaeny i?aiaeieaoue aai neaaua noi?iiu. Ii acye
ia aii?oaeaiea e iaeioi?ua eaeae aeeoooceiiecia e oai?ee eoeueoo?iuo
a?aaeia.

INIIAIUA *A?OU IAIYAIETHOeEIIECIA

1. Iaiyaiethoeeiieci iiieiaao yaiethoeeth eae oneiaeiaiea, iiauoaiea
o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee nioeeieoeueoo?iie aeecie. I?e ioeaiea eoeueoo?iuo
yaeaiee i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony oai, /oi niinianoaotho eo/oae
aaeaioaoeee ethaeae e ie?oaeathuae n?aaea.

2. A iaiyaiethoeeiiecia i?eciaaony, /oi a eoeueoo?a anoue ia oieueei
iauaa, oieaa?naeueiia aeey iaeieo e oao aea yoaiia ?acaeoey, ii e
niaoeeoe/aneia aeey ioaeaeueiuo ia?iaeia. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii eco/aoue e
iauaa, e iniaaiiia a eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia.

3. Ioia/aaony, /oi yaiethoeey eoeueoo?u i?ienoiaeeo ia oieueei a
?acoeueoaoa naii?acaeoey (naiinoiyoaeueiiai, iacaaeneiiai ?acaeoey), ii
e a ?acoeueoaoa enoi?e/aneeo eiioaeoia e caeinoaiaaiee. A
iaiyaiethoeeiiecia ooaa?aeaeaaony iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue ana iiiaiia?acea oaeoi?ia, ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
eoeueoo?u. Anee aia/aea n/eoaeinue, /oi aeaaiui enoi/ieeii eoeueoo?iuo
caeinoaiaaiee yaeyaony aieia, oa??eoi?eaeueiay yeniainey, oi a
aeaeueiaeoai iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony ie?iiio caeinoaiaaieth.

4. I?ienoiaeeo ioeac io aeanoeiai aeaoa?ieiecia, ooaa?aeaeaaony
aa?iyoiinoiue iiaeoiae, iicaieythuee ii?aaeaeeoue noiia?ioth
oaiaeaioeeth aieueoiai /enea ?acee/iuo eciaiaiee. Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaiyaiethoeeiiecia aue aia?eeaineee aio?iiieia E. Oaeo.
Eae ecaanoii, o?aaeeoeeae eoeueoo?ii – aio?iiieiae/aneie oeieu auei
eco/aiea eoeueoo?u “i?eieoeaiuo” iauanoa, e a oiaea oaeiai ?iaea
enneaaeiaaiee o/aiua auoiaeeee ia eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee o?iaaiue iaiauaiey
ciaiee i eoeueoo?a. Oaeo ieacaeny iaeiei ec ia?auo o/aiuo aia?eeaineie
oeieu, eioi?ue nin?aaeioi/ee aieiaiea ia ia eco/aiea iniaaiiinoae
i?eieoeaiie eoeueoo?u, a ia i?e?iaea eoeueoo?iiai oaiiiaia aiiaua. Oaeo
aia?aua iiiuoaeny iainiiaaoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaoeeaeueiie oai?ee,
enneaaeothuae eoeueoo?o, – eoeueoo?ieiaee. A eieaa “Iaoea i eoeueoo?a”
(1949) Oaeo aaae a iao/iue iai?io iiiyoea “eoeueoo?ieiaey”. Ianoaeaay ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoe eoeueoo?ieiaee eae naiinoiyoaeueiie iaoee, Oaeo iiiuoaeny
ii?aaeaeeoue i?aaeiao aa enneaaeiaaiey, ioa?aie/eoue aa io niaaeiuo n
iae iaoe, e eioi?ui ii ioiinee ineoieiaeth e nioeeieiaeth. Ineoieiaey
eco/aao ineoieiae/aneoth ?aaeoeeth /aeiaa/aneiai i?aaiecia ia aiaoiea
oaeoi?u, a oii /enea e ia eoeueoo?iua. Nioeeieiaey enneaaeoao
acaeiiioiioaiey eiaeeaeaea e iauanoaa. Eoeueoo?ieiaey aea eco/aao
yeaiaiou eoeueoo?u, oaeea eoeueoo?iua yaeaiey, eae iau/ae, o?aaeeoeee,
einoeooou, eiaeu, oaoiieiaee, eaeaieiaee e ae?. Cia/eo, i?aaeiao
eoeueoo?ieiaee – niaea?aeaiea iauanoaaiiie aeecie.

Auaeaeea eoeueoo?o a ea/anoaa niaoeeaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa enneaaeiaaey,
Oaeo ?anniao?eaae aa eae neiaeioth nenoaio. A iae ii auaeaeye o?e
iniiaiua noa?u, ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiua iiaenenoaiu:
oaoiieiae/aneoth, nioeeaeueioth e eaeaieiae/aneoth. Oaoiieiae/aneay
noa?a eoeueoo?u aeeth/aao i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa, n?aaenoaa
nouanoaiaaiey, i?oaeey iaiaaeaiey e caueou, iaoa?eaeu aeey iino?ieee
aeeeeu. Iia au?aaeaao oi?io nayce /aeiaaea n ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeie.
Nioeeaeueioth noa?o eoeueoo?u ninoaaeytho ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie,
oeiu eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e eieeaeoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey. Eaeaieiae/aneay
noa?a aeeth/aao a naay ciaiey, eaeae e aa?iaaiey. Yoe iaeanoe eoeueoo?u
Oaeo ?anniao?eaae eae acaeiinaycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie, aaea nioeeaeueiay e
eaeaieiae/aneay noa?u ii?aaeaeyeenue oaoiieiae/aneie noa?ie. Aeaaainoai
oaoiieiae/aneie nenoaiu Oaeo iauyniye oai, /oi /aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaeaea anaai oaeiaeaoai?youe naie ia?ae/iua iio?aaiinoe.

4. IAOIAeU EOEUeOO?IEIAE*ANEEO ENNEAAeIAAIEE

Eoeueoo?ieiaey i?eiaiyao ?acee/iua iaoiaeu eco/aiey eoeueoo?u. Aeaaiuie
ec ieo yaeythony:

1. Aeeao?iie/aneee iaoiae caeeth/aaony a eceiaeaiee yaeaiee, oaeoia,
niauoee ie?iaie e ioa/anoaaiiie eoeueoo?u a o?iiieiae/aneie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eo iiyaeaiey e i?ioaeaiey. Iaeiaei, oaeou ioaeii ia
oieueei eceiaeeoue, ii e i?iaiaeece?iaaoue, ioeaieoue, iaiaueoue.
Iiyoiio aeaiiue iaoiae aeiiieiyaony ae?oaeie, a /anoiinoe,
neio?iie/aneei iaoiaeii.

2. Neio?iie/aneee iaoiae ninoieo a niaieoiiii aiaeeca aeaoo eee
ianeieueeeo eoeueoo? ia ii?aaeaeaiiii yoaia eo ?acaeoey, n o/aoii
nouanoaothueo acaeiinaycae e aiciiaeiuo i?ioeai?a/ee. Anee
aeeao?iie/aneee iaoiae iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae aa?oeeaeueioth eeieth,
ia eioi?ie ioeeaaeuaathony ioaeiua aeaou, oi neio?iie/aneee – a?aoe/anee
iia au auaeyaeaoue a aeaea ai?eciioaeueiie eeiee, ia?anaeathuae
ianeieueei aa?oeeaeae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo ieeoeaoai?yao enoi?eth
eoeueoo?u eaeie – eeai no?aiu.

3. N?aaieoaeueii – enoi?e/aneee iaoiae ninoieo a n?aaiaiee ?aciuo
eoeueoo?. Ii iicaieyao onoaiaaeeaaoue iiaoi?yaiinoue eoeueoo?iuo
yaeaiee, i?enoueo ?aciui enoi?e/aneei yiioai e nioeeaeueiui nenoaiai.

4. No?oeoo?ii – ooieoeeiiaeueiue iaoiae caeeth/aaony a ?aceiaeaiee
eco/aaiiai iauaeoa ia ninoaaiua /anoe e auyaeaiee aioo?aiiae nayce,
iaoneiaeaiiinoe, niioiioaiey iaaeaeo ieie, a oae aea ii?aaeaeaiee eo
ooieoeee.

5. Naieioe/aneee iaoiae i?aaeiieaaaao ?anniio?aiea eoeueoo?u eae
ciaeiaie nenoaiu.

6. Iaoiae iiaeaee?iaaiey naycai n nicaeaieai iiaeaee ii?aaeaeaiiiai
ia?eiaea a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u.

7. Aeia?aoe/aneee iaoiae caeeth/aaony a aiaeeca aeeciaiiiai iooe
aeayoaey eoeueoo?u.

Eoeueoo?ieiaey eae naiinoiyoaeueiay iaoea eniieuecoao ?acee/iua
i?eioeeiu eco/aiey eoeueoo?u. Oeaaeai ia aeaa aaaeiaeoeo ec ieo:

1. I?eioeei enoi?ecia ninoieo a oii, /oi ana yaeaiey, niauoey, oaeou
eoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna ioaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a eiioaenoa oiai
enoi?e/aneiai a?aiaie, oao oneiaee (nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
iieeoe/aneeo, i?aanoaaiii – ineoieiae/aneeo e ae?.), a eioi?uo iie
i?ienoiaeeee. Anyeay iiiuoea “ecuyoey” ec niioaaonoaothuae yiioe e
ia?aianaiea a ie? nia?aiaiiuo e?eoa?eaa e ioeaiie yoeo yaeaiee i?ioeie
eoeueoo?u a?iceo oi?iuaieai, iaiiieiaieai e aeaaea aoeueaa?iui
eneaaeaieai enoi?eei – eoeueoo?iuo i?ioeannia.

2. I?eioeei oeaeinoiinoe caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eco/aiea ethaiai
ia?eiaea, yoaia a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u aeieaeii aeeth/aoue a naay ana
iiiaiia?acea yaeaiee, niauoee e oaeoia eoeueoo?u. Niaa?oaiii
iaaeiionoeii i?iecaieueiia oiie/aiea eee eneaaeaiea iiaeeeiiie ea?oeiu
niauoee. Yoio i?eioeei iniaaiii aaaeai i?e eco/aiee ino?uo e aeooaeueiuo
i?iaeai eoeueoo?u oiai eee eiiai iauanoaaiiiai oeeaaea, eiaaea ia/eiatho
aeiieie?iaaoue ia iao/iua eioa?anu, a iieeoe/aneea e ie?iaicc?ai/aneea
i?eno?anoey.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aeie I. Aiieiaey enoi?ee, eee ?aianei enoi?eea. – I.: Iaoea, 1996. –
256 n.

2. Aaaaeaiea a eoeueoo?ieiaeth: O/aa. iiniaea: A 3 /. /Iiae ?aae. A.A.
Nai?ueeia. – I.: IAEYI, 1995. – *. 1 – N. 3 – 17.

3. Aaeaeaiei I.I., Aeaauaeia TH.I. Enoi?ey e ?aoeeiiaeueiinoue:
Nioeeieiaey I. Aaaa?a e aaaa?ianeee ?aiannain. – I.: Iieeoecaeao, 1991.
– 367 n.

4. Eiiei E.A. Nioeeieiaey eoeueoo?u: O/aa. iiniaea. – I.: Eiain, 1996. –
280

5. Eoeueoo?a: oai?ee e i?iaeaiu: O/aa. iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia e
anie?aioia aoiaieo. niaoeeaeueiinoae /Iiae ?aae. O.O. Eociaoeiaie. – I.:
Iaoea, 1995. – N. 107 – 134.

6. Eoeueoo?ieiaey: O/aa. iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia iaaoiaieo.
Niaoeeaeueiinoae /Iiae ?aae. A.E. Aeia?uieiie. – I.: Ciaiea, 1993. – N.
3 – 66.

7. Eoeueoo?ieiaey : O/aa. iiniaea aeey nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee /Iiae ?aae. A.A. Ae?a/a. – ?inoia i/Ae.: Oaieen, 1995.- N.3-
22; 37 – 44.

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