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Aiie?

Aiie? (io o?. empire — eiia?ey) – noeeue a a?oeoaeoo?a e eneonnoaa
(aeaaiui ia?acii aeaei?aoeaiii) o??o ia?auo aeanyoeeaoee XIX aaea,
caaa?oathuee yaiethoeeth eeanneoeecia.

I?eaioe?oynue, eae e eeanneoeeci, ia ia?acoeu aioe/iiai eneonnoaa, aiie?
aeeth/ee a eo e?oa ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ianeaaeea a?oae/aneie A?aoeee e
eiia?neiai ?eia, /a?iay ec iaai iioeau aeey aiieiuaiey aaee/anoaaiiie
iiue e aieineie neeu: iiioiaioaeueiua oi?iu ianneaiuo ii?oeeia, aiaiioth
yiaeaiaoeeo a a?oeoaeoo?iuo aeaoaeyo e aeaei?a. Aiie? aeeth/ee a naay
oaeaea ioaeaeueiua ae?aaiaaaeiaoneea a?oeoaeoo?iua e ieanoe/aneea
iioeau.

Yoio noeeue neiaeeeny a iaae?ao eeanneoeecia, a eioi?ii iienee ecyuiie
i?inoiou oi?i e aeaei?a iinoaiaiii niaiythony no?aieaieai e eo
i?aaeaeueiie eaieaea?iinoe e iiioiaioaeueiie au?aceoaeueiinoe. E?aeiei
i?iyaeaieai yoie oaiaeaioeee aue i?iieeiooue a?aaeaeaineei iaoinii
no?iaue aneaoeci i?iaeoia E. I. Eaaeo e ?yaea a?oeoaeoi?ia yiioe Aaeeeie
o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee. Auaeaeiooua eie iiaua a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua eaeae noaee iniiaie ?acaeoey aiie?a, iieo/ay a
?acee/iuo no?aiao ?aciia enoieeiaaiea, i?iaeeeoiaaiiia ianoiuie
iniaaiiinoyie iauanoaaiiie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie. A ia?eiae eiia?ee
Iaiieaiia I oeaeyi i?ineaaeaiey oniaoia ainoaea?noaa neoaeeea
iaii?eaeueiay a?oeoaeoo?a (o?eoioaeueiua a?ee, iaiyoiua eieiiiu),
eiiaaea iiaoi?yaoay ae?aaia?eineea ia?acoeu (a?ea ia ieiuaaee Ea??ocaeue
a Ia?eaea). A ioaeaeea ia?i/eoi ia?aaeiuo eioa?uea?ia aeai?oeia, iioeau
aaeiaoneeo ?aeueaoia, yo?onneeo aac, iiiiaeneeo ?inienae, a?a/aneiai e
?eineiai aeaei?a, ?aiannainiuo o?anie e i?iaiaioia nicao/iu aiie?iie
iaaaee O. I. AEaeiaa e a?iiciaui ecaeaeeyi I. O. Oiie?a, noeeeciaaiiui a
aeooa i?aaeiaoia ianoaiiaee aiaaoiai ae?aaia?eineiai aeeeiai aeiia.
Aiie? iieo/ee naiiauoiua iaoeeiiaeueiua /a?ou a Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Aeaiee,
Eoaeee; a ?innee e a Aa?iaiee ii noae au?aceoaeai eaeae ainoaea?noaaiiie
iacaaeneiinoe, eioi?oth ia?iaeu yoeo no?ai ionoaeaaee a
aioeiaiieaiiianeeo aieiao.

A yoii noeea ana i?ecaaii iieacaoue ?ineioue: aiaaoua oyaeaeua
ae?aie?iaee, oe?aoaiey ec iaoaeea, ia noaiao — noa?eiiua a?aath?u,
/aeaiee eee ea?oeiu a e?aneauo ?aiao. Aeecaei a noeea aiie? ioee/aaony
oyaeaeiaaniinoueth, /aoeinoueth oi?i e caiuneiaaoinoueth ioaeaeee. Iaie
iiaeii caiaieoue oeaiueth e oeaiueth aea iaoyiooue aaaaeo?u anao eaii a
eiiiaoa.

Eo/oa ioaeaoue i?aaeii/oaiea iaaaee oaiiiai oeaaoa (/a?iiai, oeaaoa
eaooaia eee e?aniiai aea?aaa). E ionoue iia aoaeao i?ecaienoie – aiiaua
anaai aunieiai a eiiiaoao, auiieiaiiuo a noeea aiie?, eo/oa ecaaaaoue.
E?anea, iai?eia?, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa n ieceie nieieie, oe?ieea, iyaeea.
Eiiiaeu, aoiaeyuea niiaa a iiaeo, naienoaaiiu eiaiii yoiio noeeth. A
oaeie eiiiaoa oaeaea oianoiu eiaeaiay iaaaeue e ianneaiua iaiieueiua
naaoeeueieee n ieaoiiaie ec oeaie.

A na?aaeeia XIX aaea aiie? niaieeny ?acee/iuie yeeaeoe/iuie oa/aieyie,
ciaiaiiaaaoeie niaie e?ecen ooaeiaeanoaaiiie nenoaiu eeanneoeecia.

Eeanneoeeci

Eeanneoeeci (o?. classicisme, io eao. classicus — ia?acoeiaue) —
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue noeeue e ynoaoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea a aa?iiaeneii
eneonnoaa eiioea XVII – ia/aea XIX aa.

A iniiaa eeanneoeecia eaaeao eaeae ?aoeeiiaeecia, eaeouea ec oeeinioee
Aeaea?oa. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea, n oi/ee c?aiey eeanneoeecia,
aeieaeii no?ieoueny ia iniiaaiee no?iaeo eaiiiia, oai naiui iaia?oaeeaay
no?ieiinoue e eiae/iinoue naiiai ie?icaeaiey. Eioa?an aeey eeanneoeecia
i?aaenoaaeyao oieueei aa/iia, iaeciaiiia – a eaaeaeii yaeaiee ii
no?aieony ?aniiciaoue oieueei nouanoaaiiua, oeiieiae/aneea /a?ou,
ioa?anuaay neo/aeiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua i?eciaee. Ynoaoeea eeanneoeecia
i?eaea?o ia?iiiia cia/aiea iauanoaaiii-ainieoaoaeueiie ooieoeee
eneonnoaa. Iiiaea i?aaeea e eaiiiu eeanneoeeci aa?ao ec aioe/iiai
eneonnoaa (A?enoioaeue, Ai?aoeee).

A ciae/anoaa iiae eeanneoeeciii iiieiatho a?oeoaeoo?iue noeeue,
?ani?ino?ai?iiue a Aa?iia a XVIII — ia/aea XIX aa., aeaaiie /a?oie
eioi?iai auei ia?auaiea e oi?iai aioe/iiai ciae/anoaa eae e yoaeiio
aa?iiiee, i?inoiou, no?iainoe, eiae/aneie yniinoe e iiioiaioaeueiinoe.
A?oeoaeoo?a eeanneoeecia a oeaeii i?enoua ?aaoey?iinoue ieaie?iaee e
/aoeinoue iauaiiie oi?iu. Iniiaie a?oeoaeoo?iiai ycuea eeanneoeecia noae
i?aea?, a i?iii?oeeyo e oi?iao aeeceee e aioe/iinoe, neiiao?e/ii-inaaua
eiiiiceoeee, naea?aeaiiinoue aeaei?aoeaiiai oa?ainoaa, ?aaoey?iay
nenoaia ieaie?iaee ai?iaeia.

Eeanneoeeci iiaeoiaeeo aeey iniiaaoaeueiuo e eiina?aaoeaiuo ethaeae.
Aeey yoiai noeey oa?aeoa?iu yeaiaiou aioe/iie a?oeoaeoo?u, nieeaeiinoue
e aeaaea iaeioi?ay oyaeaeiaaniinoue. A nia?aiaiiii eioa?uea?a
eeanne/aneee noeeue iiaeao eiiaeie?iaaoueny n ae?oaeie noeeyie, ia?acoy
iiaua aa?eaiou.

Ioee/eoaeueiua /a?ou aeaiiiai noeey — neiiao?e/iinoue e oi/iinoue,
iiyoiio a aeaiiii neo/aa i/aiue oi?ioi aoaeoo niio?aoueny, iai?eia?,
iaaieueoea a?aath?u eee ea?oeiu iaeeiaeiaiai ?acia?a, neiiao?e/ii
?acaaoaiiua ia noaiao. Oeaaoiaoth aaiio ioaeii iiaeae?aoue inoi?iaeii,
ecaaaay ?aceeo, niaeuo, e?e/aueo e?anie. Iiaeieaeoo niieieiua,
iaeo?aeueiua, ii i?e yoii oaieua oiia: ana iooaiee ei?e/iaaiai,
iani/iue, ieeaeiaue. Iaie e eia?u i?aaeii/oeoaeueiu iaeiioiiiua eee n
iaa?ineei ?enoieii, /oiau ia ia?ooaoue oeaeinoiinoue i?ino?ainoaa.
Oaeiio eioa?uea?o i?enoua yeaaaioiay no?iaay iaaaeue aac eaaeiiuneaiiuo
caaeoooae. Aeaaiia a ioi?ieaiee naaoa — eeanne/iinoue oi?i eaii. Ieia
eo/oa caiaaaoeaaoue ooi?aie, oae eae aeaethce ia?ooatho noeeaaoth
aa?iiie/iinoue eioa?uea?a. Oi?io aoaeao anai ecaanoiue niinia
ae?aie?iaee ieia: eaaeea aeiaaiua caiaaane (otheue), a iiaa?o ieioiua
ii/iua ooi?u, iai?eia?, ec aa?oaoa.

Aa?ieei

Aa?ieei (eoae. barocco — «no?aiiue», «i?e/oaeeeaue»; ii?o) —
oa?aeoa?enoeea aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u XVII—XVIII aaeia, oeaio?ii eioi?ie
auea O?aioeey. Noeeue aa?ieei iiyaeeny a XVI—XVII aaeao a eoaeueyineeo
ai?iaeao: ?eia, Iaiooa, Aaiaoeee, Oei?aioeee. Eiaiii yiioo aa?ieei
i?eiyoi n/eoaoue ia/aeii o?eoioaeueiiai oanoaey «Caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee».

Aa?iiaeneea ianoa?a a yoi a?aiy noaee inaaeaaoue iiaue noeeue oa?ainoaa
aia?oaiaioia. Iinea iniiaaiey yoiai noeey ianoa?a ii nicaeaieth
eioa?uea?ia a?aiy io a?aiaie aica?auathony e aiooui iaaaeueiui iiaeeai,
iiciei/aiiie eaiieia e ieioiuo oeaiyo n aao?iiie. Aa/iay iieiaeinoue
yoiai noeey iauyniyaony i?inoi: ai ana a?aiaia ni?inii iieueciaaeenue
yeaiaiou, iiae/a?eeaathuea eciaeeea e ?ineioue.

A a?oeoaeoo?a ai?iaeneeo aeai?oeia e caai?iaeiuo ?aceaeaioeee
iiyaeythony auioeeua e aiaiooua oanaaeu, oe?aoaiiua aeouie eieiiiaie,
ieeyno?aie e eaiieiie. Neoeueioo?iue aeaei? i?enoonoaiaae eiiaaea a
oaeeo eiee/anoaao, /oi ca ieie oa?yeenue eiino?oeoeee caeaiey.
Aa?aeueaee/aneea aa?au, aio?u e aeiia?aaeiua eicu ianuuaee ia oieueei
oanaaeu, ii e yeaiaiou aeaei?a eioa?uea?ia.

A yoio ia?eiae noae iiioey?ai I-ia?aciue oei aeai?oea. Ii ninoiye ec
oeaio?aeueiie iino?ieee, a oaeaea ec aeaoo aieiauo aunooiia, eioi?ua
iacuaaeenue ?ecaeeoaie. Oaeia caeaiea oi?ioi ni/aoaaony n ia?eii,
eioi?ue ?acaeaaee iicaaee aeai?oea, a oaeaea ii/aoiui aeai?ii ia?aae
oanaaeii aeai?oea. Aeai? iau/ii ia?aaeaeaee a?iiciauie ?aoaoeaie,
iie?uouie iicieioie. Anee ?aiaa /a?ac ?au auee ia?aa?ioaiu aeaeaciua
iinou, oi a ia?eiae aa?ieei iiyaeeanue iiaea ia eaiaiiua iinou, eioi?ua
oe?aoatho noaooyie e ia?iiiuie aacaie aeey oeaaoia. Neaaeoao oaeaea
aniiiieoue i iiaiaaaaeaiee a?oeoaeoi?a Iaina?a, eioi?ue i?eaeae
oeaio?aeueiiio iiiauaieth ooieoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Oaia?ue e?iaee
caeaiee noaee oe?aoaoue iaina?aeaie, e iie noaee ai?acaei aieaa
aeeaiieniuie.

A caeaieyo noeey aa?ieei aanoeatheue aeieaeia oe?aoaoue ia?aaeiay
i?aii?iay eanoieoea, iaae iae iaoiaeeony ieaoii iioieea, eioi?ue
?ane?aoeaaaony y?eeie e?aneaie. *aua anaai iai?ioea eanoieoeu
ono?aeaaeny niaoeeaeueiue aaeeii aeey i?eano?a, eioi?ue eniieiye a
/anoue ainoae niioaaonoaothuoth iocueo. Ai aeai?oeao noeey aa?ieei
ia?aaeiua caeu iau/ii ono?aeaaeenue ia aoi?ii yoaaea. Iaaeaeo
iiiauaieyie iaoiaeyony oceea aaea?ae, eioi?ua oe?aoathony eieeaeoeeyie
i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa – ea?oeiaie, neoeueioo?aie, ecuneaiiuie aacaie
ia au/o?iuo iiaenoaaeao. Ieia yoeo aaea?ae iau/ii auoiaeyo a ia?e.

Iaeia ec oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o aa?ieei – i?ino?ainoaaiiue eeethcee, eioi?ua
nii?iaiaeaeatho eioa?uea?u yoiai noeey. Eiiiiiaiou, o?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey
aa?i/iuo eioa?uea?ia – ca?eaea, iioieee, noaiu, ye?aiu – ?anienaiu
ecia?aaeaieyie, iniiaaiiua ia ea?oeiao aeecie iaaiaeeoaeae. Ia noaiao
aenyo aiaaeaiu, ianouea ecia?aaeaiey iaecaaeae, oaeea aiaaeaiu iiaeii
oaeaeaoue e a nia?aiaiiuo aiaaouo aeiiao. Oi?aeanoaaiiue iaoin
eioa?uea?a oneeeaaaony i?e iiiiue iaeeey oyaeaeuo oeaiae, eia?ia,
aiaaouo naa?eathueo ethno?, iiciei/aiiie eaiieiu, a eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeaao
oaiaoeea ecia?aaeaiee eenoueaa e ieiaeia, ea?oooe e ianea?iiu.
E?eaieeiaeiua, ie?oaeua eiioo?u i?eaeatho aeaei?o aeeiaieeo e
aeeaiieniinoue.

?ineioue e aaeeeieaiea eioa?uea?a noeey aa?ieei oneeeaaao
niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii ioi?ieaiiay iaaaeue, eioi?ay, ia/eiay n XVII
aaea, noaiiaeony ana aieaa e aieaa ?aciiia?aciie. Yeaiaiou aeaei?a yoiai
noeey aiooeoaeueiu ii iauaio, a ieo /anoi i?eiaiyaony ?acueaa,
iaoaeee/aneea iaeeaaeee ec a?iicu e aeaai?iaeiuo iaoaeeia, a oaeaea
iicaeea ec ?acee/iuo ii?iae aea?aaa. Yiioa aa?ieei inoaaeea iioiieai
oaeie i?aaeiao, eae oaceiia, a oaeaea oae iacuaaaiua eaiaia – eooaoee ia
oanoe eee ainueie iiaeeao.

Ia niaio oea?eaoei a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey noiaeoeai a yiioo aa?ieei
i?eoee eiiiaeu, eieaeiua oeaou e ath?i.

Iaoa?ee a eioa?uea?a noeey aa?ieei oaeaeyeinue iniaia aieiaiea.
Yeaiaiou, auiieiaiiua ec iaoa?ee, aeieaeiu auee neyoue iniaie
?ineioueth. Oae aea, eae e a n?aaeiaaaeiauea, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu
oiaea?u – oeaiua eia?u aac ai?nu, eioi?uie caiaaaoeaaee noaiu aeiia.
E?iia oiaea?, aeey oneeaiey aia/aoeaiey ?ineioe, aeey ioaeaeee
eioa?uea?a /anoi eniieueciaaee aeacao (ia?/a). I?e iiiiue yoie iaoa?ee
ioi?ieyee noaiu, ieia e aeaa?e, iaaaeue. Aoaeoa?u oe?aoaeenue ooi?aie –
ieioiuie iieioiaie ni neiaeiui oeaiui ?enoieii. Ia oieueei a XVII aaea,
ii e a iicaeiea ia?eiaeu i?anoeaeiui aue aa?oao – yoa oeaiue n/eoaaony
iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iie aeey noeey aa?ieei.

Inaauaiea i?e iiiiue naa/ae i?eaeaaaei eioa?uea?ai XVII aaea
iaiiaoi?eiia ?iiaioe/aneia cao/aiea, iii ia?aaeaaaeinue ia ea?oeiao
ooaeiaeieeia oiai a?aiaie. Eiaiii iiae naa/e auee i?eaeoiaiu
?aciiia?aciua i?eai?u inaauaiey, eioi?ua io /enoi ooeeeoa?iiai
iacia/aiey noaee naiinoiyoaeueiuie yeaiaioaie aeaei?a. Yoi – eaiaeaeya?u
e aee?aiaeiee, oaiaeaeu e iiaenaa/ieee. O?onoaeueiay ethno?a –
iaycaoaeueiay aeaoaeue ethaiai eioa?uea?a «aeai?oeiaiai» oeia.

?ieiei

?ieiei (o?. rococo, io o?. rocaille — aeaei?aoeaiay ?aeiaeia, ?aeooea,
?ieaeeue) — noeeue a eneonnoaa (a iniiaiii, a aeecaeia eioa?uea?ia),
aicieeoee ai O?aioeee a ia?aie iieiaeia XVIII aaea eae ?acaeoea noeey
aa?ieei. Oa?aeoa?iuie /a?oaie ?ieiei yaeythony ecuneaiiinoue, aieueoay
aeaei?aoeaiay iaa?oaeaiiinoue eioa?uea?ia e eiiiiceoeee, a?aoeeiciue
i?iaiaioaeueiue ?eoi, aieueoia aieiaiea e ieoieiaee, y?ioe/aneei
neooaoeeyi, ee/iiio eiioi?oo. Iaeaunoaa ?acaeoea a a?oeoaeoo?a noeeue
iieo/ee a Aaaa?ee. Aiineaaenoaee noeeue ?ieiei niaieeny eeanneoeeciii.

Noeeue ?ieiei noae aeanoyuei caaa?oaieai noeey aa?ieei. A ianeaaenoai io
i?aaeuaeouaai noieaoey XVIII aae iieo/aao iniaia ynoaoe/aneia niciaiea,
a eioi?ii auniei?acaeoue ooaeiaeanoaaiiue aeon noaiiaeony aaaeiaa iiiaeo
ae?oaeo /aeiaa/aneeo ea/anoa. Aeon i?aaeiieaaae oiaiea ia oieueei
ioee/eoue i?ae?aniia e ciaoue, eae aai ainnicaeaoue, ii e oiaiea aeoaiei
ianeaaeaeaoueny oai?aieai. Anee aeey aa?ieei iaiaoiaeeia any aaiia
yiioeee — io ?aaeinoe aei o?aaaaeee, oi aeey ianeaaeaeathueony ?ieiei —
eeoue ecuneaiii oiieeo, ecyuiuo.

«Ecyuiue» — eeth/aaia neiai aeaiiie yiioe. Eiaiii oiaaea iaaethaeaaony
ooiae io aeecie a ie? oaioacee, oaao?aeeciaaiiie ea?u, ieoe/aneeo e
ianoi?aeueiuo nthaeaoia n iaycaoaeueiui iae?oii y?ioecia. Iiyoiio aeaaea
o auaeathueony ianoa?ia ecaeaeey oioy e aeaei?aoeaiu, a?aoeeiciu, ii
ianeieueei iiaa?oiinoiu.

Ia neo/aeii eiaiii a yoo yiioo i?eoiaeeo iiaea ia «eeoaeueio» eee
oeioac?e (chinoiserie). A eioa?uea?ao iiyaeythony ia?aaeaeaeiua oe?iu,
c?eoaeueii eciaiythuea i?ino?ainoai; aiaaeaiu n ecia?aaeaieyie oeaaoia,
iaaiae, ethaeae a eeoaeneie iaeaaeaea; ciaiaieoue eeoaeneee oa?oi?,
ecuneaiiua i?oeaeae, oiieinoaieueiua aea?aauey, aeaa?eoiiua ?uaee, a
oaeaea ecyuiay eaee?iaaiiay iaaaeue eeoaeneeo ianoa?ia, aoaeoi
nicaeaiiay aeey ?ieiei.

Aaeioiiaeoaeai noeey ?ieiei noae eoaeueyiaoe AE. I. Ianiiuea, a
i?iecaaaeaieyo eioi?iai aia?aua iiyaeythony i?e/oaeeeaua anneiao?e/iua
oi?iu.

Oioy yoio noeeue iacuaatho «noeeai Ethaeiaeea XV», ii, a ioee/ea, io
aa?ieei ii ia aue /enoi i?eaeai?iui eneonnoaii. Aieueoeinoai iino?iae
?ieiei — yoi /anoiua aeiia o?aioeocneie ciaoe e caai?iaeiua aeai?oeu.
Eiiiaou a ieo ia ?aniieaaaeenue aioeeaaeie, a ia?aciauaaee anneiao?e/iua
eiiiiceoeee. A oeaio?a iau/ii ?aniieaaaeny ia?aaeiue cae (naeii). Oaeu
eiiiao cae?oaeythony, ana noaiu oe?aoathony ?aciuie iaiaeyie,
iiciei/aiiuie i?iaiaioaie e ca?eaeaie, eioi?ua neiaii ?anoe?ytho
i?ino?ainoai, i?eaeaaay aio iaii?aaeae?iiinoue. Eiiiaou noaiiayony
iiiaiueoa e iiieaea, nicaeaaay aoiinoa?o eioeiiinoe, oa?aeoa?ioth aeey
aoaeoa?ia.

Ioi?ieaiea naeiiia e aoaeoa?ia neaaea ia?aianuuaii i?aaeiaoaie a ioee/ea
io aieaa naea?aeaiiie yiioe aa?ieei.

A eiei?eoa i?aiaeaaeatho iaaeiua ianoaeueiua oiia. Iaeaieaa iiioey?iua
oeaaoiaua ni/aoaiey — aaeia n aieoaui, cae?iui eee ?iciaui e iai?aiaiiia
cieioi.

Eiaiii a yiioo ?ieiei aia?aua aicieeaao i?aaenoaaeaiea ia eioa?uea?a,
eae oeaeinoiii ainaiaea: noeeaaii aaeeinoaa caeaiey, aeaei?a noai e
iioieeia, iaaaee e o.ae. E ieeiaaea ?aiaa eioa?uea? oae oi/ii ia
niioaaonoaiaae oa?aeoa?o aeeciaiiiai oeeaaea. Ana i?aaeiaou eioa?uea?a
ecaioiaeaiu n aieueoei aieiaieai e eiioi?oo e iaei/ai aeecie.

A naaoneeo aeiiao iaaaeue noaea ?annoaaeyoueny ii?aaeae?iiuie a?oiieaie
(iau/ii — noie, aeeaai e ianeieueei nooeueaa), nicaeaaay yoaeea «oeaio?u
oyaioaiey» aeey nia?aaoaainy iauanoaa.

Aeey oi?i iaaaee ?ieiei oa?aeoa?ai iieiue ioeac io aaoiiiiiinoe
ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee, neiiao?ee e i?yiuo eeiee. Aeaaiui
noaiiaeony no?aieaiea ?anoai?eoue aeaoaee a iauai iau?ia i?aaeiaoia.
Iaaea?ii iaaaeue ?ieiei eaaeaony aoaeoi au ioeeoie ec iaeiie ieanoe/iie
iannu.

A aeaei?aoeaiii oa?ainoaa iaaaee noeey ?ieiei ?acueaa ii aea?aao
caieiaao i/aiue ne?iiiia ianoi, aa caiaiytho a?iiciaua iaeeaaeee.
Eiiaaea aianoi oaia?iaee any iiaa?oiinoue i?aaeiaoia ia?aaaouaaeanue
oeaaoiuie eaeaie e oiaea aeaei?e?iaaeanue iaeeaaeeaie eee ciei/?iie
?acueaie.

Nae?aoa?, ii nooe aeaea, i?aaenoaaeye niaie i?aeoe/ioth eiiaeiaoeeth
eiiiaea, ienueiaiiiai noiea e eaaeiaoa. Iioaeiua yue/ee nae?aoa?ia
iau/ii caiieiyeenue ?acee/iie yienoiey?iie e iaioa?iie i?iaeoeoeeae,
aanueia ?ani?ino?ai?iiie a yoi a?aiy «a??c, ia/oaiee e eio?ea».

Eiaiii nae?aoa?u e eiiiaeu n aeaoiy yueeaie — iniiaiie aeae ei?ioniie
iaaaee a oi a?aiy.

Aeaaiue aea iioea eiiiaou ?ieiei — aaconeiaii eaiei: iaaunieee, iie?uoue
i?aii?iie ieeoie e canoaaeaiiue eaiaeaeya?aie, /anaie, oa?oi?iauie
«aacaeaeooeaie» e i?i/eie oe?aoaieyie. Iaae iei iau/ii aaoaeinue ca?eaei
a ?ineioiie ?aia.

A iaaaee aeey neaeaiey oaeaea ?iaeaeathony iiaua oi?iu: eaiaia (aeeaai a
oi?ia ianeieueeeo niaaeei?iiuo e?anae), oaceiia, aa?oa? (aeoaieia
e?anei). A oi?iao aeeaaiia e e?anae o/eouaathony e iniaaiiinoe iuoiie
aeaineie iaeaaeaeu. Iaaaeue oaia?ue noa?aaony auoue ia oieueei
?ai?acaioaoeaiie, ii e eiioi?oiie.

Aioeea

Aioeea — ia?eiae a ?acaeoee n?aaeiaaaeiaiai eneonnoaa, ioaaouaaaoee
ii/oe ana iaeanoe eoeueoo?u e ?acaeaaaoeeny ia oa??eoi?ee Caiaaeiie,
Oeaio?aeueiie e io/anoe Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu n XII ii XV aae. Aioeea i?eoea
ia niaio ?iiaineiio noeeth, iinoaiaiii auoaniyy aai. Oioy oa?iei
«aioe/aneee noeeue» /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony e a?oeoaeoo?iui nii?oaeaieyi,
aioeea ioaaouaaea oaeaea neoeueioo?o, aeeaiienue, eieaeioth ieieaoth?o e
o. ae.

Aioeea ca?iaeeeanue a XII aaea ia naaa?a O?aioeee, a XIII aaea iia
?ani?ino?aieeanue ia oa??eoi?eth nia?aiaiiuo Aa?iaiee, Aano?ee, *aoee,
Eniaiee, Aiaeee. A Eoaeeth i?iieeiiaaiea aioeee oei iicaeiaa, n aieueoei
o?oaeii e neeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeeae, i?eaaaeoae e iiyaeaieth
«eoaeueyineie aioeee». A no?aiu Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu aioeea i?iieeea
iicaeiaa e i?iaea?aeaeanue oai /ooue aeieueoa — aieioue aei XVI aaea.

Aioeea a naiai ?acaeoee iiae?acaeaeyaony ia ?aiithth aioeeo, Ia?eiae
?anoeaaoa, Iicaeithth aioeeo.

Oaioanoe/iua, i?aainoiaeyuea ana nouanoaothuea aei neo ii? eiino?oeoeee
aioeee i?aiaeieaaatho a?iiicaeeinoue eaiiy. Aneaaenoaea yoiai iniiaiuie
/a?oaie iiaoo n/eoaoueny e??aoeeiiaeeci, aeaiaoa?eaeecaoeey, no?aieaiea
aaa?o, ienoeea, eaaeinoue, yeni?anneaiinoue. Noaiu ia?anoatho auoue
eiino?oeoeaiui yeaiaioii, noaiiayony aieaa eaaeeie, iaeeoeiauaathony
aea?aaii eee oe?aoathony noaiiie ?inienueth y?eeo oeaaoia, ianoaiiuie
eia?aie.

Oa?aeoa?iuie yeaiaioaie aioe/aneiai noeey noaiiayony no?ieiua eieiiiu,
neiaeiua oi?iu naiaeia, aaeo?iua i?iaiaiou, ieia a oi?ia ?icu e
no?aeue/aoua naiaeu, ieiiiua noaeea a naeioeiaii ia?aieaiee, ec
auioeeiai noaeea, ii aac caiaaanae. Ea?oeiaie aeey oe?aoaiey eiiiao
iieuecothony ?aaeei. A oi aea a?aiy iiyaeyaony ii?o?aoiay aeeaiienue
ianeii e a?aath?u ii aea?aao. AEeaiienue e neoeueioo?a au?aceoaeueiu e
yeni?anneaiu. “Aioe/aneea ?icu”, e?ani/iua aeo?aaee, ?ane?aoaiiay
neoeueioo?a – ana yoi aiai?eo ia iniaie ?iee oeaaoa a n?aaeiaaaeiauea.
Aeiuaoua e eaoaeueiua iieu ?aiiaaioe/aneiai eioa?uea?a iicaeiaa
canoeeaeenue eia?aie.

Iioieee iau/ii aea?aayiiua aaei/iie eiino?oeoeee eee n ioe?uouie
ioi?ieaiiuie no?iieeaie; ano?a/aaony aeaei?aoeaiay ?inienue ia iioieea.

Oeaio? eioa?uea?a a aioe/aneii noeea – aiaaoi ioi?ieaiiue eaiei eee
eaoaeueiay ia/ue.

A oi?iiia?aciaaiee oyaeaeie e iaoeethaeae iaaaee aeiieie?oao eiie?iaaiea
a aea?aaa oea?eiaiie a?oeoaeoo?u. Oeie/iua iaaaeueiua ecaeaeey: aunieea
aeaonoai?/aoua oeaou n /aou?ueiy, oanoueth eee aeaayoueth oeeaieaie, a
oaeaea aooaou ia aunieeo iiaeeao.

Iniiaiua iaoa?eaeu: eaiaiue, i?aii?, aea?aai.

A aeaei?a eniieueciaaeanue ieeoi/iay iicaeea, iaeieeea; noiaeoee
iaoyaeaaee eiaeae, eniieueciaaeanue aiaaoay iaoaeee/aneay (aeaeaciay e
a?iiciaay) oo?ieoo?a, iioeau noaeaeoeoia. Oeao?iay eaiieia iiae/an
?anienuaaeanue e iie?uaaeanue iicieioie. Auei i?eiyoi eniieueciaaoue a
i?iaiaioa aa?au.

Oeaaoiaay aaiia: e?aniua, neiea, aeaeoua, ei?e/iaaua iooaiee + cieioua e
na?aa?yiua ieoe, a oaeaea io?io?iua, ?oaeiiaua, enneiy-/a?iua,
aaicaee/ii-?iciaua, caeaiua iooaiee.

Iiaea?i

Iiaea?i (io o?. moderne — nia?aiaiiue) — ooaeiaeanoaaiiia iai?aaeaiea a
eneonnoaa, auaoaa iiioey?iui ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX — ia/aea XX aaea.
Aai ioee/eoaeueiuie iniaaiiinoyie yaeythony: ioeac io i?yiuo eeiee e
oaeia a iieueco aieaa anoanoaaiiuo, «i?e?iaeiuo» eeiee, eioa?an e iiaui
oaoiieiaeyi, ?anoeaao i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa. Iiaea?i no?aieeny
ni/aoaoue ooaeiaeanoaaiiua e ooeeeoa?iua ooieoeee nicaeaaaaiuo
i?iecaaaeaiee, aiaea/ue a noa?o i?ae?aniiai ana noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaaea.

Iiaea?i no?aieeny noaoue aaeeiui neioaoe/aneei noeeai, a eioi?ii ana
yeaiaiou ec ie?oaeaiey /aeiaaea auee auiieiaiiua a iaeiii eeth/a.
Aneaaenoaea yoiai a yoio ia?eiae aic?in eioa?an e i?eeeaaeiui
eneonnoaai: aeecaeio eioa?uea?ia, ea?aieea, eieaeiie a?aoeea.

?ani?ino?aiaieth iiaea?ia niinianoaiaaei i?iaaaeaiea anaie?iuo aunoaaie,
ia eioi?uo aeaiiino?e?iaaeenue aeinoeaeaiey nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee e
i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa. Iaeaieueooth ecaanoiinoue iiaea?i iieo/ee ia
anaie?iie aunoaaea a Ia?eaea (1900). Iinea 1910 cia/aiea iiaea?ia noaei
oaanaoue.

A?oeoaeoo?o iiaea?ia ioee/aao, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, no?aieaiea e
nicaeaieth iaeiia?aiaiii e ynoaoe/anee e?aneauo, e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
caeaiee. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue ia oieueei aiaoiaio aeaeo
caeaiee, ii e aioo?aiiaio eioa?uea?o, eioi?ue ouaoaeueii i?i?aaaouaaeny.
Ana eiino?oeoeaiua yeaiaiou: eanoieoeu, aeaa?e, noieau, aaeeiiu
ooaeiaeanoaaiii ia?aaaouaaeenue.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo a?oeoaeoi?ia, ?aaioaaoeo a noeea iiaea?i, aue
aaeueaeaoe Aeeoi? I?oa (1861—1947). A naieo i?iaeoao ii aeoeaii
eniieueciaae iiaua iaoa?eaeu, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, iaoaee e noaeei.
Ianouei eiino?oeoeeyi, auiieiaiiui ec aeaeaca, ii i?eaeaaae iaiau/iua
oi?iu, iaiiieiathuea eaeea-oi oaioanoe/aneea ?anoaiey. Eanoie/iua
ia?eea, naaoeeueieee, naenathuea n iioieea, aeaaea aeaa?iua ?o/ee — ana
ouaoaeueii i?iaeoe?iaaeinue a aaeeiii noeea. Ai O?aioeee eaeae iiaea?ia
?acaeaae Yeoi? Aeia?, nicaeaaoee, a oii /enea, aoiaeiua iaaeeueiiu
ia?eaeneiai iao?i.

Aua aeaeueoa io eeanne/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia a?oeoaeoo?a oo?e Aioiie
Aaoaee. Caeaiey, nii?oae?iiua ei, ianoieueei i?aaie/anee aienuaathony a
ie?oaeathuee iaecaae, /oi eaaeoony aeaeii ?oe i?e?iaeu, a ia /aeiaaea.

Noeeue iiaea?i a iiiauaiee iiiiaeao ?ane?uoue ooii/aiiinoue e y?eoth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue aeaaeaeueoea. Eeiee a iiaea?ia ecuneaiiua, ieaaiua
e iyaeea, iaiiieiatho ?anoeoaeueiue i?iaiaio; aio i?enoua iaeneiaeueiia
auyaeaiea oaeoo?u e ieanoe/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae iaoa?eaea.

Ieieiaeeci

Ieieiaeeci (io aiae. minimal art) — ooaeiaeanoaaiiia oa/aiea, enoiaeyuaa
ec ieieiaeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeee eniieuecoaiuo a i?ioeanna oai?/anoaa
iaoa?eaeia, i?inoiou e aaeeiiia?acey oi?i, iiiio?iiiinoe, oai?/aneiai
naiiia?aie/aiey ooaeiaeieea. Aeey ieieiaeecia oa?aeoa?ai ioeac io
noauaeoeaiinoe, ?ai?acaioaoeee, eeethceiiecia. Ioaa?aay eeanne/aneea
i?eaiu oai?/anoaa e o?aaeeoeeiiiua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iaoa?eaeu,
ieieiaeenou eniieuecotho i?iiuoeaiiua e i?e?iaeiua iaoa?eaeu i?inouo
aaiiao?e/aneeo oi?i e iaeo?aeueiuo oeaaoia, iaeuo iauaiia, i?eiaiytho
na?eeiua, eiiaaea?iua iaoiaeu eiaeono?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. A?oaoaeo
a ieieiaeenoneie eiioeaioeee oai?/anoaa — ii?aaeaeaiiue ca?aiaa
?acoeueoao i?ioeanna aai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ieieiaeeci aiciee a NOA a ia?aie iieiaeia 60-o aa. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiui
i?aaeoanoaaiieeii ieieiaeecia yaeyaony aia?eeaineee ooaeiaeiee O?aie
Noaeea, i?aaenoaaeaoee a 1959-60 na?eth «*a?iuo ea?oei», aaea
i?aaaee?iaaee oii?yaei/aiiua i?yiua eeiee.

Ieieiaeeci, a e?aeiai naiai au?aaeaiee, no?aieony iieiinoueth
ioeacaoueny io eniieueciaaiey aeaei?aoeaiuo n?aaenoa, n/eoay, /oi aeey
a?oeoaeoo?u aeinoaoi/ii iaee/ey noai e e?uoe, a aeey eioa?uea?a –
e?iaaoe e noiea. Ieieiaeenoe/aneea caeaiey, ai?i/ai, iiaoo eiaoue
aeiaieueii neiaeioth eiioeao?aoeeth, i?iaeeeoiaaiioth oa?aeoa?ii e
aiciiaeiinoyie iaoa?eaea. Iiaeoeueiua aaoiiiua eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua
aaae a iiaeo yiiineee a?oeoaeoi? Oaaeai Aiaei, iiaeneacuaatho no?iaee,
aaiiao?e/aneee iiaeoiae, a eniieueciaaiea iiiieeoiiai aaoiia iicaieyao
aiieiuaoue ieanoe/iua e a oi aea a?aiy eaeiie/iua oi?iu. Iaeiaei a
ethaii neo/aa aeieaeii auiieiyony iniiaiia o?aaiaaiea: iacaaeneii io
neiaeiinoe caaea/a aeieaeia auoue ?aoaia ieieiaeueiuie (oioy au ia aeae)
n?aaenoaaie. Ieeaeeo eceeoanoa, aeaoaeae eee neiaeiie ioaeaeee.
AEaeaoaeueii, /oiau aeaaea eiino?oeoeaiua yeaiaiou auee ne?uou, ia
a?inaeenue a aeaca. Ana aieiaiea ioaeaaony iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiiio
?aoaieth, e aai aacoi?a/iinoue ia ioaeaeaaony a aeiiieieoaeueiuo
oe?aoaieyo. Ii aieueoiio n/aoo aeey ieieiaeenoia ia nouanoaoao
eioa?uea?a, aa?iaa, eo/oei eioa?uea?ii n/eoaaony aai ionoonoaea.
Ioaeaeea — naiay i?eieoeaiay, a eo/oai neo/aa e?anea ia noaiao e
ia?eaoiay aeinea ia iieo. Iaycaoaeueiia oneiaea — iiiio?iiiinoue,
a?aoe/iinoue, iaeeea naiaiaeiiai i?ino?ainoaa. Aeiioneaaony i?enoonoaea
oieueei naiie iaiaoiaeeiie iaaaee, e iia aeieaeia eiaoue iaeneiaeueii
i?inoua eiioo?u. Eaeaaeueiue aa?eaio — ionoay eiiiaoa, a eioi?ie noiyo
iaeeiieay e?iaaoue, eee ?aai/ee noie n e?aneii, eee aeeaai n
oaeaaeci?ii. Ana ooieoeeiiaeueiua yeaiaiou, eioi?ua ia iaeaaeatho
aeinoaoi/iie iiiieeoiinoueth e noa?eeueiinoueth oi?i, i?y/oony ca
ia?aai?iaeeaie. Aaeeinoaaiii aeiionoeiua aeaei?aoeaiua aeeth/aiey —
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua iauaeou, ?aciauaiiua oae, /oiau ie/oi ia iaoaei
ianeaaeaeaoueny eo nica?oeaieai.

I?e oaeii eaieaea?iii iiaeoiaea iniiaiui eino?oiaioii, nicaeathuei
oa?aeoa? e iano?iaiea eioa?uea?a, yaeyaony naao. Anoanoaaiiia inaauaiea
a ?aciia a?aiy nooie e anaaiciiaeiua aeaeu eneonnoaaiiie iiaenaaoee
aeieaeiu auoue i?iaeoiaiu aei iaeue/aeoeo iiae?iaiinoae. Aaaeue eiaiii
naao niiniaai iaeeaeyoue e o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue i?ino?ainoai.

Oae-oae

Oae-oae (io aiae. high technology — aunieea oaoiieiaee) — noeeue a
a?oeoaeoo?a e aeecaeia, ca?iaeeaoeeny a iaae?ao iinoiiaea?ienoneie
a?oeoaeoo?u a 1970-a e iaoaaeoee oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a 1980-a.
Iniiaiiieiaeieee e naiua y?eea i?aaenoaaeoaee — ?e/a?ae ?iaeaea?n,
?aioei Ieaii, Ii?iai Oinoa?.

Iniiaiua /a?ou:

Eniieueciaaiea i?yiuo eeiee e i?inouo oeao?.

Oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea noaeea, ieanoeea, iaoaeea.

O?oa/aoua eiino?oeoeee ec iaoaeea e eanoieoeu, auaaaeaiiua ia?oaeo
caeaiey.

Aeaoeaio?e?iaaiiia inaauaiea, nicaeathuaa yooaeo i?inoi?iiai, oi?ioi
inaau?iiiai iiiauaiey.

Oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea na?aa?enoi-iaoaeee/aneiai oeaaoa.

Aunieee i?aaiaoeci a ieaie?iaaiee i?ino?ainoaa.

*anoia ia?auaiea e yeaiaioai eiino?oeoeaecia e eoaecia.

Noeeue oae-oae /anoi iacuaatho eioa?uea?ai aunieeo oaoiieiaee. Ii nooe
aeaea, yoio noeeue i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeai yeieiae/aneiio, ainoi/iiio.
Iniiaiie aai i?eioeei — oi?ie?iaaiea ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu ec nai?iuo
oaoie/aneeo aeaoaeae, a oaeaea noaeea, iaoaeea e aaoiia.

Eioa?uea?u a noeea oae-oae — yoi aa?iiie/iia ni/aoaiea i?ino?ainoaa e
naaoa, oi?iu i?aaeiaoia e eo oeaaoa iethn eaeaaeueiua i?iii?oeee. A
oeaaoa e iaoa?eaea ieeaeeo iniauo i?aaeii/oaiee o oaeiai noeey iao.
Iiaeii i?eiaiyoue ana /oi oaiaeii: e?aneo, eioi?ay aeaao aeaaeeoth,
aeanoyuoth iiaa?oiinoue, oooeaoo?eo, aeeaeeea eee iauaiiua iaie n
eioa?aniui ?aeueaoii, ea?aie/aneoth ieeoeo eee iaoo?aeueiue eaiaiue,
eaieie?iaaiiia aea?aai, eeiieaoi.

Iaaaeue aeieaeia auoue iioiaea ia ioenioth: ieanoee, eiaecaiaieoaeue,
iiee?iaaiiue iaoaee.

Eioa?uea?u yoiai noeey ioee/atho /aoeinoue e eiie?aoiinoue,
aeaeiaeoinoue. ?enoieia iao, aeaei?aoeaiuo yeaiaioia oiaea. Iiaa?oiinoe
noai, iioieea e iiea aeieaeiu auoue eaeaaeueii aeaaeeeie e /enouie, e,
niioaaonoaaiii, iaaaeue, oeaie, iinoaea oaeaea aeieaeiu auoue aeaaeeeie
e aeanoyueie.

A oaeii eioa?uea?a aoaeao oianoii ana eaaeia, n /aoeeie aaiiao?e/aneeie
oi?iaie. Oaea/ii iiaeia?aiiua nooeuey, e?anea eee aeeaai ec
o?iie?iaaiiiai iaoaeea e eiaecaiaieoaey niio?yony i/aiue noeeueii,
i?aeoe/iu e oaeiaiu.

Aianoi oeaoa a oae-oaeianeii eioa?uea?a eo/oa iiianoeoue noaeeaaeiua
iiaeoee n cae?uouie e ioe?uouie naeoeeyie. Iie iiaoo auoue ec ethaiai
iaoa?eaea — ieanoeeiaua eee aea?aayiiua iieee, oe?aieaiiua ia
iaoaeee/aneii ea?eana ec iiee?iaaiiuo o?oa.

Ana iaoaeee/aneea yeaiaiou iaaaee e oo?ieoo?a aeieaeiu auoue
na?aa?enouie, aeanoyueie.

Yoie/aneea noeee

Aiaeeeneee noeeue. Iiae?acoiaaaao, /oi noaiu ie?aoaiu a
ineaieoaeueii-aeaeoue, y?ei-e?aniue eee iyaeea e?aiiaua oiia. Ia
aea?aayiiuo iieao — oienoua e othoiua oa?noyiua eia?u. Iaycaoaeueiui
ao?eaooii aiaeeeneie ainoeiie yaeyaony iyaeee oa?noyiie ieaae n
eeao/aoui oci?ii, a oaeaea neaiaa/ea aeey iia. AEeeeua oe?aoaii
oyaeaeie, ii i?e yoii ecyuiie iiee?iaaiiie iaaaeueth. A Aiaeee ?icu
iiaeii ano?aoeoue ia oieueei a ia?eao, ii e aeiaieueii /anoi ia
aa?aeeiao, iaaaeueiie iaeaea. Ni/aoaiea oeaiae a eioa?uea?a aiaeeeneeo
ainoeiuo ia ia?aue acaeyae eaaeaony ianeieueei oaioe/iui, ii a oi aea
a?aiy no?iaay eeaoea i?ae?anii niio?eony ?yaeii n aieaa eaaeiiuneaiiui
oeaaoi/iui oci?ii.

Eiaeeeneee noeeue. I?aeiouanoaaiii ae?thciaua, i?aiaeaaua, iaeeiiaua
oeaaoa, i?e/ai i/aiue i?eaeiaeueiua. Eiaeeeneee oaee ia oaeie aeaaeeee e
neieueceee ia iuoiue, eae eeoaeneee, a iaiiiai oa?ioiaao. Iaaaeue a
eiaeeeneeo aeiiao aeieaeia auoue ieceie, auieeaiiie a?o/ioth ec oeea
(i/aiue oaa?aeay ii?iaea). Iaeia ec naiuo oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae
eiaeeeneiai noeey — eaaeay o?ainoi?iaoeey aeaoaeae aeiia: nooeue/eee e
noieu, oe?iu, noaaie e aeaa?e ca/anooth caiaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa.

Neaiaeeiaaneee (oaaaeneee) noeeue. Aeaaiua /a?ou yoiai noeey —
iaoo?aeueiinoue, i?inoioa e anoanoaaiiinoue. Aeiuaoua iieu ec naaoeie
ae?aaaneiu, naaoeua aea noaiu, naiay i?inoay aea?aayiiay iaaaeue. E?anee
aeey iie?uoey iiea e iaaaee anee e i?eiaiythony, oi oaeaea naaoeuo
iaoo?aeueiuo oiiia (na?iaaoua, aaaeaaua, aieoaiaaoua, caeaiiaaoua
iooaiee). Eae oaeiaia aeaei?e?iaaiea caeanue i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaoao,
ii, ianiio?y ia yoi, ana auaeyaeeo i/aiue naiiauoii.

N?aaeecaiiiii?neee noeeue. I/aiue y?eee noeeue, n iiiaeanoaii nieioea,
ii?y, caeaie. I?aiaeaaeathuea oeaaoa: cieioenoi-i?aiaeaaue, ei?e/iaaue,
neiaaaoi-caeaiiaaoue. Oaa?ey e?anie — ia y?ei ie?aoaiiuo noaiao, ia
iieao n aueiaeaiiui oci?ii ec i?aii?iie eee oeaaoiie ieeoee.
I?iniao?eaaaony iaeay a?oaiaaoinoue e ia?iaiinoue noai, oaeoo?iinoue,
«?oeioai?iinoue» eo ioaeaeee e iie?anee. Aieueoea ieia aeieaeiu
i?iioneaoue iiiai nieia/iiai naaoa.

ssiiineee noeeue. Ii iiaieth aeecaeia?ia, naiue aino?aaiaaiiue
yoiinoeeue ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue. Yoi ieieiaeenoneee aeaei?aoeaiue
noeeue, a eioi?ii ie/oi ia aeieaeii ia?aa?oaeaoue aieiaiea, i?ino?ainoai
no?oeoo?e?iaaii niieieii e aiyoii. I?e/eiie oaeie iniaaiiinoe yaeyaony
oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi a oa??eoi?eaeueii iaaieueoie, ia?aianaeaiiie
no?aia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue oeaieony i?ino?ainoai. Iiyoiio aea e
aioo?aiiaa ono?ienoai iiiauaiee naiaeeo e ieieioio iaaaeue e i?i/ea
i?eau/iua ao?eaoou aeiia, /oiau eiiiaine?iaaoue aai aeaoeoeeo. Oaeaea o
yiiioeaa niaa?oaiii iniaia ioiioaiea e i?e?iaea, e a nayce n yoei
yiiineee noeeue annioeee?oaony n i?e?iaeiuie oeaaoaie, /aua anaai a
naaoeie aaiia: aaeue, e?aiiaue, iiei/iue, iooaiee aaaeaaiai. Aeey
yiiineie iaaaee oaeaea oa?aeoa?iu naea?aeaiiua naaoeua oiia,
iiaa?oiinoue eae iaaaee, oae e noai — aeaaeeay, aac oaeoo?u. Oeaie oiaea
aaeua eee e?aiiaua, eae i?aaeei, iaoo?aeueiua — oeiiie e oaee.

Eiaeeeneee noeeue. Nia?aiaiiiio eiaeeeneiio noeeth oa?aeoa?iu:
ae?thciaua, iaeeiiaua, i?aiaeaaua oeaaoa, i?e/ai niaa?oaiii iaiiaoi?eiua
a naiai ?iaea. Eiaeeeneee oaee ia iuoiue ia oaeie aeaaeeee e neieueceee,
eae eeoaeneee, iaiiiai oa?ioiaao. Iaaaeue a eiaeeeneeo aeiiao ieceay,
auieeaiiay a ?o/ioth ec i/aiue i?i/iiai aea?aaa. Oa?aeoa?iay
iniaaiiinoue – eaaeay o?ainoi?iaoeey aeaoaeae aeiia: nooeue/eee e noieu,
oe?iu, noaaie e aeaa?e /anoi “iaiythony ?ieyie”. Iuoiay aaeo?iay ?acueaa
a eiaeeeneii iaaaeueiii eneonnoaa – naeaeaoaeuenoai iniaie no?anoe
eiaeonia e aeaei?o, oe?aoaieyi, iie eniieueciaaee aeey i?iaiaioeee
ethaoth aiciiaeiinoue.

Ao?eeaineee noeeue. Iiaeaeoe, naiue yecioe/iue ec yoiinoeeae.

Eaoa, ?anoi?aiu, aa?u aiciiaeii aeaei?e?iaaoue aeey nicaeaiey iieiie
eeethcee i?enoonoaey ia ao?eeaineii eiioeiaioa. Caeanue aeey aeecaeia?a
ioe?uaathony ia?iiiua oai?/aneea aiciiaeiinoe, e oaia?ue ana caaeneo io
aai oaioacee e i?ioanneiiaeecia.

Ethaia iiiauaiea aoaeao auaeyaeaoue eoaea eae yooaeoii, anee aai
aeaei?e?iaaoue eueiyiuie naeoaoeaie e caiaaaneaie n auoeouie oeao?eaie
aee?aoia e oea?ia, aea?aayiiuie aacaie, oe?aoaiiuie aaiaoeiauie
iaei/eaie, iiaeiinaie e noaaie?aie ec ao?eeaineiai eaiiy. Aeey oiai
/oiau nicaeaoue o naay a aeiia aoiinoa?o ao?eeaineiai naoa?e,
i?eaiaeyony eaiiu, iinoaea, iiaeooee, iaeayea e aeaaea iaaaeue n
?enoieii, eieoe?othuei iao aeeeeo aeeaioiuo, iai?eia? caa?u. Ianee ia
noaiao iiiauaiey i?eaeaaeoo iniaue eiei?eo.

Anee ?anniao?eaaoue oeaaoiaoth aaiio, ?aeiiaiaeoaony ainiieueciaaoueny,
aeaeouie, e?aniuie, i?aiaeaauie e ae?oaeie oaieuie oiiaie
neiaieece?othueie aea?eee eeeiao eiioeiaioa.

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