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Стиль рококо в искусстве и костюме

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Niaea?aeaiea

Einothi a Ae?aaiae ?one IX-XIII a

Aaei?onneee ia?iaeiue einothi

Ioaeneay iaeaaeaea aeeoaey Ae?aaiaai Eeoay

Noeeue ?ieiei a eneonnoaa e einothia (XVIII a.)

O?aioeocneee einothi

Aeaeu eneonnoaa noeey ?ieiei: a?oeoaeoo?u, a?aoeee,
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa, aeeaiiene.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Einothi a Ae?aaiae ?one IX-XIII a

A VIII-IXaa. Ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie (eee ?onneie)
?aaieiu aeeee ieaiaia ainoi/iuo neaayi. O?e iniiau ?aaieiiie i?e?iaeu
ea?aee aaaeioth ?ieue a aeecie ieai?i e ieacuaaee aeeyiea ia oiae e
?acaeoea eo aeecie.

Aiciiaeii, iaeeea iiiaiaiaeiuo e iaaeeaiii oaeoueo ?ae ?onneie ?aaieiu
iiaeeyei ia oa?aeoa? ethaeae, iaee/aaoeony niieieiui, iaaeeeoaeueiui e
aeia?iaeooiui i?aaai.

Ei?ioeia eaoi e aeieaay oieiaeiay ceia n aeoaieei niaaeiui iie?iaii e
iaoaeyie i?eioaeeee ?onneiai e?anoueyieia e /?acia?iiio e?aoeia?aiaiiiio
iai?yaeaieth naieo nee, e ?aaioa nei?i, ii caoai a oa/aiea aeieaiai
inaiiaa-ceiiaai ia?eiaea oaii aai ?aaiou noaiiaeony caiaaeeaiiui.

Aaei?onneee ia?iaeiue einothi

Naeoa, eaooai ec aeiiioeaiiai noeia. Ii naiaio iie?ith e oeaaoa naeou
auee ?aciua. Iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiie auea naeoa i?yiiai
oaeaoiiiaeiaiiai e?iy, /oi i?aeiouanoaiaaei a naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe
Aaei?onnee. A thaeiie /anoe nouanoaiaaea i?eoaeaiiay naeoa, oa?aeoa?iue
e?ie eioi?ie auaeaeyee aieiaua eeeiuey (onu); nieiea aeaeaeanue ec
oeaeiai eonea oeaie. A oeaio?aeueiuo ?aeiiao oeee oaeaea naeoo n
io?aciie nieieie, /oi niae?aeanue ieaea oaeee. A thaeiie /anoe auea,
eiia/ii, e naeoa, aieiaua auoi/ee eioi?ie aeaeaee ieaea oaeee; a
iaeioi?uo neo/ayo aeaeaee ncaaee, i?e/?i nieiea ia?aaeei, caeai/eaaeanue
?ac?aciui oaii ii oaeee.

Auoiaeiay naeoa aeaei?e?iaaeanue ?aciioeaaoiuie oio?eaie, eenoyie,
eioi?ua iaoeaaeenue ii ai?ioieeo, ea?iaiao, ?oeaaao, oaeaeao. Oeaao
naeou eciaiyeny a caaeneiinoe io nioeeaeueiiai aae?ana e ?aaeiiaeueiie
o?aaeeoeee. Ia oa??eoi?ee io Niieainea e A?yinea ia ainoiea aei ?aee
Aa?aceia ia caiaaea aeiieie?iaaee aaeua, e naaoei-na?ua oeaaoa naeou, a
Iiiaiiiee i?aeiouanoaiaae na?ue, a a Oeaio?aeueiie Aaei?onnee aianoa n
na?ui ano?a/aeanue naeoa /??iiai oeaaoa. *??iue oeaao naeou (eae e
aaeue) ioua?uaae nouanoaaiioth cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ia?yaeiaie
neiaieeea aaei?onia. A Caiaaeiii Iieanuea aianoa n o?iii-na?ie ano?a/aee
naeoo ao?iai e iaiaeueii-na?iai oeaaoa.

Eaeaae e?aniou

I?aaenoaaeoaee Ainoiea e Caiaaea anaaaea ioia/aee iniaoth e?anioo
?one/ae. Ioae/eia n/eoaeny e?aneaui, anee eiae aunieee ?ino,
i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia oaeineiaeaiea, Eiaea ?onneeo ioae/ei aeiiiiaieueneiai
ia?eiaea auea aaeie, aieinu ?onua, a?iae e ?anieoeu /??iua, aeaca iau/ii
na?ua, eeoei ?oiyiia. Iniaay noaoue – oe?ieea iea/e e oiieay oaeey –
auea iniaaiiinoueth ?onneeo ioae/ei.

Ia Ainoiea ainoeuaeenue e?anioie ?onneeo eoioeia. ?onneea aeaiueiu
oaeaea ioee/aeenue e?aneaie aiaoiinoueth. Ana eiicaioeu ioia/aee, /oi
?onneea aeaiueiu auee aunieeie, aaeieiaeeie, aaeieo?uie, n y?eei
?oiyioeai, /??iuie «niaieeiuie» a?iayie e aieoauie aeacaie. Aaee/aaay,
ianiaoiay iioiaeea, e?aneaay inaiea auee eae au anoanoaaiiuie
i?iyaeaieyie aeainoaaiiinoe, iyaeinoe e naea?aeaiiinoe.

Aeaeu e oi?iu iaeaaeaeu. Oaenoeeue. No?iaue eeeiao ieacae na?ue?ciia
aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea einothia e aai aeaeia a Ae?aaiae ?one. Iaeaaeaeu
auee o?ieuie e cae?uouie, oe?iei eniieueciaaeny iao. I?e?iaeiua e
eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey neacaeenue ia oi?iao, aeaeao e anni?oeiaioa
?onneeo iaeaaeae.

Ae?aaia?onneea iaeaaeaeu auee ianeieueei ei?i/a aecaioeeneeo. Iaeiaei
ei?ioeea iaeaaeaeu iineoue n/eoaeinue iai?eee/iui. Iaeaaeaeu a iniiaiii
auee iaeeaaeiuie: o ioae/ei – eaooai eeaaneee, ?oaaoa, ooieea; o
aeaiuei- ?oaaoe, iaa?oaeieee, caiiiu e naeou. Ae?aie?othueany iaeaaeaeu
ia ?one ia i?eaeeeenue, eo ii/oe ia iineee aeaaea n?aaee ciaoe.
Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeye eeoue ieau ei?cii.

Iineieueeo iniiaiui caiyoeai ?one/ae auei caieaaeaeea e neioiaiaenoai,
oi aeaaiuie aeaeaie oaenoeey noaee e?i e oa?noue. Eniieueciaaeenue
oaeaea oeaie ec iaiueee e eiiiiee: iano?yaeue e iineiieia. Iano?yaeue
eiaea oci?u ec ieoie e?aniiai, neiaai eee cae?iiai oeaaoa. Aeiaieueii
/anoi yoi auee eeaoee e ?iiau.

I?inoie ethae iinee iineiiiua ?oaaoe. Ioaaeaiiay iineiieia ii/oe ia
ioee/aeanue io eueiyiie oeaie. Ii e?i aue an?-oaee naiie
?ani?ino?ai?iiie, iiioey?iie e aeaaea ethaeiie oeaiueth n?aaee ?one/ae.
Ii aue ?aciie au?aaioee e ?aciiai ea/anoaa. Ec aaeiai iieioia oeee
ia?yaeiua iaeaaeaeu, ec no?iaiai – thaee, ii?ou e ae?. Ia ?one n
aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe iiae ?oaaoeie e ae?oaeie aa?oieie iaeaaeaeaie iineee
ieaeithth iaoaeueioth ?oaaoo ec oiieiai ?iaiiai aaeiai iieioia, oae
iacuaaaioth eniiaeithth ?oaaoo, «…Nia?aiaiiia iacaaiea «aaeue?»
i?ienoiaeeo io ae?oaiai noa?eiiiai neiaa «aaeue?» -aae?iua oeaie».

Ana oeaaoiua oeaie iacuaaeenue e?aoaiuie.

A oieiaeiue ia?eiae aiaea iineee iaeaaeaeu ec oa?noe. I?inoua ethaee n
aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe oiaee ecaioiaeyoue oa?noyioth oeaiue ec iaa/ueae
oa?noe- na?iyaeiia noeii( na?iyao), oaaeoaa ia ecaioiaeaiea o?ieuo
iaeaaeae. Ia eiyaeaneeo aeai?ao oeaee aunieiea/anoaaiiua oa?noyiua
oeaie. Yoei caieiaeenue niaoeeaeueii iao/aiiua ?aaioieee.

A aeiiiiaieueneie ?one oiaee ecaioiaeyoue oaeaea iaaeaiua oa?noyiua
oeaie n e?oiiui aaiiao?e/aneei ?enoieii. Ia ?one au?aaaouaaeinue
aeinoaoi/ii iiiai aeaeia oa?noyiuo oeaiae: noeii, iiiaaa ( oa?noyiie eee
iieooa?noyiie aeiiioeaiue oaenoeeue), aeanyieoea- oeaiue ec aiein
aeeaioiuo, iano?ioeaiue, oa?noyiay oeaiue n auoeaiiui ia iae ?enoieii a
eeaoeo eee a iieineo.

Oiieea aunieiai ea/anoaa noeia iinooiaee ec Aa?iiu. Iaeaaeaea eiycae e
ciaoe auiieiyeanue ec aei?iaeo aecaioeeneeo oeaiae: ia?/iauo, o?eeiauo,
auoeouo cieioii e na?aa?ii. Ana iie iacuaaeenue ia ?one iaaieieaie. Aeey
aieiaiuo oai?ia eniieueciaaeenue noeii, ia?/a, iao (a ea/anoaa ioaeaeee
ooaieeoaey).

Ioaeneay iaeaaeaea

Aa?aea?ia eiycae e ciaoe aue ia i/aiue ?aciiia?acai, ii iaeaaeaeu auee
e?aneau, e?ani/iu, aa?iiie/ii ni/aoaeenue n ia?acii aeecie, i?aaaie,
iiiyoeyie i e?anioa e aeinoieinoaa.

Eiycue iinee aeeeiioth ooieeiia?acioth ?oaaoo, iiae eioi?oth iaaeaaae
eniiaeithth ?oaaoo e ii?ou (ooaiu) ia aaoieea, o.a. oio?ea. Naa?oo
iaaeaaaeanue naeoa (eeaaneee eaooai). Naeoa i?aaenoaaeyea niaie
iaeeaaeioth aeeeiioth aa?oithth iaeaaeaeo n aeeeiiuie oceeie ?oeaaaie,
?anoe?aiioth e ieco n iiiiuueth eeeiueaa, aoeooth a aieiaua oau. Naeoa
ioaeaeuaaeanue eaeiie ii e?ath iiaeiea, ca?oeaaueyie ii ieco ?oeaaia e
iaoeeoeaie ia a?oaee. Iineee naeoo n oe?ieeie iiynaie. Iineieueeo aeeeia
naeou auea auoa ueeieioee, i?eaeeceoaeueii aei na?aaeeiu ee?u, oi iaoae
i?eaeaaaeinue aieueoia cia/aiea. ss?eea naiiaeee ec iyaeiai naoueyia
auee n aunieeie aieaieuaie, eioi?ua ne?uaaeenue iiae naeoie. A oieiaeiue
ia?eiae aiaea iineee naeoo, iiaeaeooth iaoii.

Iiaa?o naeou iaaeaaaeny ieau ei?cii. Yoi aaeeinoaaiiue aeae
ae?aie?othuae iaeaaeaeu, eioi?ue iineee ia ?one. Ei?cii ioi?a/eaaeny
eaeiie ec cieioie oeaie, ne?aieyeny ia iea/a cano?aeeie, eiae
iiaeeeaaeeo, eae i?aaeei, eiio?anoiiai n eeoeaaie noi?iiu oeaaoa. Ei?cii
iia auoue iaa?ioai oieueei ia eaaia iea/i eeai ia iaa iea/a.

Aaaeiua ethaee iineee iaeaaeaeo aieaa i?inooth, e anni?oeiaio a? aue ia
oae ?aciiia?acai, eae o ethaeae aiaaouo e ciaoiuo. Iniiaiie iaeaaeaeie
auea ?oaaoa ia auione aeeeiiie aei eieaia o c?aeuo ioae/ei e ianeieueei
ei?i/a o iieiae?aee. ?oaaoa aaeiai, e?aniiai eee neiaai oeaaoa auea
eueiyiie eeai iineiiiay, aac ai?ioieea, n iaaieueoei ?ac?acii nia?aaee e
oe?ieei iiynii. ?oaaoa iaaeaaaeanue iiaa?o ii?oia (ooaiia). Iie auee
aeeeiiua, iaoe?ieea, ooaieiu iinoaiaiii e neaaea noaeaeenue eieco. Ii?ou
iineee ia oio?ea (aaoieea) a nai?eo. Caoaeaiiua e ieco ii?ou iineee
iau/ii n eaioyie eee naiiaaie. Eaooai ec na?iyae aeiaa?oae einothi a
oieiaeiia a?aiy aiaea.

Ia?yaeiue einothi e?anoueyieia, aiaaoiai iinaeyieia eiae aieaa aei?iaoth
ioaeaeeo: ai?ioiee-iaea?aeuea, e?oaeue, oe?aoaiiue auoeaeie aeai/oaii,
ia?yaeiua ca?oeaauey (i?ioioei aoaeoueo iaiaeao), naiiae aianoi eaioae.
Eiiaaea e naia ?oaaoa auea aei?iaie, ec oci?iie oeaie. Iaiaoiaeeiui e
einothio auea eaeeoa (eioae?e ia iiyna).

Einothi ioae/eiu Ae?aaiaai Eeoay

Eeoae, eae e Eiaeey, yaeyaony iaeiie ec ae?aaiaeoeo ainoi/iuo
oeeaeeecaoeee. Eneonnoai n?aaeiaaaeiaiai Eeoay neeaaeuaaeinue a
ianoaiiaea iinoiyiiiai aoi?aeaiey ei/aauo ieai?i, eioi?ua i?eaiineee a
aai auniei?acaeooth eoeueoo?o yeaiaiou naiae “ia?aiauoiie” eoeueoo?u.

Aeey neoeueioo?u Eeoay oa?aeoa?iu iiiai/eneaiiua ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu.
Iaeiaei a Eeoaa, iacuaaaiii «iiaeiaaaniui, aue e eoeueo iieeiiaiey iaao.
Iiyoiio a nthaeaoao e i?iaiaioa ano?a/athony ecia?aaeaiey iaeaeia,
aeiaeaey, iieiee – neiaieia aaeeiaiey aeaoo aeaaiuo ia/ae: iaaa e caiee.
Neiaieeea i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaia a Eeoaa. Iauyoue ieaiaiai ae?aeii,
ieuaouee a aieiao eee iaeaeao, aue iiaaeeoaeai aeiaeaey e neiaieii
neeyiey aeaoo ia/ae, a cia/eo neiaieii ia/aea aeecie: ia?nee aue
neiaieii aeieaieaoey; i?oeaeay icia/aea o/?iinoue, ieiia – aiaaonoai.

Eaeaae e?aniou

Eeoaeoeu ioiinyony e iiiaieieaeiie ?ana. Iie ooaeiuaau, neoeanou, eiatho
aeaeoiaaoue oeaao eiaee, /??iua aonoua aieinu. E?aneaui n/eoaeny
ioae/eia n oi?ioae inaieie e ieanoeeie, ooii/?iiinoueth iaia? e /oanoa.
An? yoi aeieaeii auei ni/aoaoueny n aeinoaoi/iie y?oaeeoeeae.

O aeaiuei oeaieeinue aaeia, e?oaeia, eae eoia, eeoei n y?eeie iooeuie
aoaaie e ?oiyiuie uaeaie. Iaeaiueeea eenoe ?oe e noiiu iia n/eoaeenue
i?eciaeii a?enoie?aoecia. Iiyoiio aeaai/eai a ?aiiai aic?anoa iaaeaaaee
ia iiae eieiaeee, i?eiyonoaothuea ?inoo noii. A?oaeue oae aea noyaeaaee,
oiaiueoaee ii/oe aei ieineiai ?annoiyiey, oae eae oaeay a?oaeue
n/eoaeanue a Eeoaa e?aneaie. A aeaiueia oeaieeinue ia?aciaaiiinoue,
oiaiea ioceoee?iaaoue, ?eniaaoue, auoeaaoue, oae aea oi?ioea iaia?u.

Aeaeu e oi?iu iaeaaeaeu

Oaenoeeue. Iea/aaua iaeaaeaeu Eeoaeoeaa auee iiiaineieiuie e ii e?ith e
ii aeaeo iaiiieiae oaeao n i/aiue oe?ieeie oeaeueiiaue?iaiiuie i?yiuie
?oeaaaie e ?acee/iie oi?iaie ai?oaie. Oaeao, eioi?ue a ae?aaiinoe aue
ieaeiae iaoaeueiie iaeaaeaeie, a n?aaeiai Eeoaa noae naiie iiioey?iie
aa?oiae iaeaaeaeie. Oaeao caiaoeaaeny neaaa iai?aai. Oe?eia ?oeaaia
eiiaaea aeinoeaaea oaeeo ?acia?ia, /oi iie naenaee aei iiea. Oiaiea
iineoue iaeaaeaeu n oaeeie ?oeaaaie oeaieeinue auniei e icia/aei oi?ioaa
ainieoaiea. ?oeaaa eiiaaea iiaeaycuaaee, oae eae iie iaoaee ?aaioaoue.

Eiooa n aeoaieei caiaoii e aunieie cano?aeeie iiae i?aaie ?oeie oaeaea
auea ?ani?ino?ai?iiui aeaeii iaeaaeaeu. Oaeao, iaiiieiaaoee noeoua
aianoa eiooo e thaeo, iacuaaeny oyiuee, a eiiieaeo ec eioou e
thaee-eoai.

A einothia i?inouo ethaeae oe?ieea ?oeaaa iinoaiaiii auee auoaniaiu
aieaa oaeiaiuie iaiaa oe?ieeie. Aiiaua oceay iaeaaeaea i?eoea a Eeoae io
ei/aaieeia. Iiyniie iaeaaeaeie ioae/ei auee ooaiu, aeaiuei- ooaiu e
thaee. Iaeiaei eiiaaea a ?iee ooaiia e o ioae/ei, e o aeaiuei aunooiaea
ianoeoay thaea, iaaeaoay iiaa?o oaeaoa.

N aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe eeoaeoeu oiaee eneonii auoeaaoue. ss?eea auoeaee
o?eeii iie?uaaee iaeaaeaeo, iaoaue, ciiou e aaa?a. Yoi aeee ecia?aaeaiey
ae?aeiiia, iaeaeia e oeaaoia. Auoeaea o?eeii ii o?eeo auea i/aiue
e?aneaui niiniaii ioi?ieaiey einothia e auniei oeaieeanue.

Eeoaeoeu oiaee nicaeaaaoue e aunieiooaeiaeanoaaiiua oeaiua oci?u n
aiaeiae/iuie nthaeaoaie. Auoeaiiua oeaaou eiaee noieueei iooaieia, /oi
eacaeenue aeeauie. Iioaiea auoeouo, ?anoeouo iaeaaeae auei i?eaeeaaeae
aunoae ciaoe. *anoi ia oaeaoao auoeaaeenue ieoieiae/aneea nthaeaou e
neiaieu, i?eiinyuea n/anouea. Aaai/ea – neiaieece?iaaea ?aaeinoue,
eaoo/ay iuoue ieeoeaoai?yea n/anouea.

A n?aaeiaaaeiaii Eeoaa aeey eaaeaeiai nineiaey auee onoaiiaeaiu
ii?aaeae?iiua aeaeu iaeaaeaeu, oeaaoa, e ni?oa oeaiae. AEeoaee naaa?iuo
?aeiiia i?aaeii/eoaee oeaie na?iai, aieoaiai e neiaai oeaaoia. Ia thaa
Eeoay iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?ai?iiuie auee oeaie aaeiai e /??iiai oeaaoia.
Oaenoeeue aeey aeaineie iaeaaeaeu eniieueciaaeny iaeaieaa y?eee. *anoi
yoi aeee iaaeaiua eee oeni?iua oeaie. Aaeua oeaie oee ia ecaioiaeaiea
aaeuey e iiaeeeaaeee iaeaaeaeu. Aaaeiyee iaeaaaeenue a iaeaaeaeo ec
i?inouo oeaiae. A naaa?iuo ?aeiiao Eeoay iineee iaeaaeaeo ec iaoa,
aieeiea; o?ieoth iaeaaeaeo, iiaeaeooth iooii ioeoe.

Ioaeneay iaeaaeaea

I?inoaeoei e ae?aaiaeoei aeaeii ioaeneie iaeaaeaeu a Eeoaa yaeyeanue
eiooa n aeoaieei caiaoii, iau/ii n einui n?acii ii aa?oiae /anoe ai?oa e
n cano?aeeie iiae i?aaie ?oeie. Oaeoth eiooo iineee ni naiaiaeiuie
ooaiaie. Oeyia, ciioee e aaa? aeiiieiyee yoio ainaiaeue. Oaeay iaeaaeaea
auea oa?aeoa?ia e aeey a?enoie?aoee, ii auiieiyeanue ec aieaa aei?iaeo
oeaiae, n aieaa aiaaoie ioaeaeeie e a aieaa oe?ieie oeaaoiaie aaiia.

Oaeao iinoaiaiii auoaniee eiooo, oioy e ia aei eiioea, e noae iniiaiie
iaeaaeaeie. Aa?oiae iaeaaeaeie aeey oeeoe aue ?aneeao?iiue oaeao,
eioi?ue iineee aac iiaeeeaaeee. A aieiaua oau oaeaoa, ia/eiay io oaeee,
aoeaaee eeeiuey e aeaeaee ?ac?acu aei eieaia; ?oeaaa auee aeeeiiua,
i/aiue oe?ieea, i?yiua eeai noaeathueany e eenoe. Iau/ii oaeaou auee aac
ai?ioieea, a eiiaaea n ieceei ai?ioieeii.

Nouanoaiaaei o?e iniiaiuo oeia oaeaoia: Iaiue – i?eaeai?iay iaeaaeaea n
cano?aeeie iiae i?aaie ?oeie e aaeieue anaai aiea n auoeouie
ecia?aaeaieyie ae?aeiiia; eoaiue-eiue, eioi?ue iaaeaaaeny iiae oaeao
Iaiue e eiae nia?aaee eee ia nieia ciae «aeaece», neiaieece?othuee
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue /aeiaaea e oiio eee eiiio ?iaeo neoaeau (o aiaiiuo –
eaa, oea?; o a?aaeaeaineeo- ioeoea); ?ae- oaeao, eioi?ue iineee ana,
oe?aoaiiue ?anoeoaeueiuie iioeaaie e ea?iaeeoaie. Eiia?aoi? iinee
iaeaaeaeo ae?eoiai oeaaoa; aunoea naiiaieee- e?aniiai; caoai niaeanii
oaaaee i ?aiaao oee cae?iue, neiee e aaeue oeaaoa. A oieiaeiue nacii
ioae/eia iaaeaaae ianeieueei oaeaoia.

Eooae aue iaiaoiaeeiui e i/aiue aeaei?aoeaiui yeaiaioii iaeaaeaeu. Ii
caaycuaaeny nia?aaee ieineei oceii. Eiioeu eooaea naiaiaeii nioneaeenue.
Yoio niinia caaycuaaiey «aaai/ea-oeaaoie».

Ooaiu auee i?aeoe/anee iaeiiai e?iy e iaeiie oi?iu aeey anao nineiaee.
Iie ne?uaaeenue iiae aeieaiiieuie iaeaaeaeaie. Eeoaeoeu eiiaaea iaeaaaee
ianoeooth caiaoioth thaeo – ieaooo.

Iaa?oaeiua ciaee, ioaiaeoeu ia oaiea, oeaao aeaeaee iaeaaeaeo
niioaaonoaothuae oaaaee i ?aiaa. A ia?eiae ainiiaenoaa iaiue/aeo?ia
oaeao cia/eoaeueii oi?inoeeny. A nacii aeiaeaeae iieueciaaeenue
iaeeaeeaie. Ciaoue iineea iaeeaeee ec oa?noe eee iooa, aaaeiyee-
nieiiaiiua aeiaeaeaaeee. Ceiie oiaeeee a no?aaiiuo o?ieuo iaeaaeaeao.

Noeeue ?ieiei a eneonnoaa e einothia (OVIII a.)

XVIII a. – a?aiy aeaeueiaeoaai ?anoeaaoa eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Aieaa oaniui /ai i?aaeaea, acaeiiua nayce aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai niinianoaotho au?aaioea aaeeiiai noeey a a?oeoaeoo?a, eneonnoaa,
einothia. Yoio noeeue ca?iaeeeny ai O?aioeee, eioi?ay ii-i?aaeiaio
inoaaaeanue naiie i?ioeaaoathuae a Aa?iia.

O?aioeocneia eneonnoai, yaeyaony yoaeiiii aeey anao, ii?iaeeei
aeaei?aoeaiue noeeue ?ieiei, eioi?ue iinoaiaiii aue?enoaeece?iaaeny ec
aa?ieei. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a aeaei?a iiaiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai noeey
aeiaieueii /anoi i?enoonoaoao yeaiaio a aeaea ?aeooee: aeoeaaaoua
caaeoee ?ai, ia?aieythueo ea?oeiu, aeaei?aoeaiua eiiiiceoeee
caeai/eaathony aaa?iia?aciie ?aeooeie eee iaiiieiatho a? ii aeaeo.

Noeeue ?ieiei ooaa?aeeeny eae iineoaeue ecuneaiiinoe, ooii/?iiinoe,
eeethci?iinoe, ianeaaeaeaiey. Eai?ec, i?eoioue, iyaeinoue, ea?eainoue,
eii?iaecaoeey iiaiai noeey niaieee iiiiaciinoue, aaeeeieaiea,
oyaeaeiaaniinoue e oi?aeanoaaiiinoue ooaaeoaai a i?ioeia aa?ieei.

?ineioiua ?aceaeaioeee ciaoe n i?eoe?aoaiiuie cieioii e aeaei?ii
aioeeaaeiuie caeaie niaiythony naaoeuie, iaaunieeie, «eioeiiuie»,
i?eaeeae?iiuie e /aeiaaeo naeiiaie. A naeiiao, a ia i?e aeai?a
oi?ie?othony aeonu, eaeaaeu, iuoeaiea.

A eeoa?aoo?a, aeeaiiene, oaao?a iiaeiu ianoi?aee (iinooieaiea nthaeaou),
aaeaioiua noeaiu. Aeaaea a oaenoeea ianoi?aeueiinoue i?iyaeeanue a aeaea
iaeeeo oeaaoi/eia, ?aca?inaiiuo ii iieth oeaie, eae ii eoao, e ae?oaiai
aeaei?a, annioeee?othuaainy n ia?eii, ei?ceieie oeaaoia, naeueneei
iaecaaeai.

Aiaeey – no?aia aunieiyooaeoeaiie, yeiiiie/iie e i?ia?anneaiui
ainoaea?noaaiiui ono?ienoaii oaeaea yaeyeanue iiuiui oeaio?ii eoeueoo?u.
A iaeanoe einothia e iiaeu iia – aeaaiue eiieo?aio O?aioeee.

O?aioeocneee einothi noeey ?ieiei

Eaeaae e?aniou. Aaee/ea, iiiiaciinoue, ia?aa?oaeaiiinoue einothia
aa?ieei niaieeenue ooii/?iiie a?aoeeiciinoueth, e?aeinoueth,
o?oieinoueth einothia ?ieiei. Eciaieeenue aiaoiea /a?ou ioaeneiai e
aeaineiai iaeeea: eoeaeueiinoue eeoe, iioiaeea, aeanou, iicu e /anoe/ii
iaeayiey. Ioae?a, einiaoeea e ia?eee, e?oaeaaa e auoeaea,
eioioeeueiinoue, ooiae io ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe – an? yoi
oa?aeoa?ii eae aeey aeaiuei, oae e aeey ioae/ei yoiai a?aiaie.

E?aneaie n/eoaeanue aeaia n iaaieueoie ecyuiie aieiaeie, oceeie iieaouie
iea/aie, oiieie oaeeae, oe?ieeie a?ae?aie, iaeaiueeeie ecyuiuie ?oeaie,
oiieeie eiaeuaeeaie, aaeui eoeieueiui ia?oiyiaiiui eeoeii. A?ioaneiay
eeiey a?aea? iiae oiieie oaeeae e oceei eeoii- iiaeiue neeoyo aeaineie
oeao?u c?aeiai ?ieiei. Aeey iicaeiaai ?ieiei oa?aeoa?ai ae?oaie oei
aeaineie e?aniou. E a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi eciaieaoeeny iau?i, oi?ia e
?acia?u i?e/?nie.

I?e aeainoaaiiie aiaoiinoe ioae/ei eo i?eaeeaaeae e iaycaiiinoueth
inoaaaeenue aaeaioiinoue e aioiaiinoue oaiaeaeaoue i?eoioyi e eai?ecai
aeai. A iaeeea i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?enoie?aoee ii/oe ia nouanoaiaaei
aic?anoiuo iniaaiiinoae e ieneieueei no??eenue aeaeeiua iieiaua
?acee/ey. An? aaeaee eeoea, ioae?eee i?e/?nee e oiaeeee a iaoae ia
eaaeoea. Ioae/eiu iineee oiieia aaeue?, ?aaeei iaaeaaaee oiaao, ia eo
iaeueoeao auei iaeeea ia?noiae, a ea?iaiu iieiu aacaeaeooae.

E ioeoeeaeueiay, e naeiiiay iaeaaeaea auea iaeeiaeiai aaeeeieaiiie.
Aeaaea aianoi ioaiaeoe iineee ae?aaioeaiiua eaiie. Ia?aaeiua ieaouey,
aeaaea naiua aei?iaea, iaaeaaaee ii iaeiiio ?aco.

Aeaeu e oi?iu iaeaaeaeu

Oaenoeeue. A oa/aiea noieaoey aeaeu ioaeneie e aeaineie iaeaaeaeu
iaiyeenue iinoaiaiii. Aia/aea yoi aue ainaiaeue ec aethnoiei?a, aanou e
ni?i/ee n etheioaie. Caoai iiyaeeenue o?ae e aeeeao a ni/aoaiee n aieaa
oceeie einothiaie, a aa?oiae o?ieie iaeaaeaeie noae ?aniaoiie ?aaeuitho,
niaieaoee ieau.

AEaineee einothi ii n?aaiaieth n ioaeneei i?aoa?iae aieaa cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey ii ninoaao, neeoyoo e i?iii?oeeyi. A ia?aie iieiaeia aaea
ieaouea eiaei aeaa neeoyoa: oceee eeo e i/aiue oe?ieay thaea ia ea?eana
(iaiuea) e eoiooo, oi anoue ieaouea ni neeaaeeie Aaooi.

?anoe?eeny anni?oeiaio oaenoeey. Ia?yaeo n aa?oaoii, o?eeii, ia?/ie,
aoeanii, oiieeie o?eeiauie e oa?noyiuie oeaiyie e noeiaie, a oaeaea
?acee/iuie oeii/aoiaoiaaeiuie oeaiyie iiyaeeenue yecioe/aneea aeaeu
oaenoeey, iai?eia? o?ee ec iaooeiu iaoeia-e?anoiaeeia. A ia/aea aaea ec
iaai auee ecaioiaeaiu ia?/aoee e /oeee, eioi?ua aucuaaee anaiauaa
ainoeuaiea. Iiaeiu ianoaeueiua oeaaoa: iaaeiua iooaiee aieoaiai,
?iciaiai, naaoei- cae?iiai, ae?eoiai, ne?aiaaiai.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a ioaeneii einothia iiaeiuie noaee o?ee e iieoo?ee, a a
aeaineii inoaeenue oaooa e aoean. I/aiue iiioey?ai o?ee n auoeaiiuie ia
i?i cieioii e na?aa?ii aoeaoeeaie, iooai?iiuie auoeaeie ec oeaaoiiai
o?eea; oeii/aoiaoiaaeiua oeaie /anoi n iaaeaiui ?enoieii a aeaea
aoeaoeeia, ei?ceiie n oeaaoaie, iaeeeo oeaaoi/eia a ni/aoaiee n
ecaeeenouie eaioaie e iieinaie e?oaeaa.

A einothia noeey ?ieiei, neeueii iaiaaeaaoai aeaineia oaei, ia?iiiia
cia/aiea noaei i?eaeaaaoueny ieaeiaio aaeueth. AEaiueiu e ioae/eiu noaee
iineoue /oeee e oaeeiaia oii/aeoaa aaeue?, ioaeaeaiiua ae?aaioeaiiie
auoeaeie (o?ee, cieioi, na?aa?i) e ia iaiaa aei?iaeie e?oaeaaaie.

Ioaeneay iaeaaeaea

A ia?aie iieiaeia XVIII a. Ioae/eiu ii-i?aaeiaio iineee aethnoiei?,
aanoo, ni?i/eo e etheiou, ii iie eciaieeenue. O aethnoiei?a oaia?ue
iieaoay eeiey iea/, oceea ?oeaaa e io?aciay ieaeiyy /anoue, ninoiyuay ec
eeeiueaa ia ieaoyiie eee aieinyiie i?ieeaaeea. AE?noeay i?ieeaaeea
niinianoaiaaea ia?aciaaieth 5-6 iau?iiuo oaeae, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai
aethnoiei? a ieaeiae /anoe iaiiieiae iuoioth thaeo. Oaeey auea
iiae/??eiooa. Oaeie aethnoiei? iacuaaeny aae. Ia aai nieia aue ?ac?ac n
oaeueoeaie cano?aeeie. Iiae aae i?iaeieaeaee iineoue aanoo n ?oeaaaie.
Oaia?ue ia aethnoiei?a ia auei iiyna-oa?oa, a ia?aaycue aeey oiaae noaea
oceie. Iaoaue aeai?yi an? au? n e?aniui eaaeoeii.

Ioaeaeeie ii-i?aaeiaio neoaeeee auoeaea e e?oaeaaa. Iiei/ee aae e aanou
ii ai?oo, eeaiaiu i?i?aciuo ea?iaiia e ioai?ioia ioaeaeuaaeenue auoeaeie
na?aa?yiuie, cieiouie e o?eeiauie ieoyie e ae?oaeie aeaei?aoeaiuie
yeaiaioaie.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIIIa. Ai O?aioeee iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaaeny noeeue
?ieiei. Eciaieeny aeon e iiyaeeinue no?aieaiea e i?inoioa e
yeaaaioiinoe. Ii a i?eaeai?iie iaeaaeaea ii-i?aaeiaio oe?iei
i?eiaiyeanue auoeaea cieioii e na?aa?ii. Iiae aae au? iaeioi?ia a?aiy
iineee aeeeiioth aanoo (eaicie), eioi?oth niaiee aeeeao aac ?oeaaia, ni
nieieie ec ae?oaie oeaie (iieioii, o?ee); aeeeao aue cia/eoaeueii ei?i/a
aethnoiei?a. Aianoi aaenooea noaee iineoue /??ioth eaioo ec oaoou.
Ia?yaeiua aae e aeeeaou oeeenue ec iaeiioiiiiai o?eea, aoeana e
ioaeaeuaaeenue auoeaeie cieioii e na?aa?ii. Etheiou aianoi aoeueoeea
eiaee ioeeaeiie ia?aae, eae ia iao?inneeo a?theao.

I?aeoe/iay e oaeiaiay iaeaaeaea aiaee/ai i?eaeaeea aieiaiea o?aioeocia,
onoaaoeo io iiiiaciinoe e ieoo?u. AEthnoiei? e eaicie, eioi?ua
i?iaeieaeaee iineoue i?e aeai?a, eae au caeiina?ae?iaaeenue ai a?aiaie,
ionoaee io ioaeneie iiaeu. Yoi yaeyaony iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai oiai, /oi
aeai? iioa?ye naie iiceoeee e ia?anoae auoue yoaeiiii i?e oi?ie?iaaiee
iiaeu e ynoaoe/aneeo eaeaaeia.

Ia niaio aethnoiei?o e eaicieo i?eoee o?ae e aeeeao. O?ae aue ie/ai eiui
eae, ia?a?iaeeaoeiny aethnoiei?ii, a eioi?ii n?acaee ai?oa, caoceee
?oeaaa e aeiaaaeee iaaieueoie ai?ioiee. O?ae aue aieaa oaeiaiie e
i?aeoe/iie iaeaaeaeie, /ai aethnoiei?. Iiae o?ae iaaeaaaeny aeeeao,
eioi?ue iiyaeeny a ?acoeueoaoa cia/eoaeueiuo i?aia?aciaaiee i?aaeiaai
aeeeaoa (eaiciea). Ii noae ei?ioeei, oaeiaiui, ooieoeeiiaeueiui. Nieiea
a i?i, eae e a i?aaeiai aeeeaoa, eioi?ue iineee iiae aae, auiieiyeanue
ec iieioia.

Iaeiaei ai O?aioeee o?ae iaeioi?ia a?aiy i?iaeieaeaee aeaei?e?iaaoue eae
aethnoiei?.

AEaai e aaeua e?oaeaaiua aaenooee ni?i/ae aeiiieiyee ainaiaeue. O?ae aue
aac ea?iaiia, e iaio iieaaaeanue oiaaa. O iaai aue iaaieueoie ai?ioiee e
oceea ?oeaaa. O?aioeocneee o?ae eiae n?acu ii ai?oai a ioee/ea io
aiaeeeneiai, o eioi?iai iieu noiaeeeenue nia?aaee. Aae inoaeny
i?eaeai?iie iaeaaeaeie aeey oi?aeanoaaiiuo neo/aaa.

Ia?yaeiue aa?eaio o?aioeocneiai o?aea ni/aoaeny n aaeui, aiaaoi auoeoui
aeeeaoii. Ii iau/ii ana yeaiaiou ioaeneiai einothia ( o?ae, aeeeao e
etheiou) auee iaeiiai oeaaoa.

Iicaea o?ae noae cia/eoaeueii ne?iiiaa ii oeaaoo. Oaeea aea ne?iiiua ii
oeaaoo aeeeao e ooaiu caaa?oeee ainaiaeue.

Aa?oiae iaeaaeaeie noae nth?ooe i?yiiai iie?iy n i?i?aciuie aieiauie
ea?iaiaie, ai?ioieeii, ?ac?acii ia nieiea e iaeiiai?oiie cano?aeeie
nia?aaee. Nth?ooe oeee iau/ii ec noeia. Yoi auea iaeaaeaea, i?eoaaeoay
ec ioioie/ueaai einothia.

?aaeeiaio n ai?ioieeii aue iniiaiie aa?oiae o?ieie ceiiae iaeaaeaeie.

Naycue einothia n a?oeoaeoo?ie- yoi naycue i?ineaaeeaaaony a
ecuneaiiinoe eeiee, o?oieinoe, iaaeiinoe, e?aeinoe e aicaeooiinoe
i?iaiaioa aeaei?a iiiauaiee e einothia.

Aeaeu eneonnoaa noeey ?ieiei: a?oeoaeoo?a, a?aoeea,
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiia eneonnoai, aeeaiienue

?acaeaathuayny iiaay eoeueoo?a ai O?aioeee ?aciiia?acia e eiio?anoia a
naieo eneaieyo e i?iyaeaieyo. Ai anao a? iaeanoyo eae?o iai?yae?iiay
ai?ueaa, neeaaeuaathony iiaua oai?ee.

Ia?aoiaeiue oa?aeoa? yiioe ii?aaeaeee iano?ioo, eciai/eainoue e
neiaeiinoue o?aioeocneie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u XVIII aaea. A?
?acaeoea i?ioaeaao iiae ciaeii ai?ueau e acaeiiaeaenoaey eaeaeii
cia/eoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, i?iyaeythuaainy a ?aaeenoe/aneeo,
i?aae?iiaioe/aneeo e eeanne/aneeo oi?iao, e ainiiaenoaothuaainy
a?enoie?aoe/aneiai eneonnoaa ?ieiei.

?ieiei – eneonnoai eaeouae e oiaaeeo a?enoie?aoee, oo?aoea ae?aiaoeci e
yia?aeth «aieueoiai noeey» XVIII aaea, auei o?oieei, i?ecuaathuei e
ianeaaeaeaieth, e /oanoaaiiui ?aaeinoyi. Iii noaei oe?aoaieai i?acaeiie
aeecie aania/iie, eciaaeaiiie ciaoe. Yoi eneonnoai auei eaia?iui,
eioeiiui, aieaa oanii naycaiiui n auoii. Yoi aue ie? ieieaoth?iuo,
aeia?uo, aaeo?iuo oi?i, neiaeiuo i?iaiaioia, iino?iaiiuo ia eciaioouo
eeieyo anneiao?ee, n iioeaii a oi?ia noeeeciaaiiie ?aeiaeiu a ia?aieaiee
ec nieaoaiey caaeoeia. Ia neo/aeii oa?iei «?ieiei» aicaiaeyo e neiao
«?aeiaeia», e «?ieaeeue».

Iaeiaei ca ana oaao?aeueii-i?acaeie/iui eaaeiiuneaiii-aacoiiui a yoiai
iai?aaeaiey oaeeinue iaiaei neiaeiinoae. *ooeia e ecyuiiio ?ieiei
i?iieeiooi ea?eainoueth, ianiaoeeainoueth e ino?ioieai, a i?i iaoiaeeee
io?aaeaiea aieueiiaeoinoai e eaaeiiuneea, noaaoea iiaeie aunoaai
iauanoaa XVIII aaea. A oi aea a?aiy a ?ieiei aia?aua i?iyaeeny noieeee
eioa?an e ecia?aaeaieth eioeiiuo ia?aaeeaaiee, i?aaeaauathuee
naioeieoaeeci n aai eioa?anii e «eceeaai» /aeiaa/aneie aeooe. Ca
eaaeiiuneeai, ino?ioieai e ianiaoeeaie e?iieae ?ieiei ne?uaaeenue
iiae/an ?acaeoiuey ii noaeueaa /aeiaaea, e i niunea nouanoaiaaiey.

?ieiei aeaei oie/ie e ?acaeoeth iiauo au?aceoaeueiuo n?aaenoa a
eneonnoaa. A aeeaiiene – aeaaiui ia?acii a eiei?eoa. Eiiaiuie ?eoiaie
ecuneaiiiai iaioyoa, eiiiiceoeeiiiuie oeo?inieaoaieyie eiiaaeeyie
Aiia?oa, iniaui aeai?ii ?iiaia a ienueiao, aeeaiieniuie «aaeaioiuie
i?acaeianoaaie» e «ianoi?aeyie» ?ieiei nicaeaei

?ieiei nai? aeaaiia au?aaeaiea iaoei a i?eeeaaeiii eneonnoaa – a iaaaee,
iinoaea, a?iica, oa?oi?a. A a?oeoaeoo?a aai eniieueciaaee ii
i?aeiouanoao a ioi?ieaiee eioa?uea?ia caeaiee, eeanne/aneeo a nai?i
yenoa?uea?a.

Aioo?e aea aaaeiui auei ia iuoiia e aaee/aaia, a i?eyoiia e oaeiaiia.

Aeeyiea ?ieiei ia naio a?oeoaeoo?o i?iyaeeinue a oii. *oi oo?a/eaaaony
no?aieaiea e a?aiaeeiciui ainaiaeai, iiae?aaeathuei Aa?naeth. Ia niaio
onaaeaaiiio caieo XVIII aaea i?eoiaeeo ai?iaeneie aeii – «ioaeue»,
ooiiathuee a caeaie naaeia, iaaieueoie iniaiye ai?iaeneie a?enoie?aoee e
?acaiaaoaaoeo ao?aeoa.

A a?oeoaeoo?a iniaiyeia iiyaeyaony ia?ooaiea oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
eeanneoeecia aaeeinoaa ?aoaiey ia?oaeiiai iau?ia e aioo?aiiaai
i?ino?ainoaa. Eiiiiceoeee no?aiyony e aneiiao?e/iinoe, ?aci?aaiiinoe,
eeoathony iauaaeeiythuae ine.

A aeeaiiene n ia/aea XVIII aaea aeaaeaie/aneee ia?iaeiue noeeue
iinoaiaiii noiaeeo ia iao, e iieo/aao ?acaeoea noeeue ?ieiei, oanii
naycaiiue n eioa?uea?ii iiiauaiee, i?aaeaea anaai a aeaei?aoeaiuo
oi?iao, a oaeaea a noaieiauo eaia?iuo. A oe?aoathueo noaiu, ieaoiiu,
?inienyo, a iiaeai?iuo iaiii, a aiaaeaiao i?aaeiieaaatho ieoieiae/aneea
e «aaeaioiua» oaiu, i?e/?i /aeiaa/aneee ia?ac a ieo oo?a/eaaao
naiinoiyoaeueiia cia/aiea, /aeiaa/aneay oeao?a- eeoue yeaiaio
aeaei?aoeee.

A ?inienyo i?aaeii/oaiea ioaea?ony aeaeeui, na?aa?enoi- aieoaiaaoui,
cieioenoui e ?iciaui oiiai, eiiiiceoeee no?iyony neeoiuie aeaei?aoeaiuie
iyoiaie.

A eaia?iie noaieiaie aeeaiiene iieo/atho ?acaeoea aaeaioiue e ianii?oiue
aeai?u, ecia?aaeathuea ianoooaneea noeaiu n eaeaaeecaoeeae ia?niiaaeae,
ii?o?ao oaeaea i?eia?aoaao eaeaaeece?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?, ecia?aaeay
iiaeaeue a ia?aca ieoieiae/aneiai aa?iy.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. A?oi A., Oeeueea I. Enoi?ey einothia io ae?aaiinoe aei Iiaiai
a?aiaie. -I.: YENII,1995.

2. Aea Ii?ai A. Enoi?ey aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa: io
ae?aaiaeoeo a?ai?i aei iaoeo aeiae.- I.: Eneonnoai,1982.

3. Eaeaoieeiaa I.E, Ieoaeieeiaa A.A. Iaeaaeaea ia?iaeia NNN?.-I.,1990.

4. Eaieineay I.I. Enoi?ey einothia.- I., 1986.

5. Ee?aaaa A A. Enoi?ey einothia. -I., 1976.

6. Eiienna?aeaaneee O. Enoi?ey einothia. – Ieine: Eeoa?aoo?a,1998.

7. Ia?oeaeiaa I.I. Einothi ?aciuo a?ai?i e ia?iaeia. O.1-2.- I.:
Aeaaeaiey iiaeu, 1993-1995.

8. Iieioiaa E.I., Ninieia II ?onneee ia?iaeiue einothi ec nia?aiey
Ainoaea?noaaiiiai iocay yoiia?aoee ia?iaeia NNN?. -E.,1984.

9. Nu/?a E.I., Nu/?a A.E. Eeoaeneee einothi. – I.:Iaoea,1975.

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