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Средневековье и Возрождение: противоречивые образы культуры

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OI AAOE?

Eaoaae?a oeeinioee

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

«N?aaeiaaaeiauea e Aic?iaeaeaiea: i?ioeai?a/eaua ia?acu eoeueoo?u»

IEINE, 2008

Eoeueoo?a ia?eiaea n iyoiai ii iyoiaaeoeaoue aae iaicia/aaony eae
n?aaeiaaaeiaay. Ia?aiia/aeueii oa?iei eniieueciaaeny aeey iaicia/aiey
yoaia ?acaeoey aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u, aiineaaenoaee noae i?eiaiyoueny a
enneaaeiaaiee eoeueoo? ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia. Iniiao n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u
ninoaaeyao ie?iaicc?ai/aneay ia?aaeeaia oaioeaio?ecia, iniiaaiiay ia
eaeaa Aiaa eae ia?aii?e/eiu e niunea anaai nouaai.

A V a. i.y. a eoeueoo?a Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu aicieeaao iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a,
iniiaaiiia ia oaioeaio?e/aneie ie?iaicc?ai/aneie ia?aaeeaiu, eioi?ay
aoaeao aeiieie?iaaoue a enoi?e/aneii naiiniciaiee ia i?ioyaeaiee aieaa
ouny/aeaoey. Iniiaiie eaeaieiaeae n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony
eaeay aaeeiiai Aiaa, nicaeaoaey ie?a e /aeiaaea, i?aanoaaiiie
ia?aii?e/eiu e aeooiaiiai Aaniethoa. Ia/aei n?aaeiaaaeiaiai yoaia
noaiiaeaiey iaua/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u i?eiyoi ?acaeaeyoue ia 3
ia?eiaea: V-XI aa. – ?aiiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea, ca?iaeaeaiea e noaiiaeaiea
oaiaeaeecia; XII-XV aa. – eeanne/aneia n?aaeiaaaeiauea, c?aeue
oaiaeaeeci; XVI- ia?aay iieiaeia XVII aaea – iicaeiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea,
ia?eiae oiaaeea e ?aceiaeaiey oaiaeaeecia.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay eoeueoo?a – iniaay nooiaiue a ie?iaii aeooiaiii
i?ioeanna. A? aeiieie?othuea eoeueoo?iua oieaa?naeee aace?iaaeenue ia
?aeeaeiciii iiieiaiee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, a neeo /aai naia eoeueoo?a
iineea nae?aeueiue oa?aeoa?. Aaaeouaa iieiaeaiea ?aeeaee a aeooiaiie
aeecie e oea?eae eae einoeoooa a nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie noa?a
iaoneiaeee oaieiae/aneee oa?aeoa? ie?iaicc?aiey e eea?eeaeueiua /a?ou a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?a. ?aeeaeiciia iuoeaiea noi?ie?iaaei an?
n?aaeiaaaeiaia eneonnoai, iacaaeneii io niaoeeoeee aai ?acaeoey a
caiaaeiuo e ainoi/iuo no?aiao (iauaa i?ei?eoaoiia cia/aiea
i?eiaaeeaaeaei eae o?enoeainoao, oae e eneaio).

Iaeiaei ainiiaenoai nae?aeueiuo yeaiaioia a n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?a ia
icia/aei ionoonoaea a iae aeueoa?iaoeaiuo ii naiei ia/aeai eneaiee
aa?iiiee aeecie e ie?a a oeaeii. N?aaeiaaaeiaay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay
eoeueoo?a au?aaeaei yoi caaoaee?iaaii, naiei oneiaiui ycueii.

Eaeiau aea auee caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe noaiiaeaiey n?aaeiaaaeiaie
eoeueoo?u? I?e ioaaoa ia yoio aii?in neaaeoao o/eouaaoue oio oaeoi?, /oi
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iua oieaa?naeee e ie?iaicc?ai/aneay ia?aaeeaia yiioe
oi?ie?iaaeenue a i?ioeanna ca?iaeaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiaiey e i?aa?auaiey a
ie?iaoth ?aeeaeth o?enoeainoaa.

O?ainoi?iaoeey o?enoeainoaa ec naeou, aicieeoae a eiia eoaeaecia,
aeanoiei i?aneaaeiaaaoaeny naaoneeie e oea?eiaiuie aeanoyie, (a
o?enoeaineea enoi?eee ian/eouaatho aeanyoue e?oiiuo aiiaiee ia naith
?aeeaeth) a ainoaea?noaaiioth ?aeeaeth caaa?oaaony e 4-io aaeo i.y
Eiia?aoi? Eiinoaioei i?aaeinoaaee o?enoeainoao ?aaiua i?aaa n ae?oaeie
?aeeaeyie, eiia?aoi? Oaiaeinee aicaae a ?aia ainoaea?noaaiiie, a ia?aue
niai? aieneiiia, ninoiyaoeeny a 325 a. i.y. a a. Ieeay iauyaee a?
ie?iaie.

I?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey o?enoeainoaa nii?iaiaeaeaaony eciaiaieai eae
nioeeaeueiiai e yoe/aneiai ninoaaa i?eaa?aeaioeaa ia?auo iauei, oae e
iiyaeaieai aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, eee eee?a: i?anaeoa?ia (noa?aeoei),
aieneiiia (iaaece?aoaeae), aeeaeiiia (neoaeeoaeae). Iinoaiaiii
oicyenoaaiii-oeiainiaay aeanoue a iaueiao noaiiaeony aaaeouae, /oi a
naith i/a?aaeue iaoneiaeeaaao io?ua, iainiaeaiea eee?a io aa?othueo.
Aioo?e naieo iauei iaia/aaony i?ioeainoiyiea iaaeaeo eoaeaeneeie e
iaeoaeaeneeie yeaiaioaie a aa?io/aiee, io?aaeaaoaa ai?ueao eoaeaeneeo e
ycu/aneeo a?oiie?iaie a o?enoeainoaa. I?iieeiiaaiea ycu/aneeo, ainoi/iuo
e a?aei-?eineeo a?oii a ninoaa ?aiiao?enoeaineeo iauei aucaaei ?aceia
iaino?aiea oai?aoe/aneeo ?aciiaeanee, e a eiia/iii eoiaa i?eaaei e
auoaniaieth eoaeaeneiai ianaeaiey ec o?enoeainoaa.

Aioo?e o?enoeainoaa oaeaea oea ino?ay ai?ueaa ii aii?inai iiieiaiey e
o?aeoiaee iniiaiuo aa?io/eoaeueiuo iieiaeaiee. Oaea a I –II a.a. i.y.
iiyaeythony ?acee/iua oa/aiey, eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee aoaeoo iauyaeaiu
a?aoe/aneeie: aiinoeoeeci, iaieoaenoai, iiioiieci e ae?oaea. Ii naiua
i?eioeeieaeueiua ?aciiaeaney a iiieiaiee o?ie/iinoe Aiaa e Eenona O?enoa
naycaiu a ?aiiai o?enoeainoaa n a?eainoaii, ianoi?eainoaii e
iiiioeceonoaii.

A?eainoai – iieo/eei nai? iacaaiea io eiaie ?eineiai nayuaiieea A?ey,
n/eoaaoaai, /oi Eenon O?enoin ia aue ?iaeae?i Aiaii, a nicaeai ei,
iiyoiio ia “aaeeiinouai” Aiao-iooeo, a “iiaeiainouai” aio.
O?enoeaineee eee?, a oeaeyo ai?ueau n a?eainoaii, iieo/eaoei oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a ainoi/iuo i?iaeioeeyo ?eineie eiia?ee, inoaeee yoi
iai?aaeaiea eae a?anue ia Ieeaeneii niai?a, aaea auei ia/aoi
oi?ie?iaaiea iniiau aeiaiaoeee o?enoeaineie oea?eae – neiaiea aa?u.
Ieii/aoaeueii neiaie aa?u aue ooaa?aeae?i ia niai?a 381 a. a
Oea?uea?aaea, iiyoiio e iacuaaaony Ieeai-oea?uea?aaeneei (i?eieiaaony
aac aeieacaoaeuenoa e eniieiyaony ai a?aiy aiaineoaeaiey, ninoieo ec 12
/eaiia, 8 ec eioi?uo iinayuaiu Eenono O?enoo.)

Ia oniaea oea?eiaue inoaeeoue o?enoeainoai, eae aai niaiyao iiyaeaoaany
a V a. o/aiea eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai aieneiia Ianoi?ey – ianoi?eainoai,
ooaa?aeaeaaoaa, /oi O?enoin aue /aeiaaeii e iinea aicianaiey eeoue
aiaoiei ia?acii niaaeeieeny ni aoi?ie eiinoanueth o?ieoeu – Aiaii-
nuiii, iiyoiio e aeaaa Ia?ey ia aiai?iaeeoea, a /aeiaaei?iaeeoea eee
o?enoi?iaeeoea. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoi o/aiea auei inoaeaeaii eae
a?anue, ianoi?eainoai nio?aieeinue eae iaeii ec iai?aaeaiee a
o?enoeainoaa aieioue aei iaoeo aeiae.

Iicaeiaa, a V aaea aicieeaao iiiioeceonoai, ii aii?ino i i?e?iaea O?enoa
i?ioeaiiieiaeiia a?eainoao. Aai i?aaenoaaeoaee iieaaaee, /oi Eenon
aiiaua ia aue /aeiaaeii, a yaeyaony Aiaii, a i?i ia aeaa i?e?iaeu, a
iaeia, aiaeaneay, ionthaea e yoeiieiaey iacaaiey (iiii – iaeei, oecen –
i?e?iaea). Ioeoeeaeueiay oea?eiaue oaeaea inoaeeea iiiioeceonoai eae
a?anue (Niai? a Oaeeaaeiia, 451 a.) iaeiaei yoi iai?aaeaiea e naaiaeiy
nouanoaoao a o?enoeainoaa (aai i?eaea?aeeaathony a?iyineay, eiioneay,
aaenneineay e ae?oaea oea?eae).

A ai?ueaa n eiaeiiuneeai a naieo nianoaaiiuo ?yaeao o?enoeainoai ia
oieueei ioi?ieeinue i?aaiecaoeeiiii, ?ani?ino?aieeinue n?aaee an?
aieueoaai /enea ia?iaeia, ii e au?aaaouaaei aaeeiia iiaiea ii aii?inai
aa?io/aiey, aeiaiaoeee e eoeueoa, aeoaiei onaaeaay e i?eniinaaeeaay
ianeaaeea aioe/iinoe a naieo nianoaaiiuo eioa?anao. Oae, anee a aioe/iii
ie?iaicc?aiee, /aeiaae – ea?ooea noaeueau, caaaaa aiaia, ii
iaeiia?aiaiii e “ia?a anao aauae”, aeinoieiue iauaeo eneonnoaa, oi
o?enoeainoai, i?eaea?aeeaaynue no?iai iiiioeaio?ecia, niaa?oaiii n eiuo
iiceoeee ?anniao?eaaao i?e?iaeo, ?ieue e i?aaeiacia/aiea /aeiaaea.

Niaoeeoe/aneea /a?ou n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u: a) ii?aaeaeythuay ?ieue
?aeeaeiciie eoeueoo?u eae «aaciaie», aeiieie?othuae; a) aiaeaaeaoiue,
aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, /oi iaoneiaeaii aeaeaieai ie?a iaaeaia e
aeaienoaaiiui iiieiaieai /aeiaaea; a) iaee/eai a no?oeoo?ao
n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u ?yaea noaeoeueoo? (iai?eia?, ai?iaeneie,
?uoea?neie e o.ae.), a) ea?a?oey oi?i eoeueoo?u, io?aaeaaoay ea?a?oeth e
ei?ii?aoeaiinoue nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee.

E iniaaiiinoyi eoeueoo?u n?aaeiaaaeiaiai Caiaaea neaaeoao oaeaea ioianoe
i?ioeainoiyiea aeiieie?othuae eea?eeaeueiie eoeueoo?u e «eoeueoo?u
aaciieanoaothuaai aieueoeinoaa» – ia?iaeiie niaoiaie eoeueoo?u. A
aa?iiaeneie o?aaeeoeee i?aiaeaaeae acaeyae ia n?aaeiaaaeiauea eae ia
yiioo i?aeiaaney, «oaiiua aaea», ia?eiae aaconeiaiiai ainiiaenoaa
?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Enneaaeiaaiey I.I. Aaooeia e o?aioeocneie
«Oeieu Aiiaeia» auyaeee iaee/ea, ia?yaeo n eea?eeaeueiie, eoeueoo?u,
i?ioeainoiyuae ae – ia?iaeiie niaoiaie eee ea?iaaaeueiie. Yeaiaioaie
ia?iaeiie niaoiaie eoeueoo?u, yoiia?aoe/aneie ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth e
a?aoe/aneie ii nouanoao yaeyeenue: 1) ia?yaeiai-c?aeeuiua oi?iu
(ea?iaaaeu, i?acaeieee, ieiuaaeiua niaoiaua aeaenoaa); 2) neiaaniua
onoiua e ienueiaiiua niaoiaua i?iecaaaeaiey, a oii /enea e ia?iaeeeiua;
3) aeai?u e oi?iu oaieeuey?ii-ieiuaaeiie ?a/e (?oaaoaeuenoaa,
iaii?ie?iaaiiay eaeneea, aiaeau e o.ae.). Ana iie ia?aieaoaiu ae?oa n
ae?oaii, i?ioeainoiyo aeiieie?othuae eoeueoo?a, eae a iiieiaiee ie?a,
oae e a iiieiaiee /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio ea?iaaaeueiay eoeueoo?a iineea
a?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, iniaeaaea oi, /oi a eea?eeaeueiie eoeueoo?a iineei
iaycaoaeueiue, nayuaiiue oa?aeoa?.

A eoeueoo?a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey auaeaeytho neaaeothuea
yoaiu.

1) ?aiiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea (n iyoiai ii aeaayoue aae) – a?aiy
oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aaeeaiu oaioeaio?ecia, ?ani?ino?aiaiey o?enoeainoaa
n?aaee aa?aa?neeo ieaiai, eiaaea aaeeinoaaiiui iauaaeeiythuei ia/aeii
aunooiaea ?aeeaey, /oi aeaoa?ieie?iaaei i?ei?eoao aeooiaiuo aeanoae
(?einei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e iaineie aeanoe) iaae naaoneeie,
ainoaea?noaaiiuie. Aeey yoiai yoaia oa?aeoa?ii iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e
aioe/iiio ianeaaeeth. A oeeinioee ainiiaenoaotho aiieiaaoeea e
noieanoeea, a eneonnoaa – «aa?aa?neee» noeeue, a eioi?ii ni/aoaeenue
yeaiaiou ?aiiao?enoeaineie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u n yeaiaioaie
ycu/aneeie, oieueeei?iuie. A eeoa?aoo?a i?aiaeaaeatho i?iecaaaeaiey
iao?enoeee e ?anneacu i aeeoeyo nayouo, oi?ie?othony yie/aneea neacaiey,
oaeea eae «Aaiaoeueo», «Yaeaea», eaeueoneea e e?eaiaeneea naae.

2) Eeanne/aneia n?aaeiaaaeiauea (n aeanyoiai ii aeaaiaaeoeaoue aae) –
ia?eiae cae?aieaiey oaioeaio?ecia, oi?ie?iaaiey e ?aniaaea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee, ?anoeaaoa eoeueoo?u. Ia?yaeo n
oaieiae/aneie ana aieueoaa cia/aiea iieo/aao naaoneay eeoa?aoo?a,
aicieeatho oaeea aeai?u, eae ai?iaeneie ?iiai, ?uoea?neay iiycey,
?ani?ino?aiyaiay o?oaaaeo?aie e iaiano?aeyie, oieueeei?iua e
nooaeai/aneea ianie e noeoe. A no?oeoo?a eoeueoo?u ia?yaeo n
eea?eeaeueiie eoeueoo?ie aicieeatho e oi?ie?othony noaeoeueoo?u:
?uoea?neay, iniiaaiiay ia nianoaaiiie nenoaia oeaiiinoae, aeeth/ay
eoeueo I?ae?aniie aeaiu e eiaeaen /anoe. N iiyaeaieai ia?auo
oieaa?neoaoia ia/eiaaony i?ioeann aaiacena nooaeai/aneie noaeoeueoo?u,
aeeth/aaoae o?aaeeoeee, ia?yaeu, ii?iu iiaaaeaiey, aiaoiea ao?eaoou
iaeaaeaeu e nianoaaiiue oieueeei?. N ?inoii ai?iaeia e /eneaiiinoe
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ?acaeaaaony ai?iaeneay noaeoeueoo?a.

A ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?a aicieeaao aaeeiia iai?aaeaiea – ?iiaineia
eneonnoai. Aai oi?ie?iaaiea naycaii n aica?auaieai eioa?ana e
aeinoeaeaieyi a?aei-?eineie eoeueoo?u, neioacii aioe/iuo e ianoiuo
o?aaeeoeee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n o?aaeeoeeyie eaeueoneeo, aa?iaineeo e
ae?oaeo naaa?iuo ieaiai. Iineieueeo iniiaiia eiee/anoai nio?aieaoeony
iaiyoieeia ?iiaineiai noeey yaeythony a?oeoaeoo?iuie nii?oaeaieyie:
?acee/iua noeee yoiai a?aiaie ?acee/atho ii a?oeoaeoo?iui oeieai. Oae,
niai? a ?aaaiia, eiaao /a?ou ianiiiaiiiai aeeyiey aecaioeeneie
a?oeoaeoo?iie oeieu. Caeaiey /anoi nicaeaaaeenue eee aeaei?e?iaaeenue
yeaiaioaie, ecuyouie ec noa?uo ?eineeo iino?iae. Aioo?e niai?u e
oea?eiaiua eiiieaenu oe?aoaeenue neoeueioo?iuie eiiiiceoeeyie, /aua
?aeueaoaie e aa?aeueaoaie, oae eae neoeueioo?a caeanue aua ia ioaeaeaia
io noaiu (aaaaonoai Eethie ai O?aioeee). Iniaoth ?ieue ea?aee
ecia?aaeaiey noeai No?aoiiai Noaea e aaeneeo ioe.

Ia niaio ?iiaineiio eneonnoao i?eoiaeeo aioeea – iiaeeeiiia caaa?oaiea
?anoeaaoa n?aaeiaaaeiaiai eneonnoaa. A a?oeoaeoo?a ia niaio iiianou?neei
caeaieyi i?eoiaeeo nii?oaeaiea ai?iaeneeo niai?ia, i?ino?ainoai eioi?uo
nicaeaaaeinue a ?an/aoa ia ana ianaeaiea. Yoi i?ino?ainoai i?iiecaii
naaoiaie e oeaaoiaie neiaieeeie, /aio niinianoaiaaea aeo?aaeiay
aeeaiienue. Neoeueioo?a ioaeaeyaony io noaiu, i?eia?aoaao ie?oaeinoue e
au?aceoaeueiinoue, aunooiaao a ?aaeueiia i?ino?ainoai, oeao?u aua
neiaaiu e iai?yaeaiiu, ii ia?acu ianoo aeooiaioth yia?aeth.
Iiiai/eneaiiua a?i/iua ia?ae?uoey e aeaei?aoeaiua yeaiaiou i?eaeaaaee
aioe/aneie a?oeoaeoo?a cia/eoaeueiinoue, eiio?anoiinoue e
yeni?anneaiinoue. I?eia?ii ?aiiaai aioe/aneiai eneonnoaa yaeyaony Niai?
Ia?eaeneie Aiaiiaoa?e, c?aeiai – Niai? a ?aeina.

Iniiao iocueaeueiiai eneonnoaa n?aaeieo aaeia ninoaaeyei eeoo?ae/aneia
ianiiiaiea, a eioi?ii i?iyaeeny neioac o?aaeeoeee e eii?iaecaoeee.
Ainiiaenoaothuee niiioaiiue yeaiaio a ?aciiaeaeiinoyo oea?eiaiiai
ianiiiaiey iinoaiaiii ecaeeaaaony n iiiiuueth eiio?iey iaae iaeeaeaaiui
cao/aieai, aneaoe/aneea inaeiiiaiey ?aiiaai o?enoeainoaa niaiythony
eaiiiece?iaaiiui a?eai?eaineeo oi?aeii.

Aiieiuaieai aa?oeiu ?acaeoey n?aaeiaaaeiaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u
noaea aioeea (oa?iei aiciee a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey, eiaaea ooaa?aeeeny
acaeyae ia n?aaeiea aaea eae “oaiiua”, ”aa?aa?neea”). A oi?ie?iaaiee
aioe/aneiai noeey cia/eioth ?ieue nua?aee ai?iaeneia no?ieoaeuenoai e
ai?iaeneay eoeueoo?a. Iiyaeythony ai?iaeneea niai?u, ioee/athueany io
iiianou?neeo oea?eaae eae ?acia?aie, oae e naiei i?aaeiacia/aieai. Iie
yaeythony n?aaeioi/eai ia oieueei ?aeeaeiciie aeayoaeueiinoe, ii e anae
aeecie ai?iaeai. Aioe/aneoth a?oeoaeoo?o iacuaatho “iocueie a eaiia”,
o.e. niai?u oe?aoaeenue neoeueioo?ie (iia ioaeaeyaony io noaiu), aa
ia?acu ianoo aeooiaioth yia?aeth, oeao?u, oioy aua e neiaaiu a
aeaeaeaieyo, auoyioou e noieiiia?aciu, i?eia?aoatho ie?oaeinoue e
au?aaeatho yeni?anneth ia?acia. Ia?yaeo n ieanoe/aneeie eneonnoaaie
?acaeaaeenue oaao? (n?aaeiaaaeiaua ienoa?ee ?acua?uaaeenue a iiiauaieyo
niai?ia), ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai (aeo?aaee, iicaeee), eeoa?aoo?a. A
iae i?aiaeaaeatho “eaoeineay” iiycey, ia?iaeiua aa?ie/aneea yiinu, oaeea
eae “Aaiaoeueo”, “Ianiy i ?ieaiaea”. Aicieeaao ?uoea?neee ?iiai
(“O?enoai e Ecieueaea”), ?uoea?neay eo?ooaciay iiycey. Iniaia ianoi a
eeoa?aoo?a caieiaea iiycey aaaaioia – (eao. ”a?iaey/ea”) aa ?anoeaao
niaiae n ?acaeoeai oeie e n?aaeiaaaeiauo oieaa?neoaoia, aa aaoi?aie auee
“a?iaey/ea” nooaeaiou, iiycey ainiaaaea aania/iia aanaeuea, naiaiaeioth
aeeciue, aeaeaeoth io aneaoecia ioeoeeaeueiie eea?eeaeueiie eoeueoo?u.

A XI-XII aa. oi?ie?othony e ae?oaea yeaiaiou (ia?yaeo n eeoa?aoo?ie)
?uoea?neie eoeueoo?u, iineaoae naaoneee oa?aeoa?, n iniaui
ii?aeueii-yoe/aneei eiaeaenii (oe?iei io?aaeai a iiycee o?oaaaeo?ia,
iaiano?aeae).

A ia?eiae eeanne/aneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey oeaio?aie ia?aciaaiey e iaoee
noaee oieaa?neoaou, ia?yaeo n aiaineianeeie aeeth/aaoea e oaeoeueoaou
anoanoaaiiuo iaoe. *anoueth iao/iiai ciaiey noaiiaeony aeoeiey,
iiyaeythony ia?aaiaeu ia eaouiue (eae ycue ia?aciaaiey e iaoee) aioe/iuo
aaoi?ia, /oi noeioee?iaaei ?acaeoea oeeinioneie iunee.

Iicaeiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia oa?aeoa?ecoaony eae
i?ioeai?a/eaue nioeeieoeueoo?iue i?ioeann: ia?yaeo n yieaeaieyie,
aieiaeii, oaiaeaioeeyie naia?aoecia ?acaeaathony ai?iaeneay eoeueoo?a,
oi?aiaey, oi?ie?othony oneiaey aeey iiaeuaia aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u
(iniaaiii ia Naaa?a Eoaeee).

Eoeueoo?a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey aeoeaii
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaea n aecaioeeneie e a?aai-ionoeueiaineie, yaeeanue
i?ino?ainoaii oi?ie?iaaiey aa?iiaeneeo iaoeee, ainoaea?noa e ycueia. A
n?aaeiea aaea aicieeee i?aaeiinueee e yeaiaiou nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee
e eoeueoo?u.

Eoeueoo?a Aecaioee e Ae?aaiae ?one.

Eoeueoo?a Ainoi/iie ?eineie eiia?ee, iieo/eaoae oaea iinea aa ?aniaaea
iacaaiea Aecaioey, oa?aeoa?ecoaony naieie niaoeeoe/aneeie /a?oaie e
iniaaiiinoyie. Eae e a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneii n?aaeiaaaeiauea aa iniiao
ninoaaeyei o?enoeainoai a oi?ia a?aei-i?aaineaaey. Iniaaiiinoe
aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u: 1) neioac yeeeiece?iaaiiiai o?enoeainoaa n
yeaiaioaie eoaeaeneie, e?aineie e /anoe/ii aa?iaii-neaayineie eoeueoo?;
2) iinoiyiiua noieeiiaaiey e ai?ueaa ca iieeoe/aneoth aeanoue iaaeaeo
yoie/aneeie a?oiiaie e nioeeaeueiuie neiyie. Iineieueeo oa??eoi?ey
Aecaioee iaiaeiie?aoii eciaiyeanue, n?aaee a? iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueii
ianaeaiey nouanoaiaaei niia?ie/anoai, a ionoonoaea caeiia i
i?anoieiianeaaeee /?acau/aeii iaino?yei ai?ueao ca eiia?aoi?neoth
aeanoue, /oi a naith i/a?aaeue aaei e acaeiii?iieeiiaaieth yeaiaioia
eoeueoo?; 3) aeey aecaioecia auea oa?aeoa?ia auniei ?acaeoay
ainoaea?noaaiiinoue, iino?iaiiay ia aaniethoiie aaoi?eoa?iinoe
(ee/iinoue auea iieiinoueth iiae/eiaia oioaeeoa?iiio ainoaea?noao,
ionoonoaiaae aeoo ei?ii?aoeaiinoe, naienoaaiiue n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia);
4) oaniue neioac ainoaea?noaa e oea?eae a Aecaioee i?aaeiieaaae
iiae/eiaiiinoue aeooiaiuo aeanoae naaoneei, /oi iaoneiaeei iniaaiiinoe
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u.

Aecaioeci eae oei eoeueoo?u ioi?ieyeny iiae aicaeaenoaeai aioe/iinoe,
nio?aiyy e ?acaeaay a? o?aaeeoeee, ii iino?iaia yoa eoeueoo?a auea ia
ooiaeaiaioa o?enoeainoaa, aini?eiya aai oaioeaio?eci e iniiaiua
aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iua oieaa?naeee. A yoi aea a?aiy iaeuecy i?iaanoe
/aoeoth a?aiue iaaeaeo iicaeiaaioe/iie eoeueoo?ie e aecaioeciii, aioo?e
eioi?iai aeieai au? nio?aiyee eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea aioe/iua
i?eioeeiu, oaiaoeea, aeai?u e oi?iu ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa.

A enoi?ee Aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue ?yae yoaiia. ?aiiee
aecaioeci ioaaouaaao ia?eiae n V ii VII aaea, eiaaea neeaaeuaathony
o?aaeeoeee eiia?neie aeecie, inouanoaeyaony ia?aoiae io aioe/iinoe e
n?aaeiaaaeiaueth, i?e nio?aiaiee aioe/iie iao/iie iunee ?acaeaaaony
o?enoeaineia aiaineiaea e ooaeiaeanoaaiiue eaeaae. A Ainoi/iie ?eineie
eiia?ee ainiiaenoaiaaea /anoiay, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay nianoaaiiinoue.
Aeanoue eiia?aoi?a auea iniiaaia ia noaa?aiiuo i?aaao ainoaea?noaa, aaea
nio?aieeenue ?eineea o?aaeeoeee a?aaeaeainoaa, i?aaa, ainoaea?noaa
(i?eia?ii /aai neoaeeo i?ioeaaeo?a auai?ia eiia?aoi?a). A ie?iaini?eyoee
ainiiaenoaoao iioeieci, eaeay aiaieca?aiiinoe aecaioeeoeaa, /oi i?eaaei
e iiyaeaieth oacena, /oi Eiinoaioeiiiieue – a?aae aiaeee.

A oeaeii iniiaaiiay ia a?aei-i?aaineaaee, ?aiiaaecaioeeneay eoeueoo?a
iineea aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, iniiaaiiue ia ”oai?ee neioiiee” –
aaeeinoaa eiia?aoi?neie, naaoneie e aeooiaiie, oea?eiaiie aeanoae.
Iaaeaeo aeai?oeii e o?aiii, eiia?aoi?neei ii?o?aoii e eeiiie
nouanoaiaaee iaoeiaeiua nayce e ia?aeeaee, e oai e oai aeiieie?oao
ii?aaeae?iiay ioeoeeaeueiinoue e aee?aeoeaiinoue, oi?aeanoaaiiay
iiioiaioaeueiinoue. A oeeinioee oiai a?aiaie ia?yaeo n ?acaeoeai
iaiieaoiiecia, eaeae aioe/iinoe, iniiaiia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony
o?enoieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai (nii?u i i?e?iaea Eenona O?enoa).

Eae ii?aaeae?iiue niaoeeoe/aneee i?ioano i?ioea ia?aca aeecie iauanoaa
neeaaeuaathony o?aaeeoeee iooaeueie/anoaa e ionouiiiaeeoaeuenoaa,
ieacaaoea aiineaaenoaee cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia aeooiaiia
ie?iaeaeaiea a?aei-i?aaineaaey.

Aaaeiui aeinoeaeaieai aecaioeeneie aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u yoiai ia?eiaea
auea ?acaeoay nenoaia i?inaauaiey, aeeth/aaoay a naay ia/aeueiia,
n?aaeiaa e aunoaa ia?aciaaiea. Anee ia/aeueiay nooiaiue no?ieeanue
ia?aiia/aeueii ia eco/aiee ieoieiaee a?aei-?eineiai ie?a, oi iicaeiaa
iia aace?oaony ia o?enoeaineii inaeou?a. N?aaeiyy nooiaiue aeeth/aea
i?oia?aoeth, a?aiiaoeeo, i?eioeeiu noeoineiaeaiey, oeeinioeth,
iaoaiaoeeo, iao/aiea inouanoaeyeinue iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
a?aiioaaa-o/eoaeae (eee ?eoi?ia). A IV-VI- aaeao nio?aiyeinue ni
a?aiaiai aioe/iinoe aunoaa ia?aciaaiea a Aoeiao, Aeaenaiae?ee, a caoai e
a Eiinoaioeiiiiea.

Aoi?ie yoai ?acaeoey aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u aeeeeny n na?aaeeiu 7-ai
aaea aei na?aaeeiu 9-ai, eiaaea iaiaoeeny niaae a iaeanoe eoeueoo?u,
naycaiiue n iauei yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii, iioa?ae ainoi/iuo i?iaeioeee e
e?oiiuo oeaio?ia, nie?auaiea ianaeaiey ai?iaeia. Aecaioey noaiiaeony
aa?a?iie no?aiie, ia niaio eieiiaoo i?eoiaeeo niaoeeoe/aneee oaiiue
no?ie (oaiu – aiaiii-aaeieieno?aoeaiua ie?oaa, aicaeaaeyaiua
iieeiaiaeoeaie-no?aoeaaie). Nio?aiyaony oeaio?aeeciaaiii-iieeoe/aneay
aeanoue, naiui e?oiiui oeaio?ii inoa?ony Eiinoaioeiiiieue (aai ianaeaiea
ian/eouaaao a yoi a?aiy 200-250 oun. /aeiaae).

Iniiaiua niauoey aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u oiai a?aiaie naycaii n
?aeeaeicii-iieeoe/aneie ai?ueaie, nii?iaiaeaeaaoaeny ?inoii ienoeoeecia.
Iniaie iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeanue oai?ey “neia?aecia” (nicaeaoaeue –
Iaoaae Eniiaaaeiee), a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeaea eaeay, /oi “/aeiaae
niaea?aeeo a naaa /anoue aiaeanoaaiiie yia?aee, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie
iiaeaea?aeeaaao eiioaeo n aiaeanoaii /a?ac aa?o e aieth”.

A 762 aiaeo eiia?aoi? Eaa III iaia?iaeiaae yaeeeo, iauyaeythuee
ii/eoaiea eeii e iiuae eaeieiiieeiinoaii. Ia/eiaaony yiioa
eeiiiai?/anoaa, i?iaeeeaoayny aei 843 a. O?aaeeoeee eeiiiiene a Aecaioee
ainoiaeeee e oe?iei ?ani?ino?ai?iiiio a ?aiiaaecaioeeneoth yiioo
ii?o?aoo, ii eeiiu, n/eoaeinue, iaeaaeatho aua e /oaeiaeaenoaaiiie
iiuueth. E?ecen ?aeeaeiciiai ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa ii?iaeee
eeiiiai?/anoai, caeiiiaeaoaeueii cae?aie?iiia oea?eiaueth Anaeaineei
niai?ii 754 a., eioi?ue inoaeee eeiiiii/eoaiea eae eicie naoaiu,
cai?aoee ienaiea eeii O?enoa, Aiaiiaoa?e e nayouo, “inei?aeyoue eo
i?ac?aiiui yeeeineei eneonnoaii”.

A ?acaa? eeiiiai?/anoaa aicieeaao iaaeeeeainoai – aeaeaeaiea i?ioanoa a
i?aaineaaiii o?enoeainoaa, niaeanii aa?io/aieth eioi?iai ie? ?acaeae?i
ia 2 a?aaeaeaaiuo oea?noaa – aeooiaiia, enoiaeyuaa io Aiaa, e
iaoa?eaeueiia – oea?noai cea, enoiaeyuaa io naoaiu. Ioaa?aaei eoeueo
aiai?iaeeoeu, eeiiu, nayouo, aic?iaeaeaei eaeae e i?aeoeeo
?aiiao?enoeaineeo iauei, aeoeaii i?iiiaaaeiaaei aneaoeci.

Ai aeaaa eeiiiii/eoaoaeae noaei iiiaoanoai, a eeoea naieo eo/oeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae Eiaiia Aeaianeeia, O. Nooaeeoa, ionoaeaaaoeo
iacaaeneiinoue oea?eae io ainoaea?noaa, aica?ao e aeooo e niuneo
o?enoeaineiai ie?iiiieiaiey. A 787 a. a Ieea VII Anaeaineee Niai?
inoaeee eeiiiai?/anoai, i?eciae aiciiaeiui eniieueciaaiea e ii/eoaiea
eeii a aiaineoaeaiee. (Eeiiiai?/anoai aic?iaeeony au? e a 802-815
aiaeao, ii caoai auei ieii/aoaeueii inoaeaeaii).

A na?aaeeia 9–ai aaea Aecaioey noaiiaeony iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo e
iiaouanoaaiiuo ainoaea?noa Aa?iiu. Aieioue aei eiioea 12 aaea aeeeony
naiaia?aciue “?aiannain” aecaioecia, a iniiaa eioi?iai eaaeaei
aic?iaeaeaiea aioe/iuo o?aaeeoeee. A XI aaea auee ioe?uou aunoea
th?eaee/aneea e oeeinioneea oeieu, aaea aioiaeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo e
aeooiaiuo naiiaieeia. A ieo i?aiiaeaaaee aeaeiaeoea iuneeoaee
aecaioeeneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey: Eiinoaioei Eeooae, Ieoaee Inaee e ae?. N
12 aaea aunoay oeiea iiiaaeaao iiae iie?iaeoaeuenoai oea?eae e ia ia?
aiceaaaaony caaea/a ai?ueau n a?anyie. N 1204 aiaea nenoaia i?inaauaiey
ia?aiauaia a iiianou?e.

?acaeoea naeueneiai oicyenoaa e ?aianae, nicaeaiea aiaiiiai oeioa
i?eaaee e iaeeaeaieth ai?iaeia. E 12 a. Eiinoaioeiiiieue – oeaio?
ath?ie?aoee neiaeeeanue ea?a?oey /eiia e aeieaeiinoae.

A eiioea IX aaea ia iniiaa o?aaeeoeee ionouiiiaeeoaeuenoaa aicieeaao
ciaiaieoue Aoiineee eiiieaen iiianou?ae, noaaoee iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
oeaio?ii i?aaineaaiiai iiiaoanoaa. ?anoe?yaony ienneiia?neay
aeayoaeueiinoue aecaioeeneie oea?eae, a? e?oiiaeoei oeaio?ii noaea
Oannaeiieea, ec eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeee iniiaaoaee neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe
Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee. A 863 aiaeo ninoiyeinue eo ciaiaieoay ii?aaneay
ienney, iinea eioi?ie iiyaeeenue o?enoeaineea neoaeau ia neaayineeo
ycueao.

A ia?eiae “iaeaaeiineiai aic?iaeaeaiey” i?ienoiaeeo iiaeu?i
?aiian?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u – yoi iiaia ia?auaiea e aioe/iiio
ianeaaeeth ni no?iai o?enoeaineeo iiceoeee. Oea?eiaue e ?aeeaey
?aaeaiaioe?otho ii?iu naiaeiiai i?aaa, oaeanoi/atho i?aaineaaiua
o?aaiaaiey, ?ano?o ?ieue oea?eiaiiai noaea. A naaoneii eneonnoaa
ainiiaenoaoao i?eioeei “a caei?iaii oaea caei?iaue aeoo”, a aecaioeeneii
?aeeaeiciii eneonnoaa ainoi?aeanoaiaaea nianoaaiiay eaeay niioiioaiey
aeooiaiiai e oaeaniiai, eaeay aa?iiiee (e?anioa oaeaniay anoue
io?aaeaiea, i?iyaeaiea e?aniou aeooiaiie, iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea
niaa?oainoaa aeooiaiiai ia/aea). Aic?iaeaeaaony eeiiiienue, o?aiiaia
eneonnoai a oeaeii, a oa?ainoaa o?aiia aiieiuaia oaieiaey i?eie?aiey. A
a?oeoaeoo?a oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/aao ia?aiia/aeueii aaceeeea,
caoai aecaioeeneee e?anoiai-eoiieueiue oei. Au?aaaouaaaony aaeeiue
iiianou?neee eiiieaen, aeeth/aaoee eeiiia?aoe/aneoth i?ia?aiio
aioo?aiiaai ioi?ieaiey o?aia, a iniiaa eioi?ie eaaeaei aaeeinoai
iiioiaioaeueiinoe e aeeaiieniiai ioi?ieaiey, inaauaiey, eeoo?aee e a?
aieaeueii-oi?iaiai nii?iaiaeaeaiey. Iiieii a?oeoaeoo?iuo iaiyoieeia
ianoa?a Aecaioee inoaaeee iai?aacieae?iiua ii e?anioa iicaeee, eeiiu e
eieaeioth ieieaoth?o.

A 1054 aiaeo ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieyaony ?aneie a o?enoeainoaa – «aaeeeay
noecia», ?acaeaeaiea oea?eaae ia caiaaeioth, ?einei-eaoiee/aneoth e
ainoi/ioth, i?aaineaaioth. A i?ioeanna ?aciaaeaaaiey neiaeeeenue
?acee/ey a aeiaiaoeea, aa?io/aiee, eoeueoa e ia?yaeiinoe iaaeaeo
i?aaineaaeai e eaoieeoeeciii. ?yae yoeo ?acee/ee nio?aiyaony aei iaoeo
aeiae.

*aoa??oue ia?eiae a enoi?ee aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u n 13 ii 15 aaea –
ia?eiae iicaeian?aaeiaaaeiaue, iaoneiaeaiiue yeiiiie/aneei e
iieeoe/aneei oiaaeeii. A yoi a?aiy i?aaei?eieiaaony iiiuoea i?aiaeieaoue
n?aaeiaaaeiaia ie?iaicc?aiea e iieeoe/aneea i?eioeeiu, ia iieo/eaoea
?acaeoey, ii ieacaaoea cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia eoeueoo?o neaayineeo
ia?iaeia.

Oaeei ia?acii, eoeueoo?a Aecaioee yaeeanue naiaia?aciui aeooiaiui
ia?aciaaieai, ioee/iui io caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u.
E yoei ioee/eyi iiaeii ioianoe: 1) onoie/eaia nio?aiaiea aioe/iuo
o?aaeeoeee a iaoea, i?inaauaiee, eeoa?aoo?a, ecia?aceoaeueiii eneonnoaa;
2) eiaeeaeaeoaeeci (aa?a a aiciiaeiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai nianaiey,
ia?acaeoinoue ei?ii?aoeaiinoe); 3) eoeueo eiia?aoi?a eae caiiiai
aiaeanoaa (nae?aeueiie oeao?u), o?aaothuaai iniauo oea?aiiiee
iieeiiaiey; 4) o?aaeeoeeiiaeeci e oieoeeaoeey iao/iiai e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa, /aio niinianoaiaaea ath?ie?aoecaoeey anae
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe aecaioeeneiai ainoaea?noaa. Iaeiaei yoi eoeueoo?a
nicaeaea naith nianoaaiioth nenoaio oeaiiinoae e aioea a enoi?eth
/aeiaa/anoaa.

Oi?ie?iaaiea neaayineeo eoeueoo?, a oii /enea ?onneie e aaei?oneie, ai
iiiaii naycaii n aecaioeeneeie o?aaeeoeeyie. Ia?aiia/aeueii eoeueoo?a
?one neeaaeuaaaony a i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, eniuouaay
eae aioo?eieaiaiiua eoeueoo?iua aicaeaenoaey, oae e aieouaay eoeueoo?iua
caeinoaiaaiey. Aicaeaenoaea aecaioecia yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii eoeueoo?iie
aeaoi?iaoeee, eiaaea /oaeea aeeyiey i?eiaiyeenue e nianoaaiiui
o?aaeeoeeyi, yoie/aneei iniaaiiinoyi, neiaeeaoaiony oeeaaeo
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe (iniaaiii a naeueneie ianoiinoe).

Aei E?auaiey ?one eoeueoo?a ?acaeaaeanue iiae aeeyieai ycu/aneeo
?aeeaeicii-ieoieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee, eioi?ua iicaeiaa
neioace?iaaeenue n i?aaineaaii-oea?eiaiuie yeaiaioaie. Aneaoeci
aecaioeeneiai o?enoeainoaa aeiiieieeny ycu/aneeie eoeueoaie i?e?iaeu,
aeecia?aaeinoiinoueth e aeeciaethaeai, ioe?uoinoueth ia?iaeiie
eoeueoo?u. (“Neiai i iieeo Eai?aaa” ana i?iiecaii ycu/aneeie iioeaaie).

O?aaeeoeeiiii E?auaiea ?one naycuaatho n niauoeyie 988 a. i.y., eaoii
eioi?iai i?e eiyca Aeaaeeie?a aecaioeeneea nayuaiieee e?anoeee ianaeaiea
Eeaaa. Ia naiii aeaea yoio i?ioeann inouanoaeyeny a ianeieueei yoaiia, a
aeaiaaa?ea nio?aiyeinue a oa/aiea noieaoee. E?auaiea ?one auei aucaaii
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ?anoe?aiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo e oa??eoi?eaeueiuo naycae,
iio?aaiinoueth a aeooiaiii aaeeinoaa, iauaaeeiaiee ?acae?iaeaiiuo
eiyaeanoa. Eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneia cia/aiea e?auaiey ?one:

1. Iauaaeeiaiea neaayineeo ieai?i, oi?ie?iaaiea naiie iieiaeie eoeueoo?u
a Aa?iiaeneii ?aaeiia.

2. Aeeth/aiea yoie eoeueoo?u a aa?iiaeneee o?enoeaineee e?oa.

3. Iiyaeaiea eaiaiiiai e o?aiiaiai ciae/anoaa, no?ieoaeuenoai
iiianou?neeo eiiieaenia. O?aiu e niai?u iaeiia?aiaiii noaiiayony
oeaio?aie ia?aciaaiey e ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u.

4. Caaa?oaiea i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey ienueiaiiinoe. O?enoeaiecaoeey ?one
niinianoaiaaea ?ani?ino?aiaieth “ee?eeeeoeu” (aei 13 aaea nouanoaiaaea e
“aeaaieeoea”); a?aiioiinoe, iiyaeaieth ia?aaiaeia a?a/aneeo e aieaa?neeo
eiea eae oea?eiaiiai, oae e naaoneiai niaea?aeaiey, a XI a.
?ani?ino?aiythony ia?aaiaeiua aecaioeeneea ni/eiaiey.

5. Oi?ie?iaaiea nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey i?ienoiaeeo ia?aiia/aeueii i?e
oea?eayo e iiianou?yo.

6. Iiyaeaiea eaoiienae eae iaiyoieeia eoeueoo?u e eeoa?aoo?u (“Neiai i
caeiia e Aeaaiaeaoe” Eeea?eiia, ”Iiaanoue a?aiaiiuo eao” Ianoi?a e
o.ae.)

7. ?acaeoea ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u e o?enoeaiecaoeey
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa.

Eaiiie/aneia aecaioeeneia eneonnoai a neioaca n ia?iaeiuie o?aaeeoeeyie
eaaeeo a iniiaa ?onneie eeiiiiene, a eioi?ie oneiaiinoue e no?iainoue,
aneaoeci “a?a/aneie” iaia?u ni/aoaaony n aeeaiieniinoueth e
iaoo?aeenoe/iinoueth. Aicieeatho o?aneiaay aeeaiienue e iicaeea
(Nioeeneee Niai? a Eeaaa, Iieioeea).

Oieueeei?iua iioeau iaiieiyee aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiia eneonnoai e
iocueaeueii-iaa/aneia oai?/anoai, nio?aieaoeany a aueeiao e neacaieyo.

Oaeei ia?acii, iiae aicaeaenoaeai i?ioeannia acaeiiaeeyiey e
acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey eoeueoo? oi?ie?oaony naiiauoiay ?onneay eoeueoo?a
eae oeaeinoiinoue, ni naiae nianoaaiiie nenoaiie oeaiiinoae e
enoi?e/aneie noaeueaie.

Eoeueoo?a Aic?iaeaeaiey

Iiaue ia?eiae a eoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee Caiaaeiie e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu
iieo/ee iacaaiea Aic?iaeaeaiey, eee ?aiannaina.

Aic?iaeaeaiea (o?aioe. ?aiannain; eoae. ?eia/eiaioi) – aoiaienoe/aneia
aeaeaeaiea a enoi?ee aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u a ia?eiae eiioea
n?aaeiaaaeiauey e ia/aea nia?aiaiiinoe. ?aiannain aiciee a Eoaeee a XIV
a., ?ani?ino?aieeny a caiaaeiuo no?aiao (Naaa?iia Aic?iaeaeaiea) e
aeinoea iaeaieueoaai ?anoeaaoa a na?aaeeia XVI a. Eiiaoe XVI – ia/aei
XVII a. oiaaeie – iaiuea?eci.

Ia?aiia/aeueii iiaia yaeaiea a aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?iie aeecie auaeyaeaei
eae aica?auaiea e caauoui aeinoeaeaieyi aioe/iie eoeueoo?u a iaeanoe
iaoee, oeeinioee, eeoa?aoo?u, eneonnoaa, aica?auaiea e eeanne/aneie
«cieioie eaouie». A Eoaeee ?acuneeaaeenue ?oeiiene aioe/iuo ienaoaeae,
ecaeaeaeenue ec caauouey i?iecaaaeaiey aioe/iie neoeueioo?u,
a?oeoaeoo?u. Iiaeiaiia oaea i?ienoiaeeei a ie?iaie enoi?ee (iai?eia?, a
yiioo Ea?ieeianeiai aic?iaeaeaiey e eeanne/aneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey iiiaoe
ia ?ac ia?auaeenue e aioe/iiio ianeaaeeth, ii oieueei aeey oiai, /oiau
iaeoe a iai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea i?aaeeueiinoe oea?eiaiuo aeiai). A yoio ?ac
i?iecioei eiia. Oaiiiai Aic?iaeaeaiey ii?aaeaeyeny oai, /oi aioe/iia
ianeaaeea i?aa?aoeeinue a i?oaeea ieni?iaa?aeaiey oea?eiaiuo eaiiiia e
cai?aoia. Iaeioi?ua eoeueoo?ieiae, ii?aaeaeyy aa cia/aiea, n?aaieaatho n
a?aiaeeiciie eoeueoo?iie ?aaiethoeee, eioi?ay aeeeeanue aeaa n iieiaeiie
noieaoey e caaa?oeeanue nicaeaieai iiaiai oeia ie?iaicc?aiey e iiaiai
oeia eoeueoo?u. Ie/aai iiaeiaiiai aia aa?iiaeneiai ?aaeiia a yoi a?aiy
ia iaaethaeaeinue.

A eneonnoaa i?iecioae ia?aai?io, n?aaieiue n ioe?uoeai Eiia?ieea. A
oeaio?a iiaiai ie?iaicc?aiey iaoiaeeeny /aeiaae, a ia Aia eae aunoaa
ia?eei anaai nouaai. Iiaue acaeyae ia ie? iieo/ee iacaaiea aoiaiecia.

Aio?iiioeaio?eci – aeaaiay eaeay ie?iaicc?aiey yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.
?iaeaeaiea iiaiai ie?iaicc?aiey naycaii n ienaoaeai O?ai/anei Iao?a?ee.
Noieanoeea, iniiaaiiie ia oi?iaeueii-oa?ieiieiae/aneii iaoiaea, ii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyao iao/iia ciaiea; n/anoueth a «A?aaea Aiaeueai» – caiiia
/aeiaa/aneia n/anouea; aeooiaiie ethaae e Aiao – aicauoaiioth ethaiaue e
cai-iie aeaiueia.

Eaeae aoiaiecia au?aaeaeenue a oii, /oi a /aeiaaea aaaeiu aai ee/iua
ea/anoaa — oi, oai?/aneay yia?aey, i?aaei?eei/eainoue, /oanoai
nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa, aiey e ia?aciaaiiinoue, a ia nioeeaeueiia
iieiaeaiea e i?ienoiaeaeaiea.

A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo ooaa?aeaeaiea eaeaaea aa?iiie/aneie,
?ane?aiiuaiiie, oai?/aneie ee/iinoe, e?aniou e aa?iiiee, ia?auaiea e
/aeiaaeo eae e aunoaio ia/aeo auoey, iuouaiea oeaeueiinoe e no?ieiie
caeiiiia?iinoe ie?icaeaiey.

Aeooiaainoai oo?a/eaaao naie aaoi?eoao e iiceoeee a iauanoaa. Yoi
i?eaaei e ioiaaeaieth ?yaea aa?iiaeneeo no?ai io eaoieeoeecia e
iiyaeaieth ?acee/iuo oi?i i?ioanoaioecia.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey ii?iaeeea aaieaa e oeoaiia: Eoaeey – Eaiia?aei aea
Aei/e, ?aoayey, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, Oeoeeaia, iieeoe/aneiai aeayoaey
Iaeeaaaeee, oeeinioia Aeueaa?oe, A?oie, Aaea, Oe/eii, Ieeieay
Eocaineiai, ciae/eo A?oiaeeanee e A?aiaioa; O?aioeey – ?aaea e Iiioaiy;
Aiaeey – Ii?a, Ayeiia, Neaeiay, Oaenie?a; Eniaiey – Na?aaioana; Iieueoa
– Eiia?ieea; Aa?iaiey -Aaia, Ithioea?a, Eaiea?a. A i?iecaaaeaieyo yoeo
aaoi?ia i?enoonoaoao iuneue i oii, /oi aa?iiie/iinoue nioai?aiiiai ie?a
i?iyaeyaony aacaea: a aeaenoaeyo noeoee, oiaea a?aiaie, iieiaeaiee
caacae, i?e?iaea ?anoaiee, aeeaioiuo.

Oaaeaa?u yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey: Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e «Aeaeieiiaea», «Oaeiay
aa/a?y»; ?aoayeue «Neenoeineay iaaeiiia» e «Niyuay Aaia?a» (Ae?acaeai),
«Iaaeiiia Eiianoaaeea» e «THaeeoue» (Y?ieoaae); Oeoeeai «Aeaiay»
(Y?ieoaae).

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey oa?aeoa?ecoaony oieaa?naeeciii ianoa?ia, oe?ieei
iaiaiii ciaieyie (ieaea?eaiaeoeu caeinoaotho iaeioi?ua eiei?enoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe eoaeueyioeaa, a oa, a naith i/a?aaeue, caeinoaotho io ieo
?aaioo ianeyiuie e?aneaie ia oienoao).

Aeaaiay /a?oa eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?u ?aiannaina – ooaa?aeaeaiea e?aniou e
oaeaioa /aeiaaea, oi?aeanoai iunee e aunieeo /oanoa, niceaeaoaeueiie
aeoeaiinoe. A ecia?aceoaeueiii eneonnoaa ?acaeaathony noeee aa?ieei e
eeanneoeeci, a aeeaiiene aeaaeaieci e ea?aaaaeaeeci. Iiyaeythony iiaua
aeai?u -iaecaae, iaoth?ii?o, ea?oeiu auoa, ioio e i?acaeieeia.

A?oeoaeoo?a ?aiannaina iniiaaia ia aic?iaeaeaiee eeanne/aneie, aeaaiui
ia?acii ?eineie a?oeoaeoo?u. Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey -naaeaine?iaaiiinoue e
yniinoue i?iii?oeee, eniieueciaaiea i?aea?iie nenoaiu, /ooeia ioiioaiea
e no?ieoaeueiiio iaoa?eaeo, aai oaeoo?a, e?anioa.

Aic?iaeaeaiea aicieeei e y?/a anaai i?iyaeeinue a Eoaeee. Yiioo
eoaeueyineiai Aic?iaeaeaiey oneiaii iiae?acaeaeytho ia ?yae yoaiia:

—?aiiee ?aiannain (o?a/aioi e eaao?i/aioi) — na?aaeeia XIV — XV aaea;

—Aunieee ?aiannain (/eieaa/aioi) — eiiaoe XV — aoi?ay o?aoue XVI aaea;

—Iicaeiee ?aiannain — aoi?ay o?aoue XVI — ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey XVII
aaeia.

Ia?eiae I?ioi?aiannaina — i?aaeaanoieea Aic?iaeaeaiey, eioi?ui eiaiotho
ia?aoth iieiaeio XIV aaea, — yoi iiyaeaiea «Aiaeanoaaiiie eiiaaeee»
aaeeeiai Aeaioa, ee?e/aneiai aaiey Iao?a?ee, n/eoathueony
?iaeiia/aeueieeaie eoaeueyineiai aoiaiecia, yoi iieiue ia?iaeiiai thii?a
e aieueiiaeoinoaa «Aeaeaia?ii» Aieea//i, yoi oai?aiey aeeaiienoea
Aeaeiooi, a /ueeo ea?oeiao iiyaeeenue ?aaeenoe/aneea, aeeaua, iauaiiua,
ieanoe/anee au?aceoaeueiua ecia?aaeaiey ethaeae.

A XV aaea iiaay eoeueoo?a anooieea a ii?o ao?iiai ?anoeaaoa. Ai
Oei?aioeee, noaaoae aaaeiaeoei eoeueoo?iui oeaio?ii yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey,
nicaeathony ciaiaieoua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua eieeaeoeee aeiia Iaaee/e,
Ieaoiiianeay aeaaeaiey, Eoe?aoeeaineay aeaeeioaea. A Aaiaoeee, Ieeaia,
?eia e ae?oaeo eoaeueyineeo ai?iaeao iiyaeythony oeieu aeeaiiene,
niae?athony e?oaeee naaonee ia?aciaaiiuo ethaeae, a eioi?uo
ianoaeaeathony eaeae aioe/iie oeeinioee, i?iaeaiu ii?aee, iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, iao/iiai iiciaiey i?e?iaeu. Ooaeiaeieee eco/atho i?iii?oeee
/aeiaa/aneiai oaea, aiaoiieth, eeiaeioth ia?niaeoeao. Neoeueioi?u
Aeiiaoaeei e Aa?ieeuei, a?oeoaeoi?u A?oiaeeanee e Aeueaa?oe, aeeaiienoeu
Iaca//i, Eeiie, Aiooe/aeee, Iaioaiuey, Aaeeeie e, iaeiiaoe,
oieaa?naeueiue aaiee Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e — oeaeia nicaacaeea aaeeeeo
eiai oa?aeoa?ecoao iaeee eaao?i/aioi.

Ia?eiae n iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey XV aaea aei na?aaeeiu XVI noieaoey
(Aunieee ?aiannain) noaiiaeony «cieioui aaeii» eoaeueyineiai eneonnoaa.
Io iaai inoaaony ia iaiyoue iioiieai oi?aeanoaaiiay e aaee/aaay
a?oeoaeoo?a A?aiaioa e Iaeeaaeei, ii aea?eo ie?o aannia?oiua oaaeaa?u
?aoayey e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. Aanue XVI aae i?iaeieaeaaony e eeoue a ia/aea
XVII oaanaao oeaaoaiea ?iaeaeaiiie iiae iaaii Eoaeee aic?iaeaeai/aneie
eoeueoo?u. *eieaa/aioi — a?aiy Oeoeeaia, Aa?iiaca, Oeioi?aooi,
Ea?aaaaeaei e ae?oaeo caia/aoaeueiuo ooaeiaeieeia, ea?oeiu eioi?uo
yaeythony oe?aoaieai iaoaai Y?ieoaaea. E yoiio a?aiaie eaeae
Aic?iaeaeaiey auoiaeyo ca i?aaeaeu Eoaeee. Iie iieo/atho aiieiuaiea a
oai?/anoaa ooaeiaeieeia Ieaea?eaiaeia (ssi aai Yee, oaea a XV aaea
i?ieiaeeaoee ei aei?iao a Naaa?ioth Aa?iio, Ea?iiei Aino, A?aeaaeue
Noa?oee, i?icaaiiue Ioaeeoeeei, e ae?.), Aa?iaiee (Aeth?a?), Eniaiee
(Yeue A?aei) e ae?. Aecoaeueiay eoeueoo?a — a?oeoaeoo?a, aeeaiienue,
neoeueioo?a — noaiiaeony aeaaiui aeinoeaeaieai Aunieiai Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Iicaeiee ?aiannain oa?aeoa?ecoaony ao?iui ?acaeoeai e oaeiai
neioaoe/aneiai aeaea eneonnoaa, eae oaao?, iaeaieaa y?eeie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?iai noaee Eiia aea Aaaa, Eaeueaea?ii, Oe?ni aea
Iieeia (Eniaiey), Aeeueyi Oaenie? (Aiaeey).

Iiaay oeeinioey yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey auea i?aaenoaaeaia o?oaeaie oaeeo
auaeathueony iuneeoaeae, eae Oiian Ii? a Aiaeee, Aiaeai, Iiioaiue, ?aaea
ai O?aioeee, Iaeeaaaeee a Eoaeee, Y?aci ?iooa?aeaineee a Aieeaiaeee e
ae?.

Oaeei ia?acii, eoeueoo?a yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey io?aaeaao neioac /a?o
aioe/iinoe e n?aaeiaaaeiaiai o?enoeainoaa, ie?iaicc?ai/aneie iniiaie
naeoey?ecaoeee eoeueoo?u aunooiaao aoiaieci.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey caiaieea ?aeeaeiciue ?eooae naaoneei, aicaaea
/aeiaaea ia aa?ie/aneee iueaaeanoae. Yiioa n iaeiie noi?iiu aeaea ie?o
ia?acoeu ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aaiey, iaoee e oeeinioee, a n ae?oaie
au?aceeanue a oe?ieii nioeeieoeueoo?iii e?ecena, naycaiiii n ?ac?ooaieai
n?aaeiaaaeiaie eaeaieiaee e nioeeoia. Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey noi?ie?iaaea
iiaue eaeaae /aeiaaea, naiiaeinoaoi/iiai a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe e ia
caaenyuaai io eieeaeoeaiuo ia?aciaaiee (ai?iaea, ?iae, nineiaea).

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aeiaaaa O.I. Aaaaeaiea a eoeueoo?ieiaeth. Ii., 1998.

2. Aaee/aeoea aaiee ie?iaiai eneonnoaa: a?oeoaeoo?a, aeeaiienue,
neo-eueioo?a / ?aae.: *aaioa?aaa A.I.,Iao?iiaaeiaa I.A.- Iineaa: ANO;
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: Iieeaii, 2006

3. Aeeoi?ia A.A. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. I., 2002.

4. Ao?aae/ I.N. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. I., 2005.

5. E?aa/aiei E.N. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. I., 2007.

6. Eoeueoo?a e eoeueoo?ieiaey: Neiaa?ue / Iiae ?aae. A.E. E?aa/aiei. I.,
2007.

7. Eoeueoo?ieiaey aeey oaoie/aneeo aocia / Iiae ?aae.
I.A.Aoeaiiaa-Oiii?eiaa. ?inoia i/Ae., 2001.

8. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. Enoi?ey ie?iaie eoeueoo?u / Iiae ?aae.
O.O.Eociaoeiaie. I., 2003.

9. Eoeueoo?ieiaey / Iiae ?aae. I.A. Aaaaeana?ueyi. I., 2006.

10. Eoeueoo?ieiaey / Iiae ?aae. A.A.Ae?a/a. I., 2003.

11. Eoeueoo?ieiaey / Iiae ?aae. A.I. Ia?eiaie. I., 2007.

12. Eoeueoo?ieiaey / Iiae ?aae. A.A.?aaeoaeia. I., 2000.

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