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Социальные условия становления письменности и возникновение первых школ в Киевской Руси

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IEAI :

AAAAeAIEA…………………………………………………………………….…..…..n.

1. Nioeeaeueiua oneiaey noaiiaeaiey ienueiaiiinoe……………….n.

2. Aicieeiiaaiea ia?auo oeie a Eeaaneie ?one………………….n.

CAEETH*AIEA…………………………………………………………………………n.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U…………………………….….….n.

AAAAeAIEA

A ia/aea XXI noieaoey iaiuneeii i?aaenoaaeoue nia?aiaiioth aeeciue aac
eiea, aacao, oeacaoaeae, iioiea eioi?iaoeee, a i?ioeia – aac
oii?yaei/aiiie enoi?ee, ?aeeaeth – aac nayuaiiuo oaenoia… Iiyaeaiea
ienueiaiiinoe noaei iaeiei ec naiuo aaaeiuo, ooiaeaiaioaeueiaeoeo
ioe?uoee ia aeieaii iooe yaiethoeee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii cia/eiinoe yoio oaa
iiaeii, iiaeaeoe, n?aaieoue n aeiauaaieai iaiy eee n ia?aoiaeii e
au?aueaaieth ?anoaiee aianoi aeieaie ii?u niae?aoaeuenoaa. Noaiiaeaiea
ienueiaiiinoe – i/aiue iai?inoie i?ioeann, aeeeaoeeny ouny/aeaoey.
Neaayineay ienueiaiiinoue, ianeaaeieoeae eioi?ie yaeyaony iaoa
nia?aiaiiia ienueii, anoaea a yoio ?yae oaea aieaa ouny/e eao iacaae, a
IX aaea iaoae y?u.

1. Nioeeaeueiua oneiaey noaiiaeaiey ienueiaiiinoe

A na?aaeeia I ouny/aeaoey i. y. neaayia canaeeee ia?iiiua oa??eoi?ee a
Oeaio?aeueiie, THaeiie e Ainoi/iie Aa?iia. Eo ninaaeyie ia thaa auee
A?aoeey, Eoaeey, Aecaioey – naiaai ?iaea eoeueoo?iua yoaeiiu
/aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee.

Iieiaeua neaayineea “aa?aa?u” iinoiyiii ia?ooaee a?aieoeu thaeiuo
ninaaeae. *oiau iaocaeaoue eo, e ?ei e Aecaioey ia/aee i?aaei?eieiaoue
iiiuoee ia?aoeoue “aa?aa?ia” a o?enoeaineoth aa?o, iiae/eiea eo
aei/a?iea oea?eae aeaaiie – eaoeineie a ?eia, a?a/aneie a
Eiinoaioeiiiiea. E “aa?aa?ai” noaee iai?aaeyoue ienneiia?ia. N?aaee
iineaioeaa oea?eae, aac niiiaiey, auei iaiaei oao, eoi ene?aiia e
oaaaeaeaiii eniieiye naie aeooiaiue aeiea, aea e naie neaayia, aeeay a
oaniii nii?eeiniiaaiee n aa?iiaeneei n?aaeiaaaeiaui ie?ii, ana aieaa
neeiiyeenue e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aieoe a eiii o?enoeaineie oea?eae. A ia/aea
IX aaea neaayia ia/aee i?eieiaoue o?enoeainoai.

E oiaaea anoaea iiaay caaea/a. Eae naeaeaoue aeinooiiui aeey
iiaiia?auaiiuo ia?iiiaeoee ieano ie?iaie o?enoeaineie eoeueoo?u –
nayuaiiua ienaiey, iieeoau, iineaiey aiinoieia, o?oaeu iooeia oea?eae?
Neaayineee ycue, ?acee/aynue aeeaeaeoaie, aeieaia a?aiy inoaaaeny
aaeeiui: ana i?ae?anii iiieiaee ae?oa ae?oaa. Iaeiaei ienueiaiiinoe o
neaayi aua ia auei. “I?aaeaea neaayia, eiaaea auee ycu/ieeaie, ia eiaee
ienueiai, – aiai?eony a Neacaiee /a?ii?ecoea O?aa?a “I ienueiaiao”, – ii
[n/eoaee] e aaaeaee n iiiiuueth /a?o e ?acia”. Iaeiaei i?e oi?aiauo
naeaeeao, i?e o/aoa oicyenoaa eee eiaaea ioaeii auei oi/ii ia?aaeaoue
eaeia-ieaoaeue iineaiea, a oai aieaa i?e aeeaeiaa ni noa?ui ie?ii, a?yae
ee “/a?o e ?acia” ieacuaaeinue aeinoaoi/ii. Aicieeea iio?aaiinoue a
nicaeaiee neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe.

“Eiaaea aea [neaayia] e?anoeeenue, – ?anneacuaae /a?ii?ecaoe O?aa?, – oi
iuoaeenue caienuaaoue neaayineoth ?a/ue ?eineeie [eaoeineeie] e
a?a/aneeie ienueiaiaie aac ii?yaeea”. Yoe iiuou /anoe/ii aeioee aei
iaoeo aeiae: cao/auea ii-neaayinee, ii caienaiiua a O aaea eaoeineeie
aoeaaie aeaaiua iieeoau, ?ani?ino?aiaiiua o caiaaeiuo neaayi. Eee
ae?oaie eioa?aniaeoee iaiyoiee – aeieoiaiou, a eioi?uo a?a/aneeie
aoeaaie caienaiu aieaa?neea oaenou, i?e/ai oao a?aiai, eiaaea aieaa?u
aiai?eee aua ia oth?eneii ycuea (iicaea aieaa?u aoaeoo aiai?eoue ia
neaayineii).

E ana aea ie eaoeineee, ie a?a/aneee aeoaaeo ia niioaaonoaiaae caoeiaie
iaeeo?a neaayineiai ycuea. Neiaa, cao/aiea eioi?uo iaaiciiaeii
i?aaeeueii ia?aaeaoue a?a/aneeie eee eaoeineeie aoeaaie, i?eaiaeee oaea
/a?ii?ecaoe O?aa?: aeeaio, /ayiea, thiinoue, ycue e ae?oaea. Ii
auyaeeanue e eiay noi?iia i?iaeaiu – iieeoe/aneay. Eaoeineea ienneiia?u
aiana ia no?aieeenue naeaeaoue iiaoth aa?o iiiyoiie aa?othuei. A ?eineie
oea?eae auei ?ani?ino?aiaii oaaaeaeaiea, /oi nouanoaotho “eeoue o?e
ycuea, ia eioi?uo iiaeiaaao neaaeoue Aiaa n iiiiuueth (iniauo) ienueiai:
aa?aeneee, a?a/aneee e eaoeineee”. E oiio aea ?ei oaa?aei
i?eaea?aeeaaeny iiceoeee, /oi “oaeia” o?enoeaineiai o/aiey aeieaeia
auoue ecaanoia oieueei aeooiaainoao, a i?inoui o?enoeaiai aeinoaoi/ii
i/aiue iaiiiaeo niaoeeaeueii ia?aaioaiiuo oaenoia – naiua ca/aoee
o?enoeaineiai ciaiey.

A Aecaioee ia ana yoi niio?aee, aeaeeii, ianeieueei eia/a, caeanue
ia/aee iiaeoiuaaoue iaae nicaeaieai neaayineeo aoea. “Aeaae iie, e ioaoe
iie, e eiua iiiaea eneaee eo e ia ia?aee”, – neaaeao aoaeouaio
nicaeaoaeth neaayineie acaoee Eiinoaioeio Oeeinioo eiia?aoi? Ieoaee III.
Eiaiii Eiinoaioeia i?ecaae ii, eiaaea a ia/aea 860-o aiaeia a
Oea?uea?aae i?eoei iinieuenoai ec Ii?aaee (/anoue oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie
*aoee). Aa?oe ii?aaneiai iauanoaa i?eiyee o?enoeainoai oaea o?e
aeanyoeeaoey iacaae, ii n?aaee ieo aeoeaii aeaenoaiaaea oea?eiaue
aa?iaioeaa. Aeaeeii, iuoaynue ia?anoe iieioth iacaaeneiinoue, ii?aaneee
eiycue ?inoeneaa i?inee “o/eoaey, /oiau iai ia ycuea iaoai eceiaeeee
i?aaoth aa?o…”.

“Aeaea yoiai ieeoi niaa?oeoue ia iiaeao, oieueei ou”, – iaioonoaiaae
oeana?ue Eiinoaioeia Oeeinioa. Yoa o?oaeiay, ii/aoiay ienney eaaea
iaeiia?aiaiii e ia iea/e aai a?aoa, eaoiaia (ianoiyoaey) i?aaineaaiiai
iiianou?y Iaoiaeey. “Au aaaeue nieoiyia, a nieoiyia ana /enoi aiai?yo
ii-neaayinee”, – aue aua iaeei a?aoiaio eiia?aoi?a.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo enoi/ieeia ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u a Eeaaneie ?one
yaeeanue ?ac?aaioaiiay aeaoiy aieaa?neeie iiiaoaie — Ee?eeeii (827 –
869) e Iaoiaeeai (815 – 885) — neaayineay acaoea — ee?eeeeoea.
Oaeaioeeaue eeiaaeno, Ee?eee acye ca iniiao a?a/aneee aeoaaeo,
ninoiyueeec 24 aoea, aeiiieiee aai oa?aeoa?iuie aeey neaayineeo ycueia
oeiyueie (ae, u, o, /) e ianeieueeeie ae?oaeie aoeaaie, Iaeioi?ua ec ieo
nio?aieeenue a nia?aiaiiii aeoaaeoa – a, ue, u, u, ae?oaea aeaaii auoee
ec oiio?aaeaiey -youe, thn, eaeeoea, oeoa.Eoae neaayineee aeoaaeo
ia?aiia/aeueii ninoiye ec 43 aoea, aeeceeo ii iaienaieth a?a/aneei.
Eaaeaeay ec ieo eiaea naia iacaaiea: A – «ac», A -«aoee» (eo ni/aoaiea
ia?aciaaei neiai «acaoea»), A – «aaaee», A – «aeaaieue»,Ae – «aeia?i» e
oae aeaeaa. Aoeau ia ienueia iaicia/aee ia oieueei caoee, ii e oeeo?u.
«A» – oeeo?o 1, «A» – 2, «?» – 100. Ia ?one oieueei a XVIII aaea
a?aaneea oeeo?u auoanieee «aoeaaiiua».

A /anoue naiaai nicaeaoaey iiaay acaoea iieo/eea iacaaiea «ee?eeeeoea».

Iaeioi?ia a?aiy ia?yaeo n ee?eeeeoeae auea a oiio?aaeaiee e ae?oaay
neaayineay acaoea – aeaaieeoea. Iia eiaea oio aea ninoaa aoea, ii n
aieaa neiaeiui, aeoeaaaoui iaienaieai. Yoi auei enoi?e/aneia niauoea a
iaeanoe aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u iiiaeo ia?iaeia.

Neaayineay acaoea iicaieeea au?aceoue e cae?aieoue neaayineee ycue
eae iniiao aieaa?neiai e aoaeoueo ?onneiai e oe?aeineiai, aaei?onneiai e
?yaea ae?oaeo ycueia. O?enoeaiecaoeey ?one a oi?ia i?aaineaaey cae?aieea
e neaayineee ycue, yaeaoeeny oi?iie ?acaeoey n?aaeiaaaeiaie ?onneie
eoeueoo?u. Aecaioeeneia i?aaineaaea, eioi?ia ooaa?aeaeaeinue a
Eeaaneie ?one, eiaei a yoii ioiioaiee nouanoaaiiia i?aeiouanoai
ia?aae ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth, eioi?ay i?eaea?aeeaaeanue
aeanoeeo ia?aie/aiee a oiio?aaeaiee ycueia aeey aiaineoaeaiee.
Aaeeinoaaiii

aiciiaeiuie n/eoaeenue o?e ycuea: ae?aaiaaa?aeneee, a?a/aneee e
eaoeineee. Yoi ycuee, ia eioi?uo auee iaienaiu Aaooee e Iiaue Caaao,
eioi?uie aeaaeaee e iaiu ?eineea, e oaeea eeanneee aiaineiaey, eae
Aaaonoei Aeaaeaiiue.

Ainoi/iay aea oea?eiaue, e eioi?ie ioiineony e i?aaineaaea,
?ac?aoaea iieeoueny e ia ae?oaeo ycueao. Yoi i?aai ionoaeaae iaeei ec
i?inaaoeoaeae neaayineeo ia?iaeia — Ee?eee, i?icaaiiue Oeeinioii. Eiaaea
Ee?eee iinea nicaeaiey (aianoa n a?aoii Iaoiaeeai) neaayineie acaoee
ioi?aaeeny a Eoaeeth, oi aai ano?aoeee oai oi?aeaie ca ionooieaiea io
o?aaeeoeee, io eaiiiia, niaeanii eioi?ui aiaineoaeaiea aeieaeii aanoenue
oieueei ia ycueao aiinoieia e aiaineiaia, o. a. ia iaeiii ec o?ao
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ycueia.

Iiaay «nianoaaiiay» ienueiaiiinoue iineoaeeea iniiaie ao?iiai ?acaeoey
eieaeiie eoeueoo?u a Eeaaneie ?one, eioi?ay aei iiiaieueneiai iaoanoaey
auea iaeiei ec naiuo oeeaeeeciaaiiuo ainoaea?noa n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu a
XI -XIII aaeao. ?oeiieniua eieae naaoneiai niaea?aeaiey, ia?yaeo n
a?a/aneeie aiaineianeeie o?oaeaie, noaiiayony iaiaoiaeeiui ciaeii
i?eiauaiiinoe e eoeueoo?a. Eieae a yoo yiioo aea?aeao o naay ia oieueei
eiycue e aai i?eaeeaeaiiua, ii e eoioeu, e ?aianeaiieee.

2. Aicieeiiaaiea ia?auo oeie a Eeaaneie ?one

Nouanoaiaaei a Ae?aaiae ?one e oeieueiia ia?aciaaiea. ss?ineaa Ioae?ue
nicaeae oeieo a Iiaai?iaea aeey aeaoae aeooiaiuo eeoe: o/eee ienueio,
n/aoo ,aiaineiaeth. Ia?aciaaiea ia ?one a oi a?aiy eiaei oa aea ei?ie,
/oi e eeoa?aoo?a. Oeieu ono?aeaaeenue i?e iiianou?yo, o/eoaeyie auee
i?aaenoaaeoaee iecoaai aeooiaainoaa (aeueyeiiu, aeuey/ee).Eiaeenue oeieu
aunoaai oeia, aioiaeaoea eeoe aeey ainoaea?noaaiiie e oea?eiaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeia ec ieo nouanoaiaaea i?e Eeaai-Ia/a?neii iiianou?a:
Ia?yaeo n aiaineiaeai eco/aeenue oeeinioey, ?eoi?eea, a?aiiaoeea.
I?aiiaeaaaiea aaeinue ia ?iaeiii ycuea. «Eieaeiuie ioaeaie» auee
ss?ineaa Ioae?ue, Anaaieiae ss?ineaae/, Aeaaeeie? Iiiiiao e ae?.
Iieo/aee ia?aciaaiea e iaeioi?ua aeaiueiu a eiyaeaneeo naiueyo . N XI
a. a aiaaouo naiueyo noaee o/eoue a?aiioa ia oieueei iaeue/eeia, ii
eaeaai/ae. Nano?a Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa ssiea, iniiaaoaeueieoea aeaineiai
iiianou?y a Eeaaa, nicaeaea a iai oeieo aeey iao/aiey aeaai/ae. . I oii,
/oi i?aiiaeaaaee a oaeeo oeieao, iu iiaeai noaeeoue ii oao?aaeyi
iiaai?iaeneeo o/aieeia, iiiaaoei a ?oee a?oaieiaia. Yoe oao?aaee
aeaoe?iaaiu 1263 aiaeii. Eoae, O/aieee XIII aaea i?ioiaeeee
eiiia?/aneoth ei??aniiiaeaioeeth, oeeoe?ue, o/eee iniiaiua iieeoau.

Iiaai?iaeneea aa?anoyiua a?aiiou, iaeaeaiiua a?oaieiaaie, aeieacuaatho
iaee/ea a?aiioiinoe n?aaee i?inouo ai?iaeai, ?aianeaiieee inoaaeyee
iaaeiene ia naieo ecaeaeeyo.Ia?aciaaiiinoue oeaieeanue auniei: «eiaiuea
eiea ia/a ceaoa». A naeueneie ianoiinoe, a aeaeueieo, aeooeo ianoao
ianaeaiea auei ii/oe nieioue iaa?aiioiui.

A XII a. aicieeei ?aianei «eieaeiuo iienaoaeae». I?e iiianou?yo
nicaeaaaeenue aeaeeioaee: ae?aaiaeoeie ec nio?aieaoeony eiea yaeythony
aeaa «Ecai?ieea» eiycy Nayoineaaa ss?ineaae/a 1073 e 1076 aa. a eioi?uo
iiiauaiu noaouee ii a?aiiaoeea, oeeinioee e ae?oaei aeenoeeieeiai.
Aiciiaeii aeaaea, /oi iaeioi?ua ?onneea ethaee o/eeenue a caa?aie/iuo
oieaa?neoaoao. Aieueoeinoai aea iaiyoieeia aeiiiiaieueneie eoeueoo?u
Eeaaneie ?one iiaeaei a iiiai/eneaiiuo eiicaiiuo iaoanoaeyo e
oaiaeaeueiuo aieiao.

CAEETH*AIEA

Iniiaie ethaie ae?aaiae eoeueoo?u yaeyaony ienueiaiiinoue. Ae?aaiaeoea
iaiyoieee neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe ciatho aeaa aeoaaeoa – ee?eeeeoeo e
aeaaieeoeo. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia IX a. aue nicaeai aeaaiee/aneee aeoaaeo,
ia eioi?ii ienaeenue ia?aua ia?aaiaeu oea?eiaiuo eiea aeey neaayineiai
ianaeaiey Ii?aaee e Iaiiiiee. Ia ?oaaaea IX-X a.a. ia oa??eoi?ee Ia?aiai
Aieaa?neiai oea?noaa a ?acoeueoaoa neioaca ecaeaaia ?ani?ino?aiaiiiai
caeanue a?a/aneiai ienueia e oao yeaiaioia aeaaieeoeu, eioi?ua oaea/ii
ia?aaeaaaee iniaaiiinoe neaayineeo ycueia, aicieeea acaoea, iieo/eaoay
iicaeiaa iacaaiea «ee?eeeeoea». A aeaeueiaeoai yoio aieaa eaaeee e
oaeiaiue aeoaaeo auoaniee aeaaieeoeo e noae aaeeinoaaiiui o thaeiuo e
ainoi/iuo neaayi.

Iiyaeaiea ienueiaiiinoe iaoneiaeaii aioo?aiieie iio?aaiinoyie iauanoaa
ia ii?aaeaeaiiie noaaeee aai ?acaeoey – ?aceiaeaiea ia?aiauoiiiaueiiiai
no?iy, aicieeiiaaiea eeanniaiai iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa. Yoi icia/aei
ea/anoaaiiue nea/ie a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u, o.e. ienueiaiiinoue yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii cae?aieaiey e ia?aaea/e ai a?aiaie e a
i?ino?ainoaa ciaiee, iuneae, eaeae, nio?aiaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey
aeinoeaeaiee eoeueoo?u.

?acaeoea ienueiaiiinoe ia ?iaeiii ycuea i?eaaei e oiio, /oi ?onneay
oea?eiaue n naiiai ia/aea ia auea iiiiiieenoii a noa?a a?aiioiinoe e
ia?aciaaiey. I ?ani?ino?aiaiee a?aiioiinoe n?aaee aeaiie?aoe/aneeo neiaa
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho aa?anoyiua a?aiiou. Yoi
ienueia, iaiyoiua caienee, aeaaeaeue/aneea caiene, o/aaiua oi?aaeiaiey e
o.ae. Ienueii, oaeei ia?acii, eniieueciaaeinue ia oieueei a nicaeaiee
eiea, ainoaea?noaaiiuo e th?eaee/aneeo aeoia, ii e a auoo.

Nouanoaiaaei a Ae?aaiae ?one e oeieueiia ia?aciaaiea. N?aco aea iinea
aaaaeaiey o?enoeainoaa Aeaaeeie? i?eeacae ioaeaaaoue «ia eieaeiia
o/aiea» aeaoae «eo/oeo ethaeae». ss?ineaa Ioae?ue nicaeae oeieo a
Iiaai?iaea aeey aeaoae noa?ino e aeooiaiuo eeoe. Iao/aiea aaeinue ia
?iaeiii ycuea, o/eee /oaieth, ienueio, iniiaai o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey
e n/aoo. Eiaeenue e oeieu aunoaai oeia, aioiaeaoea e ainoaea?noaaiiie e
oea?eiaiie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaeia ec ieo nouanoaiaaea i?e Eeaai-Ia/a?neii
iiianou?a. Ec iaa auoee iiiaea aeaeiua aeayoaee ae?aaia?onneie
eoeueoo?u. A oaeeo oeieao ia?yaeo n aiaineiaeai eco/aeenue oeeinioey,
?eoi?eea, a?aiiaoeea, eniieueciaaeenue enoi?e/aneea ni/eiaiey, nai?ieee
auneacuaaiee aioe/iuo aaoi?ia, aaia?aoe/aneea e anoanoaaiiiiao/iua
o?oaeu.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Iaaeuioeaaa A.A., A?aiioiinoue a Ae?aaiae ?one (Ii iaiyoieeai
yiea?aoeee X – ia?aie iieiaeiu XIII aaea). – I.: Iaoea, 2000. – 291 n.,
ee.

2. N?aciaaneee E.E., Ae?aaiea ienueiaia neaayineea // AEIII. *. LIX,
ioae. II, 1848.

3. A?eai?iae/ A.E., I ae?aaiae ienueiaiiinoe neaayi // AEIII. *. LXXIII,
ioae. II, 1852.

4. ?aiia I.I., ?onneay oea?eiaue a IX – ia?aie o?aoe XII aa. I. 1988.

5. Aiaeyineee I.I., I a?aiaie i?ienoiaeaeaiey neaayineeo ieai?i. I.
1855.

6. Eaa?ia I.A., Iaoa?eaeu ii enoi?ee aicieeiiaaiey ae?aaiaeoae
neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe // O?. Neaayineie eiiennee. E. O. 1, 1930.

7. Oei?y, Neacaiey i ia/aea neaayineie ienueiaiiinoe / Ioa. ?aae.
Ei?iethe A.Ae. Anooi. noaouey, ia?aaiae e eiiiaioa?ee A.I. Oei?e, – I.:,
1981.

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