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Русская народная игрушка как особый вид народного творчества

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17

Iaeaaeaiea

Aaaaeaiea 2

1. Enoi?ey ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooee 3

2. Neiaieeea e ia?ac ia?iaeiie ea?ooee 6

3. Aeeyiea ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooee ia oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe ?aaaiea 11

Caeeth/aiea 16

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u 17

Aaaaeaiea

Aii?aee ianeieueeei aiaeai i?eioaeeoaeueiie aanoa?iecaoeee, a iaoai
niciaiee aei neo ii? nio?aieeenue ia?acu, e?anee, eeiee, naycuaathuea n
ooiaeyuei a aeienoi?e/aneia “i?aa?aiy” eieoeeaoe/aneei ia/aeii,
ii?aaeaeythuei aeooo e noaeueao iaoaai ia?iaea. Ia aiaoiai, aeaeeiii
ieaia, yoi ia/aei i?inooiaao neaicue aeioaaeoea aei iaoeo aeiae
a?oaoaeou ae?aaiaai “eoeueoiaiai ie?iaicc?aiey”, a eioi?ua iaoe i?aaeee
aeiaeeee naia aeaeaiea oieaa?noia e n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iie no?aieeenue
naie aeeyoue ia ie?, o?ainoi?ie?iaaoue aai a niioaaonoaee ni naieie
yoe/aneeie e ynoaoe/aneeie eaeaaeaie. Iniaia, iaia?aaeaaaaiia iuouaiea
?aaeueiinoe i?enoonoaothuaai a ie?a naaoeiai, nieia/iiai ia/aea aunoae
e?aniou e aa?iiiee, aeathuaa ?onneei i?aai ia iaeoth ynoaoieiae/aneoth
iaaeaaeaeo “a eiioea a?aiai”, nio?aieeinue a o?aaeeoeeiiiie ?onneie
ea?ooea, ianouae ia naaa ioia/aoie ouny/aeaoee e iineaiea ae?aaiae aa?u.
A a?oae/iuo, oeacuaathueo ia iacaiaiyoioth ae?aaiinoue eeieyo,
oe?aoathueo ecia?aaeaiey iaae/aneeo aeeaioiuo, ioeoe e aea?aaueaa,
iuouathony e iineaiea “i?aaeoa/” ae?aaieo neaayi, yo?onneeo e
e?eoi-ieeaineeo eoeueoo?. Aeyaey ia nia?aiaiiua “o?aaeeoeeiiiua
ea?ooee”, oai?eiua a Ea?aiiiea e Aeuieiai, Ai?iaeaoeea e Aiai?iaeneii,
iaaieueii iuouaaoue ia naaa yia?aeth e oaeinoaaiioth iaae/aneoth ao?o
ae?aaieo ycu/aneeo eoeueoia. Auoaneacaiiia ii?aaeaeyao aeooaeueiinoue
?aaiou.

Oeaeue ?aoa?aoa – aeaoue oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooea eae
iniaiio aeaeo ?onneiai ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa.

Caaea/e:

Eco/eoue eeoa?aoo?o ii oaia;

?anniio?aoue enoi?eth ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooee;

Ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue neiaieeeo e ia?ac ia?iaeiie ea?ooee;

Ii?aaeaeeoue aeeyiea ia?iaeiie ea?ooee ia oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe ?aaaiea.

1. Enoi?ey ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooee

*oi oaeia ea?ooee? Ioaao ia yoio aii?in eaaeaony i/aaeaeiui. Oioy ia
naiii aeaea oaeiaui ia yaeyaony. Neiaa?ue Iaeaaiaa aeaao neaaeothuaa
ii?aaeaeaiea: “Aauue, neoaeauay aeey ea?u”. Ia no?aieoeao Oieeiaiai
neiaa?y AEeaiai Aaeeei?onneiai ycuea Aeaey iaoiaeei ii?aaeaeaiea oaea
aieaa eioa?aniia e aieaa aa?iia: “ea?ooea – aaueoea naeaeaiiay aeey
caaaau, aeey ea?u eee iioaoe, iniaaiii aeaoyi”. Eeth/aaui a yoii
ii?aaeaeaiee yaeyaony neiai “iniaaiii”. Iioiio /oi ea?ooee
i?eiaaeeaaeaee e, aeaaea nae/an, iaeeiaeiai i?eiaaeeaaeao e ie?o aeaoae,
e ie?o ac?ineuo.

Eae ieieioi ianeieueei ouny/aeaoee oiio iacaae aue?enoaeeeciaaeanue e n
oao ii? inoaeanue iaeciaiiie iniaay iaae/aneay aaiiao?ey eoeueoiauo
“ea?ooae”, a eioi?ie i?iii?oeee i?aaeiaoia o?ainoi?ie?iaaiu a noi?iio
i?ino?ainoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey eae a ai?eciioaeueiii, oae e aa?oeeaeueiii
iai?aaeaiee. Iniaaiii yoi ioiineony e ea?ooa/iui “eiieeai”, naycaiiui n
ooiaeyuei a aeoaieoth ae?aaiinoue neeoneei, a iioii – neaayineei
?eooaeai iieeiiaiey nieioeo. Eiiue a a?eeneii ieoineiaiee/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa iai?yioth naycuaaeny n nieia/iui aiaeanoaii, e aeaeaeaiea
nieioea ii iaainaiaeo oiiaeiaeyeinue eiineiio aaao. Eiiue noiye a
aeaaiii nayoeeeua ae?aaieo neaayi – o?aia Nayoiaeoa ia ino?iaa ?oyi,
iaeeaeay i?eoiaea naiaai iaaeaeeiiai iaaaniiai anaaeieea. Oeao?aie eiiae
oe?aoaeinue e eaieua Ia?oia a oa a?aiaia, eiaaea eiycue Aeaaeeie?
Nayoineaae/ iinoaaee aai ai aeaaa ycu/aneiai iaioaiia. Eiiue-Nieioea
noae a?oaoeie/aneei nthaeaoii aeey ieieaoth?iuo aioeaoia e oaeeniaiia e
aeey ea?ooa/iuo “eiiae-eaoaeie”, e aeey aeeiyiuo “eiiueeia”-naenooeae.

Aie?oa “eoeueoiauo ea?ooae” aue neiioeaio?e?iaai e ae?aaiee iau/ae
auioneaoue ec eeaoie ioeoe, eioi?ua aeieaeiu auee noaoue aanoieeaie
ethaeae e i?aauaathuei a E?ee i?aaeeai. Ioiouaiiua ioeoeu “oeaoaee a
?ae”, a eo aeeiyiua eiiee iaiiieiaee ia ioi?aaeaoeony a aeaeueiaa
no?ainoaea aanoieoeao, neoaeeee eo iaae/aneeie “aeaieieeaie”. Ii
i?aaeaieth, auee n?aaee aeeiyiuo ioeoe-naenooeae e iaiau/iua, aieoaaiua
ioeoeu, eioi?ua aini?iecaiaeeee iaiaueiiaaiiua, “iacaeaoiea” iaeiaeee…

Ioeoeu eaaeaeoth ceio oeaoaee a E?ee, oae iacuaaee neaayia iaoiaeeaoeeny
ia e?ath naaoa iioaaiiue ?ae, aaea iaeoaee aeooe i?aaeeia. E iioiio a
?aeeaeiciie o?aaeeoeee ae?aaieo neaayi “aeeiyiua ioeoeu” neoaeeee oaeaea
iaae/aneei eino?oiaioii aeey iauaiey n “aeooaie i?aaeeia”, eioi?ua n
oi/ee c?aiey ae?aaianeaayineiai ie?inica?oeaiey ia ooiaeeee “nianai” ec
iaoaai ie?a, ii inoaaaeenue a iai, iac?eii i?enoonoaiaaee e ii noaiaie
naiae “?aaeueiinoe” iaiiiaei ioee/aeenue io aeeauo ethaeae.

“Eoeueoiaua”, ooiaeyuea a iacaiaiyoioth neeoneoth ae?aaiinoue ea?ooee
nio?aieeenue a ia?iaea e iinea e?auaiey ?one, iioiio /oi eo
iaoaoece/aneay nooue, eo oaeinoaaiiue niune a iniiaa naiae ia
i?ioeai?a/eee i?eoaaeoaio ia iaoo caieth o?enoeaineiio ioe?iaaieth. Ia
neo/aai, a, iai?ioea, aeoaiei neiaiee/ai oio oaeo, /oi aaeeinoaaiiue a
ie?a “Iocae ea?ooee” iaoiaeeony a Na?aeaaii Iinaaea, ?yaeii n
O?ieoea-Na?aeaaie eaa?ie.

Iinea e?auaiey ?one Aeaaeeie?ii Nayoui iiiaea iau/ae e ?eooaeu,
naycaiiua n ae?aaieie, ycu/aneeie “ea?ooeaie”, i?aaie/ii aieaeenue a
i?aaineaaiue ?aeeaeicii-eoeueoo?iue eiioaeno. Oae, iaeia ec ecethaeaiiuo
aeaoneeo ea?ooae “aeio?enoeaineiai a?aiaie” – aa?anoyiie ei?aaeee,
eioi?ue caioneaee ii ?o/ueth ii ia?aie aiaea, noae neiaieece?iaaoue
ieaaaiea “ei?aaey nianaiey” – Oea?eae ii “aiaeai” noaoiiai “aeeoaeneiai
e?oaa”.

A oi aea a?aiy o?aaeeoeeiiiay ?onneay ea?ooea aeaaea a naiua
iacaiaiyoiua a?aiaia ia auea auoaniaia ec noa?u eaaeaeiaeiaaiie aeecie,
ia auea aeanoei io/oaeaeaia a nae?aeueiia ecia?aiea.

Yoi aeoaeiii niioaaonoaiaaei e ie?iiuouaieth ?onneiai /aeiaaea, iaeiie
iiaie noiyuaai ia caiea, a ae?oaie – aaea-oi aeaeaei a iaaanao. A
ea?ooea, ianiio?y ia aa “i?eau/iinoue”, oaeeinue ia/aei
naa?ouanoanoaaiiiai ieaia, iaeaaeathuaai ia?iiiui “iaae/aneei ca?yaeii”,
o?ainoi?ie?othuei ?aaeueiinoue. Ia neo/aeii, e i?eia?o, /oi o
aio?iiiii?oiuo ea?ooae ieeiaaea ia “au?eniauaaee” eeoe, iianaynue, /oi
ea?ooea, eiathuay eeoei, ia/iao iaeeaaoue e aeeoue naiae nianoaaiiie
aeeciueth, /oi iiaei au iiaeoieeiooue ie?icaeaiea e oaino, ia?ooeoue
cuaeia ie?iaia ?aaiiaanea. E?iia oiai, o?aaeeoeeiiiua ea?ooee auee
eeoaiu iaeiae ia?i/eoie iaceaeaoaeueiinoe, eioi?ie ioee/athony
iiaiaeaeu, aeinoaoi/ii iaaeaaii aioaaeoea a ?onneee aeeciaiiue iaeoiae.
Oae, iao?aoea, noaaoay aeaaiaea?y noa?aieyi “aeaoae A?aaoa”,
i?iaeaaaaoei eiino?aioeai “?onneea noaaie?u” a 80-o aiaeao, /ooue ee ia
“neiaieii ?innee” a aeacao anaai ie?a, ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ?onneeo ea?ooae.

Ia?aua ia?acoeu “iao?aoee” iiyaeeenue a ianoa?neie “Aeaoneia
ainieoaiea”, eeoue a eiioea OIO aaea, a 1893 eee 1895 aiaeo. Eo aaoi?aie
auee ea?ooa/iuo aeae ianoa?a Caacaei/eei, Aaeia e Eiiiaaeia,
ainiieueciaaaoeany, aiciiaeii, a ea/anoaa i?ioioeia caaacaiiie a oi
a?aiy a ?innee yiiineie ea?ooeie, aioo?e eioi?ie o?aieeenue ?acuaiiua
aeeaaeiua oeao?ee aoaeaeeeneeo aiaeoenaooa. Aa?iyoiae anaai, /oi
yiiineay “eoeueoiaay” eoeea e iaaaea ioa/anoaaiiuo ianoa?ia ia iuneue
naeaeaoue ea?ooeo noiaeiie eiino?oeoeee. *oi aea eanaaony ?onneeo
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ea?ooae, oi n?aaee ieo ia auei aeaaea iaiaea ia noaaooth
naaiaeiy “i?eo/ae ai ycuoeao” iao?aoeo. Iiyoiio iao?aoea eeoaia noieue
ioaathuae caiaaeiuo ethaeoaeae “?onneeo noaaie?ia” a ea?aiiieueneeo eee
aeuieianeeo ea?ooeao nae?aeueiie iiaeiniiau, aa iiaeii “niieieii” e
“aacaiyciaiii” aea?aeaoue a ethauo ?oeao.

Ecaanoiu ?anneacu ia?iaeiuo ianoa?ia i oii, eae iniaui ia?acii
?anienaiiue aeeiyiue eiiae, i?iaeaiiue ioi/ei aei yecioeee eiicaiiui
oo?enoai, aoeaaeueii “aee” /oaeacaioeaa ii ?oeai, neiaii yeaeo?e/aneei
oieii. Ii ie?oaeay, oeuaathuayny aei ooae iao?aoea auea aaniethoii
aaciiania. Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi naaiaeiy eiaiii yoa ea?ooea-iiaiaeae
noaea annioeee?iaaoueny ia Caiaaea n “caaaaei/iie ?inneae”.

2. Neiaieeea e ia?ac ia?iaeiie ea?ooee

I?eia?ii ?eooaeueiiai i?aaeiaoa aeaoneie ea?u yaeythony o?aaeeoeeiiiua
?onneea eoeeu ec aea?aaa e nieiiu, eioi?ua ia eiatho i?i?eniaee eeoea.
Aeaoneeie yoe eoeeu noaee i?e oi?iuaiee neiaiee/aneiai niunea
ae?aaiaeoeo aa?iaaiee, eiaaea Aaeeeoth aiaeith, noiyuoth ca a?aiueth
aeia?a e cea, iianaeenue ecia?aaeaoue n /a?oaie eeoea, iiaoueie aucaaoue
a?aae i?e eniieueciaaiee aa ecia?aaeaiey. I?aeoe/anee ana aeioaaeoea aei
ian ae?aaiaeoea ecia?aaeaiey (Aiaeie Iaoa?e – “iaieeoe/aneie Aaia?u”) ia
eiatho eeoea.

Ioaeaeueii neaaeoao oeacaoue ia neiaieeeo eiiy a ?onneie ea?ooea. N
ecia?aaeaieai eiiy naycuaaeny oeaeue ?yae i?aaenoaaeaiee. A ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue, n eiiai niioiineee nieia/iuo aiaia, a oaeaea i?aaenoaaeaiey i
?aeiea?iaoeee aeooe /aeiaaea iinea nia?oe. Naycue i?aaenoaaeaiee i
aic?iaeaeaiee aeooe e nieioea aace?iaaeanue ia oii, /oi nieioea /anoue
nooie i?iaiaeeo a Caiiii ie?a, a ii/iie ia?eiae – a Iiaecaiiii. Iiyoiio
e aeooa /aeiaaea i?iaaaey eaeia oi a?aiy a Caa?iaiii ie?a
aic?iaeaeaeanue aeey aeecie ia caiea. Iiaeiaiia i?aaenoaaeaiea
naycuaaeinue n neiaieeeie aeaoo eiiae eee iaeiiai aeaoaeaaiai eiiy. E
iiaeiaiie neiaieeea neaaeoao oae aea ioianoe ea?ooeo “aeaiue – ii/ue”.
Ioiaoei, /oi aeaieiiai eiiueea iiaeii /anoi aeaeaoue ia e?uoa ?onneie
o?aaeeoeeiiiie ecau. Iiaeiaiia ecia?aaeaiea – naiaia?aciia iiaeaeaiea
aannia?oey oicyaaai.

N neiaieeeie nieioea naycuaathony e anaaiciiaeiua eiie-ea/aeee e ea/aee.
A ianiyo thaeiuo neaayi iioea aanaiiaai ea/aiey aeaaooee ia ea/aeyo
niioiineeinue n aa nae?aeueiui a?aeii n nieioeai, /oi aeieaeii ae a
aeaeueiaeoai i?eianoe oaea/o a a?aea. Niaianoiia ea/aiea ia ea/aeyo
thiioe e aeaaooee oaeaea ?anniao?eaaeinue eae iiaeaeaiea ei n/anouey.
Eiie-ea/aeee e ecia?aaeaiea eiiae aiiaua, aeieaeiu auee i?eianoe oaea/o
e aeaaineiaaiea nieioea aeey ?aaaiea.

A ea?ooea iaeioi?ie iiaeaeueth Ie?iaiai aea?aaa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aai
e?iiu – Iaaaniiai ie?a, yaeyeenue ?acee/iua iia?aiooee e iy/e. I?e yoii
o?aaeeoeeiiiay ia?iaeiay ea?ooea iineea naiaia?aciue aeaaineiaeythuee
?aaaiea oa?aeoa?. E ea?ooeai iiaeiaiiai oeia ioiineeanue e iiaeaeue
yeoea, oae eae ii ae?aaiaeoei einiiaiie/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi ie?
?iaeeeny ec yeoea.

Eoeeu Iaiee Iiii?uey. Iie iioiiee ae?aaieo aea?aayiiuo eaeieia. Oiii?ii
au?oaaee eo naaa?iua ianoa?a, ii e, noaa ea?ooeaie, yoe a?oai
n?aaioaiiua oeao?u ia oo?aoeee aei eiioea naiae iaae/aneie neeu. A ieo
ainiiieiaiey i neea aiaia, eioi?ui iieeiiyeenue iiiaea iieieaiey
iaeoaoaeae yoeo iano. Iie aa?eee, aeaaea a yoeo iaeaiueeeo aea?aayiiuo
/aeiaa/eia iiaoo anaeeoueny aeooe.

Iioiaeee, /oi ?iaeii ec aeooeo eania ayoneeo caiaeue ea?ooeaie
i?eoai?youeny ii/oe e ia iuoathony. Eci ioa, oeoae, ei?u nicaeaee eo. E
oa?aeoa? o ieo iiae noaoue i?e?iaea ?iaeiiai e?ay. Noi?a/iue, eae /auiau
eania. Ia ea?ooee – aeooe aea?aaueaa, aeaaoeo ei aeeciue. Oieueei ia
ia?aue acaeyae iioiaee iie ia ethaeae, /uee i?eeiniiaaiey aeaee oi?io eo
oaeai.

Ii ia oieueei i?a/iua /aeiaa/ee-eaniaeee o?aiyo iaiyoue i ae?aaieo
aa?iaaieyo e o?aaeeoeeyo. Eoi ia ciaao Aeuieianeoth ea?ooeo? Oeao?ee
ethaeae, ioeoe, caa?ae aueaieaiiua ec aeeiu, iaeaoua a y?eea e?anee e
iicieioo. Oaia?ue iie eeoue iiioey?iue noaaie?, ii eiaaea-oi ana auei
nianai eia/a.

A XIX aaea eo aioiaeee a Aeuieianeie neiaiaea, /oi aeec Ayoee, e
i?acaeieeo i?iaiaeia ceiu. Iacuaaeny ii a oao ianoao “Naenooiuey”,
“Naenoiieynea” e ia?auie aeuieianeeie ea?ooeaie auee naenooeueeaie. Ana
ceio eaieee eo aeaiueiu ie?anoiuo nae. Oae, aeaaea noaa iioaoiie
ea?ooeie, iie aua nio?aiyee naycue ni naieie ycu/aneeie ei?iyie. Aaaeue
iaeiaaea aeeiyiua oeao?ee auee oioaiaie e ycu/aneeie eaeieaie.

Iia?aiooee, oa?eoiee, o?auaoee aei ia/aea XX aaea, e?iia
?acaeaeaoaeueiie oeaee, oaeaea neoaeeee aeey i?ecuaaiey e ?aaaieo
aeia?uo aeooia eee aiaaeia-caueoieeia. Eniieuecoy iniiaiie i?eioeei
iaaee, naycaiiue iianaianoii n i?eioeeiii iiaeiaey, au?aaeathueeny a
oii, /oi iiaeaeue eee ecia?aaeaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea caiaiytho
i?eaeiae, iia?aiooea eee iy/, ecia?aaeathuea Iaaaniue ie?, a ?oeao
?aaaiea aeieaeiu auee caueoeoue ?aaaiea io oaiiuo nee. Iie eae au
niaaeeiyee aai n neeaie aeia?a. Ioiaoei, /oi a ?onneie o?aaeeoeeiiiie
ea?ooea ia ano?a/aaony ecia?aaeaiee io?eoeaoaeueiuo ia?niiaaeae, oae eae
n/eoaeinue, /oi oaeea ecia?aaeaiey iiaoo i?eianoe ?aaaieo cei, eiuie
neiaaie naycaoue ?aaaiea n i?eaeiaeaie ecia?aaeaiee.

A ieiaaeneii caaiai?a aiai?eony, /oi ea?ooea ia?aiaieaaao ia naay
oai?ue. Oie aea oeaee neoaeeee ?acee/iua naenooeueee. Naenooeueee /anoi
ecia?aaeaee oi eee eiia aeeaioiia, e?iia oiai, ecia?aaeaiea aeeaioiuo
yaeyeinue o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaiie ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooee. A ooeueneie
iaeanoe caoeene?iaaiu iiaa?uey, /oi iinaenoaa a aeeiyioth naenooeueeo e
neacaa “Ionoue ii?/a ia?aeaeao ia oiai, eoi aa iineae” /aeiaae
aucaei?aaeeaaao, a oio, eoi aa ianeae, caaieaao. A caaeneiinoe io
iaaeoaa eniieueciaaeanue oa eee eiay naenooeueea. A iau/iia a?aiy iie
noiyee iai?ioea ieia, “ia i?iioneay” aieaciue e cei e ?aaaieo.

Ae?aaiee ia?yae, naycaiiue n ea?ooa/iie naenooeueeie e iinayuaiiue
ecaiaieth ceuo nee e i?eaea/aieth aeia?uo, caoeene?iaai a ia/aea XIX
aaea a Ayoea. Iacuaaeny yoio i?acaeiee “Naenooiuey” eee “Naenoiieynea”.
?aiiae aaniie aeaoe e ac?ineua a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo aeiae naenoaee a
ciiii?oiua aeeiyiua naenooeueee, ieynaee e aanaeeeenue.

Eniieueciaaiea iiaeiaiuo ea?ooae aeieaeii eiio?iee?iaaoueny ?iaeeoaeyie
e iaaeaaiaaie, eioi?ua eae i?aaeei ia aicaeaenoaea iiaeiaiuo ea?ooae ia
ineoeeo ?aaaiea ia ia?auatho aieiaiea. I?e i?eiaiaiee o?aaeeoeeiiiuo e
ethauo ae?oaeo ea?ooae neaaeoao o/eouaaoue aicaeaenoaea ia?aca oiai eee
eiiai ia?niiaaea ia ineoeeo ?aaaiea, iniaaiii yoi eanaaony nia?aiaiiuo
ea?ooae /anoi eiathueo aa?anneaiia niaea?aeaiea.

E?iia oiai, neaaeoao ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia o?iaaiue e aea?aoeeiiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee caoea ?acee/iuo naenooeae, eioi?ue iiaeae?aeny ioithaeue
ia neo/aeii. Aicaeaenoaea caoea o?aaeeoeeiiiie naenooeueee ineoeeo iineo
nei?aa oa?aiaaoe/aneee oa?aeoa?, /ai ?acaeaeaoaeueiue. I?e iaoia?aiiii
eniieueciaaiee ?aaaieii iiaeiaiie ea?ooee neaaenoaey io aicaeaenoaey
aeaiiiai caoea ia ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea e caei?iauea ?aaaiea iiaoo auoue
iai?aaeneacoaiua. Yoi ia cia/eo, /oi neaaeoao aiyoueny eniieueciaaiey
naenooeae. Aieueoeinoai ec ieo iineei e iineo /enoi ?acaeaeaoaeueiue
oa?aeoa?. ?a/ue eaeao oieueei i o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaae/aneeo eino?oiaioao,
/aua anaai eiathueo ciiii?oiue aeae, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo
ea?ooeao, iai?eia?, Ai?iaeaoeeeo eiiyo e anaaeieeao, oeaeue eioi?uo auei
ainieoaiea a iaeue/eeao ii?aaeaeaiiiai o?iaiy aa?anneaiinoe, oae eae
neiaieeea anaaeieea niioiineeanue n aieiii, iicaea n Aai?aeai
Iiaaaeiiinoeai. Nai o?iaaiue e oa?aeoa?enoeee caoea iiaeae?aeenue aeey
eieoeee?iaaiey eiaiii yoeo ea/anoa. I?ienoiaeee iiaeai? caoea a
naenooeueeao ia n?aco, a iinoaiaiii, a oa/aiea aeieaeo eao. *a?ac
iaaethaeaiey e iaiauaiey iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiiua caoeiaua ni/aoaiey, oae
eee eia/a aeaenoaothuea ia ineoeeo /aeiaaea. I?e yoii n/eoaeinue, /oi a
eiuo neo/ayo oaeea ni/aoaiey caoea iiaee i?eaanoe e e nia?oe. Aniiiiei
ecaanoioth aueeio ia Eeuea Io?iioea e Nieiauea ?acaieieea, aaea io
naenoa, e?eea, e oeiaiey, eiuie neiaaie ii?aaeaeaiiiai caoeiaiai
aicaeaenoaey, oie?aee iooieee.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?aeoe/anee eaaeaeay ia?iaeiay ea?ooea, a ca
ieie e oaa?e/iay, ianao a naaa ii?aaeaeaiioth neiaieeeo. Yoa neiaieeea
aiieia eiie?aoiui ia?acii aicaeaenoaoao ia ineoeeo ?aaaiea. Oi?ioi
ecaanoii, /oi iaoiaeeo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea a ?yaea ineoieiae/aneeo
enneaaeiaaiee, /oi /aeiaae ?acee/iui ia?acii ineoe/anee ?aaae?oao ia
?acee/iua aaiiao?e/aneea oeao?u (?aaiou Oaaaeueieeiaa A. E), oeaaoa
(Ethoa?), oi?iu e eo ni/aoaiey. Eiuie neiaaie, aeaaay ?aaaieo oo eee
eioth ea?ooeo, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, niioaaonoaoao ee caeiaeaiiue a iae
ineoiooieoeeiiaeueiue eiae aic?anoo e yiioeeiiaeueiiio ninoiyieth
?aaaiea, a oaeaea ae?oaei aai ineoioece/aneei oa?aeoa?enoeeai. Iai?eia?,
eniieueciaaiea ea?ooee, ?ane?aoaiiie a /a?iua e e?aniua oeaaoa (a
ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iii?oeee) iiaeao iaianoe iaeaieaa aicaoaeeiui aeaoyi
ineoieiae/aneoth o?aaio. Aeaiiue oeaao o?aaeeoeeiiii eniieueciaaeny aeey
iaicia/aiey ia?oaiai e caa?iaiiai ie?a. Aua 20-30 ouny/ eao iacaae ai
anai ie?a iiaeeueieee e caoi?iiaiey i?eiyoi auei iie?uaaoue e?aniie
io?ie, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho a?oaieiae/aneea ?aneiiee. A iaeioi?ii
niunea eoeeu e ae?oaea i?aaeiaou, eiathuea iiaeiaioth “e?iaaaoth”
?ane?aneo, yaeythony a?oaoeie/aneeie. Ia iiaeiaioth neiaieeeo oeacuaaao
oaeie ecaanoiue o/aiue eae Aieai a naiae eieaa “Ieo e neiaie”.

I aicaeaenoaee a?oaoeiia ia ineoeeo /aeiaaea, i?aaeaea anaai ia
iaonoie/eaoth aeaoneoth ineoeeo, oeacuaae a iiiai/eneaiiuo ?aaioao aua
iaiaoeeee oeeinio e ineoieia THia. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi oaea a iaoa a?aiy
yiiineea ineoieiae i?iaaee enneaaeiaaiea, /oi aeey oiai, /oi au /aeiaae
iaiueoa aiai?ee ii oaeaoiio, oaeaoiiioth aoaeeo neaaeoao ecioo?e
iie?uaaoue e?aniie e?aneie. Eniieueciaaiea aieueoaaeeaie e?aniiai
ciaiaie eae neiaiea oiaea aeaeaei ia neo/aeii. E?aniue oeaao aucuaaao
ii?ie iaiioeae?iaaiioth aa?anneth e iiaenioaeiia no?aieaiea e nia?oe. A
yoie nayce oa?aeoa?ii e a?oaoeie/ii, /oi i?e i?iaaaeaiee ei??eaeu a
Eniaiee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee aeey ?acae?aaeaiey auea eniieuecoaony eiaiii
e?aniia iieioieua.

Ae?oaei i?eia?ii aicaeaenoaey oeaaoa yaeyaony aieoaie oeaao. Ii
o?aaeeoeeiiii naycuaaaony n iaaaniie neiaieeeie, aeaainoueth e
niieienoaeai. Ioiaoei, /oi a ?yaea ineoieiae/aneeo o?aieiaia aeey
aioo?aiiaai oniieiaiey ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?aaenoaaeoue naaa aieoaia iaai.

E?iia oiai, ?yae aaiiao?e/aneeo neiaieia, ia /oi oeacuaaaony a ?aaioao
A.E. Oaaaeueieeiaa e aai oeieu, ii i?eioeeio naiaai aicaeaenoaey ia
ineoeeo /aeiaaea eiaao y?ei au?aaeaiiue iieiaie oa?aeoa?. Iai?eia?,
aieiiia?aciay eeiey yaeyaony ao?eaooii ea?ooee aeey aeaai/ee:
o?aaeeoeeiiii iiaeiaiue oci? eniieueciaaeny eneeth/eoaeueii a aeaineie
iaeaaeaea e yaeyeny naiaia?aciui iaa?aaii. A?iiiaie ciae –
“oanoeeaianoeiaue oeaaoie” – /enoi ioaeneay ao?eaooeea, ia /oi oaeaea
oeacuaatho aeaiiua yoiieiaee. Eniieueciaaiea ea?ooae n ?aciiiieiaie
neiaieeeie iiaeao i?eaanoe e ia?ooaieth ineoe/aneiai ?aaiiaaney ?aaaiea,
a a ?acoeueoaoa e ia?ooaieth ?acaeoey aai ee/iinoe.

3. Aeeyiea ?onneie ia?iaeiie ea?ooee ia oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe ?aaaiea

O?aaeeoeeiiiay ea?ooea ai ana a?aiaia ieacuaaea aaaeiia e, ai iiiaii,
ii?aaeaeythuaa aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea ee/iinoe, aeooe ?onneiai ?aaaiea.
A yoii eiioaenoa noieo aniiiieoue iaeei enoi?e/aneee i?eia?, e neaaeo
ianeieueei neia ia “ea?a a ae?theueee”, i iiaeeeiiii niunea eioi?ie
ciatho naaiaeiy eeoue iaiiiai/eneaiiua enoi?eee-iaaeeaaenou. Yoa ea?a
auea aeinoaoi/ii iiioey?ia a ?onneeo o?aaeeoeeiiiuo naiueyo aua a
30-40-o aiaeao iaoaai noieaoey. Eiaaoay e naith “i?aeoe/aneoth caaea/o”
– i?eo/aiea aeaoae e oa?iaieth, e niiniaiinoe eiioeaio?e?iaaoue
aieiaiea, ea?a aianoa n oai o?ainee?iaaea neiaeioth nenoaio
iaoaoece/aneeo i?eaioe?ia, aeaaaea i?aaenoaaeaiea i neiaeiinoe e
aeoaeiiie acaeiinayce anao i?ioeannia, i?ienoiaeyueo a oieaa?noia.

“Ae?theueeaie” iacuaaee ai?noue ?iaii iano?eaeaiiuo nieiieiie n
nieiiaiiui e?th/i/eii; eaeay ea?u ninoiyea a oii, /oi ea?athuea
iinoaiaiii auoaneeaaee nieiieiee, noa?aynue ia caaeaoue i?e yoii anth
eo/o, eioi?ie nieiieiee auee ianuiaiu. Anee ai?io ana-oaee ?annuiaeny,
oi neaaeothuoth iiiuoeo aeaeae oaea ae?oaie ea?ie. Oaeei ia?acii,
?aaaiie iieo/ae i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii, eae o?oaeii /oi-oi eciaieoue a
eaaeaeii ioaeaeueiii neo/aa, ia ?ac?ooea anth neiaeioth nenoaio ie?iauo
acaeiinaycae.

*oi aea eanaaony nenoaiu aicaeaenoaey o?aaeeoeeiiiie ea?ooee ia niciaiea
?aaaiea, ii iia auea noieue aea i?iaeoiaiiie e iiiaiieaiiaie, eae e
oieueei /oi iienaiiay ea?ooea, aicaeaenoaoy ia ana o?iaie iuouaiee –
oaeoeeueiue, aecoaeueiue, caoeiaie. Iniaia cia/aiea eiae iaoa?eae, ec
eioi?iai ecaioaaeeaaeenue ea?ooee. E i?eia?o, ecaanoii, /oi o?yie/iay
eoeea, a ioee/ea io ieanoianniaie, nieiaao ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea?
iaaeaeo ?aaaieii e “ie?ii aieueoeo aauae”, ainieouaatho eaneiaia,
iaaiyceeaia ioiioaiea e ie?o. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ea?ooa/iua “naenoaeee”,
i?ecaaiiua oaeaea ioaiiyoue io ?aaaiea ceuo aeooia, aeaiiiia, auee e
ia?auie “iocueaeueiuie eino?oiaioaie”, n eioi?uie noaeeeaaeny ?aaaiie. A
?anniao?eaay ia?acii-neiaiee/aneoth nenoaio ae?aaieo neaayi,
i?eiaieoaeueii e ea?ooeai, iiaeii aniiiieoue i oii, /oi iiiaea aeeiyiua
oeao?ee n ecia?aaeaieai aeeaioiuo aoeaaeueii onuiaiu aeeiyiuie aea eee
naeaeaiiuie ecia?aaeaieyie ioeoe. Iai?eia?, niaaea, ieaiue eee ?unue,
onuiaiiua “ioe/ueeie” ciaeaie, icia/aee, /oi i?aaeiaoii ecia?aaeaiey,
“eiie?iaaiey” a ea?ooea auei ia iaeia “neo/aeiia aeeaioiia”, ii aai
ecia/aeueiue ia?ac, ia?ac Ia?aiaeeaioiiai. Ana iie ooiaeeee naieie
ei?iyie a aieoaaiue ie? neacee, eioi?ue aaeaie neoaeee aeey ?onneiai
?aaaiea naiaia?aciui “aeaoiaiaeeoaeai ei O?enoo”. Ia neo/aeii nai na.
Na?aee ?aaeiiaaeneee /anoi aeaeae “a ooaoaiea” aeeiyiua ea?ooee aeey
aeaoae, eioi?ua aianoa ni ac?ineuie i?eoiaeeee a iniiaaiiue ei
iiianou?ue. E aei neo ii? a iniiaa o?aaeeoeeiiiuo ea?ooae, eioi?ua
ecaioiaeytho ianoa?a ec iinaeeia, iaoiaeyueony aaeece Na?aeaaa-Iinaaea,
iiaeii oaeaeaoue eiioo? E?anoa.

Iineaaiaiiia aieiaeiia i?iaeioeeaeueiia aeaonoai auei nia?aoi oaieii
aaca?iuo aeiae e y?ia?ie. N ie?anoiuo nae e aea?aaaiue noaeaeny ia?iae:
eoieoue-i?iaeaoue eioaaeue, naeueneioicyenoaaiiue eiaaioa?ue, ieoeaeue,
aeeaiinoue eee niaaeue. Eiineay oi?yaeue, aoeaniua eaiou a oainoao,
caiao eioaaeae e naia; ene?enoue, o?onoyuee niaa; aoenoai e?anie;
aanaeue aiiii ethaeae, ioeoe, aeeaioiuo, e ea?ooee, ea?ooee…
Aea?aayiiua e aeeiyiua, nieiiaiiua e o?yie/iua, aa?anoyiua e ec eicu –
iie naenoaee, o?auaee, oo?oaee e ooeaee. Ianoiyuee nieia/iue i?acaeiee
ia?iaeiie niaeaeee, ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa.

Auiieiaiiay ec iaoo?aeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, ea?ooea n ia?auo aeiae aeecie
ciaeiieo ?aaaiea n i?e?iaeie e ainieouaaao oai?/aneia ioiioaiea e ie?o.
Ii yoi ia oieueei i?aaeiao aeey ethaiaaiey, ainoeuaiey e caaaau. Ea?ooea
i?eiauaao iaeuoa e ie?o aano?aeoiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo ia?acia,
i?aaenoaaeaiee.

Iniiaie nenoaiu iaoaiaoe/aneeo ciaiee e i?aaeaa?aieai a?eoiaoeee
yaeythony iiiyoey: iiiaeanoai, yeaiaio iiiaeanoaa, iauaaeeiaiea
iiiaeanoa, aeiiieiaiea. ?aaaiea i?eaeaeatho ia oieueei iiiaeanoaa
nianoaaiii i?aaeiaoia, ii e iiiaeanoai caoeia, aeaeaeaiee, oi?i,
iooaieia oeaaoa, ?eoiu oci?ia e o.ae.

Ia?aua aic?anoiua ea?ooee, i?eiauathuea iaeuoa e ie?o caoeia e oi?i, –
iia?aiooee: c?aeay aieiaea iaea eee no?o/ie ai?ioa – iao?ea?oe
iia?aiooae. Neaci/iua aeeiyiua ionoioaeua eoeeu-iia?aiooee aeaeathony
i?inoi: aioo?ue aeaoo iieiaeiie aeeaaeuaathony ea?aie/aneea oa?eee iee
eaiaoee, a oia caaeaaeeaaaony. Neooay iia?aiooeo, ?aaaiie i?iecaiaeeo
iaeii aeaeaeaiea e iiiai eioaineaiuo ooiia.

Ecyuiay, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiay e aa?iiie/iay, aeuieianeay ea?ooea iicaieyea
noi?ie?iaaoue iiiyoea iiiaeanoaa. Aa?uie, aiaeiiinee, aona?u, ooi/ee,
eiiueee aunoaaeyeenue ia?aae ?aaaieii ia noiea, aeinea, iiaeiina, eaaea
eee eiiiaea ii ii?aaeaeaiiiio i?eioeeio: yoi ooi/ee, yoi ioeoeu, yoi
?uau, yoi ai?oee, a yoi iinoaea. Aeuieianeie ea?ooea aoi?eee: aeeiyiua
eiie, ieaie, eica?iae, aieoaaiua ioeoeu, aa?aaeie Eino?iiu; eoaoeiu,
ai?oee, ?oeiiieieee, /aoee ec /a?iieiuaiie aeeiu Iie?ianea; naenooeueee
ec Eiaeee, Oeeeiiiai, Ooou; ea?aiiieueneea aeeiyiua eiou, niaa/ee,
iaaeaaaee, aa?uie, ai?oee, ieioee; ea?aiiieueneea eicoee ec nieiiiaaoiai
oanoa, i?eii?neea – ec ?aeaiiai; a?oaiaaeueneea i?yieee a aeaea oeao?ie
?ua e aeeaioiuo; ?ycaineea “aeaai?iiee” e eo?neea “eoeeee” e o.ae.

Aaieaeueiay ea?ooea Aiai?iaenea – “auethuea iieioeii ii iaeiaaeueia
eociaoeu”, “eeththuea eo?i/ee” e ae?. Aeaeaay iaeio iaei/eo
ioiineoaeueii ae?oaie, iaeuo i?iecaiaeeo ?eoie/iua aeaeaeaiey. Ea?ooea
i?aaeaa?yao oi?ie?iaaiea n/aoiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaaiea. E oaeei
ea?ooeai ioiinyony aciaoeaathuea e?ueuoeaie aaai/ee ia eieaneeao,
eiiue-ea/aeea e naaey (ath iaooo), oa?ee ec iieeie ia aeeeiiie ?aceiea.
Oa?ee, e?iia oiai, iaania/eaaao naini?iia aini?eyoea oi?iu, a neiaeaiiua
e?ueuey aaai/ee oi?ie?otho i?aaenoaaeaiey i e?anioa neiiao?e/iuo oi?i e
eo niaiauaiee, niaiaaeaiee i?e iaeiaeaiee.

Iioeoiia/eo, eci aeiy a aeaiue ?aaaiie o/eony n/eoaoue aeeiyiua e
aea?aayiiua oeao?ee ooi/ae, eiiueeia, aa?uoaiue, aiaeiiinie, ai?oi/ee e
/aoa/ee… Ecia?yao e?oaeeaie aiaeo, uaiioeaie nieue, i?eai?oiyie ioeo,
eiaeeaie ianei… N?aaieaaao iiiaeanoaa ii /eneo yeaiaioia; iauaaeeiyy
iiiaeanoaa, ia?an/eouaaao yeaiaiou iauaaeeiaiey – oae oi?ie?oaony
iiiyoea “neiaeaiea /enae”. Any a?eoiaoeea aeaoneiai naaea inaaeaaaony ia
iiiaeanoaao ea?ooae, naeaeaiiuo aeaaeii, iooeii eee ia?iaeiui ianoa?ii:
iinoaaue noieueei aea ooi/ae, neieueei noieo iaoooeia; i?eaaaue aua
ooi/eo; neieueei ooi/ae noaei oaia?ue? Neieueei anaai ea?ooae? Ia
neieueei ooi/ae aieueoa, /ai iaoooeia, e o.ae.

Nia?aiaiiia iao/aiea ieaaeoeo oeieueieeia iaiiiyoiui ia?acii oi?iiceo
oi?ie?iaaiea n/aoiuo e au/eneeoaeueiuo iaaueia i?e ia?aoiaea /a?ac
aeanyoie. Iaaeaeo oai aaaooea, niae?aynue aa?eoue aa?aiuea,
i?eniiniaeyea aeaoeoae e ia?acaieth oainoeeia o yaiae /a?iie nii?iaeeiu.
Eiaaea noaeai i/euaiiuo yaiae ioi?aaeyeny a oac aeey aa?aiuey, ia
niaoeeaeueii auaeaeaiiia ianoi noiea oeeaaeuaaeanue iaeia yaiaea. Oae
aaaooea i?aaeeaaaea oaeoaeaiiia iiieiaiea aaeeieoeu. Iaeia yaiaea i?e
n/aoa caiaiyea noaeai yaiae. Aeaeueiaeoee i?eioeei n/aoa aeanyoeaie,
nioiyie, ouny/aie aini?eieiaeny eaaei. Oie aea eaeaa nenoai n/eneaiey
neoaeeea ea?a “a nieaeaoeee”. ?annoaaeyy eo, iaeue/ee iia eniiaeaieue
ciaeiieoueny n aaeeieoeaie aieineeo oi?ie?iaaiee ?aciuo a?aiai e
ia?iaeia.

Naia iaoaiaoe/aneia iacia/aiea eiatho e ae?oaea o?aaeeoeeiiiua ia?iaeiua
ea?ooee. Anaie?ii ecaanoiua iao?aoee iiaeaee?otho, n oi/ee c?aiey
iiaaeoae iaoee, o?ainoi?iaoeeth iiaeiaey. A aeaoneii naaeo iao?aoee, eae
e ie?aieaeee ni iiiaeanoaii eieaoe, iiiiaatho ?acee/aoue yeaiaiou
iiiaeanoa ii ?acia?o e auno?aeaaoue na?eaoeeiiiua ?yaeu.
“Aaiueea-anoaiueea” e “Iaaaeyoea” aeatho i?aaenoaaeaiea ia onoie/eainoe.
Aea?aayiiua eoaeee n o?aaiaioaie ?enoieia ia a?aiyo ciaeiieee ia oieueei
n i?ino?ainoaaiiie oi?iie e aa oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Ec o?aaiaioia ?enoiea,
eae ec iiaeiiiaeanoa, ?aaaiie ninoaaeye iiiaeanoai – iauee ?enoiie
(caa?ae, /aoea). Ea?ooee e ecaeaeey ia?iaeiuo i?iiuneia e ?aianae
oi?ie?iaaee i?aaenoaaeaiey i /enea, aaiiao?e/aneie oi?ia, ?yaea, o/eee
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia ieineinoe (eiaaea iaeuo ?annoaaeyao ea?ooa/ioth
iaei/ue ia noiea) e a i?ino?ainoaa (eiaaea no?aeyao ec eoea no?aeie).
Inaiaieth iiiyoey ?yaea neoaeao ia?iaeiua i?iiuneu Ea?aiiiey e Aeueoea.
Eiaiii caeanue ianoa?eoeu “iecaee-iaoaee” aeai/oa, auoeaaee aena?ii. I?e
auoeaea e?anoii, n/aoiie aeaaeueth e iaai?ii eniieueciaaeinue aua e
ciaiea aaiiao?e/aneeo oeao? e eo yeaiaioia, /ai e iaania/eaaeinue
i?iaiaioaeueiia iiiaiia?acea ia?iaeiiai einothia. Aue?ieee aeaineiai
ia?iaeiiai einothia oaeaea ninoiyo oieueei ec aaiiao?e/aneeo oi?i –
i?yiioaieueieeia e eaaae?aoia. O?aeueneea e eoaaineea o?yie/iua
eoeeu-cae?ooee aeaeathony ec eineooeia eaaae?aoiie, e?oaeie,
i?yiioaieueiie oi?iu. Aaiiao?e/aneay oi?ia enneaaeiaaeanue ia?iaeiuie
oeaoeeeie, eiaeaaaiiuie, eocia/iuie i?iiuneaie, ecaioiaeoaeyie ecaeaeee
ec nieiiu, iaiueee, euea. ?anniao?eaay ia?iaeioth ea?ooeo eae n?aaenoai
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaiaoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?aaaiea, iaaieueii i?eoiaeeoue e
auaiaeo, /oi iao/aiea aeaoae ia/eiaeinue ai?acaei ?aiueoa, /ai i?eiyoi
aeoiaoue. Ia auei nenoaiu iao/aiey, ia auei (e ia iiaei auoue)
ii?aaeaeaiey /enea e a?eoiaoe/aneiai aeaenoaey eae iao/iie
iaoaiaoe/aneie iniiau, ii iaaue n/aoiie, ecia?eoaeueiie e
au/eneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe oi?ie?iaaeny, i?e/ai a ea?a. A anee
?yaeii neo/aeny ia?iaeiue aiaeueae ieeinoueth iaoiaeeno (iaia, ioaoe,
aeaae, aaaooea, iyiy), iiyaeyeanue e nenoaia iao/aiey.

Caeeth/aiea

Caaa?oay ?aaioo iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi ?onneay ia?iaeiay ea?ooea
yaeyaony iniaui aeaeii ia?iaeiiai oai?/anoaa. Ia?iaeiay ea?ooea, eae e
ea?ooea aiiaua, yaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiui, iaiaoiaeeiui yeaiaioii
ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna. *a?ac ea?o e ea?ooeo ?aaaiie iiciaao ie?,
i?ienoiaeeo aai nioeeaeecaoeey a iauanoaa.

Ea?ooee ec aeeiu e aea?aaa, ec nieiiu e aa?anou, ec oanoa eee aena?a…
Ea?ooee-iaa?aae e ea?ooee-iioaoee, no?eaooee e eicoee, ae?theueee e
naenooeueee… Aeuieianeea e ea?aiiieueneea, a?oaiaaeueneea e
oeeeiiiianeea. Ana yoi – ?onneea ia?iaeiua ea?ooee, nia?aoua oaieii
/aeiaa/aneeo ?oe, e?ani/ii ?anienaiiua ianoa?aie e oiaeueoeaie, ecaeaaia
aea?yuea ethaeyi ethaiaue e aeia?ioo. E, e niaeaeaieth, nianai
iani?aaaaeeeai caauoua iaoeie aeaoueie. Iaaeaeo oai ia?iaeiay ea?ooea –
yoi ia oieueei eoeueoo?iia ianeaaeea, iocaeiue yeniiiao eee noaaie? aeey
oe?aoaiey eioa?uea?a. Eaeiie/iay ii oi?ia, ii noieue au?aceoaeueiay e
iiiyoiay ethaiio ?aaaieo, iia e naaiaeiy iiaeao ia i?inoi oaeeaeoue e
ia?aaeiaaoue iaeuoa, ii e oniaoii ni?aaeoueny naai iao/aieai aeaaea
naiui na?ueaciui iaoeai.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A?????a I.N. ???? ???? ???e ?e y???aai???? ???i (? ????a ?????i
?????y): ?????y ? ????a ??? ???e ???a ????/a?? ??. – I., 2000. – 356 c.

2. E???? I.E. O?????ay ???? // I?ay ??o??. – 1996. – ? 8. – N.48-49.

3. I???e A.I. Ec ???e ???e ???e: 5 ??n // E??a?? a ??a. – 1996. – ? 3. –
N.138-140.

4. I?????? O.A. ???ay ???ay ???a. E??? ? ?n??, ?????, ???c??, ????,
????i y??o. – I.: A?oo????, 1990. – 48 n.

5. ?????? N.O. I????a ??i ??? // I?ay ???/?. – 1995. – ? 7. – N.48-49

6. ???? A.A. ss???ai ???o ??yi. – I.: I??, 1994. – N.68-75.

7. N?ay??a ????e: Y??e??????e ??a?. O.2. / I? ??e ??e?? I.E. O???i. –
I.: I?????? ?ii??y, 1999. – N.378-379.

8. N?ay??y ????y: Y??e?????e ???ue. – I.: Y?n ?e, 1995.

9. N???ay y?????y. O.1 – I., 1991. – N.178-180.

10. ss ??ath ??. E???: Ae??ay yi????ey. /N?o.I.A. TH??. – I.: ANO, 1998.
– 492 c.

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