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Россия между Востоком и Западом

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?INNEss.

IAAEAeO AINOIEII E CAIAAeII

0, Caiaae anoue Caiaae,

Ainoie anoue

Ainoie, e n Mano iie ia nieaeoo.

Iiea ia i?aaenoaiao Iaai n Caieae

ia No?aoiue Ainiiaeaiue Noae.

Ii iao Ainoiea, e Caiaaea iao, /oi —

ieaiy, ?iaeeia, ?iae,

Anee neeueiue n neeueiui eeoeii e eeoeo

O e?ay caiee anoaao?

«Aaeeaaea i Ainoiea e Caiaaea», Aeaeicao ?aaeuey?ae Eeieeia

Caiaae anoue Caiaae, Ainoie anoue Ainoie,

Oieueei a ?innee aeooiaiinoe enoie!

Aaoia?ao iiyoa ec Eeieeiaianeiai a?oeaa Aeaaeaiee Eaaaaei:

AAAAeAIEA

Ii/aio a ?aoa?aoa eoeueoo?a ?anniao?eaaaony n ?aeeaeiciie oi/ee c?aiey?

1. Ana aac eneeth/aiey i?iyaeaiey ?aeeaeiciie aeecie aeeth/aiu a
?aaeueioth eoeueoo?o.

2. Eiae/anee iiiyoey “eoeueoo?a” e “?aeeaey” naycaiu ioiioaieyie /anoe e
oeaeiai, ?aeeaey anoue /anoue eoeueoo?u, oi aeneieiae/anee (a noa?a
ioiioaiee oeaiiinoe e ioeaiee) iie ?aaiii?aaiu: ia oieueei ?aeeaey
iiaeao auoue ioeaiaia n iiceoeee eoeueoo?u, ii e eoeueoo?a – n iiceoeee
?aeeaee.

«I?iaeaia Ainoiea e Caiaaea, a nouiinoe, anaaaea auea iniiaiie oaiie
anaie?iie enoi?ee, a? inueth», — ienae I.A.Aa?aeyaa a 1918 a. Ia iieaaea
?aiueoa I.ss.Aeaieeaaneee i?eciae: «Caiaae e Ainoie, Aa?iia e Acey
i?aaenoaaeythony iaoaio oio eaeeie-oi i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie,
iiey?iinoyie». Yoi i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea annioeee?oaony n aioeoacaie:
?aoeei-eiooeoeei, aeayiea-nica?oeaiea, yeaiaioa?eci-oieeci. Caiaae — yoi
eeiaeiia a?aiy, ai?eciioaeueiua ioiioaiey, aioo?aiiyy (iai?iyaeaiiay)
aeooiaiinoue; Ainoie — oeeeee/iia a?aiy, aa?oeeaeueiua ioiioaiey,
aiaoiyy (i?iyaeaiiay) aeooiaiinoue.

Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ?innee oaeiai, /oi «?aneeioaoenue iaaeaeo
aeaoo aaeeeeo aeaeaiee ie?a, iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii, iie?aynue
iaeiei eieoai ia Eeoae, ae?oaei — ia Aa?iaieth, iu au aeieaeiu auee
ni/aoaoue a naaa aeaa aaeeeea iniiau aeooiaiie i?e?iaeu — aiia?aaeaiea e
?acoi» (*aaaeaaa I.ss. Oeeinioneea ienueia). Ianiiiaiii, «Ianoaeaeaiea
?inneeneiai ?acaeoey anaaaea ia/eiaaony n ii?aaeaeaiey ianoa ?innee
iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii» (Oaaeioiaa A.A. Noaeueaa ?innee a ca?eaea
iaoiaeieiaee).

A ?aoa?aoa naeaeaia iiiuoea iiiyoue:

– ai-ia?auo, eae i?iyaeea naay ?aeeaey a oie eee eiie eoeueoo?a
(aieueooth /anoue enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa ?aeeaey eoeueoo?o iii?inoo
ii?aaeaeyea);

– ai-aoi?uo, eae naycaiu n ?aeeaeae iaeaieaa naiaia?aciua i?iyaeaiey
eaaeaeie eiie?aoiie eoeueoo?u,

– a-o?aoueeo, eae ?aeeaey i?aaenoaaeaia a oii aeeaaea, eioi?ue aianea
aeaiiay eoeueoo?a a aa?oeiiua i?iyaeaiey /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa, a
aeooiaioth nie?iaeuieoeo /aeiaa/anoaa.

1. AINOIE, CAIAAe E ?INNEss

A Aeaeee iaienaii, /oi, eiaaea ia?iaeu caiee iauaaeeieeenue a iauai
yiooceacia aeey inouanoaeaiey aeaea iaoaiaeiiai Aiao e ia/aee no?ieoue
aaoith aunioie aei iaaa, Ainiiaeue aini?aiyonoaiaae oaeiio eo
iauaaeeiaieth, niaoaa ycuee, ii/aio ethaee ia?anoaee iiieiaoue ae?oa
ae?oaa e auioaeaeaiu auee ?acaeaeeoueny ia ieaiaia e ia?iaeu e
?acieoenue ii caiea. Iiaeii aeoiaoue, /oi neiai «ycuee» neaaeoao
iiieiaoue ia oieueei a oceieeiaaenoe/aneii niunea, ii e a niunea
iaioaeueii-eiae/aneii, /oi icia/aao aua e niaoaiea e ?acaeaeaiea ii oeio
iaioaeeoaoa, ii iaeioi?ie ecia/aeueiie noaia iuoeaiey e oeio aini?eyoey
auoey. Ethaee, ioiinyueany e ?aciui iaioaeueiui oeiai, aeaaea anee iie
aiai?yo ia iaeiii e oii aea ycuea, n o?oaeii ae?oa ae?oaa iiieiatho e
a?yae ee niiaoo iaaeieai e i?i/ii iauaaeeieoueny aeey niaianoiiai
inouanoaeaiey eaeie-eeai eaeae, eaeiai-eeai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Ainoie, Caiaae e o?enoeainoai

Iaeiei ec naiuo aeiaaeueiuo oaeeo ie?iaicc?ai/anei-iaioaeueiuo
?acaeaeaiee yaeyaony n iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai nouanoaothuaa ?acaeaeaiea
iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii, aeaoiy iieiaeiaie ie?a. I.ss.*aaaeaaa
ienae:

«Ie? eneiie aeaeeeny ia aeaa /anoe – Ainoie e Caiaae. Yoi ia oieueei
aaia?aoe/aneia aeaeaiea, ii oaeaea e ii?yaeie aauae, iaoneiaeaiiue naiie
i?e?iaeie ?acoiiiai nouanoaa: yoi – aeaa i?eioeeia, niioaaonoaothuea
aeaoi aeeiaie/aneei neeai i?e?iaeu, aeaa eaeae, iaieiathuea aanue
aeeciaiiue no?ie /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea. Nin?aaeioi/eaaynue, oaeoaeyynue,
caiueaynue a naiii naaa, niceaeaeny /aeiaa/aneee oi ia Ainoiea;
?aneeaeuaaynue aiaia, eceo/aynue ai ana noi?iiu, ai?ynue ni anaie
i?aiyonoaeyie, ?acaeaaaony ii ia Caiaaea… oai ia iaiaa e a oie, e a
ae?oaie noa?a aeeciue auea neeueia e ieiaeioai?ia; oai e caeanue
/aeiaa/aneee ?acoi ia eiae iaaeinoaoea a aunieeo aaeioiiaaieyo, aeoaieeo
iuneyo e aicauoaiiuo nicaeaieyo».

E ainoi/iue, e caiaaeiue oei ii?iaeeee eaaeaeue naith eoeueoo?o, naith
oeeaeeecaoeeth, ii naiaio oeio ai iiiaii ?aciua e i?ioeaiiieiaeiua,
ieeiaaea ia niiniaiua e i?aaie/aneiio niaaeeiaieth. I?e/eia oaeie
ianiiniaiinoe anoue oa aea naiay, /oi e ai a?aiaia no?ieoaeuenoaa
Aaaeeiineie aaoie – Aia ia iiioneaao iauaaeeiaiea /aeiaa/anoaa ai eiy
eaeie-eeai iai?aaie, a?aoiaiie, eiaeiie, iaoaiaeiie Aio eaeae.

Enoeiioth iniiao aeey niaaeeiaiey anao ia?iaeia e eoeueoo? aiaaeeii
aeaei i?eoaaeoaa a ie? o?enoeainoai, eioi?ia oeacaei anai ethaeyi, anai
ia?iaeai e eoeueoo?ai ia iaaaniue eaeaae aaeeiaiey a O?enoiao Oea?eiaue.
Oieueei Aeoo Nayoie niiniaai i?aiaeieaoue ae?aaiee aaaeeiineee ?aneie e
?acaeaeaiea.

«Eiaaea nioae Anaauoiee e niaoae ycuee, oi yoei Ii ?acaeaeee ia?iaeu;
eiaaea aea Ii ?icaeae iaiaiiua ycuee, oi anao i?ecaae e aaeeinoao; e iu
aaeeiiaeanii neaaei Ananayoiai Aeooa».

A yoii aaeeiiaeaniii neaaeaiee Aeooa Nayoiai niaaeeieeenue ai aaeeioth
O?enoiao Oea?eiaue e Ainoie, e Caiaae. Aeinoeaiooia oaeei ia?acii
aaeeinoai auei i?i/iui e aeoaieei ii naiaio aa?iiio i?eioeeio, ii
enoeiiie eaeaa, e iii nio?aiyeinue a oa/aiea aeieaeo aaeia (?aiueoa
yoiai ieeiaaea ia auei), iinea /aai, iaeiaei, auei ia?ooaii. Oaeei
ia?acii, O?enoeaineay Oea?eiaue, i?ecaaiiay iauaaeeieoue Ainoie e
Caiaae, auiieieea naith ienneth eeoue ia a?aiy, iinea /aai naia iia iiae
aeeyieai ecaa/iuo ainoi/ii-caiaaeiuo i?ioeai?a/ee ?aneieieanue ia aeaa
iieiaeiu – ainoi/ioth e caiaaeioth, ec eioi?uo e ?iaeeeenue ecaanoiua
iai naaiaeiy o?enoeaineea oeeaeeecaoeee Caiaaea e Ainoiea.

?onneea enoi?einioneea oeieu

?inney ii naiaio aaia?aoe/aneiio iieiaeaieth caieiaao n?aaeeiiia ianoi
iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii, niaaeeiyy e iaeiia?aiaiii ?acaeaeyy eo.
Nii?eeanaynue n ieie, iia eniuouaaao aeeyiea iaieo e yaeyaony
i?iaiaeieeii e iineoaeai eaeae eae caiaaeiiai, oae e ainoi/iiai
eoeueoo?iuo oeiia.

«A ?innee noaeeeaathony e i?eoiaeyo ai acaeiiaeaenoaea aeaa iioiea
ie?iaie enoi?ee – Ainoie e Caiaae. ?onneee ia?iae anoue ia /enoi
aa?iiaeneee e ia /enoi aceaoneee ia?iae. ?inney anoue oeaeay /anoue
naaoa, ia?iiiue Ainoiei-Caiaae, iia niaaeeiyao aeaa ie?a. E anaaaea a
?onneie aeooa ai?ieenue aeaa ia/aea, ainoi/iia e caiaaeiia», – ienae
Aa?aeyaa.

Yoa ai?ueaa a ?onneie aeooa aeaoo ia/ae iaoneiaeea ni anae ino?ioie
iinoaiiaeo a ?onneie oeeinioee i?iaeaiu iniuneaiey oaeoa n?aaeeiiiai
ainoi/ii-caiaaeiiai iieiaeaiey ?innee n oeaeueth au?aaioee ii?aaeaeaiiuo
enoi?einioneeo eiioeaioeee e no?aoaaee.

I?iaeaio yoo ?acee/iua i?aaenoaaeoaee ?onneie oeeinioneie iunee ?aoaee
ii-?aciiio. Oae, aua a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX aaea aicieeee nii?u iaaeaeo
neaayiioeeaie e caiaaeieeaie. Neaayiioeeu aunooiaee ca naiiauoioth
?onnei-neaayineoth oeeaeeecaoeeth, nicaeaiioth ia iniiaa ainoi/iiai
o?enoeainoaa – i?aaineaaey. I?e yoii iie n/eoaee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneee oei
oeeaeeecaoeee ai iiiaii oua?aiui e ii?i/iui ii i?e/eia oeeiiaiey io
o?enoeaineiai iooe, ii/aio ?innee e ia neaaeoao iiae?aaeaoue Caiaaeo,
neaii ia?aieiay aai eaeae, a neaaeoao eaeoe naiei iniaui naiiauoiui
?onneei iooai, ia iaeyaeuaaynue ia Aa?iio. Neaayia, ii n?aaiaieth n
?iiaii-aa?iaineeie ia?iaeaie, eiatho iaiaeua, iaoneiaeaiiua ecaanoiuie
i?e/eiaie, i?aeiouanoaa, eaeiaua e aeatho ei aiciiaeiinoue ia iiaoi?youe
ioeaie Caiaaea, a ?aaeeciaaoue naie nianoaaiiue eoeueoo?iue oei.

Iai?ioea, oae iacuaaaiua caiaaeieee n/eoaee, /oi ieeaeiai naiiauoiiai
iooe o ?innee ia auei e iao, /oi iia i?inoi ionoaea a naiai ?acaeoee io
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, e iiyoiio caaea/a aeey ?innee caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oiau aeiaiiyoue Aa?iio, o/eoueny o iaa e iiae?aaeaoue ae, a
neaayii-?onneay naiiauoiinoue a yoii ae oieueei iaoaao. ?inney aeieaeia
noaoue no?aiie caiaaeiiai oeia e i?eniaaeeieoueny e ?iiaii-aa?iaineie
naiuea ia?iaeia – aio ae?aooea any i?ia?aiia caiaaeieeia.

Ia?aoei aieiaiea, /oi ie neaayiioeeu, ie caiaaeieee niaa?oaiii ia
i?eieiaee ai aieiaiea aceaoneoth ninoaaeythuoth – ainoi/ioth iieiaeio
ie?a, ii e oa, e ae?oaea oyaioatho e iaeiiio eoeueoo?iiio aa?iiaeneiio
i/aao, ia?aciaaaoaiony ia ianoa aioe/iiai a?aei-?eineiai ie?a. I?aaaea,
oioy iie e iooaeeeaaeenue io iaeiiai iauaai ae?aaiaai eoeueoo?iiai
a?aei-?eineiai i/aaa, ii aeaeaee yoi nouanoaaiii ii-?aciiio. Neaayiioeeu
oyaioaee aieueoa e a?a/aneiio eoeueoo?iiio oeio, e ai aeaao oaea o ieo
auea iinoaaeaia au?inoay ec iaai ainoi/iay I?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue e
ae?aaia?onneay i?aaineaaiay oeeaeeecaoeey. Caiaaeieee aea neeiiyeenue
aieueoa e eaoeineie eoeueoo?a e eaeaaeii n/eoaee aeey naay
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneoth oeeaeeecaoeeth. Iaeiaei e neaayiioeeu, e caiaaeieee
iaeeiaeiai eaii?e?iaaee e ia i?eieiaee ai aieiaiea ainoi/iiaceaoneoth
iieiaeio ie?a.

I?e/eia oaeiai caaaaiey aceaoneiai Ainoiea caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oi
aa?iiaeneay ia?aciaaiiinoue oie yiioe (a eiaiii ec iaa au?inee eae
neaayiioeeu, oae e caiaaeieee) ii aieueoae /anoe ia caia/aea Aceth, ii
auea iineoaeai iaeiiiiey?iiai aa?iiioeaio?aeenoneiai aeaeaiey ie?a. A
oeaio?a ie?a iaoiaeeony caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay oeeaeeecaoeey – ana
inoaeueiia a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie anoue ia?eoa?ey e caaeai?ee.
?inney – caaeai?ee aeeaeiea e iiyoiio i iae a Aa?iia eiaee iaeioi?ua,
oioy e aanueia neoaeiua, iiiyoey, /oi aea eanaaony aeaeueieo caaeai?ie –
Acee, oi aa aa?iiaeneay ia?aciaaiiinoue ii/oe ieeae ia aeaeaea e ia
i?eieiaea ana?ueac. Oaeaea yoiio niinianoaiaaea a iaiaeie noaiaie
iau/iay caieiooinoue ainoi/iie iieiaeiu ie?a e aa ecaanoiay
aueeth/aiiinoue ec enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna Aa?iiaeneiai ?aaeiia.

Yoo iaeiinoi?iiiinoue e iaiieiioo aeaeaiey ie?a e neaayiioeeaie, e
caiaaeieeaie (ianiio?y ia oi, /oi oaeay iiceoeey auea iauei ianoii oie
yiioe) niciaaaee aua caaeieai aei aa?aceeoeaa iaeaieaa i?iieoeaoaeueiua
e aeaeueiiaeaeiua ethaee, iai?eia?, oaeea, eae *aaaeaaa, eioi?ue,
ianiio?y ia naith ?aiooaoeeth e?aeiaai caiaaeieea, a ioaeaeueiuo ianoao
naieo ni/eiaiee auneacuaae iuneue (ii oai a?aiaiai ai iiiaii
e?aiieueioth) i oii, /oi aeey ?innee cia/eia ia oieueei aa?iiaeneay, ii
e aceaoneay ninoaaeythuay. Oae, iai?eia?, ii aua a ia/aea 1830-o aiaeia
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi, a eiia/iii n/aoa «noeoee aceaoneea e aa?iiaeneea
ia?a?aaioathony a i?eaeiaeueioth ?onneoth oeeaeeecaoeeth», i?aaeainoeuay
oai naiui eaeae aa?aceeneie oeieu.

Iaeiaei anee ai a?aiaia *aaaeaaaa yoa iuneue yaeyeanue aeinoiyieai eeoue
ioiineoaeueii iaiiiaeo ethaeae, oi e ia/aeo OO aaea neooaoeey
eciaieeanue, e ia ia?iiiie cia/eiinoe aeey ?innee ainoi/iiai ie?a
caaiai?eee iiiaea. Oaeie ia?aiaia acaeyaeia niinianoaiaaei ana aieaa
aeoeaiia aoiaeaeaiea no?ai Ainoiea a enoi?eth e aeeciue ?innee e Aa?iiu,
a oaeaea oaea i?inoi naii yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea iaeioi?uo ec yoeo
no?ai, eioi?ua oaea iaaiciiaeii auei eaii?e?iaaoue.

A yoeo oneiaeyo ?iaeeeinue aa?aceenoai – o?aouea e?oiiia oa/aiea ?onneie
enoi?einioneie iunee. Aa?aceeoeu noiaeeeenue ni neaayiioeeaie a oii, /oi
e?eoe/anee ioiineeenue e caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee, i?enaaeaathuae naaa
noaoon oeeaeeecaoeee anaeaineie, iauaieaiaoa?iie e aunoae. I.O?oaaoeeie
a ?aaioa «Aa?iia e /aeiaa/anoai» noaaee neaaeothuea aii?inu:

1. Iiaeii ee iauaeoeaii aeieacaoue, /oi eoeueoo?a ?iiaii-aa?iaioeaa
niaa?oaiiaa anao i?i/eo eoeueoo?, iuia nouanoaothueo eee eiaaea-eeai
nouanoaiaaaoeo?

2. Aiciiaeii ee iieiia i?eiauaiea eaeiai-eeai ia?iaea e eoeueoo?a,
au?aaioaiiie ae?oaei ia?iaeii?

3. ssaeyaony ee anaiauay aa?iiaecaoeey iaecaaaeiie?

Ia ana yoe aii?inu O?oaaoeeie ioaa/aao io?eoeaoaeueii. Aa?aceeoeu
n/eoaee, /oi aoaeouaa /aeiaa/anoaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo ioithaeue ia caiaaeiie
eoeueoo?a, a iaeioi?ie ae?oaie, aa?i-aceaoneie, eioi?oth i?ecaaia
nicaeaoue (e oaea nicaeaea io/anoe) ?inney. Yoa eoeueoo?a ia anoue
ainoi/iay e ia anoue caiaaeiay, a iaeioi?ay ae?oaay – iniaay o?aouey
eoeueoo?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, aa?aceeneay oeiea ia?aay ioi?aaea ?onneoth
enoi?einioneoth iuneue io aa?iiaeneie ia/ee e oaioeaaaea oaea io ia/ee
aa?iaceaoneie, i?aiaeieaa yoei naiaia?aciue ?aaeiiaeueiue aa?uea?
aa?iiaeneiai oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai oeaio?a e aueaey oaea a yoie naiae
eiioeaioeee ia iauaieaiaoa?iue o?iaaiue iuoeaiey.

?anniio?ei neeueiua e neaaua noi?iiu o?ao ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa oeie.
Ia?iiiui, iai?aoiaeyuei e aa/iui aeinoieinoaii neaayiioeeueneie iiceoeee
yaeyaony iinoaiiaea ath ai aeaao oaea o?enoeainoaa e i?aaineaaey. Aeey
neaayiioeeia aeaaiui e oeaio?aeueiui yaeyaony, i?aaeaea anaai,
i?aaineaaea, enoeiiay aa?a, – eiaiii iia anoue «aacen», ana aea
inoaeueiia – eeoue «iaaeno?ieea».

«Neaayiioeeuenoai, – aiai?eo Aa?aeyaa, – aeiaaei aei niciaoaeueiiai,
eaeaieiae/aneiai au?aaeaiey aa/ioth enoeio i?aaineaaiiai Ainoiea e
enoi?e/aneee oeeaae ?onneie caiee, niaaeeiea oi e ae?oaia i?aaie/anee.
?onneay caiey auea aeey neaayiioeeia, i?aaeaea anaai iineoaeueieoeae
o?enoeaineie enoeiu, a o?enoeaineay enoeia auea a I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae.
Neaayiioeeuenoai icia/aei auyaeaiea i?aaineaaiiai o?enoeainoaa, eae
iniaiai oeia eoeueoo?u, eae iniaiai iiuoa ?aeeaeiciiai, ioee/iiai io
caiaaeii-eaoiee/aneiai e iioiio oai?yuaai eioth aeeciue».

Oaeaea neeueiie noi?iiie neaayiioeeueneiai o/aiey yaeyaony aai /ooeinoue
e ci?einoue a aeaeaiee ioeaie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai
iooe, aeoaieee e ananoi?iiiee aiaeec eioi?uo iii aeaei, oeacaa aeey
?innee  cae?aaoth e aa?ioth iiaeaeue ioiioaiee e Aa?iia. Aua iaeia
neeueiay noi?iia – y?ei au?aaeaiiue iao?eioeci neaayiioeeia, eo aa?a a
neeu, aiciiaeiinoe e aoaeouaa neaayii-?onneie i?aaineaaiie
oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ay auea aeey ieo naiae e ?iaeiie. Aa?aeyaa aiai?eo,
/oi neaayiioeeueneay eiioeaioeey i?ienoiaeeo ia io oai?aoe/aneeo
oiic?aiee, ii ec aeoaei ?onneiai i?aaineaaiiai aeooa.

«Neaayiioeeuenoai, – ienae ii, – au?inei ec ?aeeaeiciiai iiuoa, a ia ec
eieaeiuo aeeyiee, ia ec oeeinioneeo e eeoa?aoo?iuo eaeae. Oi aue
?aeeaeiciue iiuo anaai ?onneiai ia?iaea ca ouny/aeaoithth aai enoi?eth,
?aeeaeiciue iiuo ainoi/iiai i?aaineaaey, i?aoai?aiiiai a ?onneie aeooa».

O caiaaeieeia aieueoa neaauo iano, /ai neeueiuo. Yoa oeiea ia nicaeaea
ie/aai oioue neieueei-ieaoaeue oeeinionee-cia/eiiai. Aa neaaua ianoa
yaeythony i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoyie ii ioiioaieth e ia?a/eneaiiui neeueiui
noi?iiai neaayiioeeueneie eiioeaioeee. Naiie neaaie e iai?inoeoaeueiie
noi?iiie caiaaeieeia yaeyaony eo ii aieueoae /anoe eee ?aaiiaeooiia, eee
aiana io?eoeaoaeueiia ioiioaiea e o?enoeainoao, a aua aieaa – e
i?aaineaaeth. Aua iaeia neaaay noi?iia – a iae?eoe/aneii ioiioaiee e
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a, a oii?iie neaiioa e aeaoaeoai e aieaciyi
Aa?iiu, eioi?ay anaaaea i?aaenoaaeyeanue ei naiui aunieei eaeaaeii, io
eioi?iai aaciaaeaaeii ionoaao ?inney. Caiaaeieee, aeaeaa, a ioee/ea io
neaayiioeeia, /aua anaai ia auee iao?eioaie ii ioiioaieth e naiae
?iaeeia, e a yoii oaeaea eo neaaay noi?iia. Naia aiaaonoai yoe ethaee
iieaaaee ia Caiaaea, ca i?aaeaeaie ?innee, a aaaeue ecaanoii, /oi, aaea
nie?iaeua, oai auaaao e na?aeoea. Iieiaeeoaeueiay, iaeiaei, ?ieue
caiaaeieeia naycaia ni iiiaeie iieaciuie e oeaiiuie noi?iiaie caiaaeiie
eoeueoo?u (ec iaeanoe ia?aciaaiey, iaoee, oaoieee, i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
aiaiiiai aeaea, iaaeeoeeiu e o.i.) eioi?ua iie oi?ioi ciaee e
no?aieeenue ?aaeeciaaoue a ?innee.

*oi eanaaony aa?aceenoaa, oi aai aeaaiay i?aaaea – a iniciaiee oeaiiinoe
e cia/eiinoe aeey ?onneiai iooe ainoi/iiaceaoneie ieeoiaiu. Neaaie, ii
n?aaiaieth ni neaayiioeeaie, noi?iiie aa?aceenoaa yaeyaony aai ioiioaiea
e i?aaineaaeth eeoue eae e n?aaenoao aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
iieeoe/aneeo oeaeae, i?aaineaaea aeey aa?aceeoeaa nianai ia aeaaiia.
Aiiaua neaauo noi?ii o ieo aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii – eiioeaioeey yoa auea
ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo ia?ac?aaioaiiie eee ?ac?aaioaiiie ioeai/ii. Iia ia
?iaeeeanue i?aaie/ii ec aeoaei ?onneiai aeooa, eae neaayiioeeuenoai, ii
auea eiaiii oiic?eoaeueiie oai?eae. Aeinoaoi/ii iiae?iaiue ?acai? yoeo
ioeaie aeae A.Oei?ianeee a ?aaioa «Aa?aceeneee niaeaci», aeaaiue auaiae
eioi?ie:

«Noaeueaa aa?aceenoaa – enoi?ey aeooiaiie iaoaea/e. Iaeuecy caiae/eaaoue
aa?aceeneoth i?aaaeo. Ii… a aa?aceeneeo a?acao iaeay i?aaaea ni/aoaaony
n aaeeeei naiiiaiaiii… Aa?aceenoai ia oaeaeinue. Aianoi iooe i?ieiaeai
ooiee. Ii ieeoaea ia aaaeao. Ioaeii aa?iooueny e enoiaeiie oi/ea. E
ioooaea, auoue iiaeao, ioe?ithony iiaua e?oaici?u, i?ioyioony iiaua e
aa?iua iooe».

I niaaeeiythuae ?iee ?innee

Iiieii o?ao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo enoi?einioneeo eiioeaioeee nouanoaoao e
/aoaa?oay, eioi?ay, aa?iyoii, e aeieaeia auoue i?eciaia iaeeo/oei
?aoaieai i?iaeaiu. Yoa /aoaa?oay eiioeaioeey ia noi?ie?iaaea naiae
oeieu, naiaai oa/aiey a ?onneie iunee, e aa au?aceoaeyie auee oieueei
ioaeaeueiua ethaee. Ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth yoa eiioeaioeey aeecea e
iiceoeee neaayiioeeueneie, ii ia caiueaaony, a ioee/ea io iaa, a
i?aaeaeao aa?iiaeneie eieuaaee neaayinoaa, a au?anoaao e auoiaeeo ca yoe
?aiee ia aieaa oe?ieee, aeiaaeueiue e ie?iaie i?inoi? aeeth/aieai a
naith eaeath ainoi/iie iieiaeiu ie?a. I?aaineaaea a yoie eiioeaioeee
oaeaea iinoaaeaii ai aeaao oaea e yaeyaony ia n?aaenoaii, eae o
aa?aceeoeaa, ii aaniethoiie oeaeueth e aunoei eaeaaeii. Yoie cae?aaie e
aa?iie iiceoeee (eee aeeceie e iae) i?eaea?aeeaaeenue oaeea ethaee, eae
O.I.Aeinoiaaneee, E. Eeueei, N.O?aie, E.Ea?naaei, A.O.Einaa,
A.Caiueeianeee e ae?.

O Aeinoiaaneiai yoa eaeay auea oanii naycaia n ae?oaie aai aaaeiie
iuneueth, iinoiyiii o iaai ano?a/athuaeny, – n eaeaae anaie?iiai
i?ecaaiey ?onneiai /aeiaaea. I aai iiceoeee ii aeaiiiio aii?ino
A.Eiaeeiia aiai?eo neaaeothuaa:

«Aeinoiaaneee, eae e *aaaeaaa, ii nooe naiae ia aue ie caiaaeieeii, ie
neaayiioeeii, oioy e aai ia ?ac iuoaeenue naanoe (eae iuneeoaey) e
neaayiioeeuenoao. Ia iiaie, oaea iniciaiiie iniiaa ii no?aieeny
ainnoaiiaeoue oo ananoi?iiiinoue ie?iaini?eyoey, eioi?ay auea oo?a/aia a
iineaiooeeineoth yiioo. Ii enoiaeee a naiai iiieiaiee ?innee ia ec
caieiooi iaoeeiiaeueiie, ii ec anaie?iie oi/ee c?aiey…»

I?eaaaeo neiaa naiiai Aeinoiaaneiai:

«…iacia/aiea ?onneiai /aeiaaea, – ienae ii, – anoue, aannii?ii,
anaaa?iiaeneia e anaie?iia. Noaoue ianoiyuei ?onneei, noaoue aiieia
?onneei, iiaeao auoue, e cia/eo oieueei… noaoue a?aoii anao ethaeae,
ana/aeiaaeii, anee oioeoa. I, ana yoi neaayiioeeuenoai e caiaaeie/anoai
iaoa anoue iaeii oieueei aaeeeia o ian iaaei?acoiaiea, oioy enoi?e/anee
e iaiaoiaeeiia… Iao oaeae anoue anaie?iinoue, e ia ia/ai i?eia?aoaiiay,
a neeie a?aonoaa e a?aoneiai no?aieaiey iaoaai e ainniaaeeiaieth
ethaeae».

Iiiyoii, /oi ?inney ia iiaea au ea?aoue yoo ?ieue ie?iaie niaaeeiythuae
n?aaeu, anee au caieioeanue eeoue a iaeiie iieiaeia ie?a, a io ae?oaie
niaa?oaiii au io?aoeeanue. Aa?iyoii, enoiaey ec yoiai, Aeinoiaaneee e
i?eoae e iniciaieth aaaeiinoe ainoi/iie ninoaaeythuae aeey ?innee.

Ai?i/ai, yoa aaaeiinoue auea aeaeea?e?iaaia a ?innee aua caaeieai aei
Aeinoiaaneiai – naiie aeeciueth, eai ?onue n naiiai ia/aea auea i?ecaaia
niaaeeiyoue. Aua ieo?iiieeo Eeea?eii a XI aaea ienae, /oi ?onneay caiey
«aaaeiia e neuoeia anaie /aou?ueiy eiioeaie caiee».  A.E.Eeueei a yoii
niunea aiai?ee, /oi:

«?inney ia iiaea e ia aeieaeia auea noaoue iooaaie, oi?aiaie e
eoeueoo?iie aa??eeaaeie; aa ie?iaia i?ecaaiea auei, i?aaeaea anaai –
oai?/anee-iin?aaeie/aneia iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie e eoeueoo?aie, a ia
caiueathuaany e ia ?aceo/athuaa…»

Oaeaea e A.Nieiaueaa, ?aciuoeyy i a?yaeoueo noaeueaao ?innee, ienae,
/oi:

«aoaeouaa neiai ?innee – yoi neacaiiia a nithca n Aiaii aa/iie enoeiu e
/aeiaa/aneie naiaiaeu neiai i?eie?aiey iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii».

E ioaeii neacaoue, /oi oaeia i?ecaaiea, oaeay ?ieue i/aiue nicao/ia n
o?enoeaineei eaeaaeii, n i?aaineaaeai, eioi?ia yaeeinue a ie? eae
aaeeeee niaaeeieoaeue ia?iaeia e eoeueoo?.

Ia?niaeoeau e iianiinoe iauaaeeiaiey /aeiaa/anoaa

Aeinoe/ue aaeeiaiey Ainoiea e Caiaaea anoue, eiia/ii aea, caaea/a
ianooaaa e cia/aiey, iienoeia, einie/aneiai. Iiiyoii, /oi yoa eaeay ia
iiaea ia aaeioiiaeyoue oeeinioia. *oi iiaeao auoue auoa, i?ae?aniaa,
a?aiaeeiciaa, /ai ainnoaiiaeaiea aa?iiie/iiai aaeeinoaa ie?a, eniieii
aaeia ?aneieioiai ia aeaa iieiaeiu?

«Eaeea aiciiaeiinoe i?e yoii iiyayony! – ienae A.Ooaa?o. – Eaeea
ia?niaeoeau ioe?ithony ia?aae i?eie?eaoeieny eiioeiaioaie Caiaaea e
Ainoiea! Eaeay oeaeue – neeoue niiaa aiaaeeii ?aniaaoaany ia aeaa
iieiaeiu /aeiaa/anoai, iieiinoueth eniieueciaaoue aeooaaiua
aiciiaeiinoe, ?ani?aaeaeaiiua iaaeaeo aeaoiy nouanoaaiii ?aciuie /anoyie
caiee, nicaeaoue iiaue /aeiaa/aneee oei, aae?athuee a naay eo/oea /a?ou
Ainoiea e Caiaaea!»

E yoie ainoi?aeaiiie ?a/e neaaeoao, iaeiaei, i?eeiaeeoue oo iii?aaeo,
/oi iieiaeeoaeueiue ?acoeueoao io oaeiai iauaaeeiaiey /aeiaa/anoaa
aoaeao eiaoue ianoi eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi yoi aaeeiaiea aoaeao oaiaeiui
Aiao, o.a. anee niaaeeiythuae iniiaie aeey ?aneieioiai iiiieai ie?a
yaeony Aeoo Nayoie, Eioi?ue e niaa?oeo oaeia niaaeeiaiea. Oieueei a yoii
neo/aa aani?aaeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aaeeiiai /aeiaa/anoaa, i eioi?uo
aiai?eo A. Ooaa?o, iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu ai aeaai e aeey ?aaeecaoeee
iaeioi?iai aunoaai e oaiaeiiai Aiao ana/aeiaa/aneiai eaeaaea. Anee aea
niaaeeiaiea Ainoiea e Caiaaea aoaeao inouanoaeaii ia ia yoie iaaaniie,
ii ia iaeioi?ie caiiie /aeiaa/aneie iniiaa (iai?eia?, ia iniiaa
on?aaeiaiiie aunieioaoiieiae/iie iaua/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u), oi ie ia
/oi eiia, e?iia eae ia no?ieoaeuenoai iiaie Aaaeeiineie aaoie, yoe
aiciiaeiinoe iauaaeeiaiiiai /aeiaa/anoaa iai?aaeaiu auoue ia iiaoo.
Aaaeue e aeueyaie, eae ecaanoii, oiaea euao aeey naieo oeaeae
iauaaeeiaiey /aeiaa/anoaa, e aeaaea aieaa oiai, – ecaanoii, /oi ?aii eee
iicaeii ii aeiaueaony naiaai, oioy au e ia ei?ioeee n?ie. Iiyoiio ioaeii
eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi eaeay aaeeiaiey /aeiaa/anoaa iineo aeoaiei
aeaienoaaiiue oa?aeoa?, a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eae, ia eaeie iniiaa e ai
eiy /aai yoi niaaeeiaiea aoaeao inouanoaeyoueny. Enoeiiia niaaeeiaiea ai
eiy Aiaeea aiciiaeii oieueei a Aeooa Nayoii.

2. E?EOEEA CAIAAeA

E neeie ?acoia e i?aaa –

Ana/aeiaa/aneeo ia/ae –

Aicaeaeaeanue Caiaaea aea?aeaaa…

A.Nieiaueaa

A ?onneie oeeinioneie, enoi?einioneie, iieeoe/aneie, eoeueoo?iie e
eeoa?aoo?iie iunee anaaaea i/aiue aeeai e ino?i noiyea i?iaeaia
ioiioaiey e Caiaaeo – e caiaaeiiio o?enoeainoao, caiaaeiie eoeueoo?a,
caiaaeiiio iooe. N.O?aie ieoao:

«Anyeiio, neieueei-ieaoaeue ciaeiiiio n enoi?eae ?onneie iunee,
ecaanoii, eaeoth oeaio?aeueioth ?ieue a iae ea?aao oaia ia ioiioaiee
?innee e Caiaaeo, – e oiio, /oi n ?onneie oi/ee c?aiey iaicia/eeinue eae
«Caiaaeiay Aa?iia» a niunea anaai Aa?iiaeneiai eiioeiaioa ia caiaae io
?onneie a?aieoeu. I?iaeaiu ia oieueei iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneie e
iieeoe/aneie aeecie, ii e oeeinioneea e ?aeeaeiciua ii aieueoae /anoe
noaaeeenue e ianoaeaeaeenue a nayce n yoie oaiie…»

Ioiioaiey ?innee n Caiaaeii auee aeey iaa cia/eiu aua e iioiio, /oi yoi
auee ioiioaiey n aeeceeie ninaaeyie e ?iaenoaaiieeaie ia oieueei ii
oa??eoi?ee, ii e ii aeooo – o?enoeaineie aa?a. A yoii niunea
A.Caiueeianeee aiai?eo, /oi:

«?onneia naiiniciaiea iaecaaaeii naycaii n i?iaeaiie Caiaaea e aai
acaeiiioiioaiee n ?inneae – e yoi icia/aao e enoi?e/aneoth e aeooiaioth
iaio?uaaaiinoue iaoo io Caiaaea».

Iieaieea ia ioiioaieyo ?innee e Caiaaeo n iaineaaiie ino?ioie aaeanue ia
i?ioyaeaiee anaai XIX aaea, ?aneieia ?onneia iauanoai ia aeaa iieiaeiu –
neaayiioeeia e ii/aaiieeia – n iaeiie noi?iiu, e caiaaeieeia – n
ae?oaie. A OO aaea yoa iieaieea i?iaeieaeaeanue e a n?aaea ?onneie
yiea?aoeee, e a niaaoneie ?innee, eioi?ay, ianiio?y ia eaoano?ioe/aneoth
e, eacaeinue au, neo/eaoothny iiae aeeyieai caiaaeiuo eaeae
o?ainoi?iaoeeth 1917 aiaea, naeaeaeanue ii ioiioaieth e Caiaaeo aeaaea
aua aieaa iiiiceoeeiiiie, /ai ?inney oea?neay. E a ianoiyuaa a?aiy,
iinea e?ooaiey eiiioiecia, i?iaeaia yoa ia ooa?yea naiae ino?iou.

Ioiioaiey e Caiaaeo ?onneeo iuneeoaeae auee neiaeiuie – iie eieaaaeenue
a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia iaaeaeo iaoia?aiiui ii/eoaieai e y?inoiui
io?eoeaieai. Ec aeaoo yoeo iiceoeee – ainoi?aeaiiie e e?eoe/aneie –
aieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeyao iineaaeiyy – ii oie i?e/eia, /oi iia a
naiae e?eoeea aeoaiei e ?aciinoi?iiia ?anniao?eaaao iooe caiaaeiie
?aeeaeiciie e eoeueoo?iie yaiethoeee, n?aaieaaao eo n iooyie
o?enoeaineiai Ainoiea, auyaeyao i?iaeaiu e iiaeaa?aaao eo ananoi?iiiaio
aiaeeco, oiaaea eae iiceoeey caiaaeie/aneay, eae i?aaeei, ia aeaeeo anao
yoeo i?iaeai e ia caieiaaony eie, ii eeoue i?eieoeaii e neaii i?eieiaao
Caiaae ca ia?acaoe e eaeaae. I?aaenoaaeoaee e?eoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey
aeaeyo a naiai aiaeeca ia oieueei neaaua ianoa Caiaaea e aai ioeaee, ii
oaeaea aai caneoae e aeinoeaeaiey, /oi aeaeaao eo iiceoeeth ai?acaei
aieaa aeoaieie, cae?aaie e iauaeoeaiie, /ai iiceoeey iaoia?aiiuo e
iiaa?oiinoiuo ii/eoaoaeae Caiaaea. Ioaeii neacaoue, /oi i?eieoeaeci
caiaaeie/aneie iiceoeee noae i/aaeaeai e eiioeo XIX aaea, e ana
cia/eoaeueiua iuneeoaee OO aaea caieiatho ii ioiioaieth e Caiaaeo
iiceoeeth iauaeoeaii-e?eoe/aneoth. ?anniio?ei ei?ioei iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey oaeie e?eoeee.

E?ecen Caiaaea anoue e?ecen caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa. Oaeoi?
?aoeeiiaeecia

Aieueoeinoai ?onneeo iuneeoaeae naycuaaee e?ecen Caiaaea n e?ecenii
o?enoeainoaa a Aa?iia. A.Caiueeianeee ienae:

«…e?ecen caiaaeiie eoeueoo?u, ii iiaio iiaieth, iioiio oae aeoaie e
o?aae/ai, /oi yoi anoue e?ecen caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa».

Iiaiea yoi aaniethoii ni?aaaaeeeai: enoiee e?ecena Caiaaea ioaeii
eneaoue a XI aaea, eiaaea caiaaeiay Oea?eiaue, a cia/eo, e caiaaeiia
iauanoai, ioaeaeea naay io anaeaineie Oea?eae, oo?aoeea, iicaauea,
iioa?yea ec aeaeo aeeaia e aeaenoaeoaeueiia iaai e noaea /enoi caiiie
iieeoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae, aeaeueiaeoay yaiethoeey eioi?ie i?ioaeaea
oaea a ?aieao caiiuo, /aeiaa/aneeo, aiieia iinthnoi?iiieo eaeae e noai. 
Eiia/ii, i?ioeann iaaeaiey n iaaa ia caieth niaa?oeeny ia n?aco, eae ia
n?aco canuoaao neiiaiiay aaoaue aea?aaa, eeoaiiay eee ii/oe eeoaiiay
aeeaeoaeueiuo nieia, ieoathueo aa.

Caiaaeiia iauanoai, eeoaiiia iaaaniuo nee e yia?aee, iiaa?ioeinue
anaoeaei e caiiiio. Caiiia aea, eae ecaanoii, iiciaaony e i?eia?aoaaony
?annoaeeii e eiaeeie e iioiio niaa?oaiii anoanoaaiii, /oi a Aa?iia
iaae?aao neeo e ia/eiaao iaei-iiiaeo ainiiaenoaiaaoue ?aoeeiiaeeci.
Nia/aea, n?aco iinea ioiaaeaiey, yoi auea noieanoeea, eioi?ay, iaa?aa
neeo, /a?ac aeaa-o?e noieaoey i?eaaea e aoiaienoe/aneiio ia?aai?ioo e
i?eioeeieaeueiie ia?aioeaiea oeaiiinoae a niciaiee caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea.
Aua aeaa aaea nionoy neo/eeanue ?aoi?iaoeey, oioy e i?iaicaeaoaaoay i
i?aiaeieaiee eca?auaiee iainoaa e i aica?aoa e eaeaaeai
ia?aio?enoeainoaa, ii ia aeaea ooaaeoay aua aeaeueoa io O?enoiaie
Oea?eae e ii?iaeeaoay a eiia/iii eoiaa oaea ieii/aoaeueii
?aoeeiiaeece?iaaiiia e iaacaa?aiiia ie?iaicc?aiea Iiaiai a?aiaie.

Neaiioa yoie yiioe a ioiioaiee aii?inia aa?u, ?aeeaee e o?enoeainoaa
i?inoi ii?aceoaeueia. Ethaee Iiaiai a?aiaie ia aeaeyo a o?enoeainoaa
naiuo aeaaiuo e nouanoaaiiuo aai iniia, ia aeaeyo oie aeeaie aacaeiiiie
aeoaeiu, aac eioi?ie iii ia?anoaao auoue naiei niaie. Iai?eia?, Aaaaeue,
eae ecaanoii, n/eoae aunoae oi?iie o?enoeainoaa ethoa?ainoai. I?inoi
oaeeaeoaeueii, eae iia oaeie oiiue, auaeathueeny e ii-naiaio aaeeeee
/aeiaae auoue iaeiia?aiaiii noieue neaiui, niaoiui, aeaeeei e aienoeio
iaaaaeanoaaiiui a ioiioaiee ?aeeaee, /oi i?eieiae oiaaei/ioth,
oua?aioth, au?iaeeaoothny, i?aia?e?iaaiioth aai oi?io, eaeiaie yaeyaony
ethoa?ainoai, – ca aunooth oi?io o?enoeainoaa.

Ae?oaie aaeeeee iaiaoe, I.Oiaiaea?, aeeaoee /a?ac noi eao iinea Aaaaey,
aeaiiino?e?oao aua aieaa oaeanioth neaiioo ii ioiioaieth e o?enoeainoao
– anee Aaaaeue ia aeaeae a o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee aeaaiuo e nouanoaaiiuo
aa noi?ii, naii aea o?enoeainoai ana-oaee aua eae-oi aeaeae, oi Oiaiaea?
oaea ia caia/aao o?enoeainoaa eae oaeiaia. A naiai ecaanoiii «Caeaoa
Aa?iiu» ii aeaiiino?e?oao niaa?oaiiaeoaa ciaiea e aeoai/aeoaa iiieiaiea
naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo eoeueoo? /aeiaa/anoaa, aeaao aeanoyuee aiaeec
?acee/iuo yiio, aei oiieinoe oaeoaeyaony a noeee yoeo yiio, iieacuaaao
aaneiia/ioth o/aiinoue ai anao iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey: aeeaiiene,
iocuea, eeoa?aoo?a, neoeueioo?a, iieeoeea, oeceea, iaoaiaoeea. Iaeiiai
oieueei ia aeaeeo Oiaiaea? – ii ia aeaeeo, ia caia/aao, ia /oanoaoao
oiai cia/aiey, eaeia eiaei o?enoeainoai aeey Aa?iiu. Aa?aeyaa ienae:

«Oiaiaea? – a?aeeaeiciay iaoo?a. A yoii aai o?aaaaeey. O iaai eae aoaeoi
au ao?ioe?iaaii ?aeeaeiciia /oanoai…Ii ia oieueei nai ia?aeeaeicai, ii
ii e ia iiieiaao ?aeeaeiciie aeecie /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii i?iniio?ae ?ieue
o?enoeainoaa a noaeueaa aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u. Yoi naiay ii?aaeathuay
noi?iia aai eieae. A yoii aa aeooiaiia o?iaenoai, ii/oe /oi
/oaeiaeuiinoue aa. Ia ioaeii auoue o?enoeaieiii, /oiau iiiyoue cia/aiea
o?enoeainoaa a enoi?ee aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u».

Ia aeaeae, ia ciae, ia iiieiae o?enoeainoaa e Ieoeoa. Oioy ii e ai?ieny
y?inoii n o?enoeainoaii, ii enoeiiiai o?enoeainoaa ii niaa?oaiii ia ciae
e ia /oanoaiaae. O?enoeainoai, eioi?ia ii e?eoeeiaae e ?oaae, auei oai
naiui oua?aiui e au?iaeaeai/aneei i?ioanoaioneei ii?aeeciii, i eioi?ii
oaea aiai?eeinue e eioi?ue Aaaaeue ii/aio-oi n/eoae aunoae oi?iie
o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee. «Ia i?y/ueoa aieiao a ianie aa/iuo oeaiiinoae», –
ienae Ieoeoa a «Ca?aoono?a», eiay a aeaeo i?ioanoaioneoth ii?aeue
Caiaaea, aeaenoaeoaeueii /anoi aiaeioth eeoue ia oi, /oiau iaeiaeooii
i?yoaoue a iaa aieiao. Iaeiaei aa/iuo oeaiiinoae enoeiiiai o?enoeainoaa,
eioi?ia nianai ia anoue neo/iia e ia?oaia ii?aeecaoi?noai, ii anoue
iooue aeecie, – yoiai Ieoeoa, eae e Aaaaeue, e Oiaiaea?, niaa?oaiii ia
ciae e ia /oanoaiaae.

I?e/eiie oaeie ii?aceoaeueiie neaiiou e aan/oanoaey aaeeeeo e
iacao?yaeiuo ethaeae Caiaaea ii ioiioaieth e o?enoeainoao yaeyaony
eaeay-oi iaoieiaey – iaeia aioo?aiiaa caaieaaaiea, ii?aaeaiea
aioo?aiiaai aeooiaiiai i?aaia c?aiey, aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii
iieiioeaiiia aeaeaiea ?aeeaeiciuo niuneia e nouiinoae. Ii/oe ana ?onneea
iuneeoaee naycuaaee yoo aioo?aiithth iaoieiaeth eiaiii n
aeia?o?ioe?iaaiiui ?aoeeiiaeeciii. Oae, iai?eia?, ss.I.Aoeoiai noaaeo

«…oi/iue aeeaaiic aeooiaiie aieacie nia?aiaiiie aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u:
aac?aeeaeiciue neaioe/aneee naiiooaa?aeaeaiiue ?aoeeiiaeeci».

E?ecen caiaaeiiai o?enoeainoaa, oaeei ia?acii, oanii naycai n
?aoeeiiaeeciii. I?e yoii o?oaeii neacaoue, /oi ec ieo a ?aieao yoie
nayce yaeyaony i?e/eiie, a /oi neaaenoaeai. Ii?iaeeei ee oaea/aiea
?aoeeiiaeeciii caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea yoio e?ecen, eee, iaiai?io, e?ecen,
i?ienoaaeoee aneaaenoaea ioiaaeaiey Caiaaea io iieiiou anaeaineie
Oea?eae, iaoneiaee oaea/aiea e i?aeueuaiea ratio? N i?aaineaaiie oi/ee
c?aiey ana aea aieaa i?aaeeueiie i?aaenoaaeyaony aoi?ay oi/ea c?aiey:
eiaiii ioiaaeaiea io aaeeiie Oea?eae cae?uei aeey caiaaeiie aeooe iaai,
– a yoi icia/aao, /oi iia ii iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeieaeia auea oaea
ia?aoeoueny e caiea, a cia/eo, e e ?aoeeiiaeecio, eae aeaaiiio
eino?oiaioo caiiie iaoa?eaeueiinoe.

Yaiethoeey ?aoeeiiaeecia ia Caiaaea i?ienoiaeeea a ianeieueei yoaiia e
eiaea naith iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue e naith eiaeeo. Oae, aua E.A.
Ee?aaaneee ?acee/ae neaaeothuea yoaiu: iinea ioiaaeaiey caiaaeiie
Oea?eae oai ?iaeeeanue nia/aea ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneay oeeinioey aioo?e aa?u
(noieanoeea), iicaea iia i?eaaea e ?aoi?iaoeee aa?u e, iaeiiaoe, – e
?iaeaeaieth ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie oeeinioee aac aa?u e ioaeaeueii io aa?u.
Noieanoeea anoue, oaeei ia?acii, ia?aue yoai ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee.
I.Aa?aeyaa ieoao:

«?aoeeiiaeeci, yoio nia?oaeueiue a?ao Caiaaea, caeiaeai oaea a
eaoiee/anoaa, a eaoiee/aneie noieanoeea iiaeii iaeoe oaea oio aea
?aoeeiiaeeci e oo aea aeanoue iaiaoiaeeiinoe, /oi e a aa?iiaeneii
?aoeeiiaeecia Iiaiai a?aiaie, a oeeinioee Aaaaey, a iaoa?eaeecia».

I?ioanoaioeci ia oieueei ia i?aiaeieae yoiai «nia?oaeueiiai a?aoa», ii,
iai?ioea, iioae ii yoiio iooe aua aeaeueoa, /ai eaoieeee. E.Oanoia ienae
i Eaioa, /oi ii «aui?iaiaeee iaoaoeceeo ca i?aaeaeu oeeinioee». Yoi auei
aiieia eiae/ii a ?aieao ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie yaiethoeee i?ioanoaioecia,
eai aua caaeieai aei Eaioa ?aoi?iaoi?u aui?iaiaeeee ca i?aaeaeu naiaai
o?enoeainoaa ana oi, /oi ninoaaeyao n?aaeioi/ea ?aeeaee, – ienoeeo,
oea?eiaiua oaeinoaa, aeooiaioth aeeciue, i?aa?aoea naith ?aeeaeth a
?annoaei/iue ii?aeeci.

Niioiioaiea aa?u e ?acoia

?aoeeiiaeeci i?eaae e ao?ioe?iaaieth a caiaaeiie aeooa i?aaia aa?u,
eioi?ui oieueei e iiaeii aeaeaoue Aiaa e ana iaaaniia, ii/aio iia e
naeaeaeanue neaia aeey anaai yoiai. Ecaanoiue e?eoee ?annoaei/iinoe
E.Oanoia ienae:

«A «i?aaeaeao ?acoia» … iiaeii nicaeaoue iaoeo, aunieoth ii?aeue, aeaaea
?aeeaeth, ii /oiau ia?anoe Aiaa, ioaeii au?aaoueny ec /a? ?acoia n aai
oece/aneeie e ii?aeueiuie i?eioaeaeaieyie e iieoe e eiiio enoi/ieeo. A
Ienaiee ii iacuaaaony caaaaei/iui neiaii, «aa?ie», oai ecia?aieai
iuoeaiey, i?e eioi?ii enoeia ?aaeinoii e aacaieaciaiii ioaeaaony a
aa/iia e aaneiio?ieueiia ?anii?yaeaiea Oai?oea: aea aoaeao aiey Oaiy».

Ii au?aaoueny ec /a? ?acoia aeey /aeiaaea, i?eciaaoaai iaae niaie
aeanoue yoeo /a? e aeaeyuaai a yoeo /a?ao naia aunoaa aeaai, auaaao
i/aiue iaeaaei.

«I?e aieiaoaeueiii naiinica?oeaiee /aeiaae iaia?oaeeaaao ineoieiae/aneia
naienoai ?annoaei/iiai iuoeaiey, eioi?ia iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae
eiiaiaioioth aeinoiaa?iinoue iaoaai iuoeaiey, eee, eia/a au?aaeaynue,
eae noauaeoeaioth i/aaeaeiinoue i?aaeeueiinoe iaoeo oiicaeeth/aiee.
Anoue eaeay-oi i?eioaeeoaeueiinoue a aeiaiaeao ?annoaeea, a aai
aeieacaoaeuenoaao, e ioaeiu aaeeeay eoeueoo?a e aeoaieee aeooiaiue iiuo,
/oiau iaia?oaeeoue yoio no?aiiue iaiai, a /oiau inaiaiaeeoueny io aeanoe
aai, iaiaoiaeeia Aiaeanoaaiiay iiiiuue», – ienae ea?iiiiao Nio?iiee.

Caiaaeiue /aeiaae neeoeii i?eaue aeeoue ?annoaeeii, a ia aa?ie. Anyeay
/aeiaa/aneay aeooa iaycaoaeueii aeeaao /ai-oi, iaycaoaeueii /ai-oi
caiyoa, aiauaao a naay ia/oi. Aeooa caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea oaea iiiai aaeia
aeeaao eneeth/eoaeueii ?aciuoeaieai, ?annoaeeii, ratio – y iuneth,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaoth. Aii?in i niioiioaiee aa?u e ciaiey ia
neo/aeii anoae ia Caiaaea ino?i n?aco aea iinea aa ioiaaeaiey io
anaeaineie Oea?eae, ai a?aiaia ?aiiae noieanoeee. Oaea oiaaea ?aoaiea
yoiai aii?ina, ia ii oi?ia, a ii nooe, – neeiiyeinue a iieueco ?annoaeea
e ciaiey. Oaea oiaaea aa?a ?anniao?eaaeanue eae ia/oi iecoaa e
aoi?e/iia. Aio, iai?eia?, /oi ieoao ecaanoiue eaoiee/aneee oeeinio,
ciaoie n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioee Yooueai AEeeuenii:

«?a/ue aiana ia eaeao ia ooaa?aeaeaiee oacena, aoaeoi aa?a i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie aunoee, ii n?aaiaieth n ?aoeeiiaeueiui, oei iiciaiey. Ieeoi
ieeiaaea ia i?aoaiaeiaae ia yoi. Iai?ioea, naii niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi
aa?a – anaai eeoue no??iaao ciaiey e /oi aacaea, aaea oieueei oaeaaony
caiaieoue aa?iaaiea ciaieai, iiieiaiea aeiaeaaaony iieiaeeoaeueiiai
oniaoa. O?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey o?enoeaineeo iuneeoaeae ea?a?oey iiciaiey
anaaaea oaeiaa: aa?a, ?acoi, aeaeaiea Aiaa eeoeii e eeoeo. Inter fidem
et speciem, – ieoao nayoie Ainaeuei, – intellectum quem in hac vita
capimus esse medium intelligo (y aeoiath, /oi ?acoi, n iiiiuueth eiaai
iu inouanoaeyai iiciaiea a nae aeecie, anoue n?aaeiaa iaaeaeo aa?ie e
aeaeaieai)».

Oaeei ia?acii, a niioaaonoaee n caiaaeiie ea?a?oeae oeaiiinoae, ?acoi
noieo auoa aa?u. Oae yoi e o Ainaeueia, e o Oiiu Aeaeineiai, e o
AEeeueniia. Eiaiii nooiaiue ?acoia i?aaeoanoaoao ii yoie caiaaeiie noaia
«aeaeaieth Aiaa eeoeii e eeoeo», eiaiii iia aicaiaeeo /aeiaaea e
nica?oeaieth Aiaa, e iiuoiiio aiaiiiciaieth. Ia o?enoeaineii Ainoiea
oaeay noaia eaoaai?e/anee ioaa?aaaony. Ainoi/iua na. iooeu – io ae?aaieo
e aei nia?aiaiiuo – aaeeiiaeooii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi Aia e ana
iaaaniia ia iiaeao auoue iiciaii ?acoiii, ii oieueei Aeooii Nayoui, a
Ioe?iaaiee. E aeaaony Aeoo Nayoie ioithaeue ia niaa?oaiiiio ?acoio, ii
/enoiio aa?othuaio na?aeoeo. A Aaaiaaeee ia neacaii, /oi Aiaa aoaeoo
aeaeaoue ino?ua oiii, oai neacaii, /oi Aai oc?yo /enoua na?aeoeai. A
ea/anoaa i?aaineaaiiai aioeoacena e iunee AEeeueniia i?eaaaeai neiaa
nayoiai iaoaai nia?aiaiieea, noa?oea Iaeney Nayoiai?oea:

«Oio, eoi aeoiaao, /oi niiaeao iiciaoue oaeiu Aiaeee n iiiiuueth
aiaoiaai iao/iiai oiic?aiey, iiaeiaai aacoioeo, eioi?ue oi/ao oaeaeaoue
?ae a oaeaneii».

Nianoaaiii, yoi naiia e iuoaeny aeaeaoue Caiaae – oaeaeaoue Aiaa a
oaeaneii ?annoaeea. Eiaaea aea oaaaeeeny a iieiie aanieiaeiinoe oaeeo
iiiuoie, oi i?i Aiaa iaei-iiiaeo caaue. Eiaeea yoiai caaaaiey iiaeao
neoaeeoue eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii, eae ec iai?aaeeueiie iinueee
i?ienoiaeeo ioeai/iue auaiae: Caiaae n/eoae, /oi eiaiii ?acoi, a ia aa?a
yaeyaony oai eino?oiaioii, oie neeie, eioi?ie /aeiaae iiciaao Aiaa e
iaaaniia. Eiaaea aea Eaio, a io/anoe oaea e THi, oaaaeeoaeueii iieacaee
a?aieoeu /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, oi caaea/a iienea e iiciaiey Aiaa,
iiiyoii, auea niyoa a Aa?iia n iiaanoee aeiy.

O ainoi/iuo aea iooeia, anaaaea iiiieaoeo neiaa O?enoa i oii, /oi
iiaaaea, iiaaaeeaoay ie?, yoi aa?a, – nianai ae?oaia niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
aa?ie e ciaieai. I?eaaaeai aua ianeieueei oa?aeoa?iuo auneacuaaiee ia
yoo oaio i?aiiaeiaiiai Enaaea Ne?eia:

«…aa?a ooii/aiiaa aaaeaiey, – aiai?eo ii, – eae aaaeaiea ooii/aiiaa
aauae /oanoaaiiuo».

«Aaaeaiea anoue i?aaeae anoanoaa e io?aiyao aai ai anao noacyo aai. A
aa?a niaa?oaao oanoaea naia auoa anoanoaa… Aaaeaiea nii?iaiaeaeaaony
no?aoii, aa?a – iaaeaaeaeie. A eaeie ia?a /aeiaae aiaeeony niiniaaie
aaaeaiey, a oaeie aea ia?a naycoaony ii no?aoii e ia iiaeao
niiaeiaeoueny inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaai. A eoi iineaaeoao aa?a, oio anei?a
aeaeaaony naiaiaeai e naiiaeanoai, e eae nui Aiaeee anai iieuecoaony ni
aeanoeth naiaiaeii. Aicethaeaoee aa?o neth, eae Aia, ?anii?yaeaaony
anyeei oaa?iui anoanoaii…»

«Iao aaaeaiey, eioi?ia au ia auei a neoaeinoe, eae au iiiai ie
iaiaaoeeinue iii. A nie?iaeu aa?u ia aiauatho ie caiey, ie iaai. Ie/aai
ieeiaaea ia eeoaaony oio, o eiai na?aeoea iiaee?aieyaony oiiaaieai aa?u.
E eiaaea ie/aai ia eiaao, anai aeaaeaao ii aa?ith, eae iaienaii: ana,
/aai ie iii?ineoa a iieeoaa n aa?ith, iieo/eoa» e aua: «Ainiiaeue
aeecei. Ia caaioueoanue ie i /ai».

«Aeii aa?u anoue ieaaeai/anoaothuay iuneue e i?inoia na?aeoea… aaaeaiea
aea noaaeo naoe i?inoioa na?aeoea e iuneae e i?ioeaeony ae».

«Iaoei?eciaiii aaaeaiea, ii auoa aai aa?a».

Aeaaea oaeoth, eacaeinue au, aeeceoth e noeoee ?aoeeiiaeenoe/iinoe
aeia?iaeaoaeue, eae ?annoaeaeaiea, ainoi/iua iooeu iuneeee ioithaeue ia
eae ?aoeaeneth. Aio, iai?eia?, eaeia ii?aaeaeaiea aeaao noa?aoe Iaenee
Aoiineee:

«?annoaeaeaiea, – aiai?eo ii, – yoi i/euaiiinoue, yoi Aiaeanoaaiiia
i?inaauaiea, aeooiaiay yniinoue».

Oaeei ia?acii, ia Ainoiea, a iieiii niioaaonoaee ni Nayuaiiui Ienaieai,
eiaiii aa?a iinoaaeyaony ai aeaao oaea. Eiaiii iia anoue oa oaeinoaaiiay
neea, eioi?ay niaaeeiyao /aeiaaea n Aiaii e aaiaeeo aai a ai?iee ie?.
?acoi aea ia io?eoeaaony, ii iinoaaeyaony a caaeneiia io aa?u
iieiaeaiea. ?acoi aeieaeai iiae/eieoueny i?aaeeo aa?u. I aeecie ii
i?aaeeo aa?u aeaaeaiiue Aeeaaeio Oioeeeeneee aiai?eo neaaeothuaa:

«Aeoaeia aa?u, aoaeo/e aiaeith caaaaiey, ia oa?ieo, /oia a iaa niio?aee,
eee aa oc?aaaee ethaiiuoiuie iiiuoeaieyie. Aoaeai aea a i?inoioa oia
ieuoue ii aiaeai nei, /oia oaeei ia?acii aeiniaoue a i?enoaiue aiee
Aiaeeae».

Ia Caiaaea aea ana ianoieo i?ioeaiiieiaeiui ia?acii: aa?a aeieaeia
iiae/eieoueny i?aaeeo ?annoaeea. Ca enoaeoea iinea Ainaeueia e Oiiu,
aaea Aoiaiecia e ?aoi?iaoeee yoio auai? a iieueco ?annoaei/iinoe aue
naeaeai caiaaeiui /aeiaaeii ieii/aoaeueii e aaniiai?ioii.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeooa Caiaaea oaea iiiai aaeia aeeaao eneeth/eoaeueii
?annoaei/iinoueth, a oio, eoi i?eaue aeeoue ?annoaeeii, ?aciuoeaieai,
oaea ia iiaeao aeeoue aa?ie – aeey iaa a aeooa i?inoi ia inoaaony ianoa,
a a aeecie – ia inoaaony a?aiaie. Ia iiaeao aa?a aieoe a aeooo oiai
/aeiaaea, eioi?ue oeaeeeii caiyo ?annoaei/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth. *oiau
iia aioea ooaea, ?annoaeie aeieaeai onooieoue ae eaeia-oi ianoi. Ii
aeaeaoue ii yoiai ia oi/ao, eai no?aoeony iaecaanoiinoe. «E /aio
i?eaycaii na?aeoea /aeiaaea e e /aio aea/ao aai iiaeaeaiea, oi auaaao
aeey iaai Aiaii», – aiai?eo i?aiiaeiaiue Iaea?ee Aaeiaoneee. Na?aeoea
caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea neeoeii i?eaycaii e ?annoaei/iinoe, ?an/aoo,
i?aaeneacoaiinoe e e i?aeanoyi ?iaeaeathuaeny io yoie i?eaycaiiinoe
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee. ss iuneth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, y
nouanoaoth. *aeiaae ?aoeeiiaeueiie aoiaienoe/aneie yiioe anoue /aeiaae
«iuneth», homo «cogito», iaeiaei Aaaiaaeueneee /aeiaae aeieaeai auoue
/aeiaaeii «aa?th», homo «credo». I?i/oai oa?aeoa?iua ianoa ec Iiaiai
Caaaoa:

Aio aeaei Aiaeea: /oiau au aa?iaaee Oiio, Eiai iineae Ioaoe.

anee ia aoaeaoa eae aeaoe, ia aieaeaoa a Oea?noai Iaaaniia.

i?aaaaeiue aa?ith aeea aoaeao.

iu aea, aoaeo/e nuiaie aeiy, aea o?acaeiny, iaeaeoenue a a?iith aa?u e
ethaae e a oeai iaaeaaeaeu nianaiey.

e ney anoue iiaaaea, iiaaaeeaoay ie?, – aa?a iaoa.

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaeeueiaa auei au neacaoue ii-o?enoeainee: aa?oth,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaoth. E, ethaeth, neaaeiaaoaeueii, nouanoaoth.
O.a. anee oi/aoue enoeiii nouanoaiaaoue, enoeiii aeeoue, ioaeii a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aa?eoue e ethaeoue, a iioii oaea iuneeoue. Eiia/ii,
yoi ia cia/eo, /oi ioaeii niaa?oaiii ioeacaoueny io ?annoaeea e aai
aeayoaeueiinoe. Iao, ii ?annoaeie aeieaeai aeaoue ianoi aa?a, a aeey
yoiai nai /aeiaae aeieaeai niiaa ia/aoue aeeoue aieueoa aa?ie, eae yoi e
auei a ia?aua aaea o?enoeaineie yiioe, aeey eioi?ie aunoeie eaeaaeaie
auee aa?a, iaaeaaeaea, ethaiaue, a ia ciaiea, i?aaeneacoaiinoue e
?an/ao, eae yoi eiaao ianoi naaiaeiy.

Iiaeiaii oeeie/iiio aiaa/o, oaa?aiiiio, /oi n iiiiuueth aeaiaa iiaeii
i?eia?anoe ana a yoii ie?a, caiaaeiue /aeiaae niaa?oaiii oaaaeaeai, /oi
n iiiiuueth ?annoaeea iiaeii ?aoeoue ethaua i?iaeaiu e aeinoe/ue anaai,
/aai ii oieueei iiaeaeaao. Ii aaaeue eae ?ac naiia aaaeiia e oeaiiia –
oi, ?aaee /aai oieueei e noieo aeeoue ia caiea, – ethaiaue e Aiao e
/aeiaaeo, ae?oaeaa, aa?a, aa?iinoue, /enoia na?aeoea, – n iiiiuueth
aeaiaa i?eia?anoe iaeuecy. Aio e n iiiiuueth ?annoaeea, ?an/aoa,
iao/iiai i?iaiice?iaaiey e o.i. enoeiiua e aa/iua aeaaa ia
aeinoeaathony, – iie aeinoeaathony eeoue ia iooyo aa?u, iaaeaaeaeu e
o?enoeaineie ethaae. Caiaae, iaeiaei, anee ia ia neiaao, oi ia aeaea
ioeacuaaaony yoi i?eciaaaoue. Caiaae aeaaii oaea ia aa?eo Aiao, e
iieaaaaony eneeth/eoaeueii ia naie ?annoaeie, eioi?ue e yaeyaony aeey
iaai aaeeinoaaiiui aa?aioii aeaaiiieo/ey e aaciianiinoe.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeeci. E?ecen ee/iinoe

E?ecen aa?u e auoaniaiea aa ?annoaei/iinoueth yaeeenue i?e/eiie
oioaeueiiai aio?iiieiae/aneiai e?ecena caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea. Aeey
/aeiaaea ainoi/iiai caeanue iao ieeaeie caaaaeee – aaaeue nouiinoue
/aeiaaea anaaaea ii?aaeaeyaony eiaiii aai aa?ie, a ia ?annoaei/iinoueth
e ?aoeaeneae, eioi?ay anaaaea aoi?e/ia. Iiyoiio, anee a /aeiaaea
iia?aaeaeaia aa?a, oi yoi cia/eo, /oi iia?aaeaeaia naiay aeoaieay aai
nouiinoue, io?aaeaiu naiua aeoaieea enoi/ieee aai aeecie. Aacaa?ea e
caneeuea ?annoaei/iinoe ii?iaeeee e?aeiee eiaeeaeaeoaeeci a caiaaeiii
/aeiaaea.

Ioaeii caiaoeoue, /oi aeoo noauaeoeaiinoe e eiaeeaeaeoaeecia e anaaaea
aue neeai o caiaaeiuo ia?iaeia. Ia yoii ienae Aaaaeue:

«Aa?iaineee aeoo anoue aeoo iiaiai ie?a, oeaeue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a
inouanoaeaiee aaniethoiie enoeiu eae aaneiia/iiai naiiii?aaeaeaiey
naiaiaeu… i?eioeei aeooiaiie naiaiaeu… aue caeiaeai a… aeooao aa?iaineeo
ia?iaeia, e ia ieo auea aiceiaeaia caaea/a… naiaiaeii oai?eoue a ie?a.
Enoiaey ec noauaeoeaiiai naiiniciaiey… caeanue (o.a. a caiaaeiii ie?a)
ioiioaiea e aiaoiaio ie?o eeoue niioonoaoao enoi?e/aneiio i?ioeanno… A
iai (caiaaeiii ie?a) aeee niaa?oaiii iiaue aeoo, aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio
aeieaeai aue aic?iaeeoueny ie?, a eiaiii naiaiaeiue, naiinoiyoaeueiue,
aaniethoiia naiai?aaea noauaeoeaiinoe».

No?iai aiai?y, ineoieiae/aneea iioeau oaeiai ainoaaeaiey «naiai?aaey
noauaeoeaiinoe» niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeiu. Aeooa Caiaaea ioiaea io Aiaa, a
cia/eo e io Aai ie?a – io oiai ie?a, eioi?ue Ii oai?eo e a eioi?ii Ii
anoue Aia. E iioiio yoo aeooo oaea ia ono?aeaaao Aiaeee ie?, aai
?aaeueiinoue e aai enoeia, ia ono?aeaaao e iiae/eiaiiia, caaeneiia
iieiaeaiea /aeiaaea a ?aaeueiii ie?a. Auoiae i?inoie: ioaeii i?inoi
nicaeaoue naie nianoaaiiue ie? – aeaai aiciiaeiinoe aeey yoiai a
/aeiaaea caeiaeaiu aiaaoua – ie?, a eioi?ii /aeiaae oae oi/ii aoaeao
aiaii, ie io eiai ia caaenyuei. Ia/eiay n Aic?iaeaeaiey (e iniaaiii a
Iiaia a?aiy), aeooa Caiaaea yoi e aeaeaao – oai?eo naie nianoaaiiue
naaoneee ae?ooaeueiue ie? a ?aieao «aaniethoiiai naiai?aaey
noauaeoeaiinoe», a ia a ?aieao niaianoiiai aeaenoaey e ni?aaioie/anoaa n
Aiaii a ?aaeueiii Aiaeueai ie?a.

Ecia/aeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneea oaiaeaioeee Caiaaea iaeo?aeeciauaaea
a oa/aiea ouny/e eao o?enoeaineay Oea?eiaue. Ii iinea ioiaaeaiey io
Anaeaineie Oea?eae caiaaeiia o?enoeaineia niiauanoai oaea ia iiaei
naea?aeeaaoue ?ino iiiaeo aioo?aiieo aieaciae aeooa aa?iiaeneiai
/aeiaaea, a o./. e ?ino eiaeeaeaeoaeecia. Aeaaea iaiai?io: iaieci naiei
o/aieai i iaiia?aoeiinoe /aeiaaea (iaiu), iiaeii neacaoue, aeaaineiaee e
ocaeiiee eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeeth caiaaeiiai iauanoaa. I?aiiaeiaiue Eonoei
Iiiiae/ ienae:

«Anee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iaiia?aoeiinoue /aeiaaea a i?eioeeia
aeiaiaoe/anee naieoeeiie?iaaia, oi ii/aio au ath ia ainiieueciaaoueny
ethaiio aa?iiaeoeo? Aeaaiia, /oi /aeiaae ii naiae nooe nouanoai
iaiia?aoeiia, cia/eo, eiaao i?aai ana naie i?iaeaiu e ana io/aiey naiaai
aeooa ?aoaoue ii naiaio ?acoiaieth».

E aua:

«Ana iaeua e aaeeeea oaeiu aa?iiaeneiai aeooa aianoeeenue e neeeenue a
iaeiii ia?iiiii e iaeciaiiii aeiaiaoa, aeiaiaoa i iaiia?aoeiinoe
/aeiaaea. Oai naiui ?ac?aoeeenue aeaaiua ono?aieaiey aa?iiaeneiai
aoiaiecia a naiuo ?acee/iuo aai i?iyaeaieyo – io naaoneiai aei
?aeeaeiciiai. *aeiaae i?iaicaeaoai /aeiaaeiaiaii. Ii nooe, a aeiaiaoa i
iaiia?aoeiinoe /aeiaaea ioe?ueanue aeaaiay oaeia aa?iiaeneiai /aeiaaea.
Aa?iiaeneee /aeiaae ynii e ene?aiia eniiaaaeae i?aae caiiui e iaaaniui
ie?aie oi, /oi oioae neacaoue, oi, e /aio no?aieeny».

Oaeia no?aieaiea e iainiaeaiiiio naiiooaa?aeaeaieth eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie
ee/iinoe ca enoaeoea aaea enoi?ee aioei a ieioue e e?iaue caiaaeiiai
/aeiaaea, noaei e?aaoaieueiui eaiiai aai aeecie, aai iunee, aai auoey.
Iaeiaei yoi naiia ooaa?aeaeaiea ee/iinoe e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe i?eaaee
ia?aaeienaeueiui ia?acii e ?acoeueoaoai i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiui: e
e?eceno, noe?aieth, ieaaee?iaea /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe. Ia yoii iiiai
ienaee ?onneea oeeiniou:

«Eiaaea /aeiaa/aneay ee/iinoue ie/aai ia oi/ao ciaoue, e?iia naay, –
ieoao Aa?aeyaa, – iia ?aniueyaony, aeiioneay aoi?aeaiea iecoeo
i?e?iaeiuo noeoee, e naia enoiaeeo a yoie noeoee. Eiaaea /aeiaae ie/aai
ia i?eciaao, e?iia naay, ii ia?anoaao iuouaoue naay, iioiio /oi aeey
oiai, /oiau auoue aei eiioea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoueth, ioaeii i?eciaaaoue
ia oieueei ae?oaoth /aeiaa/aneoth ee/iinoue e eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue,
ioaeii i?eciaaaoue Aiaeanoaaiioth ee/iinoue. Yoi e aeaao iuouaiea
/aeiaa/aneie eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, aaca?aie/iia aea naiiooaa?aeaeaiea, ia
aeaeathuaa ie/aai ciaoue iaae niaie, eioi?ia ieacaeinue i?aaeaeii
aoiaienoe/aneeo iooae, aaaeao e iioa?a /aeiaaea».

E aua:

«Eiaeeaeaeoaeeci iaiaa anaai oe?aieyao ee/iinoue, ia?ac /aeiaaea. E a
eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneoth yiioo nianai ia i?ioeaaoatho y?eea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, neeueiua ee/iinoe. Eiaeeaeaeoaeenoe/aneay
oeeaeeecaoeey XIX aaea, n aa aeaiie?aoeae, n aa iaoa?eaeeciii, n aa
oaoieeie, n iauanoaaiiui iiaieai, i?annie, ae?aeae e ia?eaiaioii,
niinianoaiaaea iiieaeaieth e iaaeaieth ee/iinoe, iooeaaoaieth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, ieaaee?iaea e anaiauaio niaoaieth. Ee/iinoue auea
neeueiaa e y?/a a N?aaeiea aaea. Eiaeeaeaeoaeeci niinianoaiaae
i?ioeannai o?aaiaiey, noe?athuei anyeea ?acee/ey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoae».

Nianoaaiii aiai?y, aeey o?enoeaineiai ie?iaicc?aiey ieeaeiai ia?aaeiena
a yoii iao, – aaaeue iii iaaeaoniuneaiii o/eo, /oi ia?anoe naiiai naay,
noaoue naiei niaie iiaeii oieueei a nithca n ae?oaei –  n Aiaii e
/aeiaaeii. «Ioaa?aienue naay», – aiai?eo Aaaiaaeea. E aua: «anee
ioaie/iia ca?ii, iaa a caieth, ia oi?ao, oi inoaiaony iaeii, a anee
oi?ao, oi i?eianao iiiai ieiaea». Ii a oii-oi e aaaea, /oi yoe cae?aaua
enoeiu o?enoeaineie aa?u auee ia Caiaaea iniiaaoaeueii caauou, a anee e
iiiieee i ieo, oi iaeiei oieueei oiii, ii ia aeaeii e aeeciueth.

«Eae ie ia?aaeienaeueii, ii yaieci ianao aeaaeue ee/iinoiiio ia/aeo.
Ooaa?aeaeay ii aeaeeiinoe naith ia?niio, yaieci ia aeaea aoaeo aa,
auaeaeaay ia ia?aue ieai aeeaioiia (eee aeeoaeneia) ia/aei a oua?a
aeooiaiiio. Iiaeeeiiia naiiooaa?aeaeaiea /aeiaaea eae iaeooioai?aiiiai
nouanoaa ninoieo a i?aiaeieaiee yaiecia, a oii, /oiau ooaa?aeeoue naay a
ae?oaii».

Iaaeaeo oai ia Caiaaea /aeiaae ooaa?aeaeaao naay a naaa naiii e a yoii
aeoa naiiooaa?aeaeaiey oa?yao naiiai naay. Aieaciue yoa a OO aaea
aeinoeaea ia Caiaaea iaauaaeie noaiaie ino?iou, i?iyaeyy naay a aeaea
aani?aoeaaeaioiiai (e ocaeiiaiiiai) yaiecia, aooecia e ia?oeennecia.

«Ae?oaie ioieiaao o iaiy iia i?ino?ainoai. Nouanoaiaaiea ae?oaiai –
iaaeiionoeiue neaiaeae», –

eaeei eiio?anoii cao/ao yoe neiaa Na?o?a ii n?aaiaieth n ia?acii iunee
o?enoeaineeo nayouo! I?aiiaeiaiue Iaea?ee Aaeiaoneee aiai?eo, /oi a
Oea?noaa Aiaeeai nayoua «oaeaeyo ae?oa ae?oaa ai iiiaeo aeaeao e ai
iiiaeo e ?acee/iuo Aiaeanoaaiiuo neaaao, e eaaeaeue ecoieony e
aic?aaeoaony ?aaeinoeth iaecaeaaieaiiith, ace?ay ia neaao ae?oaiai».

Anee yoe neiaa i?aiiaeiaiiai Iaea?ey eeethno?e?otho i?eioeei auoey a
Oea?noaa Aiaeeai, oi neiaa Na?o?a eeethno?e?otho, i/aaeaeii, i?eioeei
aaea e aa/iie aeaaee /aeiaa/aneie aeooe. E eiioeo OO aaea yoio aae oaea
oaa?aiii e iuooeii i?enoonoaoao a caiaaeiie aeecie. I?eaaaeai ianeieueei
oa?aeoa?iuo auneacuaaiee nia?aiaiiuo oeeinioia:

«Anee ?aiueoa ethaee no?aaeaee io eiiieaena Yaeeia, – ieoao O.Ai?e/aaa,
– o.a. io ?aaiinoe, io ioiioaiey e ae?oaiio, oi naaiaeiy iie
au?iaeaeathony io aooecia, o.a. io ianiiniaiinoe ?aaae?iaaoue ia
ae?oaiai aeaaea ia naiii ia?ae/iii, oece/aneii o?iaia. Ana /aua ia naao
Aiaeee ?iaeaeathony aeaoe, ia ioeeeeathueany ia eanee e i?eeiniiaaiey
iaoa?e. Ana aiaie/iaa eeoea iieiaeuo ethaeae, eioi?ua e a thiinoe oaea
noa?u».

«Ia?oeenn niio?eony a ca?eaei. Ca?eaei niio?eony a ia?oeenna. Ia?oeenn
ia niiniaai ia oieueei e ethaae, ii e aiiaua e ee/iiio nouanoaiaaieth,
ii i?iaeieaeaao naay, iiaeiaii ?aeiaie eeaoea, o.a. aaneiia/ii iiaoi?yy
naay naiiai. A yoii aaniethoii iaoai?/aneii auoee ne?uoa ooea ia Nayoiai
Aeooa. Eai eiaiii Ii, Nayoie Aeoo, oai?eo ana iiaia. Yoi oiueia
ianaiaia?acea aioiaeo oi?io aeey i?eiyoey nianai ae?oaiai aeooa, oiai,
eoi aue iiae?aaeaoaeai e iaacueyiie Aiaa».

O?aioeocneee oeeinio AE.Aiae?ey?, iooaoanoaiaaaoee a 1980-a aiaeu ii
Aia?eea, caienuaae a aeaea iooaauo caiaoie naie iaaethaeaiey
aia?eeaineie aeecie. Aio iaeioi?ua ec ieo, eanathueany iaoae oaiu:

«Aeiai e ii/ueth eiee/anoai ne?ai aic?anoaao. Iaoeiu i/aony auno?aa,
?aeeaia aieaa aa?anneaia. I?inoeoooeey, eae e yeaeo?e/aneee naao,
iianaianoia. E ea?a, ana ea?u noaiiayony aieaa iai?yaeaiiuie. Oae auaaao
anaaaea, eiaaea i?eaeeaeaaoueny e oeaio?o ie?a. Ii ethaee oeuaathony,
iie oeuaathony ana aieueoa e aieueoa, ieeiaaea ae?oa ae?oao, anaaaea
naiei naaa.

Oaeanathuaa ?aciiia?acea eeoe, eo no?aiiinoue, ia anao canouei
iaiinoeaeeiia au?aaeaiea. Ianee, eioi?ua a a?oae/iuo eoeueoo?ao
ecia?aaeatho noa?inoue eee nia?oue, caeanue – o iieiaeuo, a
aeaaaeoeaoue, a aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao. Ii a yoii anoue /oi-oi iauaa n naiei
ai?iaeii. E?anioa, eioi?oth ae?oaea ai?iaea aeinoeaatho a oa/aiea
noieaoee, caeanue noi?ie?iaaeanue ca iyoueaeanyo eao».

«A Iueth-Ei?ea eieia?auaiea aeecie ianoieueei neeueii, oeaio?iaaaeiay
neea oae aaeeea, /oi eaaeaony /ai-oi naa?ouanoanoaaiiui aeoiaoue i
aeecie aaeaiai, i oii, /oiau ?acaeaeeoue aua /ueth-oi aeeciue. Niiniaiu
auaeeoue oieueei ?acee/iua nai?eua, aaiaeu, iaoey, iauanoaa iinayuaiiuo
eee eca?auaioeaa, ii ia naiaeiua ia?u. Yoi naiaai ?iaea aioe-eia/aa,
iieiay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oiio, a eioi?ii auei nia?aii eaaeaeie oaa?e
ii ia?a, /oiau nianoe aeeaioiua aeaeu io iioiia. Caeanue, a yoii
aieoaaiii eia/aaa, anao ii iaeiiio e eaaeaeue aa/a? yoei iaeeii/eai
iaaei eneaoue iineaaeieo ooeaeaaoeo aeey iineaaeiaai  party».

«Oeiaeaeaea?, eaoathueeny ni naiei ieaa?ii ia ?ieeeiaie aeinea,
Eioaeeaeooae, ?aaioathuee ni naiei word-processor, ?yiia? ec A?iiena,
eioi?ue aaoaii e?ooeony a ?iene eee a ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo caaaaeaieyo,
aeaeiaaa? eee aiaeeaeeaea? – iianthaeo ana oi aea iieiia iaeeii/anoai, e
ana oio aea ia?oeenneci, aoaeue ii ia?auai ia oaea eee ia
eioaeeaeooaeueiua niiniaiinoe».

E yoi – caeiiiia?iue oeiae, e eioi?iio aaaeao noieue ainoaaeyaiia
Aaaaeai «aaniethoiia naiai?aaea noauaeoeaiinoe». Enoiee aea yoiai iooe
ioaeii aeaeaoue a aeaeaeii XI aaea, eiaaea ?ei, ia?ooea aeaaiue i?eioeei
auoey anaeaineie Oea?eae – i?eioeei niai?iinoe – i?ioeaiiinoaaee naay
anai e oai anoae ia iooue iainiaeaiiiai naiiooaa?aeaeaiey e
ia?oeennecia, caaua, /oi iooue O?enoa – yoi iooue naiiio?a/aiey. Eiaiii
yoio ia?ae/iue aeo ia?oeennecia e yaeyaony oai a?oaoeiii e ca?iii
caiaaeiie aeooiaiinoe e caiaaeiie eoeueoo?u, ec eioi?iai iia au?inea.

«Aeaaiua eaeae e iai?aaeaiey a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia, – ieoao i?aiiaeiaiue
Eonoei Iiiiae/, – iiin?aaeiaaiii eee iai?yioth iaoiaeyony a yaiie
caaeneiinoe io ?eiieaoiee/aneie eaeae. Yoa eaeay iaaeaeeii a ieo
i?enoonoaoao, eae aeooa a oaea, e oae aea, eae aeooa, neeueia».

E?ecen ii?aee. *oanoaaiiinoue. Iauainoai

Iai?yioth n e?ecenii aa?u, ?aoeeiiaeeciii e eiaeeaeaeoaeeciii naycai ia
Caiaaea e?ecen ii?aee. E yoi aiieia caeiiiia?ii: ia?iae, ionooieaoee io
Aiaa Enoeiiiai, iaecaaaeii auaaao ii?aaiuai o?ai noa?ui, eae aeueyaie,
eaeieai, o?ai iniiaiiieiaeiui no?anoyi, i eioi?uo iaienaii a Aeaeee:
iioioue ieioe, iioioue i/an (n?aa?iethaea eee ethainoyaeaiea) e
ai?aeinoue aeeoaeneay. Yoei o?ai eaeieai Caiaae oaea aeaaii e ioe?uoi
?aaieainoaoao e neoaeeo, e, eaaeaony, aac?acaeaeueii oea?noaotho oai
aeoo ieioneie iioioe, aeoo n?aa?iethaey, aeoo naiiiiaiey e ai?aeuie.

Ioi?aaaoenue io iaaa, Caiaaeo ia inoaaaeinue ie/aai ae?oaiai, eae
caiyoueny eneeth/eoaeueii caieae. I.Ni?ieei a ?aieao naiae
ia?eiaeecaoeee enoi?e/aneie yaiethoeee caiaaeiiai iauanoaa eiinoaoe?oao,
/oi, oaea, ia/eiay n XVI aaea, ia Caiaaea aiciaeaaeaea naineoeaiay
nenoaia oeaiiinoae niciaiey e eoeueoo?u, a iniiaa eioi?ie:

«eaaeeo iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi enoeiiua aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue e oeaiiinoe
eiatho /oanoaaiiue oa?aeoa?: oieueei oi, /oi iu iiaeai aeaeaoue,
iaiiyoue  neuoaoue, inycaoue, aini?eieiaoue ia aeon e iuouaoue
iin?aaenoaii iaoeo i?aaiia /oanoa, yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiui e
oeaiiinoiui. Aia noa?u oaeie ?aaeueiinoe e oaeeo oeaiiinoae ie/aai ia
nouanoaoao, eee nouanoaoao ia/oi, /oi iu ia iiaeai aini?eieiaoue e /oi
iiyoiio yaeyaony auiuneii, oaioaceae, oeeoeeae eee inaaaei?aaeueiinoueth
e inaaaeioeaiiinoueth».    

Eae aeaeii, yoi anoue, ii nooe, ae?aaiaa aeio?enoeaineia ycu/anoai,
iiaeiaia Oea?noaa Iaaaniiai oea?noaii caiiui. Eiaiii eaeay oaeie
iiaeiaiu eaaeeo a iniiaaiee nia?aiaiiiai caiaaeiiai ie?iaicc?aiey.

Aeey eeethno?aoeee yoie iunee oeaaeai ia oaiiiai o.i. «aia?eeaineie
ia/ou», iaeei ec eaeaieiaia eioi?ie Aeae. *aeia?ae, ienae a 1970-a
aiaeu:

«Eae ninoiyiea oia Aia?eea nouanoaiaaea caaeieai aei oiai eae aa
ioe?uee. N naiuo ?aiieo aeiae caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee ethaee ia/oaee i
iioa?yiiii ?aa, i Cieioii aaea, aaea auei au eciaeeea, ia auei au aiei e
ecio?eoaeueiiai o?oaea. N ia?auie naaaeaieyie i Iiaii Naaoa aicieeei
iuouaiea, /oi yoe ia/ou e no?aieaiey noaiiayony oaeoii, aaia?aoe/aneie
?aaeueiinoueth, ioe?uaathuae iaia?aie/aiiua aiciiaeiinoe».

Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii ec yoeo neia, /oi iiae neiaii «?ae» aaoi? iiieiaao
/enoi caiiua ?aaeee – iaoa?eaeueiia eciaeeea e i?i/., aii?in aea i
aiciiaeiinoe nouanoaiaaiey aua eaeiai-oi ae?oaiai ?ay, e?iia caiiiai e
iaoa?eaeueiiai, aiiaua ia noaaeony. I?e anai i?e yoii aia?eeaioeu – io
iooeia-iniiaaoaeae XVII aaea e aei iaoeo aeiae – oaa?aei aa?eee e aa?yo
a naith ianneaineoth ?ieue, a naith aiaieca?aiiinoue. Iie oaa?aei
oaaaeaeaiu, /oi eiaiii ei i?aaeiacia/aii aanoe /aeiaa/anoai a oaeie ?ae.

Oae, iai?eia?, aua a ?aoaiee, i?eiyoii a 1640 a. Annaiaeaae Iiaie
Aiaeee, aiai?eeinue:

« 1. Caiey e ana, /oi e iae ioiineony, Aiaeuee (i?eiyoi).

2. Aia iiaeao ioaeaoue caieth eee ethaoth aa /anoue naiaio eca?aiiiio
ia?iaeo (i?eiyoi).

3. Aai eca?aiiui ia?iaeii yaeyainy iu (i?eiyoi)».

I?aceaeaio Aia?eee O. Aeaeaooa?nii a 1805 a. a iineaiee e ia?iaeo
cayaee:

«Aia aae iaoeo i?aaeeia oae, eae iaeiaaea ec?aeeueoyi». 

Eeannee aia?eeaineie eeoa?aoo?u A. Iaeaeee (1819-1891) ienae:

«Iu, aia?eeaioeu, – eca?aiiue ia?iae… Ec?aeeue iaoaai a?aiaie».

I?aceaeaio ?.?aeaai a 1981-82 aa.:

«Aia ii?o/ee Aia?eea no?aaeaeouaa /aeiaa/anoai».

«Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou inoathony cieioie iaaeaaeaeie /aeiaa/anoaa».

«Noa?a iaoae ioaaonoaaiiinoe eae aaeeeiai ia?iaea ioaaouaaao aanue ie?».

Oaeei ia?acii, aia?eeaioeu n/eoatho naay i?ecaaiiuie ?ani?ino?aieoue
eaeaae naiae ia/ou, naiaai /oanoaaiiiai ?ay ia aanue ie?. Oioy Aia?eea a
ecaanoiii niunea e i?ioeaiiinoaaeyea anaaaea naay Aa?iia e
aeenoaioee?iaaeanue io iaa, n/eoay naay iiaie, naaaeae, caei?iaie no?oae
a enoi?ee, iaeiaei ia aeaea e yoa no?oy, oioy e iieiaeay, e iieiay nee,
ieneieueei ia aicauneeanue iaae caieae a naiai ?acaeoee, ii aua aieaa
iia?ycea a iaoa?eaeueiinoe, /ai Noa?ue Naao.

I iaoa?eaeueiinoe e iauainoaa Caiaaea i/aiue iiiai auneacuaaeenue
?onneea ienaoaee, ia/eiay n ?aiieo neaayiioeeia. Oae, aua E.A.Ee?aaaneee
oeacuaae ia oi, /oi

«… i?e anai aeanea, i?e anao oaeianoaao ia?oaeiuo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee
aeecie naiay aeeciue eeoaia auea naiaai nouanoaaiiiai niunea».

Ienaee ia yoii aeaaea e caiaaeieee, iai?eia?, A.E.Aa?oeai a «Aueii e
aeoiao»:

«N iaeiie noi?iiu, iauaia-nianoaaiieee, oii?ii ioeacuaathueany
iinooieoueny naieie iiiiiieeyie, n ae?oaie – iaeiouea iauaia, eioi?ua
oioyo au?aaoue ec eo ?oe eo aeinoiyiea, ii ia eiatho neeu, o.a., n
iaeiie noi?iiu, neoiinoue, n ae?oaie – caaenoue».

Yoe aeaa noi?iiu, ii Aa?oeaio, aaaeoo y?inoioth ia?eaiaioneoth ai?ueao,
a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?ie iiaaaeeoaee ia?aoiaeyo ni noi?iiu caaenoe ia
noi?iio neoiinoe.

A aio neiaa O.I.Aeinoiaaneiai (eioi?ue aiiaua oi?ioi ioiineeny e Aa?iia
e ethaee aa, iaeiaei e aai ii?aaeaea caiaaeiay aacaeooiaiinoue e
iauainoai):

«I anee au Au iiiyoea eiaee, – ienae ii Iaeeiao a 1868 a., – ia aaaeinoe
aeeoue ca a?aieoeae ia ianoa, i aan/anoiinoe, iecinoe, iaaa?iyoiie
aeoiinoe e ia?acaeoinoe oaaeoea?oeaa…. ss oaeanathnue, y caoioioae au a
aeaca, anee au iia neacaee yoi i?aaeaea i?i aa?iiaeoeaa».

Ii aea ienae i iaioeao oaeea no?iee:

«Aa?iaiey – ecaeeaoee naie neeu ia?iae – eai iinea oaeiai aeooa, iinea
oaeie iaoee – aaa?eoueny eaeaa ia/a, e?iae, ianeeey e aeaaea ia
iiaeic?aaaoue, /oi anoue aeoo e oi?aeanoai aeooa, e niayoueny iaae yoei
n eai?aeueneie a?oainoueth! Iao – yoi ia?oaue ia?iae e aac aoaeouiinoe».

E aua, oiaea Iaeeiao:

«Anee au Au ciaee, eaeia e?iaiia ioa?auaiea, aei iaiaaenoe, aicaoaeeea
ai iia e naaa Aa?iia ca yoe /aou?a aiaea. Ainiiaee, eaeea o ian
i?aae?annoaeee ian/ao Aa?iiu…»

Aeinoiaaneiio aoi?eo E.Eaiioueaa:

«I, oo/iay, onu?aiiay e?iaueth ai?a anaie?iie enoi?ee. N eiioea i?ioeiai
aaea ou io/aaoueny iiauie ?iaeaie. E ec no?aaeaeue/aneeo iaae? oaieo
?iaeaeaaony iuoue. ?iaeaeaaony naiiaeiaieueiay ea?eeaoo?a ia i?aaeieo
ethaeae: n?aaeiee ?aoeeiiaeueiue aa?iiaaoe a naiae niaoiie iaeaaeaea, n
oiii iaeeei e naiiiaieueuaiiui, ni naiae iieco/ae ii i?aoo caiiiio
i?aeoe/aneie aeaaiiaia?aiiinoueth… Aiciiaeii ee ethaeoue oaeia
/aeiaa/anoai? Ia neaaeoao ee iaiaaeaeaoue – ia naieo ethaeae, caaeoaeoeo
e aeoiuo, a oaeia aoaeouaa eo anaie neeaie aeaaea e o?enoeaineie aeooe?»

E iuneeoaee OO aaea i?eaea?aeeaaeenue ii aeaiiiio aii?ino oi/ii oaeie
aea oi/ee c?aiey.

«Aa?iia, – ieoao A.?icaiia, – anoue eiioeiaio enii?/aiiie e?iae».   

E a ae?oaii ianoa:

«Aa?iia anoue eiioeiaio oiaaoae aeooe e iiaaoeo e?ueueaa. Iu aiai?ei,
eiia/ii, ia eiaeeaeaeooia, eai iaoeia aa?iiaeneay eaeao oiaeei».      

Aa?aeyaa n ?icaiiaui iieiinoueth nieeaea?ai:

«Aeoo oeeaeeecaoeee – iauaineee aeoo; oeeaeeecaoeey Aa?iiu e Aia?eee
nicaeaea eiaeono?eaeueii-eaieoaeenoe/aneoth nenoaio, eioi?ay yaeyaony
eno?aaeoaeai aeooa aa/iinoe, aeooa nayouiue; eaieoaeenoe/aneay
oeeaeeecaoeey iiaaeoeo a?aiai oaeaaea Aiaa, iia auea naiie aacaiaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeeae… a oeeaeeecaoeee ia/eiatho iaia?oaeeaaoueny i?ioeannu
aa?aa?ecaoeee, ia?oaaiey»

Neiaa E.Eeueeia:

«Nia?aiaiiue» /aeiaae anoue o?acaue, ieineee e naiiaeiaieueiue
ooeeeoa?eno, neoaeeoaeue iieuecu, eaeaieia iieaciinoe, eeoaiiue i?aaia
aeey anaai aunoaai e aeooiaiiai, ia iinoeaathuee ieeaeiai «o?aoueaai»
ecia?aiey: ii iioe a aunoai, ?aeeaeiciii niunea yoiai neiaa e i?aaeony
naaa a oaeii ninoiyiee. Ii iioe aac anyeiai «iaae?uaa» e iieayiey e
neeiiai e iaiaaeaieth ia ana iaiioeia. E iioiio aai eoeueoo?a iioea e
oi?iaeueia, eae ii nai».

I ianaiaiaea Caiaaea

Caiaaeiue eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, oai?aoe/anee i?iaicaeaneaoee naiaiaeo
eaaeaeie ee/iinoe, iieioth caeiiiinoue aa noauaeoeaiinoe, ia aeaea
i?eaae e e?eceno naiaiaeu caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea, e aai aioo?aiiaio
cae?aiiuaieth e ?aanoao.

«Ianaiaiaeai aeooii /aeiaae Iiaiai a?aiaie, – ieoao I.A. Aa?aeyaa, –
/aeiaae eii/athuaeny iiaie enoi?ee, e ia ai eiy naiaiaeu niaa?oaao ii
naie ainnoaiey e aoiou, ia ai eiy naiaiaeu io?eoeaao ii Enoeio. Ii
iaoiaeeony ai aeanoe iaaaaeiiiai aio ainiiaeeia, naa?o/aeiaa/aneie e
ia/aeiaa/aneie neeu, eioi?ay iaeaaeaaaao iauanoaii, ia aeaeathuei ciaoue
Enoeiu, Enoeiu Ainiiaea».

Ianaiaiaea Caiaaea – ianaiaiaea iniaiai ?iaea. *enoi aiaoia,
iieeoe/anee, caiaaeiue /aeiaae naiaiaeai, ?aanoai aai eiia, aioo?aiia,
aeooiaiia, a iioiio ai?acaei aieaa oiieia, aeoaieia e iianiia, /ai
iau/iay iieeoe/aneay ianaiaiaea.

A ea/anoaa eeethno?aoeee ianaiaiaeu caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea, i eioi?ie eaeao
?a/ue, i?eaaaeai caeanue enoi?eth, ia?aneacaiioth Aa?aeyaaui a iaeiie ec
aai ?aaio.

«… niaaoneee iieiaeie /aeiaae i?eaoae ia ianeieueei ianyoeaa ai
O?aioeeth, /oiau aa?iooueny iioii ia?aoii a niaaoneoth ?inneth. E eiioeo
aai i?aauaaiey aai ni?ineee, eaeia o iaai inoaeinue aia/aoeaiea io
O?aioeee. Ii ioaaoee: «a yoie no?aia iao naiaiaeu». Aai niaanaaeiee n
oaeeaeaieai aio aic?aaeaao: «/oi au aiai?eoa, O?aioeey— no?aia naiaiaeu,
eaaeaeue naiaiaeai aeoiaoue, /oi oi/ao, e aeaeaoue, /oi oi/ao, yoi o aan
iao ieeaeie naiaiaeu». Oiaaea iieiaeie /aeiaae eceiaeee naia iiieiaiea
naiaiaeu: ai O?aioeee iao naiaiaeu e niaaoneee iieiaeie /aeiaae a iae
caaeuoaeny iioiio, /oi a iae iaaiciiaeii eciaiyoue aeeciue, no?ieoue
iiaoth aeeciue; oae iacuaaaiay naiaiaea a iae oaeiaa, /oi ana inoaaony
iaeciaiiui, eaaeaeue aeaiue iioiae ia i?aaeoanoaothuee, iiaeii naa?aaoue
eaaeaeoth iaaeaeth ieienoa?noaa, ii ie/aai io yoiai ia iaiyaony. Iiyoiio
/aeiaaeo, i?eaoaaoaio ec ?innee, ai O?aioeee neo/ii».

Ionthaea aeaeii, /oi ianaiaiaea Caiaaea – aeoai/aeoay, yoi – ia
iieeoe/aneay eee nioeeaeueiay ianaiaiaea, io eioi?ie iiaeii ecaaaeoueny
n iiiiuueth ?aaiethoeee eee ia?aai?ioa; yoi – ai?acaei aieaa aeoaieia
?aanoai e oaoaeueiia caneeuea eiaeiuo ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo e eoeueoo?iuo
niaieoiiinoae oeaiiinoae, caeaaaeythueo e ii?aaiuathueo /aeiaaea – o.a.
caaieaaaiea ia aioo?aiiai, aaiaoe/aneii o?iaia, io eioi?iai iaeuecy
ecaaaeoueny n iiiiuueth anie?eia e ai?/e/ieeia – n iiiiuueth aiaoieo
n?aaenoa – eai e iinea ethaie nioeeaeueiie eee iieeoe/aneie
o?ainoi?iaoeee ana iaecaaaeii aa?iaony ia e?oae naiy – ia aaa aaeee a
eieana, ia e?oae aeo?iie aaneiia/iinoe.

Nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi naia oeeaeeecaoeey, ii?iaeaeaiiay /aeiaaeii
eae aoaeoi au aeey aai inaiaiaeaeaiey e aeanoe iaae i?e?iaeie,
ii?aaiuaao aai e inoeo aio. Ai?i/ai, n o?enoeaineie oi/ee c?aiey
ieeaeiai ia?aaeiena caeanue iao. Iiaia a?aiy,  ieoao Aa?aeyaa:

«nicaeaei aani?aaeiaoioth eoeueoo?o, aani?aaeiaoiia  iauanoai,  ia
ciathuaa, ai eiy /aai iii nouanoaoao… Ia iiaeao /aeiaae aeeoue oieueei
aeey naay e neoaeeoue oieueei naaa. Anee iao o iaai enoeiiiai Aiaa, oi
ii nicaeaao naaa eiaeiuo aiaia.   Ii ia oioae iieo/eoue naiaiaeo io
Aiaa, ii iiiae a aeanoieia ?aanoai e eiaeiui aiaai, e eaeieai».

Oaeei eiaeiui aiaii e eaeieii yaeyaony oaoiio?iiiay oeeaeeecaoeey
Caiaaea. A ?aaioa «Niune oai?/anoaa» Aa?aeyaa ieoao:

«Iaoaie/aneay, o?aaieaathuay, iaacee/eaathuay e iaanoeaieaathuay
oeeaeeecaoeey n aa aeeaaieueneie oaoieeie, neeoeii oaea iioiaeae ia
/a?ioth iaaeth, anoue eaeaauoea, i?ec?a/iia, auaa?iooia auoea.
Ao?aeoaciay oeeaeeecaoeey anoue i?aaeae iaeinie/iinoe ie?a — a iae
aeaiao aioo?aiiee /aeiaae, iiaeiaiyaony aiaoiei aaoiiaoe/aneei
/aeiaaeii. Oeeaeeecaoeey ?acaeea ia?iiiua oaoie/aneea neeu, eioi?ua, ii
caiuneo, aeieaeiu oaioiaeoue oea?noai /aeiaaea iaae i?e?iaeie, ii yoe
oaoie/aneea neeu aeanoaotho iaae naiei /aeiaaeii, aeaeatho aai ?aaii,
oaeaatho aai aeooo… A eieinnaeueiie oaoie/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee oi/ii
auiouaiu ia naiaiaeo ceua aeaiiiu, inoyuea iaaeoaio /aeiaaeo…
Oeeaeeecaoeey ia inouanoaeyao oea?noaaiiie ia/ou /aeiaaea».

Naia iaoea, eaaeauay a iniiaa oaeie oeeaeeecaoeee, aeaaii oaea oo?aoeea
anyeea cae?aaua oeaiiinoiua i?eaioe?u, «ioi?aaeanue io niunea». Caeanue
oianoii i?eaanoe neaaeothuea neiaa I.Oei?aineiai:

«Iaoea oioaea caiaieoue niaith oi, a /ai euao naaa oaeiaeaoai?aiey
ee/iinoue, a a eoiaa noa?aiee auea nii?oaeaia ia?iiiay iaoeia, e eioi?ie
ia ciaaoue, eae iiaenooieoueny. Ooo ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiee: yoi eae anee au iino?ieee aeii a aeanyoee eaaae?aoiuo
aa?no aeeeiith, aa?noaie ia?ythuee aunioo eiiiao e niioaaonoaaiii
ianoaaeaiiue. Aaeaa ee auea iai iieueca io noaeaiia a nioie aaaea?
aieinoueth, ?o/ae n ei?aaaeueioth ia/oo, nooeueaa aunioie n eieieieueith
e aeaa?ae, eioi?ua iu noiaee au ioe?uaaoue oieueei i?e iiiiue
eieinnaeueiuo eiaeaia?iuo nii?oaeaiee a oa/aiea iiaeao auoue aiaeia. Oae
e iao/iia ie?iaicc?aiea e ea/anoaaiii e eiee/anoaaiii oo?aoeei oio
iniiaiie ianooaa, eioi?ui ii?aaeaeythony ana iaoe ianooaau: naiiai
/aeiaaea».

Noiaeii aeaeyo yoo i?iaeaio e nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee:

«Ae?aia oaoie/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee ninoieo a oii, /oi ae oaeaeinue
iaea?aeaoue ie??iao iiaaaeo iaae o?aaeeoeeiiiie iaoaoeceeie, ia?auaiiie
e i?aaeaeueiui iniiaaieyi e niuneai».

Iioieiae/aneee e?ecen

* (iioieiaey – o/aiea i auoee) 

Ioeacaaoenue io i?aaeaeueiuo iniiaaiee e niuneia, caiaaeiay
oeeaeeecaoeey ino?i ia?aaeeaaao e aua iaeei e?ecen – iioieiae/aneee,
eai, ioe?anoeaoenue io anyeie iaoaoeceee, yoa oeeaeeecaoeey naia auaeea
o naay ec-iiae iia iniiaaiey ?aaeueiinoe nouanoaiaaiey e caiaieea
?aaeueiia auoea ae?ooaeueiui aano?aeii.

«Iiiai ee anoue, – caaeaaony aii?inii Aa?aeyaa, – iioieiae/anee
?aaeueiiai a ae?aeao, aaieao, a aoiaaeiuo aeaiueaao, a /oaeiaeuiuo
oaa?eeao, i?iecaiaeyueo iaioaeiua i?aaeiaou eee i?oaeey eno?aaeaiey
aeecie, ai aiaoiae ?ineioe, a ?a/ao ia?eaiaioa?eaa e aaeaieaoia, a
aacaoiuo noaoueyo, iiiai ee anoue ?aaeueiiai a ?inoa iaianuoiuo
iio?aaiinoae? Iianthaeo ?ane?uaaaony aeo?iay aaneiia/iinoue, ia ciathuay
caaa?oaiey. Any eaieoaeenoe/aneay nenoaia oicyenoaa anoue aeaoeua
iiaee?athuae e eno?aaeythuae iioioe. Iia iiaea aicieeiooue eeoue a
iauanoaa, eioi?ia ieii/aoaeueii ioeacaeinue io anyeiai o?enoeaineiai
aneaoecia, ioaa?ioeinue io iaaa e eneeth/eoaeueii ioaeaeinue caiiui
oaeiaeaoai?aieyi».

Aa?aeyaao aoi?eo A.Y?i, naoothuee ii iiaiaeo aeaaee aunieie eoeueoo?u,
iiaee?aaiie iieioii oeeaeeecaoeee:

«Iieiaeaiea eoeueoo?u noaiiaeony o?aae/aneei io ?inoa e oniaoia
oeeaeeecaoeee. ?aoeeiiaeeci a?uaaaony anthaeo e iaaeiua, aeeaua, iieiua
iioiaiaeueiie i?aeanoe oeaaou eoeueoo?u oiieo a ii?a aoiaaeiuo ia?oauo
oeaaoia, ecaioiaeyaiuo iaacaeooaiiuie ethaeueie ia aacaeooiuo iaoeiao…
Oe?ieee iioie oeeaeeecaoeee caaeaaeae anaie noeoeeiuie iaoa?eaeaie e,
caaeaaeaaoe, iaaeaeae aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai oeeaeeeciaaiiie ae?yie, a
eoeueoo?a aeaiao a iiaeaeaeeao».

«Ii?aaeaeythuay /a?oa nia?aiaiiie aeooiaiie neooaoeee – (naii)
i?eioaeaeaiea e ?aaioa n oeeoeeyie, iinoiyiii i?iaeooee?oaiuie
aeiaaeueiie noaeoeueoo?ie oaea iioiio, /oi naia iia n oi/ee c?aiey
oece/aneie, yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aaia?aoee (oi anoue ?aaeueiuo
oneiaee aini?iecaiaenoaa aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae a ii?aaeaeaiiuo,
oa??eoi?eaeueii ?aca?aie/aiiuo i?ino?ainoaao aeinoa?u) yaeyaony
ianeaicue oeeoeaiie. A yoii niunea iia i?ioeainoieo anai eoeueoo?ai
i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai, eiuie neiaaie, aa [noa]eoeueoo?iia ea/anoai
yaeyaony i?eioeeieaeueii [aioe]eoeueoo?iui».

O.Ai?e/aaa ieoao i oii, /oi nia?aiaiiue /aeiaae:

«…ia iaoaeeeaaaony ia ?aaeueiinoue, eai naaiaeiy ?aaeueiinoue caiaiaia
aeia??aaeueiinoueth. Iin?aaeieee, ia?aceou, niaeoeyiou, iaiaaeaea?u,
i?ioeaiou, aao/a?u, iaa?oee, iaeaeiiaeaenu, o?ainnaenoaeu,
o?ainiieeoeeaiu (eiy ei eaaeii) eiatho iaeii iauaa naienoai – ana iie
ia?aaeueiu».

I naiioaeiaeaoai?aiiinoe Caiaaea

Oaeiau iaeioi?ua, iaeaieaa cia/eiua, e?eceniua noi?iiu caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee, ?anniio?aiiua e aiaeece?iaaiiua ?onneeie iuneeoaeyie. Nai
Caiaae, eae i?aaeei, ia neeiiai caia/aoue naie e?eceniua noi?iiu, ii
ia?aaeienaeueiui ia?acii, ianiio?y ia noieue iiiaea e i/aaeaeiua
i?eciaee oyaeeie e aeoaieie aieacie, a iniiaiii inoaaony ai?ae e aiieia
aeiaieai niaie.

«Caiaaeiue /aeiaae – ienae I.Iiaai?iaeoeaa, – yoi /aeiaae, ai?aeue naiae
eoeueoo?ie, naiei ia?aciaaieai, naiae iaoeie, naiae aeenoeeieeiie, naiae
iieeoeeie. Ii aeoiaao, /oi ii ana i?aiaeieae, ana iiaeao; ii aeoiaao,
/oi aai eiinoeoooeee e ia?eaiaiou, /oi aai aeaiie?aoee e ?anioaeeee —
aa?o /aeiaa/aneie ioae?inoe, /oi oio iooue, eioi?ui ii eaeao, anoue
aaeeinoaaiiue iooue e /aeiaa/aneiio aaee/eth. N aunieiia?eai niio?eo ii
ia ionoaeinoue naieo ainoi/iuo ninaaeae e iaeeaeaao, /oi iie onaiyo aai
ioae?inoue e iieaeoo aai iooyie».

E caeanue niiaa iaaieueii aniiieiaaony a ea/anoaa aeooiaiiai a?oaoeia
oaeiai yaeaiey ai?aeay, ie/ai ia i?iaeaaaiay neaiioa eaoiee/aneiai ?eia,
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaoaai naay oeaeie anaeaiiie e ia oioaaoaai aeaeaoue a
naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ieeaeeo iaaeinoaoeia. Aio e /aeiaae Caiaaea a
iieiii niioaaonoaee n oaeei naiei a?oaoeiii, nai naay iinoaaeaoee ai
aeaao oaea e ooaa?aeeaoee i?eiao naiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe, – yoio
/aeiaae (a eiia/ii, e iauanoai oaeeo ethaeae – o.a. caiaaeiia iauanoai)
oaeaea aiieia anoanoaaiii n/eoaao naay iaiia?aoeiui iaiie, noaeueae e
oeaio?ii ie?icaeaiey.

3. II?AAAeAIEA CAIAAeA

E?eoeeoy, e iiae/an i/aiue ino?i, caiaaeiue ie?, ?onneea iuneeoaee
ieeiaaea ia caauaaee i aai aaeeeeo caneoaao e aiaaoaeoai ianeaaeee. Ana
aac eneeth/aiey iaoe oeeiniou i?ae?anii ciaee, ethaeee e ii/eoaee ana oi
aaeeeia, /oi aeae Caiaae /aeiaa/anoao. E?eoeeiaaee aea iie eeoue aai
ioeaee e a?aoe.

«Iai /oaeae e iaie iaethaei ia aiiaua Caiaae, noieue aaeeeee ii naiaio
oai?/anoao, ii iai?yaeaiiinoe naiae iunee, o eioi?iai aa/ii ioaeii
o/eoueny, ii Caiaae ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee e ao?aeoaciue, Caiaae
naiiaeiaieueiue e oaaoathuee aeoo, Caiaae iaacee/aiiue e iieeiieaoeeny
iaiiia, a eioi?ii oi?ia oie/oiaeeea niaea?aeaiea aeecie», – ienae
I.A.Aa?aeyaa.

Oi/ii oae aea ?annoaeaeae A.Oei?ianeee:

«…aiai?eoue i aa?iiaeneii caeaoa, yoi ia cia/eo ioaa?aaoue Aa?iio,
io?eoeaoue aa aeinoeaeaiey e iiaeaea… iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue iunee aiana
ia o?aaoao io oiai, eoi aiai?eo i e?ecena aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u, /oiau
ii ioaa?aae e Aeaioa, e Oaenie?a, e Aaaaey, e Eaioa e n/eoae eo
ie/oiaeanoaaie».

Aeeaae Caiaaea

A /ai aea, i?aaeaea anaai, caeeth/aaony aiaaonoai e aeeaae  Caiaaea a
iauaie?iaoth nie?iaeuieoeo aeooa, iunee e iiuoa? A naiie iauae oi?ia
ioaao aoaeao cao/aoue oae: a aeooaeecaoeee caiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai ia/aea.
Nianoaaiii aiai?y, oae auei anaaaea – Caiaae aeaaae oaei, oi?io, aiaoiaa
au?aaeaiea aeey aeooa, niunea e aioo?aiiaai niaea?aeaiey, eioi?ua aeaaae
Ainoie. A ia?aua aaea iaoae y?u, eiaaea ca?iaeaeaeanue o?enoeaineay
oeeaeeecaoeey, Ainoie aeae aeey iaa aioo?aiiaa niaea?aeaiea, aeoo e
nouiinoue, Caiaae aea – aiaoithth oi?io, a eeoea a?a/aneie oeeinioee
(aeiaiaou) e ?eineiai i?aaa (eaiiiu). A naiae o?enoeaineie  enoi?ee
Caiaae no?aieeny ioea?eiaeoue e io?enoeaieoue ana noi?iiu ie?neie
aeecie. Oaea a N?aaeiea aaea oai, iai?eia?, a ai?iaeneeo niai?ao
i?ioiaeeee ia oieueei oea?eiaiua neoaeau, ii e nia?aiey ai?iaeai,
oaao?aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey ia ?aeeaeiciua oaiu, eaeoeee oieaa?neoaoneeo
i?ioanni?ia. Eiia/ii, a yoie no?aoaaee (eae nae/an yoi i/aaeaeii)
ainoi?aeanoaiaae ie?neie yeaiaio, o.a. iaie?ueeanue Oea?eiaue, a ia ie?
io?enoeaieeny. Ii ana aea yoio iiuo iiaeao ieacaoueny aanueia oeaiiui –
a ?acoiiii neioaca n nio?aieaoae naay io ineaa?iaiey ie?neei oea?eiaiie
enoeiie Ainoiea.

«Aannii?ii, Caiaae eiae aaeeeoth ienneth ai anaie?iie enoi?ee e ii
iaia?oaeee eneeth/eoaeueiua aea?u a aa auiieiaiee. Ienneae Caiaaea auei
?acai?a/eaaiea e ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneiai ia/aea a eoeueoo?a, oneiaeiaiea
e ooii/aiea aeooaaiiai ie?a /aeiaaea, iai?yaeaiea enoi?e/aneie
aeoeaiinoe, au?aaioea oi?iaeueiuo ia/ae a iuoeaiee e oai?/anoaa.
Aoiaieci Caiaaea eiae ie?iaia cia/aiea eae ecaeeaaiea /aeiaa/aneeo
noaeaa. E ie? Ainoiea aeieaeai i?eiaueoueny e aoiaienoe/aneiio iiuoo
Caiaaea», – ieoao Aa?aeyaa.

Ni a?aiaie Aic?iaeaeaiey caiaaeiua aoiaienou noaee aeaeaoue niune aeecie
a o?oaeao ia iieueco /aeiaaea. Aio a oii eo/oai, /oi auei aeinoeaiooi ia
yoii iii?eua, e caeeth/aaony aeeaae e aiaaonoai Caiaaea.

Aeey niciaiey caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea oaeea o?oaeu, iai?aaeaiiua ia
ono?iaiea aeaaiauoey /aeiaaea a yoii ie?a e nicaeaiea ?acaeoie caiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee, eiaee, ii iunee Aa?aeyaaa, e aeoaieoth ?aeeaeicioth
naieoeeth e auee oanii naycaiu n aai o?enoeaineeie i?aaenoaaeaieyie i
i?aaaea e aeia?a. E yoi aaaeii eiaoue a aeaeo aeey i?aaeeueiiai
iiieiaiey aeooiaiie yaiethoeee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, e iniaaiii aeey aa
ii?aaaeaiey.

 A ?aieao oaeie naiae aeayoaeueiinoe Caiaae iiiai, i/aiue iiiai iiaea?ee
ie?o. Aaaeue eiaiii ia Caiaaea, iai?eia?, auee aia?aua ioe?uou
ooiaeaiaioaeueiua caeiiu iaoa?eaeueiiai ie?a: caeiiu oyaioaiey e
iaoaieee Iuethoiia, aeaeaeaiey ieaiao Eaiea?a, caeiiu Eoeiia, Aiia?a,
Iaenaaeea, Atheaaina, Aeiiea?a – eiaiii oai auea ioe?uoa i?aaaea i Aiaii
nicaeaiiii iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a, eiaiii oai ethaee aia?aua ociaee,
iai?eia?, /oi ia Nieioea a?auaaony aie?oa caiee, a Caiey aie?oa Nieioea.
Aeinoeaeaiey a iaeanoe iaoa?eaeueiie iaoee auee eniieueciaaiu ia
i?aeoeea, iai?eia? a iaaeeoeeia. Iiiaea ?aiaa iaecea/eiua aieacie
ia?anoaee auoue oaeiauie. Aneaaenoaea yoiai caiaoii aic?inea n?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue /aeiaa/aneie aeecie, ?acei nieceeanue nia?oiinoue
o aeaoae. Yieaeaiee ca?aciuo aieaciae, eaeea auaaee a N?aaeiea aaea,
eiaaea io /oiu ca ei?ioeia a?aiy auie?aea iaeia o?aoue ianaeaiey Aa?iiu,
– noaee iaiuneeiu. Iao/iua ioe?uoey auee oe?iei eniieueciaaiu e ai anao
ae?oaeo noa?ao /aeiaa/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee e eoeueoo?u. Niaa?oaiiay
nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, eieaiia/aoaiea, n?aaenoaa o?ainii?oa e nayce – ana
yoi oiaea ?iaeeeinue ia Caiaaea.

*?acau/aeii aaeeei cia/aiea Caiaaea e eae nie?iaeuieoeu i?inaauaiey. Ana
eo/oaa, /oi eiaaea-eeai auei nicaeaii /aeiaa/anoaii – a iaeanoe
eeoa?aoo?u ee, iocuee, eneonnoaa, oeeinioee, – ana yoi auei oai aa?aaeii
nia?aii, nio?aiaii, nenoaiaoece?iaaii, eco/aii, oae /oi oaia?ue yoe
nie?iaeua noaee aeinooiiu anai, e eaaeaeue iiaeao iieueciaaoueny eie.
Aea e naia caiaaeiay eoeueoo?a aianea a yoo ie?iaoth nie?iaeuieoeo io
Nie?aoa, Ieaoiia e aei iaoeo aeiae aeeaae, eioi?ue iaaiciiaeii ie
ecia?eoue, ie ioeaieoue. E, eiia/ii, aanue ie? ca yoe nie?iaeua
iaoiaeeony ia?aae Caiaaeii a iaiieaoiii aeieao.

E n i?aaineaaiie oi/ee c?aiey iu aeieaeiu auoue aeaaiaea?iu Caiaaeo.
I?aiiaeiaiue Iaea?ee Aaeiaoneee a naieo «Aanaaeao» aiai?eo, /oi oa
a?aouey iiianou?y, eioi?ua iieyony, ia aeieaeiu inoaeaeaoue oao, eioi?ua
a yoi a?aiy ?aaioatho. Iieyueeny aeieaeai aeoiaoue i?i o?oaeyuaainy: «ii
e aeey iaiy ?aaioaao», a o?oaeyueeny: «ii e ca iaiy iieeony».
Eaoiee/aneee e iniaaiii i?ioanoaioneee Caiaae iaiiiai aieueoa ?aaioae,
/ai iieeeny, a i?aaineaaiue Ainoie aieueoa iieeeny, /ai ?aaioae. Iaeiaei
Ainoie aeieaeai eiaoue aeia?ue ia?ac iuneae ii ioiioaieth e Caiaaeo –
aaaeue ii iio?oaeeeny i/aiue iiiai e ?aaee ian oiaea.

Iiieii noyaeaiey e i?aoiiiaeaiey aiaaonoa /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u ?onneea
oeeiniou oniao?eaaee e aua iaeei niune a enoi?e/aneii iooe Caiaaea. Ii
naycai n aeooaeecaoeeae /aeiaa/aneiai ia/aea, a eiaiii – /aeiaa/aneie
aiee. Aea, /aeiaa/aneay aiey Caiaaea aeooaeeciauaaea a iniiaiii naay ia
iooyo oaeaeaiey io Aiaa. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua aeaeaee a oaeie
io?eoeaoaeueiie oaca iaiaoiaeeiue aeeaeaeoe/aneee iiiaio – naiaia?aciue
aioeoacen – a noaiiaeaiee aaeeiiai o?enoeaineiai /aeiaa/anoaa.

Oae, iai?eia?, A. Nieiaueaa a naieo «*oaieyo i Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa» aeaeae
aaeeeee niune e aaeeeia iacia/aiea caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee eiaiii a oii,
/oi:

«Iia i?aaenoaaeyao iieiia e iineaaeiaaoaeueiia ioiaaeaiea /aeiaa/aneeo
i?e?iaeiuo nee io aiaeanoaaiiiai ia/aea, eneeth/eoaeueiia
naiiooaa?aeaeaiea eo, no?aieaiea ia naieo naaa iniiaaoue caeaiea
anaeaineie eoeueoo?u. *a?ac ianinoiyoaeueiinoue e ?ieiaie iaoniao yoiai
no?aieaiey yaeyaony naiiio?eoeaiea, naiiio?eoeaiea aea i?eaiaeeo e
naiaiaeiiio ainniaaeeiaieth n aiaeanoaaiiui ia/aeii».

Oi anoue ana caeanue i?ienoiaeeo ii i?eioeeio Aaaaeaaneie o?eaaeu, aaea
Caiaae yaeyaony aioeoacenii e io?eoeaieai. Oacenii aea e ooaa?aeaeaieai,
ii Nieiaueaao, yaeyaony i?aaineaaiue Ainoie:

«…ii caeiio ?acaeaeaiey enoi?e/aneiai o?oaea, iaeei e oio aea
eoeueoo?iue oei, iaeie e oa aea ia?iaeu ia iiaoo inouanoaeoue aeaoo
ie?iauo eaeae, naeaeaoue aeaa enoi?e/aneeo aeaea, e anee caiaaeiay
oeeaeeecaoeey eiaea naiath caaea/ae, naiei ie?iaui iacia/aieai
inouanoaeoue io?eoeaoaeueiue ia?aoiae io ?aeeaeiciiai i?ioeiai e
?aeeaeiciiio aoaeouaio, oi iieiaeeoue ia/aei naiiio yoiio ?aeeaeiciiio
aoaeouaio noaeaeaii ae?oaie enoi?e/aneie neea».

Yoa ae?oaay enoi?e/aneay neea – ?inney e i?aaineaaiua ia?iaeu,
i?ioeainoiyuea caiaaeiiio io?eoeaieth e nio?aieaoea oacen e
iieiaeeoaeueiia niaea?aeaiea aanoeaiiuo nie?iaeu aeooa ia?acaeaeaiiie
O?enoiaie Oea?eae ia?aiai ouny/aeaoey.

Nieiaueaa oaeaea iniai auaeaeye e aeeaeaeoe/aneee niune i?ioanoaioecia.
Oioy iauaa, io?eoeaoaeueiia ii ioiioaieth e Aiaeanoaaiiiio ia/aeo,
naiiii?aaeaeaiea auei inouanoaeaii ia Caiaaea aua aei ?aoi?iaoeee,
iaeiaei yaeaoeeny a XVI aaea i?ioanoaioeci a i?aaeaeueiie noaiaie
aeooaeeciaae ee/iinoiia ia/aei a /aeiaaea. Nieiaueaa ieoao:

«Aaeeeee niune enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna, ia/aaoaainy n ?aeeaeiciie
?aoi?iaoeee, ninoieo a oii, /oi ii iainiaee /aeiaa/aneoth ee/iinoue,
i?aaeinoaaee aa naiie naaa, /oiau iia iiaea niciaoaeueii e naiaiaeii
ia?aoeoueny e aiaeanoaaiiiio ia/aeo, aieoe n iei a niaa?oaiii
niciaoaeueioth e naiaiaeioth naycue».

Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi ?onneay oeeinioey, e?eoeeoy, a iiae/an e
?oaay Caiaae, e?eoeeiaaea e ?oaaea Caiaae ia nai ii naaa, ii aai
iai?aaaeu e aieacie. Caneoae aea e aeinoeaeaiey Caiaaea, aai aaeeeia
eoeueoo?iia aiaaonoai ?onneea ciaee, ethaeee e ii/eoaee. I?eaaaeai ia
yoo oaio aua ianeieueei oeeoao.

«Aa?iia, – aiai?eo O.I.Aeinoiaaneee a naiai «Aeiaaieea ienaoaey», – ii
aaaeue yoi no?aoiay e nayoay aauue, Aa?iia. I, ciaaoa ee au, ainiiaea,
eae aei?iaa iai, ia/oaoaeyi-neaayiioeeai, ii-aaoaio, iaiaaenoieeai
Aa?iiu, – yoa naiay Aa?iia, yoa no?aia “nayouo /oaean”. Ciaaoa ee au,
eae aei?iae iai yoe “/oaeana” e eae ethaei e /oei, aieaa /ai a?aonee
ethaei e /oei iu aaeeeea ieaiaia, ianaeythuea aa e ana aaeeeia e
i?ae?aniia, niaa?oaiiia eie? Ciaaoa ee au, aei eaeeo neac e naeaoey
na?aeoea io/atho e aieiotho ian noaeueau yoie aei?iaie e ?iaeiie iai
no?aiu, eae ioaatho ian yoe i?a/iua oo/e, ana aieaa e aieaa
caaieaeeaathuea aa iaaineeii? Ieeiaaea au, ainiiaea, iaoe aa?iiaeoeu e
caiaaeieee, noieue ia ethaeee Aa?iio, neieue iu, ia/oaoaee-neaayiioeeu,
ii-aaoaio, eneiiiua a?aae aa».

A ?iiaiao Aeinoiaaneiai iiaeii ano?aoeoue e aua aieaa ainoi?aeaiiua (aei
aano?aea) auneacuaaiey i Aa?iia. Oae, Aa?neeia, /a?ac eioi?iai
Aeinoiaaneee /anoi auneacuaae naith iiceoeeth ii oiio eee eiiio aii?ino,
aiai?eo neaaeothuaa:

«?onneiio Aa?iia oae aea ae?aaioeaiia, eae ?inney; eaaeaeue eaiaiue a
iae iee e aei?ia. Aa?iia oae aea auea ioa/anoaii iaoei, eae e ?inney. 
I, aieaa. Iaeuecy aieaa ethaeoue ?inneth, /ai ethaeth aa y, ii y
ieeiaaea ia oi?aeae naay ca oi, /oi Aaiaoeey, ?ei, Ia?eae, nie?iaeua eo
iaoe e eneonnoaa, any enoi?ey eo — iia ieeaa, /ai ?inney. I, ?onneei
aei?iae yoe noa?ua /oaeea eaiie, yoe /oaeana noa?iai Aiaeueaai ie?a, yoe
ineieee nayouo /oaean; e aeaaea yoi iai aei?iaea, /ai ei naiei… Iaeia
?inney aeeaao ia aeey naay, a aeey iunee, e ciaiaiaoaeueiue oaeo, /oi
aio ii/oe oaea noieaoea, eae ?inney aeeaao ?aoeoaeueii ia aeey naay, a
aeey iaeiie eeoue Aa?iiu».

I?eaaaeai oaeaea neiaa aieaa no?iai e o?acai iuneyueo, /ai Aeinoiaaneee,
ethaeae.

«O?enoeaineee Caiaae, – ieoao A.Caiueeianeee, – inoaaony iai ?aeeaeicii
?iaeiui e aeeceei ai iiiaeo naieo no?aieaieyo, a aai ioeaee e a?aoe
aaaeiu aeey ian eae o?ie; anee enoi?e/anee inouanoaeony iino?iaiea
i?aaineaaiie eoeueoo?u, oi iii aeieaeii auoue naiaiaeii io oao
e?aeiinoae, a eaeeo i?ioaeaei ?aeeaeiciia ?acaeoea Caiaaea».

A aio neiaa A.Oei?ianeiai:

«Ioaeii oaa?aei iiiieoue, eiy O?enoa niaaeeiyao ?inneth e Aa?iio, eae au
ie auei iii eneaaeaii e aeaaea ii?oaaii ia Caiaaea. Anoue aeoaieay e
ianiyoay ?aeeaeiciay a?aiue iaaeaeo ?inneae e Caiaaeii, ii iia ia
ono?aiyao aioo?aiiae ienoeei-iaoaoece/aneie eo nii?yaeaiiinoe e e?oaiaie
o?enoeaineie ii?oee. ?inney, eae aeeaay i?aaiieoea Aecaioee, inoaiaony
i?aaineaaiui Ainoieii aeey iai?aaineaaiiai, ii o?enoeaineiai Caiaaea
aioo?e aaeeiiai eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai oeeeea».

Caiaae (eae e aanue ie? a oeaeii) naaiaeiy noieo ia ia?aioouea.
Aani?aoeaaeaioiinoue naaiaeiyoiae neooaoeee caeeth/aaony a iieiii
ionoonoaee oioue neieueei-ieaoaeue na?ueaciie e aeoaieie nenoaiu
oeaiiinoae e ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo eii?aeeiao. Caiaae, i?e anae naiae
eieinnaeueiie aeeciaiiie yia?aaoeea, ia ciaao, ca/ai e aeey /aai ii
aeeaao. Ii I.Ni?ieeio, iineaaeiyy ie?iaicc?ai/aneay noia?nenoaia
(naineoeaiay) ainiiaenoaiaaea ia Caiaaea n XV aei eiioea XIX aaea, iinea
/aai iia noaea ?ac?ooaoueny.

«A XX noieaoee caiaaeiue ie? anooiee a aeeeoaeueiue ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae,
aeaeaaynue iaano?a/o iiaie ainiiaenoaothuae oi?ia niciaiey, eoeueoo?u,
iiaui nenoaiai oeaiiinoae e oi?iai nioeeaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee. Iineieueeo
noa?ia aaee/anoaaiiia naineoeaiia caeaiea ?ac?ooeeinue, a caeaiea iiaie
noia?nenoaiu aua ia iino?iaii, oi aicieeee oinoaaiiia, ii?aeueiia,
nioeeaeueiia e eoeueoo?iia niyoaiea e aia?oey… Yoa e?eoe/aneay neooaoeey
ia Caiaaea e a ie?a a oeaeii yaeyaony naaiaeiy ?aaeueiinoueth aeey anaai
/aeiaa/anoaa».

Yoe neiaa I.Ni?ieei iaienae a 1967 aiaeo. Iaeiaei e nae/an, a ia?aua
aiaeu XXI aaea, iiaay nenoaia oeaiiinoiuo eii?aeeiao ii-i?aaeiaio
ionoonoaoao. Ii ia?aciiio au?aaeaieth nia?aiaiiiai oeeinioa,
naaiaeiyoiee caiaaeiue /aeiaae anoue /aeiaae «iaeiiia?iue», eai oo?aoee
aeooiaiia e eoeueoo?iia ecia?aiey naiaai auoey.

Eoaea aea aeaeiaony yoio yoio iaeiiia?iue homo economicus Caiaaea? Eaeea
eii?aeeiaou oeaiiinoae ii ecaa?ao aeey naay, /oiau niiaa noaoue aeaoo-,
o?ao- e aieaa- ia?iui? Aa?iaony ee yoio aeoaeiue nui a aeii Io/ee, o.a.
e naiei o?enoeaineei ei?iyi?

Iooue Caiaaea – iooue Oaonoa

I.A. Aa?aeyaa (e ia oieueei ii) n?aaieaae iooue aeooiaiie yaiethoeee
Caiaaea n iooai Oaonoa:

«Noaeueaa Oaonoa – noaeueaa aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u. Aeooa Oaonoa — aeooa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Aeooa yoa auea iieia ao?iuo, aaneiia/iuo no?aieaiee. A
iae auea eneeth/eoaeueiay aeeiaie/iinoue, iaaaaeiiay aeooa aioe/iie,
aeooa yeeeineie. A iieiaeinoe, a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey e aua ?aiueoa, a
Aic?iaeaeaiee n?aaeiaaaeiaii, aeooa Oaonoa no?anoii eneaea enoeio, iioii
aethaeeanue a A?aooai e aeey inouanoaeaiey naieo aaneiia/iuo
/aeiaa/aneeo no?aieaiee anooieea a nithc n Iaoenoioaeai, n ceui aeooii
caiee. E oaonoianeay aeooa iinoaiaiii auea ecuaaeaia iaoenoioaeaaneei
ia/aeii… Oaono a iooe naiai ia?aoiaeeo io ?aeeaeiciie eoeueoo?u e
aac?aeeaeiciie oeeaeeecaoeee. E a aac?aeeaeiciie oeeaeeecaoeee
enoiuaaony oai?/aneay yia?aey Oaonoa, oie?atho aai aaneiia/iua
no?aieaiey. A?oa au?acee aeooo caiaaeii-aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u e aa
noaeueao».

O A?oa Oaono, eae ecaanoii (iiaeao auoue, A?oa aue a yoii aii?ina
/a?an/o? iioeienoe/ai?), – nianny e aioae a ?ae, ianiio?y ia ana naie
iioiaeaeaiey n Iaoenoioaeai, /a?iieieaeea e aeueyaieiiauaiea. Oaeea aai
eneaiey, iioiaeaeaiey e iaaeaiey, a oaeaea e eoia anaai yoiai Ainiiaeue
Anaaea?aeeoaeue i?iaeaeae ca?aiaa. Aeae Aia, /oiau, ii aiaeiaee n
aeeciaiiui iooai Oaonoa, e aeooiaiay yaiethoeey Caiaaea iineaaeiaai
ouny/aeaoey, ianiio?y ia aanue aa «iaoenoioaeeci», auea ia?auaia
I?iiuneii ai nianaiea e aeaai. Eai Ainiiaeue, eae ecaanoii ec
o?enoeaineiai eaoaoecena, aeaaea e cei, aicieeathuaa /a?ac oaeaeaiea
naiaiaeiuo oaa?ae io aeia?a, neeai ia?aoeoue ai aeaai.

4. ?INNEss E AINOIE

E naaoii aa?u caneyea

Neaicue noi?ae ratio e i?aaa

Ainoiea naaoeay caacaea…

Anee ioiioaiey n Caiaaeii ea?aee a ?onneie iunee ia?ainoaiaiioth ?ieue e
eiatho aiaaooth enoi?eth e ienueiaiiia ianeaaeea, oi ioiioaiey n
Ainoieii oaeie enoi?ee e oaeiai ianeaaeey ia eiatho. I?e/ei aeey yoiai
ianeieueei. N iaeiie noi?iiu, nai Ainoie anoue eiioeiaio caieiooue,
eio?iaa?oeaiue, ia neeiiiue e ?ani?ino?aiaieth aiaia, ai?acaei iaiaa
ooiiue e aaniieieiue, /ai Caiaae. Ainoie iaiiiai ?aaea, /ai Caiaae,
iuoaeny au?aceoue naie aioo?aiiea nie?iaeua iunee e aeooa n iiiiuueth
aiaoieo eoeueoo?iuo n?aaenoa, oaeeo, iai?eia?, eae, eeoa?aoo?a.
«Aiai?yuee ia ciaao, ciathuee ia aiai?eo» – yoa ioae?inoue aeainecia
auea iaeiie ec oa?aeoa?iuo /a?o ie?iaicc?aiey ainoi/iiai /aeiaaea.
Iiyoiio ainoi/iay eoeueoo?a ai iiiaii anoue eoeueoo?a onoiie, a ia
ienueiaiiie o?aaeeoeee, aaaeue iuoaoueny au?aceoue aeoaeiu aeooa ia
aoiaaa – yoi oi aea, eae anee au eoi noae «iiiaineiaii aeieacuaaoue, /oi
iie/aiea – cieioi».

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeoaieiio i?iieeiiaaieth ?onneie oeeinioneie iunee ia
Ainoie i?aiyonoaiaae neiaeeaoeeny ia Caiaaea e ioooaea ia?aei/aaaaoee e
iai noa?aioei, /oi Ainoie – yoi /oi-oi i/aiue oaiiia, aa?aa?neia e
aeeeia, /oi io iaai ioaeii aea?aeaoueny iiaeaeueoa, /oi aeey
iiae?aaeaiey nouanoaoao eeoue iaeei aeinoieiue i?eia? – yoi Caiaae e
oieueei Caiaae. Yoio noa?aioei, ooaa?aeeaoeeny a ?onneie iao/iie e
ia?aciaaiiie iauanoaaiiinoe, iaoneiaee ioai?aaeeaaiea ?onneie iunee io
Ainoiea e ono?aieaiea aa eneeth/eoaeueii a caiaaeiii iai?aaeaiee.

Cia/eiinoue Ainoiea aeey ?innee

Neacaiiia ioiineony eiaiii eeoue e /enoi oai?aoe/aneie noa?a oeeinioneie
e iao/iie iunee XVIII-XIX aa. e ia ioiineony e ?aaeueiie enoi?e/aneie
aeecie ia?iaea, a eioi?ie iauaiea e acaeiiaeaenoaea n ia?iaeaie e
ethaeueie Ainoiea i?ienoiaeeei /anoi.

«?inney ia/aea i?eniaaeeiaiea e naaa oa??eoi?ee Acee (oi anoue
cao?aeueneeo) oieueei a eiioea XVI aaea, ii niaianoiay enoi?ey ainoi/iuo
aa?iiaeoeaa-neaayi e aceaoneeo ia?iaeia ia/aeanue ainaiueth noieaoeyie
?aiaa, ai a?aiy naiiai aicieeiiaaiey ainoaea?noaa ?onue. Eai iiiaea
ia?iaeu Acee aaee oiaaea ei/aaie ia?ac aeecie e iinoiyiii aeaeaaeenue ii
a?iiaaeiie ?aaieia, i?inoe?athuaeny io Aeoay aei Ea?iao, ia?aaeei
anooiay a i?aaeaeu ?one. Eo acaeiiioiioaiey n ainoi/iuie neaayiaie auee
iiiaiia?aciu — io aeanoieeo n?aaeaiee aei aiieia ie?iiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa», – ieoao A.Eiaeeiia.

E aua:

«…iaeei oieueei ?onneee ia?iae yaeyaony aa?aceeneei ii naiae nooe, «ii
ii?aaeaeaieth»; oae, n naiuo naieo enoieia, n IX aaea, ?onue ?acaeaaaony
a neiaeiii, ii oaniaeoai acaeiiaeaenoaee n aa?iiaeoeaie-neaiaeeiaaaie e
aceaoaie-oaca?aie, a a X aaea aini?eieiaao a ea/anoaa naiaai ?iaea
noa?oaai a?aoa aa?aceeneoth Aecaioeth».

Oaeei ia?acii, ?inney – yoi ecia/aeueii ia oieueei Aa?iia, ii e Acey, ia
oieueei Caiaae, ii e Ainoie. E yoi io/aoeeai niciaaaee iaeaieaa
i?iieoeaoaeueiua ec ?onneeo iuneeoaeae, aii?aee noa?aioeiai e
i?aae?annoaeeai naiae yiioe. Oae, iai?eia?, O.I.Aeinoiaaneee ienae:

«Iaaei i?iaiaoue eaeaeneoth aiyciue, /oi ian iaciaoo a Aa?iia aceaoneeie
aa?aa?aie e neaaeoo i?i ian, /oi iu aceaou aua aieaa, /ai aa?iiaeoeu.
Yoio nouae, /oi ian Aa?iia n/eoaao aceaoaie, i?aneaaeoao ian oaea /ooue
ia aeaa aaea… Yoio ioeai/iue nouae e yoio ioeai/iue acaeyae ia naay
aaeeinoaaiii eae oieueei ia aa?iiaeoeaa, a ia aceaoia (eaeiauie iu
ieeiaaea ia ia?anoaaaee i?aauaaoue) — yoio nouae e yoio ioeai/iue
acaeyae aei?iai, i/aiue aei?iai noieee iai a yoe aeaa aaea…»

I oii aea aiai?ee e I.TH.Ea?iiioia, iaienaaoee ia?aae naiie naiae
aeaaeueth neaaeothuea neiaa:

«Ca/ai iai ana oyiooueny ca Aa?iiie?.. ss iiiaiio iao/eeny o aceaoia, e
iia au oioaeinue i?iieeiooue a oaeinoaa aceaoneiai ie?inica?oeaiey…»

Oaeaea e *aaaeaaa, ynii niciaaay, /oi o ?innee naie iniaue iooue,
ioee/iue io iooe Aa?iiu, ienae a 1835 aiaeo:

«…ia aiai?eoa, /oi iu iieiaeu, /oi iu ionoaee io ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, /oi
iu iaaiiei eo. Iao, iu noieue aea iaei i?aaenoaaeyai niaie XVI eee XV
aae Aa?iiu, neieue e XIX aae… o ian ae?oaia ia/aei oeeaeeecaoeee.
Iiyoiio iai iaca/ai aaaeaoue ca ae?oaeie; iai neaaeoao ioe?iaaiii
ioeaieoue naay, iiiyoue, /oi iu oaeia…  Oiaaea iu iieaeai aia?aae».

Oaeie aea oi/ee c?aiey a yoii aii?ina i?eaea?aeeaaeenue e ?onneea
oeeiniou OO aaea: Aa?aeyaa, O?aie, Ea?naaei, Einaa e ae?. – o anao o ieo
iauei ianoii yaeyaony oacen i oii, /oi ?inney anoue ia oieueei Caiaae,
ii e Ainoie e /oi aceaoneay aa ninoaaeythuay ia iaiaa aaaeia e cia/eia,
/ai aa?iiaeneay.

I ?aeeaeiciinoe Ainoiea

A /ai aea cia/eiinoue Ainoiea aeey ?innee e Aa?iiu? Niaa?oaiii
i/aaeaeii, /oi aeaaiue aeeaae Ainoiea a iaua/aeiaa/aneoth nie?iaeuieoeo
aeooa – yoi aeeaae ?aeeaeiciue. Anee Caiaae ai ana a?aiaia aeoiae
aieueoa i caiea e /aeiaaea, oi Ainoie – i iaaa e i Aiaa. Anee aeey
Caiaaea anaaaea ia ia?aii ianoa noiyee ?annoaeie e oaoiieiaee, oi aeey
Ainoiea i?ei?eoaoaie yaeyeenue aa?a e ioe?iaaiea.

«Ainoie anoue no?aia ioe?iaaiey, – ieoao Aa?aeyaa. – Oai Aia aiai?ee n
/aeiaaeii eeoeii e eeoeo. Ana ?aeeaee aicieeee ia Ainoiea – ?aeeaey
aa?aeneay e iaoa o?enoeaineay, eae e iaaiiaoainoai, aoaeaeeci,
a?aieieci, ia?neci. Caiaae ia nicaeae ie iaeiie ?aeeaee e ia neuoae
i?yii aieina Aiaeueaai. Caiaae, i?aaaea, ?acaeaae ?aeeaeth o?enoeaineoth
e iiiai ooo nioai?ee, ii ?acaeaae iaoiaeaie oeeaeeecaoeee… Neiaieeea
Ainoiea e Caiaaea cia/eo: Ea?onaeei eee Aoeiu, ioe?iaaiea eee eoeueoo?a…
Ainoie e Caiaae – neiaieu, neiaieu nieioea ainoiaeyuaai, ioe?iaaiey e
nieioea caoiaeyuaai – oeeaeeecaoeee. Ainoie – oea?noai Aaiacena. Ii
aeaeae nioai?aiea e iaaeaiea ie?a e a iai inoaeny aua ia?aicaeaiiue
oain. Ie? nioai?ai aue ia Ainoiea, ia Caiaaea nioai?aia auea
oeeaeeecaoeey e i?iaoaeeeny ?acoi. Caiaae anoue na?aaeeia enoi?e/aneiai
iooe ie?a e /aeiaa/anoaa, ii ia ia/aei e ia eiiaoe. A yoie na?aaeeia
nicaeaaaeanue e ?acaeaaeanue aaeeeay eoeueoo?a, iuneue /aeiaaea
?acaa?ioea naie neeu. Ii eiia/iua noaeueau eoeueoo?u inoathony ne?uouie,
e ia?aaeei ethaeyi Caiaaea iia i?aaenoaaeyaony aaneiia/iie. *oiau
?ane?uoue eiia/iua noaeueau, ioaeii aa?iooueny ia Ainoie, e enoi/ieeai
aauae».

Ec neacaiiiai, eiia/ii, ia neaaeoao, /oi Ainoie /oaeae eoeueoo?u e
niaa?oaiii io?eoeaao aa. Ainoie ia io?eoeaao caiioth eoeueoo?o
(aniiiiei, /oi ia?aua aaeeeea i/aae eoeueoo?u ?iaeeeenue eiaiii ia
Ainoiea – Iaaeaeo?a/uea, Aaeiao, Eeoae), i?inoi ii, a ioee/ea io
Caiaaea, ia noaaeo aa ai aeaao oaea, ia ii/eoaao ca aunoaa aeaai. Ainoie
ia neeiiai noaaeoue caieth auoa iaaa, ii naia eoeueoo?a Ainoiea anaaaea
?aeeaeicia. Ii yoie i?e/eia eoeueoo?iia aicaeaenoaea Ainoiea ia Caiaae
anoue anaaaea aicaeaenoaea ?aeeaeiciia. Aa?aeyaa ieoao:

«A?aei-?eineay n?aaeecaiiiii?neay oeeaeeecaoeey, eioi?oth
i?ioeaiiieaaatho Ainoieo, iiiaie?aoii iiaeaa?aaeanue aeeyieth Ainoiea.
Aac acaeiiaeaenoaey n Ainoieii, eioi?ia anaaaea auei aianoa n oai
ai?ueaie, iia ia iiaea au nouanoaiaaoue. Yaaeneay eoeueoo?a auea
Ainoieii. Ecaia, ec O?aeee, i?eoae a A?aoeeth aia Aeeiien, e aac yoiai
ainoi/iiai aiaa ia auei au aaee/aeoaai nicaeaiey a?a/aneiai aaiey –
a?a/aneie o?aaaaeee, ia auei au aaee/aeoeo aeinoeaeaiee a?a/aneie
?aeeaee. I?oeci ianuuai ainoi/iuie yeaiaioaie. Iie i/aiue neeueiu o
Ieaoiia, eioi?iai iaeioi?ua i?eciatho ainoi/iui oeeinioii. A?a/aneee
aaiee aiieeiie/aneie oi?iu iaeaaeae aoeiie aeeiiene/aneie noeoeae, ii
aac yoie noeoee ii ie/aai niaa?oeoue au ia iia. A eae aaeeee auee
aeeyiey aaeiaoneea! Iiaay aoiaienoe/aneay Aa?iia ethaeo a?a/aneee
?aoeeiiaeeci e iiceoeaeci, eioi?ua e n/eoaao Caiaaeii, a ia A?aoeeth
ienoa?ee e o?aaaaeee, Aa?aeeeoa e Ieaoiia, ai anyeii neo/aa ia Ieaoiia
ieoioai?oea, ia aeoaeiiue neie A?aoeee, eioi?ue ioe?ueny Aaoioaio e
Ieoeoa».

Aeaaiue aeeaae Ainoiea anoue aeeaae ?aeeaeiciue, oae yoi auei ai ana
a?aiaia, oae yoi ianoieo e a iaoa a?aiy. Naaiaeiy yoi iniaaiii
aeooaeueii, eai ia?iaeu, nio?aieaoea aua naio niiniaiinoue  aa?eoue,
oieueei e iiaoo i?ioeainoiyoue aeiieie?othuae a nia?aiaiiii ie?a e?aeia
aa?anneaiie e ?acaeoie, ii ii naiae nooe aacaiaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee
Caiaaea. Ecaanoiue i?aaineaaiue ienneiia? a Eiaeiiacee a?oeiaiae?eo
Aeaieee ia aii?in ei??aniiiaeaioa, /oi ii-ianoiyuaio oeaiiia iiaeao
Caiaae iicaeinoaiaaoue o Ainoiea, ioaaoee:

«I/aiue iiiaia. Aeaaiue o?ie – yoi aeoai/aeoay ?aeeaeiciinoue ainoi/iiai
/aeiaaea. Ainoi/iua ethaee ?aeeaeiciu, ionoue e a i/aiue ?acee/iuo
oi?iao. Aeey eiaeiiaceeoea no?aiii neuoaoue io caiaaeiiai /aeiaaea, /oi
oio ia aa?eo a Aiaa. Aeey ian yoi i/aiue no?aiii, eai aeey ian, aceaoia,
Aia – yoi oae i/aaeaeii. Eae iiaeao eoi-ieaoaeue a Iaai ia aa?eoue?
Iiniio?e ia aaee/ea i?e?iaeu e oii?yaei/aiiinoue anaai nouaai aie?oa
oaay… Eae yoi aiciiaeii?! Cia/eo, anee ou ioaa?aaaoue Aai, ou
inoaaoueny iaeei ni naiei iaeaiueeei e ia?aie/aiiui oiii. Ii eae ou ia
niiniaai oaeaeaoue a aaee/ee i?e?iaeu ?oeo aa Nicaeaoaey?

Aeey iaiy iniaaiii o?oaeii iiiyoue oaeie aio ia?ac iuneae caiaaeiiai
/aeiaaea. Iooaoanoaoy e /eoay ?acee/iua eieae, y ia/eiath iiiaia
iiieiaoue, ii aei neo ii? iia no?aiii, /oi ethaee ia iiaoo aa?eoue a
Aiaa. Iia eaaeaony, /oi yoi i?iaeaia ia niciaiey, ii nei?aa — na?aeoea.
Na?aeoea ethaeae noaiiayony aan/oanoaaiiuie. Aeey ainoi/iiai /aeiaaea
iauaiea n Aiaii anoanoaaiii. N Aiaii eee n aiaaie – ia noieue aaaeii a
aeaiiii neo/aa; aaaeii iiieiaiea i/aaeaeiinoe oaeiai iauaiey».

Oaeei ia?acii, oaea i?inoay niiniaiinoue e aa?a a ?aaeueiia i?enoonoaea
Aiaa a ie?a e a aeecie /aeiaaea eiaao aeey nia?aiaiiiai iaacaa?eaoaainy
e ?aeeaeicii ia?oaiai caiaaeiiai niiauanoaa ia?iiiia cia/aiea.

?aeeaee Ainoiea eae aeaoiaiaeeoaee ei O?enoo

Eiia/ii, n o?enoeaineie oi/ee c?aiey a aeaiiie neooaoeee o?aaothony
nouanoaaiiua iaiai?ee – aaaeue, eae ecaanoii, Ainoie a naiai
aieueoeinoaa yaeyaony iao?enoeaineei, a iioiio aai ?aeeaeiciinoue ia
iiaeao auoue i?eciaia cae?aaie e aa?iie.  Ainoie iaeeaeaao naiaai
ia?auaiey ei O?enoo, e aai ?aeeaeiciua o?aaeeoeee, n i?aaineaaiie oi/ee
c?aiey, yaeythony a?aiaiiuie aeaoiaiaeeoaeyie, aeaiiuie aio
I?iaeaeaieai, iiae iiaeie eioi?uo ainoi/iua ia?iaeu aeieaeiu
iaoiaeeoueny aei oiai a?aiaie, eiaaea Aiao aoaeao oaiaeii aaanoe eo a
naie /a?oia – O?enoiao Oea?eiaue.

Ia yoii aiai?eee ?onneea oeeiniou. Oae, iai?eia?, A.N.Nieiaueaa
?anniao?eaae eneai, eae cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieoth nooiaiue
?aeeaeiciiai niciaiey, ii n?aaiaieth n eiaaoei ianoi aei Iooaiiaaea
a?aaneei ycu/anoaii. A ?aaioa «Iaaiiao, aai aeeciue e ?aeeaeiciia
o/aiea» Nieiaueaa ieoao:

«A i?aaeaiee i ii/iie iiacaeea Iooaiiaaea a Ea?onaeei ?anneacuaaaony
iaaeaeo i?i/ei, eae a «aeiia iieeiiaiey» i?i?ieo iinea iieeoau auee
i?aaeeiaeaiu o?e /aoe: iaeia n iaaeii, ae?oaay n aeiii e o?aouey n
iieieii,  e ii aua?ae ec ieo iineaaeithth.

Iaaeaeo ycu/aneie /oanoaaiiinoueth (iaae) e o?enoeaineie aeooiaiinoueth
(aeii) Eneai a naiii aeaea anoue caei?iaia e o?acaia iieiei: naieie
iauaaeinooiiuie aeiaiaoaie e oaeiaieniieieiuie caiiaaaeyie ii ieoaao
ia?iaeu, i?ecaaiiua e enoi?e/aneiio aeaenoaeth, ii aua ia aei?inoea aei
aunoeo eaeaaeia /aeiaa/anoaa.

Aeey a?aaia e ae?oaeo ia?iaeia, i?eiyaoeo ?aeeaeth Iooaiiaaea, iia
aeieaeia noaoue oai, /ai aue caeii aeey eoaeaaa e oeeinioey aeey
yeeeiia,  ia?aoiaeiie nooiaiueth io ycu/aneiai iaoo?aeecia e enoeiiie
oieaa?naeueiie eoeueoo?a, oeieie nie?eooaeecia e oaecia a aeinooiiie
yoei ia?iaeai ia/aeueiie iaaeaaiae/aneie oi?ia».

Nieiaueaa i?aaeneacuaaao aeaeaa, /oi:

«?aeeaey Iooaiiaaea aua eiaao aoaeouiinoue; iia aua aoaeao anee ia
?acaeaaoueny, oi ?ani?ino?aiyoueny. Iinoiyiiua oniaoe eneaia n?aaee
ia?iaeia iaei aini?eei/eauo e o?enoeainoao  a Eiaeee, Eeoaa, N?aaeiae
Ao?eea,  iieacuaatho, /oi aeooiaiia iieiei Ei?aia aua ioaeii aeey
/aeiaa/anoaa».

Oaeei ia?acii, eneai ioaeai oai ia?iaeai, eioi?ua iiea aua ii ecaanoiui
Aiao i?e/eiai ia aioiau e i?eiyoeth O?enoiaie enoeiu.

Eeethno?aoeeae yoiai oacena iiaeao neoaeeoue iaeei neo/ae, ?anneacaiiue
eiaeiiaceeoeai a?oeiaiae?eoii Aeaieeeii. Ioaoe Aeaieee aue ainieoai a
ionoeueiainoaa, a aoaeo/e thiioae, iiciaeiieeny n o?enoeainoaii e i?eiye
e?auaiea o i?ioanoaioia-iyoeaeanyoieeia. Iaeiaei nei?i ii ia/ae
?aci/a?iauaaoueny a o?enoeainoaa, o.e. a i?ioanoaioecia aio ia oaaoaei
aeoaeiu e aeeciaiiie neeu. Iaoiaeynue a aieueoeo niiiaieyo, ioaoe
Aeaieee (oiaaea aua Aiiaaia Aeae Aueyoi?i) eieaaaeny e oaea oioae
aa?iooueny e ?aeeaee iooeia – eneaio. Oae iii, nei?aa anaai, e auei au,
anee au ia iaeei ciaiaiaoaeueiue nii, aeaeaiiue ei.

«Iaeiaaeaeu ii/ueth y niae e ai nia oaeaeae naay iaeiiieeii a Iaeea, –
?anneacuaaao i. Aeaieee. – Yoi aue naiue ianoiyuee oaaeae; yoi auei
ianoieueei ?aaeueii, /oi y iiiith ana aei neo ii?. ss neaeae n ae?oaeie
iaeiiieeaie e i?yii iai?ioea aoiaea a Eaaao y oaeaeae Iooaiiaaea. Ii
i?iiiaaaeiaae ieeeeiiai ethaeae; ai a?aiy naiae i?iiiaaaee ii iaa?ioeny
ei iia e neacae: “Ou ii/aio caeanue? ss neacae oaaa, y iieacae oaaa
iooue. Ii/aio ou ia oai?” ss i?inioeny a iioo, ianoieueei y aue iaioaai.
Ii/aio? Iioiio /oi a eneaia nouanoaoao i?aaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio,
anee i?i?ie Iooaiiaae yaeyaony oaaa, yoi ia iiaeao auoue aeueyaieueneei
iaieueuaieai. Yoi oieueei i?i?ie Iooaiiaae. Eiaaea y ?anneacae ae?oaei
ionoeueiaiai i iiai nia, iie neacaee, /oi yoi aeieaeai auoue i?i?ie
Iooaiiaae. Ii eae iiaeao i?i?ie Iooaiiaae neacaoue oaaa, /oiau ou noae
o?enoeaieiii?! Yoi auea oaeia, ii aeaaiaea?y yoiio aeaeaieth y inoaeny
o?enoeaieiii».

I?eia?ii oi aea naiia, aa?iyoii, iiaeii neacaoue e i anao inoaeueiuo
?aeeaeyo Ainoiea – aoaeaeecia, neioiecia, eiaeoecia e i?. – iie nooue
eeoue i?iaiaeieee, ioaeiua oiio eee eiiio ia?iaeo aei a?aiaie ia?aoiaea
ia aieaa aunieoth ?aeeaeicioth nooiaiue.

Ainoie iaeeaeaao naiaai ia?auaiey

Eae aea ieaaeaony aiciiaeiui ia?auaiea a o?enoeainoai ionoeueiai,
aoaeaeenoia, eiaeoenoia, – aaaeue ia ia?aue acaeyae yoi niaa?oaiii
ia?aaeueii? Ioaao, iaeiaei, i?inoie: eo ia?auaiea aiciiaeii oi/ii oae
aea, eae e ana eiaaoea ianoi a enoi?ee ianniaua ia?auaiey ycu/ieeia –
A?aoeee, ?eia, Aaeioa, a ianeieueei iicaea – Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, neaayi e
?one. Aaaeue a oa a?aiaia yoe ia?auaiey oaeaea eacaeenue iaiuneeiuie, e,
iaeiaei aea, niaa?oeeenue, eiaaea aeey yoiai i?eoei a?aiy. «Aeooa,
nioai?aiiay ii ia?aco Aiaeeth, ii i?e?iaea naiae «o?enoeaiea» e iiaeao
anoanoaaiiui ia?acii naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i nouanoaiaaiee e ao?eaooao
Aiaa» – aiai?ee Oa?ooeeeai a 211 aiaeo, «a iioiio eiia/iay oeaeue aa –
yoi anaaaea O?enoin e O?enoiaa enoeia».

E.Ea?naaei a naia a?aiy aiai?ee, /oi ycu/ieee Aa?acee nooue
iioaioeeaeueiua i?aaineaaiua. Ianiio?y ia oi,  /oi iuneue yoa iiiai
e?eoeeiaaeanue ae?oaeie iuneeoaeyie, iai?eia? A.Oei?ianeei, iia,
ianiiiaiii, ianao a naaa iaeoth i?aaaeo. sscu/ieee XX e XXI aa. oi/ii
oae aea, eae e aioe/iua e n?aaeiaaaeiaua ycu/ieee, /anoi auaatho aiana
ia aeaeaee io oiai, /oiau ia?aoeoueny a O?enoiao aa?o.

Aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey yoie iunee iiaeii oeacaoue, iai?eia?, ia oniao
i?aaineaaiie iennee a ssiiiee a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a. Nayoie
?aaiiaiinoieueiue Ieeieae, aicaeaaeyaoee yoo ienneth, aue niaa?oaiii
oaaaeaeai, /oi ssiiiey a OO aaea noaiao i?aaineaaiie no?aiie. Oi, /oi
iia ia noaea oaeiaie a OO aaea, ia ii?iaa?aaao iiaiey nayoiai Ieeieay. A
aai oi/ea c?aiey aeey ian aaaeii, /oi yoio auaeathueeny i?aaineaaiue
ienneiia? ene?aiia n/eoae, /oi oaeia ia?auaiea aiciiaeii  a i?eioeeia,
/oi ia?iae yiiineee niiniaai e aioia e iaio. Ia i?iecioei aea iiea
oaeiai ia?auaiey, iiaeao auoue, oieueei iioiio, /oi iiiaoaee aio
eneeth/eoaeueii ao?iua enoi?e/aneea ?aaeee OO aaea. Iaeiaei oi, /oi ia
neo/eeinue a OO aaea, iiaeao aiieia neo/eoueny a iineaaeothuea aaea.

Ia ia?auaiee Ainoiea aiai?ee e ae?oaie nayoie OO aaea – i?aiiaeiaiue
Na?aoei Au?eoeeee. Aio aai neiaa:

«Ainoie aoaeao e?anoeoueny a ?innee. Aanue ie? iaaaniue iieeony i
i?inaauaiee Ainoiea».

I oii, /oi Eiaeey aioiaa ei e?auaieth naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaea ecaanoiay
a?a/aneay noa?eoea, iiiaoeiy Aaa?eeeey Iaiaeaie, iiiai eao aeeaoay a
Eiaeee.

«Eiaeey aiieia aioiaa aeey i?aaineaaey!» – aiai?eea iia.

Eiia/ii, ana yoi eeoue aaeeie/iua naeaeaoaeuenoaa, iaeiaei, e iie
aiai?yo i iiiaii – eiaiii i oii, /oi a ia?auaiee ia?iaeia Ainoiea a
o?enoeainoai iao ie/aai iaaa?iyoiiai, iai?ioea, oaeia ia?auaiea aiieia
aiciiaeii, eiia/ii, eiaaea i?eaeao aeey yoiai a?aiy. E a yoeo oneiaeyo
?ieue ?innee aoaeao aanueia aaeeea, o.e. ii/a?iiooue o?enoeainoai
Ainoieo oaeiaiaa anaai o ian.

O?ainoi?iaoeey aaeaina Ainoie-Caiaae

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaeain iaaeaeo Ainoieii e Caiaaeii i?aoa?iaaaao
nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey. Aeaei a oii, /oi Ainoie oieueei nianai iaaeaaii
– a iineaaeiea 100-150 eao – ia/ae auoiaeeoue ia ie?iaoth enoi?e/aneoth
noeaio, e aai ?ieue (iniaaiii a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey)  no?aieoaeueii
aic?anoaao. Anee Aeinoiaaneee a eiioea XIX aaea oieueei i?aaeoaaaeuaae
aoaeouoth aaaeioth ?ieue Acee, e oiaaea yoa aai oi/ea c?aiey eacaeanue
i/aiue yeno?aaaaaioiie, oi e eiioeo OO aaea oaeia iieiaeaiea aauae noaei
i?inoi i/aaeaeiui: Acey ao?ii ?acaeaaaony e auoiaeeo ec naiicaieiooiai
ninoiyiey «a ie?iaoth oe?ue», ii au?aaeaieth I.A.Aa?aeyaaa, eioi?ue,
i?aaeaeaey yoi, ienae a 1930 aiaeo:

«Caiaaeo i?eaeaony inoaaeoue oo eaeath, /oi Ainoie anoue aeey iaai eeoue
iauaeo iaoa?eaeueiiai e aeooiaiiai aicaeaenoaey. Ainoie anoue noauaeo, e
a ea/anoaa aeoeaiiai noauaeoa ii aiiaue aieaeao ai anaie?ioth enoi?eth».

Naaiaeiy, nionoy 80 eao, yoe i?iaiicu Aa?aeyaaa naueenue. Nia?aiaiiue
enneaaeiaaoaeue ieoao:

«Eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneia aic?iaeaeaiea Ainoiea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO
aaea auei ineaieoaeueiie i/aaeaeiinoueth, e iaeiia?aiaiii cia/aiea yoiai
oaiiiaia no?aiiui ia?acii iaaeiioeaieaaeinue, i?aoiaiueoaeinue,
aini?eieiaeinue nianai ia a oao eaoaai?eyo, eioi?ui iii ?aaeueii
niioaaonoaiaaei».

Anee iuneeoue a eaoaai?eyo /enoi iaoa?eaeueiiai ?acaeoey, oi ii
i?iaiicai niaoeeaeenoia Anaie?iiai aaiea, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?uie, e
2020 aiaeo

«aeanyoeo ainoaea?noa n iaeneiaeueiui iauaiii AAI iiaoo ninoaaeoue
i?aeiouanoaaiii no?aiu, e ii nae aeaiue o?aaeeoeeiiii naycuaaaiua n
«o?aoueei ie?ii»: Eeoae, Eiaeey, Eiaeiiacey, THaeiay Ei?ay, Oaeeaiae,
A?aceeey. Ec ae?oaeo no?ai a iae i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii iiaee au inoaoueny
NOA, ssiiiey, Aa?iaiey, O?aioeey. Eiuie neiaaie, anee yoe i?iaiicu
ana-oaee iaeaaeatho ii?aaeaeaiiie onoie/eainoueth, oi ia?aay aeanyoea
XXI aaea aoaeao ninoiyoue ec ainoaea?noa, ioiinyueony a iniiaiii e
a?aaeo Aieueoiai oeoiieaaineiai eieueoea».

A niioaaonoaea n yoei, ea?aeeiaeueii iaiyaony iieiaeaiea ?innee a
i?ino?ainoaa Caiaae-Ainoie: anee ?aiueoa ie? niciaaaeny eae
caiaaeioeaio?e/iue, a ?inney n/eoaeanue i?iiaaeooi/iie ciiie iaaeaeo
?acaeoie e i?inaauaiiie Aa?iiie e aaciaaeaaeii ionoaeie e oaiiie Aceae,
oi nae/an iia iaoiaeeony iaaeaeo aeaoiy yeiiiie/anee neeueii ?acaeouie
iiethnaie ie?a – noa?ui Caiaaeii e iiaui Ainoieii.

*oi iiaeao icia/aoue aeey ?innee oaeay ia?aiaia? I?aaeneacaoue caeanue
/oi-eeai /aeiaa/aneeie n?aaenoaaie iaaiciiaeii, iaeiaei iu aeieaeiu
iiiieoue, a /ai aeaaiia aiaaonoai e aeaaiue ?ano?n ?innee. ?ano?n yoio –
a iaaaniie enoeia i?aaineaaey, eioi?ie ia eiaao ie noa?ue Caiaae,
ooa?yaoee aeaaea naio niiniaiinoue aa?eoue, ie iiaue Ainoie, /uey aa?a
oioy e nio?aieeanue, iaeiaei /oaeaea O?enoa, a cia/eo, /oaeaea enoeiu.
Ie? ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac enoeiiie aa?u, a cia/eo, iia oae eee
eia/a aoaeao aino?aaiaaia, oioy au aeaaea e ia ei?ioeia a?aiy. A yoi
icia/aao, /oi o ?innee e o ae?oaeo i?aaineaaiuo ia?iaeia anoue aoaeouaa.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aaau Enaaea Ne?eia. Neiaa iiaeaeaeie/aneea.

2. Aaoaeia Y.ss. ?onneay eaeay e aia?eeaineay ia/oa.

3. Aa?aeyaa I.A. Ainoie e Caiaae.

4. Aa?aeyaa I.A. Enoiee e niune ?onneiai eiiioiecia.

5. Aa?aeyaa I.A. Iooue.

6. Aa?aeyaa I.A. ?onneay eaeay.

7. Aa?aeyaa I.A. Niune enoi?ee.

8. Aanaaea Oiiana Oaeueaa?oa n ia?aui i?aaineaaiui
nayuaiieeii-eiaeiiaceeoeai a?oeiaiae?eoii Aeaieeeii (Aaiaaia Aeae
Aueyoi?i).

9. Aeaaeaiiue Aeeaaeio Oioeeeeneee. Aeia?ioiethaea.

10. Aiae?ey? AE. Aia?eea.

11. Aoeoiai ss.I. Iai?aiaeieaiiue ?aoeeiiaeeci.

12. Ai?e/aaa O.I. O?enoeainoai e nia?aiaiiue ie?.

13. Aeinoiaaneee O.I. ?onneay eaeay.

14. AEeeuenii Y.A. Aaaaeaiea a o?enoeaineoth oeeinioeth.

15. AEeeuenii Y.A. Ianniaia iauanoai e aai eoeueoo?a.

16. Caiueeianeee A. Eaeay i?aaineaaiie eoeueoo?u.

17. Caiueeianeee A. ?onneea iuneeoaee e Aa?iia.

18. Ea?ii. Nio?iiee. I?aiiaeiaiue Neeoai Aoiineee.

19. Eeueei E.A. Iniiau o?enoeaineie eoeueoo?u.

20. Eeueei. E.A. ?onneay eaeay.

21. Ee?aaaneee E.A. ?acoi ia iooe e enoeia.

22. Eiaeeiia A.A. E iaciaao iaiy anye nouee a iae ycue.

23. Eiaeeiia A.A. I ?onneii iaoeeiiaeueiii niciaiee.

24. Eiaeeiia A.A. Iiaaaeu e aaaeu ?innee.

25. Iaeneiaiei A.E. Aeiaaeueiia niiauanoai.

26. Iiiaoeiy Aaa?eeeey. Iiaeaea ethaae.

27. Iaeeanna A.E. Aeiaaeueiia niiauanoai. Iiaay nenoaia eii?aeeiao.

28. Iaeeanna A.E. Yieeia enoi?ee.

29. Iiaai?iaeoeaa I. I?aaineaaea. Pro et contra.

30. Iaia?ei A.N. Aeiaaeueiia niiauanoai: iiaay nenoaia eii?aeeiao.

31. I?aiiaeiaiue Eonoei Iiiiae/. Aeinoiaaneee i Aa?iia e neaayinoaa.

32. I?aiiaeiaiue Iaea?ee Aaeiaoneee. Aeooiaiua aanaaeu.

33. I?aiiaeiaiue Na?aoei Au?eoeeee. Aeaoeno e aeeoea.

34. Na?o? AE.I. Aoio — aeaei i?aaia.

35. Neaei?eia O.TH. E?ecen OO aaea. I?iaiicu ?onneeo iuneeoaeae.

36. Nieiaueaa A.N. *oaiey i Aiai/aeiaa/anoaa.

37. Ni?ieei I.A. Aeaaiua oaiaeaioeee iaoaai a?aiaie.

38. Noa?aoe Iaenee Nayoiai?aoe. Ienueia.

39. Noa?aoe Iaenee Nayoiai?aoe. Neiaa.

40. Oa?ooeeeai. I aeooa.

41. Oei?ianeee A. Ec i?ioeiai ?onneie iunee.

42. O?aie N.E. Iooeei a ?onneie oeeinioneie e?eoeea.

43. *aaaeaaa I.ss. Aiieiaey noianoaaeoaai.

44. Oanoia E. Aoeiu e Ea?onaeei.

45. Ooaa?o A. Aa?iia e aeooa Ainoiea.

46. Y?i A.O. Ai?ueaa ca Eiain.

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