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Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey

?aiannain (o?. «aic?iaeaeaiea»;io eo.: Rinascimento) – iai?aaeaiea a
eneonnoaa, nouanoaiaaaoaa a 14-17 aa., acyaoaa naia ia/aei a Eoaeee a
N?aaeiea aaea e ?ani?ino?aieaoaany iicaea ia anth Aa?iio. A Yiioo
Aic?iaeaeaiey aic?inea ?ieue eeanne/aneiai ia?aciaaiey, noaeaaiay
aeanoue e aeeyiea Iaiu ?eineiai. Oaeaea yiioa iciaiaiiaaeanue ?acaeoeai
o/aiey i ia?niaeoeaa a aeeaiiene e i?i?uaii a iaoea. Iai?aaeaiea
cao?iioei iiiaeanoai iaeanoae eoeueoo?u, ii aieaa anaai ecaanoii naiei
aeeyieai ia eneonnoai e aeeaaeii oaeeo aaieaa, eae Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e
e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, neiaieece?othueo ?aiannain. Nouanoaoao iiaiea, oioy e
ia aaeeiiaeaniia, i oii, /oi ?aiannain ca?iaeeeny ai Oei?aioeee a 14 a.
I aai ia/aeao e oa?aeoa?enoeeao auei auaeaeiooi iiiaeanoai oai?ee,
iniiauaathueony ia ?yaea oaeoi?ia, aeeth/ay iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiie e
a?aaeaeaineie aeecie ai Oei?aioeee oiai ia?eiaea, a oaeaea o/eouaay
iieeoe/aneia ono?ienoai ai?iaea e ?ieue iaeaieaa aeeyoaeueiiai naiaenoaa
Iaaee/e. O Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey iaoe?iay e neiaeiay enoi?eia?aoey, e
n?aaee enoi?eeia anaaaea nouanoaiaaee nii?u ioiineoaeueii ?iee oa?ieia
«?aiannain» e naiiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee
iinoaaeee iiae aii?in oio oaeo, /oi ?aiannain aeaenoaeoaeueii yaeeny
oaaii aia?aae ii n?aaiaieth ni N?aaeieie aaeaie, a ia aue ia?eiaeii
ianneiecia e iinoaeueaee ii eeanne/aneie yiioa. Enoi?eee 19 a.
ianoaeaaee ia oii, /oi ?aiannain yaeeny i/aaeaeiui i?i?uaii eaeae e
i?aeoeee a n?aaiaiee ni N?aaeiaaaeiaueai, a oi a?aiy, eae iaeioi?ua
nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaoaee oeacuaatho ia i?aainoaaiiue oa?aeoa? yiio.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a iaoa a?aiy n/eoaaony iai?aaeeueiui aiai?eoue i
eaeii-oi enoi?e/aneii ia?eiaea eae i «eo/oai» eee «ooaeoai», /oi iiaeao
aeaaea i?eaanoe e ieaaee?iaaieth oa?ieia. Iiiyoea ?aiannaina oaeaea
ioiineeinue e iienaieth ae?oaeo enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iuo aeaeaeaiee, eae oi
Aecaioeeneee ?aiannain e o.ae. Aeo?oaeaineee *aeiaae Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e
ynii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aeeyiee ienaoaeae ae?aaiinoe ia iuoeaiea
aeayoaeae eneonnoaa ia?eiaea ?aiannaina. Aea Aei/e iiiuoaeny ecia?aceoue
eaeaaeueii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiiai /aeiaaea. ?aiannain aue eoeueoo?iui
iai?aaeaieai, nouanoaaiii iiaeeyaoei ia eioaeeaeooaeueioth aeeciue
?aiiaai ia?eiaea nia?aiaiiinoe. Aicieeioa a Eoaeee e ?ani?ino?aieaoenue
e 16 a. ia anth Aa?iio, iai?aaeaiea inoaaeei naie neaae a eeoa?aoo?a,
oeeinioee, aeeaiiene, iieeoeea, iaoea, ?aeeaee e ae?oaeo noa?ao
eoeueoo?u. Aeayoaee Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey ?oeiaiaenoaiaaeenue i?eioeeiaie
aoiaiecia, a a aeeaiiene no?aieeenue e ?aaeecio e cao?aaeaaieth
/aeiaa/aneeo yiioeee. Aeayoaee Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey /a?iaee ciaiey ec
ae?aaieo o/aiee, a iniiaiii iaienaiiuo ia eaoeineii eee
ae?aaiaa?a/aneii. Iuneeoaee oiai ia?eiaea eco/aee o?oaeu aeaeeioae
aa?iiaeneeo iiianou?ae a iieneao caoa?yiiuo ?aaio ae?aaiinoe. Ionthaea
ca?iaeeeinue eo iai?aiaeieeiia aeaeaiea niaa?oainoaiaaoue e ?anoe?youe
naie ciaiey ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a e aiciee niaa?oaiii iiaue acaeyae ia
o?ainoeaiaeaioaeueioth aeooiaiinoue n?aaeiaaaeiaiai O?enoeainoaa. Iie ia
io?eoeaee O?enoeainoai, iaiai?io, iiiaeanoai aaeeeeo oai?aiee Yiioe
Aic?iaeaeaiey auee aio iinayuaiu, a iiiaea ?aaiou i?iaiaeeeenue iiae
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii oea?eae. Oai ia iaiaa, a ioiioaiee eioaeeaeooaeueiuo
aeayoaeae e ?aeeaee i?iecioee iaeioi?ua ia?aiaiu, /oi io?aceeinue ia
iiiaeo ae?oaeo noa?ao eoeueoo?iie aeecie. Ooaeiaeieee no?aieeenue e
?aaeenoe/iiio ecia?aaeaieth /aeiaa/aneeo oeao?, niaa?oainoaoy oaoieee
aieaa anoanoaaiiie ia?aaea/e ia?niaeoeau e naaoa. Iieeoe/aneea oeeiniou,
n?aaee eioi?uo iniaaiii auaeaeyeny Ieeiei Iaeeaaaeee, iuoaeenue iienaoue
iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue oaeie, eaeie iia auea a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, e
oeo/oeoue nenoaio i?aaeaiey a niioaaonoaee n ?aaeueiuie iio?aaiinoyie.
Iiieii eco/aiey eeanne/aneeo eaouie e a?a/aneiai, aaoi?u oaeaea noaee
i?eiaiyoue ana /aua aeeaeaeoiua oi?iu. Aianoa n aicieeiiaaieai ia/aoe,
yoi oaaee/eei aeinooi e eieaai, iniaaiii Aeaeee, aeey ai?acaei
aieueoaai eiee/anoaa ethaeae. A oeaeii, Yiooo Aic?iaeaeaiey iiaeii
?anniao?eaaoue eae iiiuoeo ethaeae oai?/anoaa eco/eoue e
oniaa?oainoaiaaoue ie?oaeathuee ie? /a?ac i?ecio eaeae aioe/iinoe e n
iiiiuueth iiauo n?aaenoa iuoeaiey.

Anneieeyoeey a?a/aneeo e a?aaneeo ciaiee

Ia?aaiaeu n eaoeineiai o?oaeia 12 a.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey iieo/eea oaeia iacaaiea, iineieueeo iia yaeeanue
«aic?iaeaeaieai» ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeanne/aneeo eaeae, iaaeieai ooa?yiiuo
aeey Aa?iiu. Aaeenue nii?u i oii, /oi oie/eii aeey oaeiai iai?aaeaiey
iineoaeeei ioe?uoea ae?aaieo oaenoia, caauouo caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeeae,
ii nio?aiaiiuo a iaeioi?uo iiianou?neeo aeaeeioaeao e a eneaineeo
no?aiao, a oaeaea ia?aaiaeia a?a/aneeo e a?aaneeo o?oaeia ia eaoeineee.
Oaeea o/aiua Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey, eae Ieeiei aea Ieeiee e Iiaei
A?aeeieeie eco/aee aeaeeioaee a Aa?iia a iieneao ?aaio eeanneeia:
Ieaoiia, Oeeoea?iia e ae?. E?iia oiai, n caaiaaaieai Ie?aiaeneiai
iieoino?iaa iiiaeanoai a?a/aneeo e a?aaneeo o?oaeia auei caoaa/aii ec
oaeeo iano, eae aeaeeioaea a Ei?aeiaa, ian/eouaathuay 400 ouny/ eiea.
?aaiou ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo e yeeeienoe/aneeo aaoi?ia (Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue,
Yaeeeae, Ioieaiae, ae?.) e ionoeueiaineeo o/aiuo e oeeinioia (Aaaa?,
Aaoeueeacen, Aaeoeaiia e ae?.) auee ia?aaacaiu a o?enoeaineee ie?,
iiiieiea ciaiey aa?iiaeneeo o/aiuo. A?a/aneea e a?aaneea o?oaeu
?ani?ino?aiyeenue ia oieueei Eniaieae, ii e iaiin?aaenoaaiii n Aeeaeiaai
Ainoiea. Ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea aeoeaii ?acaeaaeanue iaoaiaoeea, e yoe
ciaiey auee aica?auaiu ia ?iaeeio e?anoiiinoeaie a 13 a. Oiaaeie
Aecaioeeneie Eiia?ee n 1204 a. e aa iineaaeothuaa iaaeaiea a 1453 a.
iiaeaeei ca niaie aeoeaioth eiea?aoeeth a?a/aneeo o/aiuo a Eoaeeth e
aeaeueoa. Yoe o/aiua i?eianee n niaie o?oaeu e ciaiey eeanne/aneie
a?a/aneie oeeaeeecaoeee, ooa?yiiua ia aaea aeey Caiaaeiiai ie?a.

Nioeeaeueiia e iieeoe/aneia ono?ienoai Eoaeee

Iieeoe/aneay ea?oa Eoaeueyineiai iieoino?iaa e 1494 a. : iaeioi?ua
enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho, /oi oieeaeueiia iieeoe/aneia ono?ienoai Eoaeee
a eiioea N?aaeiaaaeiauey nicaeaei iaiau/iue nioeeaeueiue eeeiao,
iicaieeaoee ?anoeaanoe ?aaeeiio eoeueoo?iiio iai?aaeaieth. Eoaeey ia
yaeyeanue oeaeueiie a ia/aea ia?eiaea nia?aiaiiinoe. Iia auea ?acaeaeaia
ia iiiaeanoai oa??eoi?ee: ei?ieaanoai Iaeiec eiio?iee?iaaeei tha,
?anioaeeea Oei?aioeey e oa??eoi?ee Iaiu ?eineiai – oeaio?, Aaioy – naaa?
e caiaae, a Aaiaoeey – ainoie. A 15 a. Eoaeey auea iaeiie ec naiuo
o?aaiece?iaaiiuo no?ai Aa?iiu. Ai iiiaeo aa ai?iaeao nio?aieeenue
?acaaeeiu ae?aaieo ?eineeo caeaiee. Iioiaea, /oi eeanne/aeia iai?aaeaiea
?aiannaina auei naycaii n aai enoieaie a na?aeoea ?eineie Eiia?ee. A
yoio ia?eiae Eoaeey auea ecaanoia naieie oi?aiauie ?anioaeeeaie,
aeeth/ay ?anioaeeeo Oei?aioeey e ?anioaeeeo Aaiaoeey. Oioy ia naiii
aeaea eo ono?ienoai iaei iaiiieiaei nia?aiaiioth aeaiie?aoeth,
ioiineoaeueiua iieeoe/aneea naiaiaeu, nouanoaiaaaoea oai, niinianoaiaaee
iiaiaaaaeaieyi a iaoea e eneonnoaa. Oaeaea eoaeueyineea ai?iaea, oaeea
eae Aaiaoeey, yaeyaoeany e?oiiuie oi?aiauie oeaio?aie, noaiiaeeenue
ia?ae?anoiuie ioieoaie aeey ?acee/iuo eioaeeaeooaeueiuo aayiee. Eoioeu
i?eaiceee iiaua eaeae n naiuo ioaeaeaiuo oaieeia naaoa, iniaaiii ni
N?aaeecaiiiii?uey. Aaiaoeey auea ai?ioaie aeey oi?aiaee n Ainoieii e
i?iecaiaeeoaeai oiieiai noaeea, oiaaea eae Oei?aioeey auea noieeoeae
oaeea e oe?aoaiee. Aiaaonoai Eoaeee, i?eianaiiia oaeie oi?aiaeae,
icia/aei, /oi aicieeei aieueoa aiciiaeiinoae aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey e?oiiuo
iauanoaaiiuo e /anoiuo i?iaeoia eneonnoaa, a o ioaeaeueiuo o/aiuo
iiyaeeinue aieueoa a?aiaie aeey enneaaeiaaiee.

*a?iay Nia?oue

Nouanoaoao ae?oaay oai?ey, niaeanii eioi?ie iineaaenoaey *a?iie Nia?oe –
yieaeaiee /oiu – ai Oei?aioeee (cao?iioaoae oaeaea anth Aa?iio) i?eaaee
e niaia ie?iaicc?aiey a Eoaeee a 14 a. Eoaeey auea ii?aaeaia /oiie
iniaaiii neeueii, e i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi aeecinoue nia?oe canoaaeei
iuneeoaeae oiai a?aiaie aieueoa aeoiaoue i ie?neie aeecie aianoi
aeooiaiinoe e aeecie iinea nia?oe. Oaeaea oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi
yieaeaiey iiaeaeea ca niaie iiaoth aieio iaaiaeiuo iano?iaiee e
iie?iaeoaeuenoaa ?aeeaeiciiai eneonnoaa. Oai ia iaiaa, yoi ia iauyniyao
iieiinoueth, ii/aio ?aiannain ca?iaeeeny eiaiii a Eoaeee a 14 a. *a?iay
Nia?oue yaeeanue iaiaeaieae, ieacaaoae oio aea yooaeo, /oi e ia Eoaeeth,
ia anth inoaeueioth Aa?iio. Nei?aa anaai ianooieaiea Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey
a Eoaeee noaei ?acoeueoaoii neiaeiiai nieaoaiey auoaoiiiyioouo oaeoi?ia.

Eoeueoo?a Oei?aioeee

Ei?aioei aea Iaaee/e – i?aaeoaeue Oei?aioeee e iie?iaeoaeue eneonnoa.
Aeieaia a?aiy i?aaeiaoii aeaaaoia yaeyeinue, ii/aio ?aiannain aiciee
eiaiii ai Oei?aioeee, a ia aaea-ieaoaeue aua a Eoaeee. O/aiua ioia/atho
iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe eoeueoo?iie aeecie, eioi?ua iiaee noaoue i?e/eiie
aicieeiiaaiey oaeiai iai?aaeaiey. Iiiai oiiieiaiee aaaeaony i ?iee
naiaenoaa Iaaee/e a iiaeaea?aeaiee e iie?iaeoaeuenoaa eneonnoa. Ei?aioei
aea Iaaee/e ioaiaeee ia?iiiua noiiu aeaiaa ia niiine?iaaiea aaaeoueo
aeayoaeae eneonnoaa, oaeeo eae Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e, Naiae?i Aioe/aeee e
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei Aoiia??ioe. Oai ia iaiaa, e iiyaeaieth naiaenoaa Iaaee/e
Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey oaea ia/aeanue, ia naiii aeaea aei oiai, eae Iaaee/e
nai aeinoea aaaaiiiee a iauanoaa Oei?aioeee. Iaeioi?ua enoi?eee aiai?yo
i neo/aeiii ca?iaeaeaiee ?aiannaina ai Oei?aioeee, /oi naycaii n oai,
/oi «aaeeeea» yoie yiioe neo/aeii ?iaeeeenue oai. ?iaeeiie aea Aei/e,
Aioe/aee e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei auea Oaneaiey. Cayaeyy, /oi oaeia noa/aiea
ianoiyoaeuenoa auei au iai?aaaeiiiaeiaiui, ae?oaea enoi?eee
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi yoe «Aaeeeea» niiaee i?ineaaeoueny oieueei aeaaiaea?y
aaaeouei oaiaeaioeeyi e oneiaeyi eoeueoo?iie aeecie oiai a?aiaie.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey

Aoiaieci Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey

Nai ii naaa aoiaieci ia aue oeeinioneei iai?aaeaieai, ii nei?aa iaoiaeii
eco/aiey. A i?ioeaiaan n?aaeiaaaeiaiio noieanoe/aneiio iaoiaeo,
iuoaaoaiony ono?aieoue i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo ?aciuie aaoi?aie, aoiaienou
eco/aee ae?aaiea oaenou a i?eaeiaea e ioeaieaaee eo /a?ac nianoaaiiua
?annoaeaeaiey ia?yaeo n yiie?e/aneeie iaaethaeaieyie. Aoiaienoe/aneia
ia?aciaaiea iniiauaaeinue ia eco/aiee iiycee, a?aiiaoeee, yoeee e
?eoi?eee. E?iia oiai, aoiaienoaie ionoaeaaeanue oai?ey i «/aeiaa/aneii
aaiee…oieeaeueiuo e oaeeaeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoyo /aeiaa/aneiai oia».
O/aiua-aoiaienou oi?ie?iaaee eioaeeaeooaeueiue oii ?aiiaai ia?eiaea
nia?aiaiiinoe. Iieeoe/aneea oeeiniou, oaeea eae Ieeiei Iaeeaaaeee e
Oiian Ii? aic?iaeeee eaeae a?a/aneeo e ?eineeo iuneeoaeae e i?eiaiyee eo
a e?eoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaa oiai a?aiaie. Aiaineiau, a iniaaiiinoe Y?anion
e Ia?oei Ethoa?, a?inaee aucia noaoono eai A?enoioaey, i?aaenoaaeyy
?aaeeeaeueii iiaua eaeae ia ii?aaaeaiee e aa?a.

Eneonnoai

Eoaeueyineay aeeaiienue Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey, aeeaiienue ?aiannaina,
a?oeoaeoo?a Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey

Iaeiie ec ioee/eoaeueiuo /a?o eneonnoaa Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey auei
?acaeoea aeoaiei ?aaeenoe/iie eeiaeiie ia?niaeoeau. Aaoa aee Aiiaeiia
(1267 -1337) ecaanoai eae ia?aue ooaeiaeiee, ?anniao?eaaaoee ?enoiie eae
ieii a i?ino?ainoai. Ii eae ooaeiaeanoaaiiay oaoieea ia?niaeoeaa auea
i?eiyoa ia ?aiueoa, /ai a?oeoaeoi?u Oeeeiii A?oiaeean/e (1377-1446) e
Eaii Aaooenoa Aeueaa?oe (1404-1472) iaienaee ia yoii o?oae. ?acaeoea
ia?niaeoeau noaei /anoueth aieaa iaoe?iie oaiaeaioeee e ?acaeoeth
?aaeecia a eneonnoaa. E yoiio a?aiaie ooaeiaeieee oaeaea ia/aee
?acaeaaoue e ae?oaea oaoieee, eco/ay naao, oaie e, iniaaiii Eaiia?aei
aea Aei/e, /aeiaa/aneoth aiaoiieth. Ca yoeie iiaoanoaaie a
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iaoiaeeeao noiyei aa?ioaoaany aeaeaiea ecia?aaeaoue
e?anioo i?e?iaeu e ?acaaaeuaaoue aeneiiu ynoaoeee. ?aaiou Eaiia?aei,
Ieeaeaiaeaeaei e ?aoayey yaeyeenue yoaeiiii aeey ooaeiaeieeia oiai
a?aiaie e neoaeeee ia?acoeii aeey iiae?aaeaiey.

A oi aea a?aiy a Ieaea?eaiaeao a aeeaiiene ?acaeaaeinue iniaia
eoeueoo?iia iai?aaeaiea, e oai?/anoai Ouethai aai Aiea e ssia aai Yeea
ieacaei eneeth/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eoaeueyineie aeeaiiene,
i?aaenoaaea eae iiaoth oaoieeo ienueia ianeii ia oienoa, oae e iiaue
noeeue anoanoaaiiiai ecia?aaeaiey. Iicaea ?aaiou Ieoa?a A?thaaey
Noa?oaai aaeioiiaeee ooaeiaeieeia ia ecia?aaeaiea noeai iianaaeiaaiie
aeecie. A a?oeoaeoo?a aieueooth ?ieue nua?ae Oeeeiii A?oiaeea/e,
eco/aaoee inoaiee ae?aaieo eeanne/aneeo caeaiee e ii?aaeaeeaoee noeeue
Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey, iie?aynue ia o?oaeu Aeo?oaey 1 a. e ciaiey ii
iaoaiaoeea. Naiui auaeathueiny oai?aieai a?oeoaeoi?a noae Oei?aioeeneee
Niai? iiae eoiieii. N?aaee oieeaeueiuo a?oeoaeoo?iuo i?iaeoia Yiioe
?aiannaina oaeaea noieo ioiaoeoue io?anoaa?e?iaaiioth Aaceeeeo Nayoiai
Iao?a, niaianoeaooth a naiai no?iaiee oaeaio A?aiaioa, Ieeaeaiaeaeaei,
?aoayey, Naiaaeei e Iaaea?ii.

Iaoea

?acaeoea iaoee a Yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey

?anoeaao eneonnoaa e aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe nii?iaiaeaeaeny aeoeaiui
?acaeoeai a ?acee/iuo iao/iuo noa?ao. Iaeioi?ua aeaeaee oaeie iiaeuai
aeoeaiinoe eae «iao/ioth ?aaiethoeeth», aicaauaaooth ia/aei
nia?aiaiiinoe. Ae?oaea n/eoaee yoi i?inoui onei?aieai i?ioeanna,
i?iaeieaeathuaainy n ae?aaieo a?aiai e aei iaoeo aeiae. A ethaii neo/aa,
o/aiua aaeeiiaeanii i?eciatho, /oi a Yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey i?iecioee
cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey ai acaeyaeao ia anaeaiioth e iaoiaeao, n
iiiiuueth eioi?uo oeeiniou iuoaeenue iauynieoue yaeaiey
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. A ia/aea yiioe ?aiannaina iaoea e eneonnoai auee
oanii naycaiu. Oae, Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e aeaeae ni naieo iaaethaeaiee
aiaoiie/aneea yneecu e ?eniaae i?e?iaeo. Oai ia iaiaa, iaeaieaa aaaeiui
aeeaaeii a iaoeo a oio ia?eiae yaeeinue ia ii?aaeaeaiiia ioe?uoea, a
nei?aa iao/iue iaoiae. Yoio ?aaiethoeeiiii iiaue i?eioeei iiciaiey ie?a
iniiauaaeny ia yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo, aaaeiinoe iaoaiaoeee e ioeac io
oai?ee A?enoioaey i aunoai ?acoio a iieueco oeeinioee oeceee. ?aiieie
noi?iiieeaie yoeo eaeae auee Eiia?iee e Aaeeeae. Iiaue iao/iue iaoiae
aeae ia?iiiue oie/ie a ?acaeoee ano?iiiiee, oeceee, aeieiaee e aiaoiiee.
N ioaeeeaoeeae ?aaiou Aanaeeona «De humani corporis fabrica» noaee
aieueoa aeiaa?youe iaoiaeai ane?uoey, iaaethaeaiee e iaoaienoe/aneiio
acaeyaeo ia aiaoiieth.

?aeeaey

Aeaenaiae? 6, Ai?aeeaineee nayuaiiee, caiieo/eaoee aeo?ioth ?aiooaoeeth
/a?ac ei??oioeeth. ?aoi?iaoeey e eiio??aoi?iaoeey.

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi iiaua eaeaaeu aoiaiecia, oioy e iineee
nei?aa ie?neie oa?aeoa? a iaeioi?uo aniaeoao, ?acaeaaeenue i?e
iiaeaea?aeea o?enoeainoaa, iniaaiii ia naaa?a. A naiii aeaea, ia
aieueoeinoai, anee ia ana, iiaia eneonnoai ?ani?ino?aiyeinue
iie?iaeoaeuenoai oea?eae e iinayuaiea ?aeeaee. Oai ia iaiaa, yiioa
?aiannaina aicuiaea nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia nia?aiaiioth oaieiaeth,
iniaaiii yoi eanaaony ioiioaiey /aeiaaea e Aiao. Iiiaea iaeaieaa
auaeathueany aiaineiau ia?eiaea auee i?eaa?aeaioeaie aoiaienoe/aneeo
iaoiaeia, aeeth/ay Y?aniona Oeaeiaee, Oiiana Ii, Ia?oeia Ethoa?a e
Aeaeiia Eaeueaeia. Yiioa ?aiannaina aicieeea ai a?aiy ?aeeaeiciuo
aanii?yaeeia. A eiioea N?aaeiaaaeiauey ia/aeinue a?aiy iieeoe/aneeo
eio?ea aie?oa iainoaa, ieii/eaoeony caiaaeiui ?aneieii, eiaaea
iaeiia?aiaiii o?ia iauyaeee naay enoeiiui ?eineei Aieneiiii. ?aneieo aue
iieiaeai eiiaoe ia Niaaoa (1414 a.), ii a 15 a. aicieeei ?aaeoeeiiiia
aeaeaeaiea, ecaanoiia eae Eiineeea?eci, iai?aaeaiiia ia ia?aie/aiea
aeanoe Iaiu. Iinea oiai, eae iainoai a eiioea eiioeia iieo/eei ia Iyoii
Niaaoa (1511 a.) aa?oiaioth aeanoue, aai noaee iinoiyiii i?aneaaeiaaoue
n iaaeiaieyie a ei??oioeee, iniaaiii ee/ii Iaio Aeaenaiae?a 6,
iaaeiyaiiai a neiiiee, iaiioecia e iooeianoaa /aou?ao iacaeiiiuo aeaoae,
eioi?uo ii aeaiee, /oiau ia?anoe aua aieueooth aeanoue. Oaeea
oea?eiaieee, eae Y?anion e Ethoa?, i?aaeeaaaee oea?eiaioth ?aoi?io,
iniiaaiioth /anoi ia aoiaienoe/iie e?eoeea oaenoa Iiaiai Caaaoa. A
ieoya?a 1517 a. Ethoa? iioaeeeiaae 95 oaeoia, a?inathueo aucia
aaoi?eoaoo Iaiu e e?eoeeoy aai i/aaeaeiia i?e/anoea e ei??oioeee,
iniaaiii ioiineoaeueii i?iaeaaee ei iioai?noaaiiiai ioiioaiey. Yoa
ioaeeeaoeey i?eaaea e ?aoi?iaoeee, ?ac?uao n ?eineie Eaoiee/aneie
Oea?eiaueth, i?aaeaea iaeaaeaaoae aaaaiiieae a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.
Aoiaieci e ?aiannain, oai ia iaiaa, nua?aee naioth iaiin?aaenoaaiioth
?ieue a ?acai?aiee ?aoi?iaoeee, oae aea, eae e ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo
?aeeaeiciuo noieeiiaaieyo e eiioeeeoao oiai a?aiaie.

Naiiiniciaiea yiioe ?aiannaina

E 15 a. eoaeueyineea ienaoaee,ooaeiaeieee e a?oeoaeoi?u /aoei iniciaaaee
i?ienoiaeeaoea eciaiaiey e eniieueciaaee oaeea au?aaeaiey, eae modi
antichi (a aioe/iii noeea) eee alle romana et alla antica ( a ?eineii
noeea e a noeea ae?aaiinoe ) aeey iienaiey naieo ?aaio. Oai ia iaiaa,
oa?iei «la rinascita» aia?aua iiyaeeny oiiieiaaiue a naiai oe?ieii
niunea a ?aaioa Aeaei?aeaeei Aana?e Vite de’piu eccelenti architetti,
pittori, et scrltori Italiani (AEeciue ooaeiaeieeia, 1550 a.,
ia?aniio?aiiia e eni?aaeaiiia ecaeaiea 1568 a.) Aana?e aeaeeo ia?eiae ia
o?e oacu: ia?aay oaca iciaiaiiaaeanue oai?/anoaii Aaoa, A?iieoi aee
Eaiaei e ae?., aoi?ay – ?aaioaie A?oiaeea/e, Aeiiaoaeei e ae?., o?aouey
naycaia n oai?/anoaii Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e e aeinoeaea naiaai ieea n
?aaioaie Ieeaeaiaeaeaei. ?acaeoeth iai?aaeaiey niinianoaiaaei ia oieueei
?anoouaa iniciaiea eeanne/aneeo oeaiiinoae aioe/iinoe, ii neiaai Aana?e,
ii oaeaea ?anoouaa aeaeaiea iiciaaaoue e ia?aaeaaaoue i?e?iaeo.

Iai?aaeaiea ?ani?ino?aiyaony

A 15 a. ?aiannain n aieueoie nei?inoueth ?ani?ino?aieeny ec naiaai
enoi/ieea, Oei?aioeee, nia/aea ii anae inoaeueiie Eoaeee, a caoai ii
anae Aa?iia. Aaaaeaiea ia/aoe iicaieeei yoei iiaui eaeayi no?aieoaeueii
ia?aaeaaaoueny. Ii ia?a naiaai ?ani?ino?aiaiey, eaeae noaiiaeeenue
?aciiia?aciaa e eciaiyeenue a niioaaonoaee n ianoiie eoeueoo?ie. A
aeaaaeoeaoii aaea o/aiua noaee ?acaeaeyoue yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey ia
?aaeiiaeueiua e iaoeeiiaeueiua aeaeaeaiey, aeeth/ay Eoaeueyineee
?aiannain, ?aiannain a Aiaeee, Iaiaoeeee ?aiannain, ?aiannain naaa?a,
?aiannain ai O?aioeee, a Ieaea?eaiaeao, a Iieueoa, Eniaiee, a?oeoaeoo?a
Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

?aiannain naaa?a

Ia/aaoothny ia naaa?a Aa?iiu Yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey iacaaee Naaa?iue
?aiannain. Iai?aaeaiea aia/aea aicieeei ai O?aioeee iinea anooieaiey a
Eoaeeth aiene ei?iey *a?eca-8. O?ainen-1 i?eaac a no?aio ?aaiou
eoaeueyineeo ooaeiaeieeia, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo aaoi?ia yoeo
i?iecaaaeaiee, aeeth/ay Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e e ?anii?yaeeeny i
aicaaaeaiee aei?iainoiyueo oe?aoaiiuo aeai?oeia. Oaeea ienaoaee, eae
O?ainoa ?aaea, Iuea? aea ?iina?ae e Ieoaeue aea Iiioaaia, aeeaiienoeu
AEai Eeoa e ae?. e iocueaiou AEai Iooii e ae?. oaeaea caeinoaiaaee naie
eaeae ec eoaeueyineiai ?aiannaina. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 15 a. eoaeueyioeu
i?eianee iiaue noeeue a Iieueoo e Aaia?eth. Iinea aeaieoueau a 1476 a.
Iaoeana Ei?aeiona, ei?iey Aaia?ee, ia Aaao?en Iaeiec, ai?iae Aoaea noae
iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo eoeueoo?iuo oeaio?ia Naaa?iiai ?aiannaina a
Aeueiao. Naiuie ecaanoiuie aoiaienoaie a ie?oaeaiee Iaoeana auee Aioiiei
Aiioeie e ssion Iaiiiieon. A 1526 a. Iooiiaineia caaiaaaiea Aaia?ee
iieiaeeei eiiaoe iaaeieaiio ia?eiaeo ?aiannaina a Aaia?ee. Ia?aui
eoaeueyineei aoiaienoii, i?eoaaeoei a Iieueoo a na?aaeeia 15 a., aue
Oeeei Eaeeeiaeon. Iiiaea eoaeueyineea ooaeiaeieee i?eoee a Iieueoo n
Aiiie Noi?ca ec Ieeaia iinea aa naaaeueau a 1518 a. n ei?ieai Iieueoe
Ceaioiaeii Ia?aui. Iai?aaeaieth niiiianoaiaaei oaeaea a?aiaiiia
oe?aieaiea iaaeo iiia?oee e aicieeiiaaiea oieaa?neoaoia. Aeoo a?aiaie
?ani?ino?aieeny ec O?aioeee ia aeeceaaeauea no?aiu e Aa?iaieth e a
eiia/iii eoiaa e eiioeo 16 a. ia Aiaeeth, Neaiaeeiaaeth e inoaeueiua
oa??eoi?ee Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. A yoeo ?aaeiiao aoiaieci ieacaeny oanii
naycai n ?ani?yie I?ioanoaioneie ?aoi?iaoeee, a aeeaiienue e oai?/anoai
ienaoaeae Aa?iaiee Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey /anoi io?aaeaee yoe ?ani?e. A
Aiaeee Yiioa ?aiannaina niaiaea n i?aaeaieai ei?ieaau Aeecaaaou e
io?aceeanue a oai?/anoaa ienaoaeae Aeeueyia Oaenie?a, E?enoioa?a Ia?eio,
Aeaeiia Ieeoiia e Yaeioiaea Niaina?a, a oaeaea aaeeeeo ooaeiaeieeia,
a?oeoaeoi?ia (oaeeo eae Eieai Aeaeioin) e eiiiiceoi?ia, n?aaee eioi?uo
Oiian Oaeeen, Aeaeii Oaaa?ia? e Oeeueyi Aa?ae. Ia Ie?aiaeneee iieoino?ia
?aiannain i?eoae /a?ac N?aaeecaiiiii?neea caiee A?aaiianneie Ei?iiu e
ai?iae Aaeaineth. ?aiiee ?aiannain ia iieoino?iaa – yoi oaeea ienaoaee,
eae Acen Ia?/, Ia?oi?aeeue, Oa?iaiaei aea ?iea, AEoai aeaeue Yi/eia,
Aa?neeani aea ea Aaaa, Aeeue Aenaioa e Aa?ia?aeei ?eaae?i. Iicaeiee
?aiannain a Eniaiee naycai n ?aaioaie ienaoaeae Ieaaey aea Na?aaioana,
Ei?a aea Aaaa, Eoena aea Aiiai?u e Oe?ni aea Iieeia, ooaeiaeieeia, oaeeo
eae Yeue A?aei, e eiiiiceoi?ia, oaeeo eae Oiian Eoen aea Aeeoi?ea. A
Ii?ooaaeee yoi auee oaeea ianoa?a, eae ienaoaee Na aea Ie?aiaea e Eoen
aea Eaith e Ooaeiaeieee eae Ioii Aiinaeueaan.

Eoaeueyineay aeeaiienue Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey ioee/aeanue io aeeaiiene
?aiannaina ia naaa?a. Eoaeueyioeu iaeie ec ia?auo noaee eniieueciaaoue
noeaiu ie?neie aeecie a ea/anoaa nthaeaoia aeey naieo oai?aiee, ?ac?uaay
oai naiui naycue ni N?aaeiaaaeiauie ianoa?aie, i?eaea?aeeaathueony
eneeth/eoaeueii ?aeeaeiciuo oaiaoee. Aia/aea, ooaeiaeieee Naaa?iiai
?aiannaina i?iaeieaeaee ecia?aaeaiea ?aeeaeiciuo nthaeaoia, oaeeo eae
?aeeaeiciue ia?aai?io oiai a?aiaie, iaienaiiue Aeuea?aooii Aeth?a?ii.
Iicaeiaa ?aaiou Ieoa?a A?thaaey aaeioiiaeee ooaeiaeieeia ia ecia?aaeaiea
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie aianoi ?aeeaeiciuo eee eeanne/aneeo oaiaoee. Oaeaea
e ia?eiaeo Naaa?iiai ?aiannaina ioiineony oniaa?oainoaiaaiea
oeiiaiaeneeie a?aoueyie Ooaa?oii e ssiii aai Yee oaoieee ienueia ianeii,
iicaieeaoae ooaeiaeieeai aeiaeaaoueny y?eeo iooaieia ia oaa?aeie
iiaa?oiinoe, niiniaiie nio?aiyoueny aaeaie.

Enoi?eia?aoey Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey

Eiioeaio

O?aioeocneia neiai ?aiannain noaei oiio?aaeyoueny aeey iaicia/aiey
eoeueoo?iiai iai?aaeaiey, aicieeoaai a eiioea 13 a., oieueei a 19 a.
Oa?iei ?aiannain aia?aua aue oiiiyioo o?aioeocneei enoi?eeii THeeai
Ie/aeaoii (1798-1874) a aai o?oaea (1855 a.) «Enoi?ey O?aioeee».
Enneaaeiaaoaeue n/eoae ?aiannain nei?aa iiaeuaiii a iaoea, /ai a
eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?a. Ii aiai?ee i oii, /oi ia?eiae aeeeeny ni a?aiai
Eieoiaa aei Eiia?ieea e Aaeeeeay, oi anoue n eiioea 15 a. aei na?aaeeiu
17 a. Aieaa oiai, enoi?ee ?aca?aie/eaae, ii aai neiaai, aoeueaa?iia e
oaeaniia, N?aaeiaaaeiauea e aeaiie?aoeth, eioi?oth ii eae ioe?uoue
?anioaeeeaiaoe aeaeae a ia?eiaea ?aiannaina. Aoaeo/e oaeaea o?aioeocneei
iaoeeiiaeenoii, ii iienuaae ?aiannain eae o?aioeocneia iai?aaeaiea.
Oaaoeeee enoi?ee sseia Ao?aeoa?aeo (1818-1897) a naiai o?oaea «Eoeueoo?a
?aiannaina a Eoaeee» , iaiai?io, ii?aaeaeye Yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey eae
ia?eiae iaaeaeo Aaoa e Ieeaeaiaeaeaei, oi anoue n 14 ii 18 aa., acyaoee
naia ia/aei a Eoaeee. Ii aeaeae a ?aiannaina i?iyaeaiea aeooa
nia?aiaiiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, caaeaoiai a N?aaeiea aaea. Aai eieaa
iieo/eea oe?ieia i?eciaiea e cia/eoaeueii iiaeeyea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
nia?aiaiiie o?aeoiaee eoaeueyineie Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Iicaea enoi?eee noaee iaiiiai ?aaea ii?aaeaeyoue ?aiannain eae
enoi?e/aneee ia?eiae eee aeaaea eoeueoo?iia iai?aaeaiea. Ii neiaai
?aiaeieueoa Ooa?ia, ?aiannain iiaeii iacaaoue, e iau/ii aai oae e
iacuaaee, nei?aa ia ia?eiaeii n ii?aaeaeaiiui ia/aeii, niaea?aeaieai e
eiioeii, a iai?aaeaieai i?aeoee e eaeae, ii-?aciiio aini?eieiaaiuo
a?oiiaie ethaeae e ioaeaeueiuie ee/iinoyie a ?aciua a?aiaia e a
?acee/iuo ianoao. A oaeii neo/aa yoi auea iaeay naoue ?aciiia?aciuo,
eiiaaea aeeceeo, eiiaaea ?anoiaeyueony eoeueoo?, a ia aaeeiue,
ia?aie/aiiue ai a?aiaie eoeueoo?iue ia?eiae.

E eo/oaio eee e ooaeoaio?

Iiiaeanoai nii?ia aie?oa ?aiannaina auei naycaii n oai, aue ee ii
aeaenoaeoaeueii oeo/oaieai eoeueoo?u N?aaeiaaaeiauey. Eae Ie/aeao, oae e
Ao?eoa?aeo, i?eienuaaee ?aiannaino i?ia?ann, i?eaeeceaoee eoeueoo?o e
nia?aiaiiinoe. Ao?eoa?aeo n?aaieaae yoio i?ia?ann n aoaeueth, niyooth n
aeac ethaeae e iicaieeaooth ei aeaeaoue ii-ianoiyuaio. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iiiaea nia?aiaiiua enoi?eee oeacuaatho ia oi, /oi aieueoeinoai
iaaaoeaiuo nioeeaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, iau/ii annioeee?iaaaoeony ni
N?aaeiaaaeiaueai, – ieuaoa, a?aaeaeaaiinoue, ?aeeaeiciua e iieeoe/aneea
i?aneaaeiaaiey, e i?eia?o – ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, iaino?eeenue a yoio
ia?eiae ainoiaea Iaeeaaaeee, ?aeeaeiciuo Aiei, ei??oioeee Ai?aeaeeaineeo
Iai e oneeaiiuo aiiaiee ia aaaeuei a 16 a. Iiiaea, aeeaoea a Yiioo
?aiannaina, ia n/eoaee aa Cieioui Aaeii, eae aa iacuaatho iaeioi?ua
aaoi?u 19 a., a auee i/aiue iaaniieiaiu yoeie nioeeaeueiuie yaeaieyie.
Oai ia iaiaa, ooaeiaeieee, ienaoaee e iie?iaeoaee eneonnoaa a yoio
ia?eiae aa?eee, /oi ianooieea iiaay y?a, yaeythuayny yaiui i?i?uaii ec
N?aaeiaaaeiauey. Iaeioi?ua enoi?eee-ia?enenou i?aaeii/eoatho iienuaaoue
?aiannain n iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie oi/ee c?aiey, i?eaea?aeeaaynue iiaiey,
/oi eciaiaiey a eneonnoaa, eeoa?aoo?a e oeeinioee auee /anoueth iauae
yeiiiie/aneie oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey io oaiaeaeecia e eaieoaeecio, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai o eeanna ao?aeoacee iiyaeeinue aieueoa a?aiaie, eioi?ia
iie iiaee iinayuaoue eneonnoaai. A N?aaeiea aaea iaa noi?iiu
/aeiaa/aneiai iuoeaiey – oa, /oi iai?aaeaia aiaioo?ue oae aea, eae e oa,
/oi ia?oaeo,- ae?aiaee eee iaiieiaeio aiae?noaiaaee ca aoaeueth. Yoa
aoaeue nicaeaaaea aa?o, eeethceth e eioaioeeeci iuoeaiey, ie?aoeaaaoea
ie? e enoi?eth a no?aiiua iooaiee.

sseia Ao?eoa?ae, ?aiannain a Eoaeee

Eiaai Ouethceiaa (1872-1945) i?eciaaae nouanoaiaaiea ?aiannaina, ii
niiiaaaeny a aai iieiaeeoaeueiii aeeyiee. A naiae eieaa «Caeao
N?aaeiaaaeiauey» ii cayaeye, /oi ?aiannain aue ia?eiaeii oiaaeea ii
n?aaiaieth ni N?aaeieie aaeaie, ?ac?ooeaoee iiiai aaaeiiai. Iai?eia?,
eaoeineee ycue cia/eoaeueii ?acaeeny ii n?aaiaieth n eeanne/aneei
ia?eiaeii e aei neo ii? aue aeeaui ycueii oea?eae e o.ae.
I?eaa?aeaiiinoue Yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey eeanneea inoaiiaeei ?acaeoea eaouie
e aa?ioei aa eeanne/aneea oi?iu. ?iaa?o Eiian ooaa?aeaeae, /oi Yiioa
?aiannaina ia?aaeeaaea na?ueaciue yeiiiie/aneee e?ecen. A naith
i/a?aaeue Aeaei?aeae Na?oii e Eeii Oi?iaeaee iaa cayaeyee, /oi a yoi
a?aiy oaeaea caiaaeeeeny iao/iue i?ia?ann. Enoi?eee noaee n/eoaoue
iiiyoea ?aiannaina eceeoia i?aoaaee/aiiui aeey iaeiicia/ii
iieiaeeoaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey iinea i?eieoeaiiai «Oaiiiai aaea»
(N?aaeiaaaeiauey). Iiiaea enoi?eee naaiaeiy i?aaeii/eoatho aiai?eoue i
?aiannaina eae i ia?eiaea «?aiiae Nia?aiaiiinoe», aieaa iaeo?aeueii, i
ia?aoiaeiii ia?eiaea iaaeaeo N?aaeiaaaeiaueai e nia?aiaiiinoueth.

Ae?oaea yiioe ?aiannaina

Iiiyoea ?aiannaina oaeaea eniiaaeinue aeey iaicia/aiey ia?eiaeia aei
15-16aa. *a?ec Oaneein (1870-1937), e i?eia?o, oiiieiae i ?aiannaina 12
a. Ae?oaea enoi?eee iacuaaee ?aiannainii ia?eiae 8-9 a. e 10 a. Ae?oaea
ia?eiaeu eoeueoo?iiai aic?iaeaeaiey oaeaea iienuaeenue yoei oa?ieiii,
n?aaee ieo Aaiaaeueneee ?aiannain e Aa?eaineee ?aiannain.

Yeni?anneiieci

?aaioa Yeue A?aei «Aeae ia Oieaaei» 1595/1610a. i?eienuaaeinue
ii?aceoaeueiia noiaenoai n yeni?anneiieciii 20 a. Iao/ii au?aaeaynue,
oai ia iaiaa, yoi aue iaiuea?enoe/aneee noeeue. Yeni?anneiieci – yoi
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue noeeue, iai?aaeaiiue ia eneaaeaiea ?aaeueiinoe aeey
aeinoeaeaiey yiioeeiiaeueiiai yooaeoa. Yoi noauaeoeaiay oi?ia eneonnoaa.
Iai?aaeaiea cao?iioei iiiaeanoai eoeueoo?iuo noa? – aeeaiienue,
eeoa?aoo?o, oaao?, eeiaiaoia?ao, a?oeoaeoo?o e iocueo. Ca/anooth oa?iei
oaeaea oiio?aaeyaony aeey iaicia/aiey i?aoaaee/aiiie yiioeeiiaeueiinoe.
Oaeoe/anee yeni?anneiienoaie iiaoo auoue iacaaiu oaeea ooaeiaeieee, eae
Iaoean A?thiaaeueae e Yeue A?aei, oioy ia naiii aeaea oa?iei
eniieuecoaony aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee anaai eneonnoaa 20 a.

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