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Прикладное искусство Византии IV–VII века

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I?EEEAAeIIA ENEONNOAI AECAIOEE IV–VII AAEA

E????? 2009a

I????a ????i A???e IV–VII ??

I??? n???y ??o ?? ??n?? ???? ? ??? ??? n y?eth??, ??????e a IV—VII ?. a
??????? ????; ??? ?y ??o ?? ?? ?????u ?????e, ???a a ????e ?? ?uy?yth?y
?????i y?o ?iy???, a ??a ?e ???, ?y ???e ?e ?????ue.

Aei ?n ??e ???i ???i ????, ???a ?n?????? a ??? ??? ??????i ????, a ??a
????ai ????ey. I??a ? ?o ?????u ? ???, ???a, ???? ??e, ??a e o. i. I?e
??????y ? ????a ?????? ???o ??? ??????i ???? ??? ?????; ?i ??a ?o ??? i
???? ????a: ?????? ? ?i ??? e a ??o ????

A ????????ue ??????? ???? ?e ????, ?????i ??u ???, ?????ey ??o ?? ????a
??i ??????, ?i ???o ????e ?y ?????y ??a e ???e ? ?????ey; ??????e ?? ?
??? ???? a ???a i ?????? ? ????ae??. E???a ?????? ?????i ????a ????? e
?i, ?i ? ?o ??i ?ath?y ???e, ??????oth?a i ??????? ?????i ?????? ??i; ?a
?? ???ath?y ??a ????; ????u ????? ?????y; ?? a ??? ??ayo ????? ??? ??a ?
???e.

E???a e ??????y ????a ?????i ????a ???yth?y ?i, ?i a ???????th y?? a
???u A??o??? ???e ???i ??i ???? ? ??? ???? ???????e ???ey?; e ?? ? ??a
??? e ???? ??o ?? ????a ??????? ???????ueth ???ey: ??a, ?? ??i ?????a
nth?? ??? ???y?? a ?? ??? ????, e ????, ??a ???? ???????i ????y ????e a
??????? ? ????? ???. I???, ????a ??????? e ???? ??? ?????e a y? ?? ??a
?????? ?????, a ?i ?????, ?-????, ????? e ????? ???e ????????o ??a ????
n ? ????? ??????? ????????th e ?a ??ue ???e ???????th e ???? ????.
O????a a y?i ????e y???? ?y? IV—V ?. I??? «Ia ??? ?a?, ?????? ?y ??????i
??? a ?i ??? I???: «N?a ?????e, ??, ????u ???? I??a, ??ue ??atho ???
???e??, ?i ??? ? ??atho ? ?ith ????y e ?o ??????».

A??? e ???? ???, ??th???ny a ??a IV a. e a ??????? ????, ?e ????a ????i
??????yi ??? a ???e ??? ?iy?a «O?????? ??????, ???a ?e ?????? e a ??a
?????. *? ???ny ??o ??, ? ???e ???n ????ey? a y?i ????e ???y?e ????? IV
a., ? ?e ??i ????e ?e?e O????? (O?????, A??????? ??e); ??y? n ???e
(i????? O??a, ??????e ? ???) ? ???i ??? ????ie ? ???? ???? e ???ai ?????
?????y? ? ????? nth?? («O? ??? a ?? ????», «Ae??e ? ?o ????); ???, ???i
? ????? ???a ????, ?a ????e ?????? c?? a ?y?? ??o, a ???o ????o, ?? ????
n ????e ??????, ????? ???tho ?? iy??e ????e.

I???i e ?? ? ???e ????y ??y??y a Y???a ???e (?????a ?th?, ? ?ath?a
?????o ???e) E????y II: ??? ?????a ?????, ???????i I?? e ???????,
???e??? ?????? ?i ?????-?????a, ????e ? ????o ???o ??o. Ii ????ny ? ?o
?? ?i, ?i ? ?? ??a ???y o??a. A??a n ?i ?? ????a ??? ?e ? ??? ?n a ??th
y??: ??? E????y ????? ???i — ??? e ??? a ?n, a ?? a ???ue; ?? ???y ??y?i
a ???a, ?????o ?????a, ?????a — ?????a. Eth???i, ?i a ??? ????ey e ????
??a a??? ????a y???u, ???y?a i ?????e ?????i ??, a a ??th? ???u ????a
?ey?y. Ia y?i ???? ????i ????ey (? ?? ??y???, ??????i ? a ???a, a a ??i
? ????a??o ???a) y?i ?????th?y ?e a ?????e,, ?e e a ??a ??u ????? y??.

E IV a. ????y ??a ????? ? ???? ??e, ????? ???e ?????y? (A??y, ??e *??i).
C?eth??? a ????u ???? ????a e ?yae ?????? ??, a ????e «*??a O???,
n?????? ??? ??? ????eth ? O????e, ?oy, ?-????, ????u ???? ????. I???? n
?????y? ????a ? a o?, ? a ???ue ???ath?y a y? ??y ??a ? ??? ??ey??
??ae?: ?e ???? ? ???i ???, ??th??? ??? ??? (???i ???i ???e); ???ath?y
?????a a y?e ???a ??i- e ?????? ??u, ?? ???th??y ? ??????? (????,
«AE???????a A???». 1V a. A?. Y???), a ??a ????u, ????e ?????e e ae?.

E????, ?i e ?? ? IV a. ????y ????y ? ????? TH???? (a Ae??, ?? I????)
??ey?ay ?? – ??? (A?. Y???), ? ???e ????u ?????e ? ? ????? ??u («E?a»,
«Ae??e ? ?o ????, «AE???????a A???»), ? ??? a ?? n??: ? ???????ue e ?e ?
???y ????????? ????ue??tho ? ?????e ? ???? ?? e ???tho ?????a ?????i
????a. E????ey ? y?e ??? ?????th?y ????? ???y?; ??? ? ??????, ????, ??
???ay ??ue ???e.

A ??a XVIII a. a ???a ???? ??a ???y?o ??e ? Y???ia, a ??a, ?e ??? ???y?e
??oe ??a IV a. (E??i, A????e ??e) n ?????? ??????? e ???? nth??a; ? ?i
??? y?? ???o ???? n ????? ????? ???e ??, ??? ????th?ie ????? ? ????? y??
???e, a ????y ???ue ????o ?????o — N??? e I??? — ?? «? O???.

I???y ???????? ???a ??i ??? ????a e a ???oth?a ??. Aei ?n ??e ?yae
??????o, ?????o e ????o ???? (?e ? ???) V—VI ?. ? ???? ??e. Ia ?o ???o
??i ??? ????u, ???a ??o ???? I?e, a a ??a ?? ????a ?????a ???u,
?????yth?e E???????. Ia ??i ?????? ???a y?? ????a a ???i ???a ???? ?????
A???? (?) a ?a????i ??? ???i ?????a, ???? ????? ??? ???yo ??; ??y?a ???
?ae ?i ???e ? ?? ???u I??, ii ?e ??? ???? n ??o?? ?????? th?? O??a
(I?ey; E??).

N?o ??o ???a, ??ay ???a ???? ??i? ? iy? ???, ??????? ???? a ? ? ??y
????a ??e?: ??i ????? ? ?o ???tho O??? ?e ?????, ??? ???? ??u ??????i ?e
????????? ?????; ??? ??? ??? ???? n ???i — ???? O??a. A ????o ??ayo,
???? ? ??? VI a. Y??????i ????y (A??i. I?????), ??? ????ey ????i ?iy?ny,
??? ????ny, ????ny ????y ?????ey. Ii ??u ????? ???u e ? ??? ?????o ????:
??i ????ay, ???th?yny ????e ??? ???a, ??????-???????ay e ?????ay, ?c
o??????e ??????? ????? ??, ?????? ???, ??i e ??????i ???? ???a, ????a,
????, y?????ia, ?????? a ??? ??e ???e.

Ii-????, ?? e ? ? ???a ????y? ???? ????i e ????? ????ey. O?, ??????
?????a a???? I??? (V—VI ?., E??i, A?o??? ??e) ? ???? ???e ???a ???a
(42,8 X 14,3) ?????i ?ae a??, ??o ????e, e ?????i ?y ?????o ???? ????o??
?????. I?? ???? n ????i ??e e ?????o y???a ???a ??ue ???? ????y ?????y
???ue, ???th?yny n ???. A???e ??o ia ?????? ????? ???yo, a ??? ????, ???
????? ???i, iy?i ??atho ???e ?????; ????? ?iy??a ??ae?o ?i n ?????eyie
?????i ????a.

Aei ?n ??i ?????? ??i ??? (????e ?y ???ey ???? ?e ??? ????a) ??a V-VI
a., ?????o ? ??e ??y ??a ? ?o ?? ??i ????? ??- ?e ??????a ??u ????a ?
??o A??a e A???, A?? e I?ath, ????? ?e ??????i nth??i. N?? ? ???e I??a ?
???a V a. ? ???ey Y???a ??ue a??a e ?????th I?a ??a e N?a I??a ? ???a ??
? ???e A?????? ??y (NOA). Ia ??? ???? ?????ath?y y????/??a ???? (????, ?
???a ? ???e ? ???e E?u VI a. – A?. Y???, ? ?? e ???, ??a ???a e ???? ?
??? ?????y, n ????? ???i?e ???e a ?? ??.

A??n i ??a ?????ey y?o ????a ? ?i?a y?i. I???ay ? ??? ?????i ????
??????e ?e ????y, ?? ??o, ?? ????ay — ???? ????u ? I??? (Na??ay I??y) e
???a ? ???ey O??? (I??a, A?. I?? ????o??? ???? ?. A. N. I???), ?? e ??y
???, ???y ??a e ?iyo??i C???e A??u.

C?????e ???n ?y ?????ey n ???i?e ????e ?????? ??e, ?e ?? ????? ????e,
????eytho ???? (????, ??ue ??a V a.— O?A, ?????? ??? a O??) n ?????? ??u
?????y ???? e ? ??? y?? ? ??? ????eth ???? ??ay?? ??? (????, ?????
?ey??; ??? ??i 1/2 ?o?), ????th?e ??o ???? (V a., C???e A??i, A?. ??e
Ae??). Ia ???? ??i ?ae?ue ????ny ? ??a ???a ? ??a n ?????? ?????e e
????e ???, ???? e ????a ??, ? ?? ???o ????th?y ??? ????. Ia ???? n
??ay?? ???e (????y?i, ???i ?????o ???? ? ?n ?????? ????i ??, ? A??a)
?ae? ??????a a ????i y??a ??? e ??a ??u, ? ???e e ?????, ??? ??, ??e e
???.

A? ?? ???ny ???i ??i ?????ey ???? ???? ????, ?????i ???e ? ???? ??e,—
???u ?? ??? ???? I????a, ???e ????i a ???a ????e TH???? ? ???a a ???
N?-A??a a ???? (????, A????ee ??e). Ia ? ???? ??? ???y ????? I????a, ??
???? ?????u a ??o ??? E??a I???e e ??????, ??? ?o?? ????tho ???? ????a.
Ia ???o ???o ???? ??????? ??u ? ????? ???e E??a: ??? ??a ???e ??/ath?y ?
??????-???????? ?????e ????i ??a. N?? n ?? ? ????th ??????y ? ??? ???u
??u ? ??????i ??a. A??? ??i a ????a y?? ??????? ?iy??a ???? ????e ??????
????, ???e ???y? ??u e o??u: a ???e ?????e ?? ???? ??, ??u e ????. Y?o
???? ?e ??? ??????i a V—VI ?.: ? ?????y ? ????? ????, ? ????o ????, ?
???? ??yo e ??? ??? ?????eyo ????a. E??ny ?, a ????e, e ? ??i ? ???? ???
? ????eth ???y?o i????, ?e ????? ?????? ??a ??? ???? VI a. (NOA,
Iueth-E?e, I?? I??i???): ?y ?????ue ????a ??ue ?????e ??e, a ???th ????
??? O??a e ?aey?o ??? ?? ????a; ??e ???? ?n???? ??u e ????.

Y?o ? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?th?—???a ???? I???, ????? a ????? (??a
?????y ???) a ??? I???, a n. I?ay I????a (A?. Y???). Y? ?? ? ???? ???a,
a ???e ? ???i ?????y ???? ?????? ?? — ???i ??? O?u I??i, ??? ?e ?????
A????. A??ay ??? ? ?a ???a, ??u A e ?, ??th??? a ?????, ?c??a e ??e,
?????a a ???, ??y?? ??? ????a, ???eytho ?i ????i.

E????ey ??y? ?e ???? ???? — ?e?, ?eth???e a ????a ???? N??????uey e
I?????uey. I???? ????o ???o ????e (??e, ?y?e, ???), ?????, ???a ??u, a
????e ?, ???a ???u ? th? ??e ??? – a E?io, ? E???, a E??, ????u a y?i,
?e ????? ?????i ??a. O? ? ????i ???, ??? ??i, ?????????? ??????y ?????
?????a e ??????? ???, ?????a ?y ????? ??u.

N???y?a ??? (?th?, ???u, ??e e ?.) ??e ? ?n ? V—VII ?. a ???? ???i ??a.
I???? ??e, ?ath??y ? ?????a y?o ?iy???, ????ue a ???? ? ??????, ????????
????ey ????e: ??? ? iy?, ?i ????o, ???? ????? ???????, ? ???? ???a ????
???a. E?th??y ? y?o ???o ????? e ???? ?????a, ??ue ???a ? ? ?????y ?
???o, ???eytho ??????th ???? ????e.

I?? ???y?o ???a ???i ? ????? i?? ??? ? ??? ? th?, ? e a I????, ?? ?e
????e a ????? ???? ????. I??i ?????? ???y?o ???e ????? a ????a ??y e a
C???e A??a, a ????e ? ????? A??e. C?????e ???n ????ey? ?????? ???i ????e
a TH?? O??e (??i A???) ???e ???? ???y?o ???e ????? ????ey, e ????th, ?
??iy?? ???e ????th ? ??e????e (??ue ????a ????y a A??????? ??a a N???a,
a ??ue — a ???? Ae???? – I? a A????a). I??a ? ?o ?atho ????a ??e, a ??a
??y????a ???e n ??? ???? A????. I???i, ?a y? ?iy??e, ??e ???o ?ath?y ??
??e ???y?? ?????, ?????? a 565—575 ?. ??e-? ???. A??? ??? a??e ?th? I???
? ???? e ????eth ?????e ??e, ??? eo ?????tho ? ????a, a ????a ???e, ?e
y?i a ?????a ????otho «?????» ??? ??????? ?????e. I???ua ???? ? y??
????a ??????e ??o ??e ???ath?y: ????, ? ??? (??aey??y a I?? N???a)
?????? ????e ?? a ??o ????o, ?? ???? ?????e, ????? ????o?tho ????th ???.
I??????ue ???y?o ?e ???a ???? o???yi ?iy?y?ny e ? ????o ??? ????o. E????
???? ??? ???ue ????? ? ?? ????????o ???o n ??e ????? ?????e (?ae ????,
?????i ???? ????, O???n e ???? I?? e I??): ??ae ??? ?????e y?y?ny ?e ?
n??????? ??? ???i.

N????? ??? ????a, ? ???o ???a??u ??????? nth?? (a ?i ??a ?y??? n ???i
A???, A??a e ?? Aa?a) e ???a ???? ???? «?????? ???. A???th??y ? y?o
?iy??? ?????y (????, A???-??a) ???tho ??a ?e????a ????? (??? ??a ? ??);
???o, ?aey?th ? ??????? ??, ?????? ???ue n ???i ? ???a (70,5 e 85,6. I??
a O?e?). A ????o ??ayo ??ueth ??? ? ??? ????atho ??a ??e????a ??u, ? e
???tho ??????a ??o nth??a a ?????? n ??????e ????, ?????e ??a ????: ?
?th? n ?????? «N?? Ay?a e I??ay ?-? ??ey A??? (A?. Y???), ?e ? ?e ? ?th?
n A?????? (I?? E???? e ???e a. AE??u), ???y ?????a ???a n ???i, ?
??aey?a ?uy??ey ? ??? A??a; ?? ? ?????y o ??? V—VI ?. E??a N????i, ???e
??o ??????a ? ??e ???a.

Ia ?y? ???y?o ???a ???ath?y ???????a ???: ??u ??? ??e, I???i (I??i) ?
??? ???, ???? e ?. I???a ????i ?? n ?????? ??u «E???? I?? (A?. Y???): ?
??a ??ue — ?????ay ??? I????, ? ???o — ????u e ?????u, ??? e ??? ????
???????? ???a, a ? ?a, a ????a — ?a y??, ???th?a ? ???? — ????a — ???ue
???ey I?a. C??? ???a ? ??? iy? ??? (??a «A») — ???, ??? ?????y?? ?y
A??a: a y?i ????ue, ????, ????????ue ???a-?????a.

I??a ???y?a ??? n ?????? ???i?? ?? ??????? a ???? ????e ??? — ???u e
???u, ???, ????a ?y ???ey ?e ?y???a, e ?. N?? ?o ??ey?ny ???y ??? ?iy???
VII a. n ?????? ?? ? ???e Ae??a (??ue ? ?o ?? ???a e ????y ? E??, ???
??y?y e Iueth-E??, a I?? I?????i): ???? Ae??a e A???, ????a Ae??a, Ae??,
??th??y ? ??i e ????, e ?yae ???. I? ??????? ????? «??????o ???» e ?????
?o ??? ??????e e ???????e. N????o ??????a, ?i y? ??? n ???? ????? E??ey
?????e a ??? Ae??a ??? E??ey.

A ????? ?????? ???th?o ???? nth?? ???????, ?-????, a ???? ?????.

Ia E?? ?e ??? e ??ae ???? VII a. n ?????? ? ?i ????? th?? ?y??, ????,
N??y ?e A??: ? ?? e ????yi — a??a (???o) ? ?a e ??? ? ??a — y?o ??c
????? ???a-nay?o ? ???? ??a. E????? a ???i ???a n ???e ???ey? a ?????
?????e, ????? ???yth?i ???? ???o? (????) ?????, y?o ?iy?? y?y?ny ??i ?
??th??y ????a ????i ????a (E??i, A????e ??e).

A????oth?a ?????a a ????a VI—VII ?. ? ?? ??????. ?yae ????a ????? ????ey
? ?????e e ??? ??y ???a?y n ????? ?iy???e; ???? y?i ????eytho y? ???a ?a
???, ????a ? ????? N?? (e N?? e ??a: ??ay ???ny a A??????? ??a a N???a,
??ay – a ???? Ae????-I? a A????a) n ????iey? «I????y ?????. A???? ?i
?oe, ?????a ? ???? ?? a ????yo ???, a ????? ? ?????, ???????ue ?a???
???tho y? ?iy??e n ???th?? ??-????? ??? E?????? ?????i ???? ???ey a ????
y?o ???o ??e e ?e ? ??u, ??? ??a ??i ?e ???th?y ? ??????o ?? ??????th?o
????. Ii ????, y? ????, ?e e ??????e ???e ? ???e ???? ? ???e «E???y»,
«?????» e «A????e n ????» (A????, Ae????-I?), ????u ????? ????e, ? a
E??????? (??????? ?? y?yth?y ??? ? ???a ???a).

Y? ??????? ?????a ????, ?oy e ??a y?i, ????a a ??? ?iy???, ???? ? ?????,
???i? a O???? (A?. Y???), ? ???e ?? ? Y??u (I??, E??), a ??a ? ?y? ????o
????a ?y ?y?e ??, ????o ?ae ????i I???o ??e.

A??? ?????ueth ????ny ??? VI a. n ?????? ???a ii ???? ??? (A?. Y???). Ia
?i ????e ????e (??????e, ??? ??? ?????, ????? ???e ???? n ?e ????u?
?????-????e ???) ??y?y ?a ??????e.

N??? ?????ue, ?i e ??e ??? «????n?? ???» ?ath?y ?iy??e, ??????e ???th??y
? ???i?? ??? e ??????a e ??????th?? ?????th: ???, ????, ?th?, ??a ?????y
?????? A??u e A??a, a ?? ?????? ?e «A?? e A???? (A?. Y???).

Ii ????th n ??? ??????y? i ????a ??????i ??a, ?????ny ? ????e ?????
?????, ??i ??????y ???o ???e ?????? ????. I??eyth?a ? ?????i, ????, ??
?????? a ???oth?a ???ey. Oa????, ?i ????a ?? ???a ????y ????yo ?????a??
? ???. I???? ? ?o ?? ???u a A??a, ??? a E???, ia E??, a N?? e o. ae.
I??i ??y??o ?? ?????o ???e (??? ? ???o ???u a N???i I??????) n ???i
??????? oe??? ??? ?e ???, ???a ???????a ??e ????y, ?????a a ????e ???a,
???a ??i ??? ???? ?y y?? ?o??? ??? ?????? ????? (??? ????? ??u n ??ui
?????? ?? ? ???? ?? ?e ???, ??? n ???i; ???e, ? ???o ???i ?????ny ??a
????y ??? e ???u, ?i?a ????? ??e ????a, ??a ????, ???? ???? e ?.). O?? e
?? ????o th???? ???e, a ? ??? ? ?????a, ??? ????tho ????y, ???????? a
????? ??. O?, ????, ???y ???y ?y?a, ????y a ???a ??????? ????ey, ??????o
????? ???u, a ??? ?y?e a ????o ??ayo, a ?ith ???ue, ???? ? ?????? ????.

A ???a ???? ???ath?y ??a ?y?e, ? ???o ??????ue ?????y ?????? ?? ?e ???a;
??y? n ?? ?eth??? e ???e ??o ?e ???e ??i ????i ????ey. C?? ??i ????ue
??????a ???a (a ????e, E??????ey), E?u i N??a, a ??a ?????a ????? ?
????a e o. i. A ????e ?? ?y?? n ?e???i ????? ??? e ????a ????a ??? (?e
????? ?????u). A y? ??thth y?? ? ?o ???ath?y ?????? ???, ??, ?????
???y?? ??????e ????e. O? ????? a????e «E?? ? ???y? ???? ???a ??i ???
???y n. TH???? II, ? ?????a ????? I?o ??? n ???, ???ath??y ???e ?e
????i, ???? ?a a ??a ??? ??y. O????i e ?, ?i ? ?????? ???o e ??oyo ??i
a????ny ????? ?????a ?????: ??ue, ?e e a ??? ??o ????a, ?????? ?????e
?i.

E???? a???e (??? ? ??th) ????? ????o, ? ????eyth?a ?i ?iy??e ??? ????u,
a ??????y ? ??? ???e ??u IV—VII ?. ??? ????. A ?y? n o??? ?????i ????o
????o ???e ?????ue a ???yo (??yo n ????? ?????y?, ???????ny a ????e a
???? ???e) ????? ????; ?e ?a ???ath?y a ????????? ??? n ?????e ia ?o
???y?, ??????, ??????? ?????y? ??, ?a e o. i. Aei ?n ??e ???? ??e, ?e,
????, ??y, ????yny ??a ???ae??i A??ey e I??, a ?? ??????y E????th e ?i
?? (I??, ???? ?????), ??y ????? TH??a (I??, E??? ???e I?????e ?????),
?????a ???i ????? (A???, I???e ??e). O???i ?????? ath? TH??a (A?. Y???),
????a ??? ???? ???? ????a ???? e ???ath??y ??????o ?? (????? ?????a
????, ???ay ???, ??????ay ???? ???? e ?.). I???? ??u IV—V ?., ????
????th?a Ae??? e ??a, ? ??? ????ey ???yo e e???? ???? A??? e ????tho
?????a.

N?? ??????o ????a ?????? ????i ?????? ?? ????a ???y?a, a ??a ????a e ???
????y, ??? n ?????i ???e ??? ?e ???i (???e e ???, ??? e ?y?e). I??a ? ?o
????e ?????i ????. N?aee ???e V—VI ?., ????y?o ? N??i?i I?????uey (??
??i ? ?????), ??????u ???? n o???? ?????y? ??, ????, ??, ?a e o. i.
I???? ? ?o ??i ?y?? n ???? ?iy???e, ????tho ????y, ????y?a ? I???uey,
????, ??? e ?????a. Ae??a, ????i ????? e ???????a ? ????th n ????e,
????, ?????u ? ??a — a E??, O???? e ?.

Oe???ue ??? ?iy??? y?? ?? ??th??ny a ?i, ?i a ?o ???thony ??????? ?????a
??????y ????? ???a, ??ey?? a ??? ??????a ????a ???e ???e. E?th?y e ??a
????, ? ???o ?????? ???u ?????tho n y????e. Oa?a ????? ???i e ?y ??????
????.

A ????e ?? «?y ???» ???? ???i ?aea ???e (??? ?? ????, ????y??ny a ????o
????yo). O??? ?????? ??y?o ??e ?y ?y?e ?? ?? ?????? a ????a ?. I?u a
A??a. O? ?? ???u ????? ?y ???i ? ?????? y?o ???a (???o ?y?e n ???e)
????o ???? n ?????? ?. I?u, ?? ??i a ??????e ????? ??ae ?i ??eth?a;
????e ????e ? ? ??o ??. I???? y???y? ?? ???u a N??? A?e e ? O???.

I???? ???th??y, ? ?? ??? ??????ue e a ??? ????yo N?? e I?? A?e; ? ?o
??????ue ?????y ???, ?y?o, ?????ny a ??? ??a. I???? ??? ???? ? ???. A???
??????i-?????? ???? ?atho ?a o?iy??a ???y?a ??? n ?????? ?????? ??
(???ii ???? ??y??y a E??e, a I?? e A??i). A???i, y? ????a ????, ??? ??i,
??????a a I????, ??????? ???????eth ???????? ???a a ????a ??? ??????ai
??, ?? ?e ???ey?? ?????e.

C????? ??, ?i ???i ?? ????y, ???ath?y ????a ?????e, ???oth ???yth?a
???oth ??o, ? ????? ????. I???? ? ?o ????ue ? ???a ???y?u, n?y?? ? ???o
???. Ae??a ???y?? a ????a eth??, ?e ????? ?????u. O???i ??y??y a Y???a
????e ????? a ??a ????, ????e a ?????? ????? a A??a (?ec I????ey). Ii
????th ??????o y? ??ue ?????th ?y ?a??e ?????u ??o ??ey, ?????? ????e ?
??, n ???? ?????i ? ????e ???a.

A??? ???????a ??e ??y?a ????, ? ???o ?????? ?????? ???u (???, ???, ??,
??u, ??? Ae??? ???y e o. i.), ??i ????? ?????? ?e ??a????i ?????. Ii
????o ????ey ???ath?y ?????e, ????y?a ? N???e A??e, A??a, N??, I????.
I???? ?ae??o ????a ??iy?i ??aeyo ?e ????e, a ????e a O???na, E?? e ???
???o ? ??e??e NNN?.

C?? ? ?????tho e ????u ??y?o ???a, ???? ?????i – ???i ??i (????i
????th?o ??o ???? ????????), n ??e??i ?????? ????????o ???a ?e ???, ?? n
????e ?????y? ?? e ????. O???? ???, ? ???o ?????? ?y??? ??? ?e ??u ????i
????ey.

N????i ??????ay ???? ?y y?? ?a?? ?? ? ????. I???? ??th??? y?yth?y ????a
???, e?????? a ???? A??a.

I??a ????a ???y A??a ?????tho ????eth ??ue ???? ????a, ?e ??e. Y? ?a?
y?yth?y ?? ? ? ?????? ?y ???????e y?? ?????, ???e ???y? ??? i ??? ? ???
???, ? e ?????? ???o ??? ??????i ????, ??? ??i, ?i a???? ??a. E?ue ???
???u ??? ???y ?????. A????? ? ???ey?ny ? ??????? ?e ?????i ????i. A????a
??e ?????? e ???a ???a ???, ??i ???ath?y ???? ???????a ???, ???a?i
???yth?y ?????? nth??.

I???e ???n ???ey a y?i ?? ????a ?e ? ?? ?????? ?????e; ??? ith?? ??? ?
???? ?a??? ??? ????i, ??u ???y??. Ii ??? ???ny ????, ??cy ? a ????o
??ayo ???? i ??? ??? ????? ??????, a ? ??? i ????yo ???ey?

A??? ????e ???? ??? ??y?y a I?aa ???????o ???? ?. A.N. I??? a I??a e a
Y???a: ??e ?o ?ath?y ???? ????a ???u, ?e, ????, ???? n ?????? ??????e
I?a e ??? c?? A?. E?????ay ??ue VI a. ?????? ???i ?????a E?????i ???
?e??a (NOA): ??? n ?????? ????? ? ??a, n ????i e ??i??? ? ? ????, ??y?i,
??????o ????oth ??o. N??i ?? ??? — ? ???, ??y??y a Y???a: ?a ??? ? ?iy??
? ???? ????e — ???, ???e ???? e ???? A??o, ???? ??ue ??a ????.

I???? ???e, ????? ??????i (??????) ????, a ??a ???, ???, ????a, ??ae,
??? ??u ???? a ?? ??y ???, ???u, ???: ??????? ? ???a?y ??? ????a ???e
????? ???e e ?????y ia ????i ?? a Ae??, ?? A???e.

A??? ?? ???ath?y ??e, ????? ??iy?i ???? (????? ? ???i ?? ???) e
????y??ny a ???? a ????? ???. A??i ??e?ue e ???? ??e, ?????? ???o ??? a
A???th n A???. Ia ???? ?? ?????u ? ??? ???tho ?????? ???u ? ????; ?? ?
??e ????ue ? ?????i ????i.

E??a e ??a ??u ?e ????, ??u ??? ???, ?e-??u (???-??u), ???u — ??? ???a
nth?? ? ???? ??yo e ??a ???? ???e, ???ath?y e ??? ?????y: ????, ???? ?
????a n ????e ???e, ???e n ????i?i ? ??y??i ?? ???i ????a, ??? ????a,
???ath?o ??? ? ??y ???? ???, ???? ?i, ???a ??i ??? ? ?????o ????.
Eth???i ?????a ? ??e ? ??? ????iu ????? E??ey, ??????e n ??, ?i ??i
???ath?y ? ?a?? ???y?o ???a. A???th?y ? ???? ??yo e ?????a nth?? — ??u
????? O???a e A?????y (??, A????? ??e).

I???a ?????e e ????e ???? ??? ???ny ??????y? ?-???o; a ????e ?? ?
??????e ??????? ??? ?????, a ????e ? N???i E???, ?a a?i ???i ??? ????ia
???? ???. A??e??i ec ?o ??nyo ?ia e VII—VIII ?. I???? ???? ? ?i????a ??
A????ey a E???????.

O?? ???i, a ????o ??o ??o ?? ????????? ????a a ???e ??, ?i a ?????a e
????, ??????ue ???y ??y ???ey, ????ay ?????a ??????? ??????ey. AE????
???? ???? ?iy?y?? ?e a ??c?, ?e e a ????o ???????i ????y. I???a ????i y?
??i ? ?iy???, ????o a ???o y??????o ???o, ???? ? ???o ????o ????. A??a n
?i e ????i ????? ????? ????i ??????? y???u ???a A???, ????o ????e, ?
??ue ?????? ???? ???? e a ???e ?? ?n??y?? ??a ??? e ??u. N??? ?ith ??,
?oy e a ???e ???e, ?i a C???e A??a, e ?????a ?????i ??.

N??e ?????:

1. E???a A???e IV–??ay ???? VII a. I.: I??, 1984. – 728 n.

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