.

Особенности художественной культуры Средневековья

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 834
Скачать документ

EINOEOOO YEIIIIEEE E I?AAeI?EIEIAOAEUeNOAA

(EIYI)

Cai/iia ioaeaeaiea

?AOA?AO

Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ii i?aaeiaoo «Eoeueoo?ieiaey» ia oaio

«Iniaaiiinoe ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u N?aaeiaaaeiauey»

Nooaeaioa a?oiiu O-41ec Ie?iiiaie Ienaiu Aaea?ueaaiu

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ___________________________________

Iineaa 2007 a.

NIAeA?AEAIEA

AAAAeAIEA

1. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu

1.1. A?oeoaeoo?a

1.2. Neoeueioo?a

1.3. AEeaiienue

1.4. Aeaei?aoeaiia eneonnoai

1.5. Ia?aaioea iaoaeeia

2. AIOE*ANEIA ENEONNOAI E A?OEOAEOO?A

3. N?aaeiaaaeiaay iocuea e oaao?

3.1. Iocuea

3.2. Oaao?

3.2.1 ?aeeaeiciay ae?aia eee /oaeaniua iueanu

3.2.3. N?aaeiaaaeiaay naaoneay ae?aia

3.2.4. Iueanu- ii?aeeoa

CAEETH*AIEA

1. Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu

?iiaineee noeeue.

Ia?aui naiinoiyoaeueiui, niaoeeoe/anee aa?iiaeneei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui
noeeai n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu aue ?iiaineee, eioi?ui oa?aeoa?ecothony
eneonnoai e a?oeoaeoo?a Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu i?eia?ii n 1000 aiaea aei
aicieeiiaaiey aioeee, a aieueoeinoaa ?aaeiiia i?eia?ii aei aoi?ie
iieiaeiu e eiioea XII aaea, a aiaeioi?uo e iicaeiaa. Ii aiciee a
?acoeueoaoa neioaca inoaoeia ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u ?eia e
aa?aa?neeo ieaiai. Ia ia?auo ii?ao yoi aue i?a-?iiaineee noeeue.

A eiioea i?a-?iiaineiai ia?eiaea yeaiaiou ?iiaineiai noeey niaoeaaeenue
n aecaioeeneeie, n aeeaeiaainoi/iuie, iniaaiii ne?eeneeie, oaeaea
i?eoaaeoeie a Ne?eth ec Aecaioee; n aa?iaineeie, n eaeueoneeie, n
/a?oaie noeeae ae?oaeo naaa?iuo ieaiai. ?acee/iua eiiaeiaoeee yoeo
aeeyiee nicaeaee a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia iiiaeanoai eieaeueiuo noeeae,
eioi?ua iieo/eee iauaa eiy ?iiaineiai, a cia/aiee «a iaia?a ?eieyi».
Iineieueeo iniiaiia eiee/anoai nio?aieaoeony i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiuo
iaiyoieeia i?a-?iiaineiai e ?iiaineiai noeey yaeythony a?oeoaeoo?iuie
nii?oaeaieyie: ?acee/iua noeee yoiai ia?eiaea /anoi ?acee/athony ii
a?oeoaeoo?iui oeieai.

1.1. A?oeoaeoo?a

A?oeoaeoo?a V-VIII aaeia iau/ii i?inoa, ca eneeth/aieai caeaiee a
?aaaiia, (Eoaeey), aicaaaeaiiuo ii aecaioeeneei i?aaeeai. Caeaiey /anoi
nicaeaaaeenue ec yeaiaioia, ecuyouo ec noa?uo ?eineeo iino?iae, eee
aeaei?e?iaaeenue eie. Ai iiiaeo ?aaeiiao oaeie noeeue aue i?iaeieaeaieai
?aiiao?enoeaineiai eneonnoaa. E?oaeua eee iiiaioaieueiua niai?iua
oea?eae, caeinoaiaaiiua ec aecaioeeneie a?oeoaeoo?u, no?ieeenue a
oa/aiea i?a-?iiaineiai ia?eiaea; iicaeiaa iie aicaiaeeeenue a Aeaeoaiee
ia thai-caiaaea O?aioeee e a Neaiaeeiaaee.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiua e eo/oa anaai i?i?aaioaiiua ia?acoeu yoiai oeia —
niai? Nai-Aeoaei aecaioeeneiai eiia?aoi?a THnoeieaia a ?aaaiia (526-548)
e ainueieoaieueiay aeai?oeiaay eaiaeea, iino?iaiiay iaaeaeo 792 e 805
aiaeaie Ea?eii Aaeeeei a Ae-ey-Eaiaeea ( a iano. a?aiy Aaoai, Aa?iaiey),
i?yii einie?e?iaaiiay niai?ii Nai-Aeoaei. Iaeiei ec oai?aiee
ea?ieeianeeo a?oeoaeoi?ia noae aanoai?e, iiiaiyoaaeiue aoiaeiie oanaae,
oeaiee?iaaiiue eieieieueiyie, eioi?ue noaee i?eno?aeaaoue e o?enoeaineei
aaceeeeai. Aanoai?ee auee i?ioioeiaie oanaaeia aeaaioneeo ?iiaineeo e
aioe/aneeo niai?ia.

Aaaeiua caeaiey eiino?oe?iaaeenue oaeaea a iiianou?neii noeea.
Iiianou?e, oa?aeoa?iia ?aeeaeiciia e nioeeaeueiia yaeaiea oie yiioe,
o?aaiaaee a?iiaaeiuo caeaiee, niaiauaaoeo a naaa eae aeeeeua iiiaoia,
oae e /aniaie, iiiauaiey aeey iieeoa e neoaea, aeaeeioaee, ianoa?neea.
Ouaoaeueii i?i?aaioaiiua i?a-?iiaineea iiianou?neea eiiieaenu auee
aicaaaeaiu a Naio-Aaeea (Oaaeoea?ey), ia ino?iaa ?aeoaiao (Aa?iaineay
noi?iia ica?a Eiinoain) e a Iiioa-Eanneii (Eoaeey)
iiiaoaie-aaiaaeeeoeioeaie.

Auaeathueiny aeinoeaeaieai a?oeoaeoi?ia ?iiaineiai ia?eiaea auea
?ac?aaioea caeaieen eaiaiiuie aieueoaie (a?i/iuie, iiaeaea?aeeaathueie
eiino?oeoeeyie). Aeaaiie i?e/eiie aeey ?ac?aaioee eaiaiiuo a?ie auea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue caiaiu eaaei ainieaiaiyaoeony aea?aayiiuo ia?ae?uoee
i?a-?iiaineeo caeaiee. Aaaaeaiea aieueoiauo eiino?oeoeee i?eaaei e
anaiauaio eniieueciaaieth oyaeaeuo noai e noieaia.

1.2. Neoeueioo?a

Aieueoeinoai ?iiaineeo neoeueioo? auei eioaa?e?iaaii a oea?eiaioth
a?oeoaeoo?o e neoaeeei eae no?oeoo?iui, eiino?oeoeaiui, oae e
ynoaoe/aneei oeaeyi. Iiyoiio o?oaeii aiai?eoue i ?iiaineie neoeueioo?a,
ia eanaynue oea?eiaiie a?oeoaeoo?u. Iaei?acia?iay neoeueioo?a
i?a-?iiaineie yiioe ec einoe, a?iicu, cieioa ecaioaaeeaaeanue iiae
aeeyiea aecaioeeneeo iiaeaeae. Ae?oaea yeaiaiou iiiai/eneaiiuo ianoiuo
noeeae auee iicaeinoaiaaiu ec ?aianae no?ai Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, ecaanoiuo
aeaaiaea?y eiii?oe?iaaiiui eeethno?e?iaaiiui ?oeiienyi, ?aciui ecaeaeeyi
ec einoe, cieioui i?aaeiaoai, ea?aieea, oeaiyi. Auee aaaeiu oaeaea
iioeau, i?ienoiaeeaoea ec eneonnoa iea?e?iaaaoeo ia?iaeia, oaeea, eae
a?ioaneiua oeao?u, ia?acu /oaeiaeu, ia?aieaoathueany aaiiao?e/aneea
oci?u, iniaaiii a ?aeiiao naaa?iaa Aeuei. E?oiiiianooaaiua eaiaiiua
neoeueioo?iua aeaei?aoeee noaee iau/iuie a Aa?iia eeoue a XII aaea. Ai
o?aioeocneeo ?iiaineeo niai?ao I?iaaina, Ao?aoiaeee, Aeaeoaiee
iiiaeanoai oeao? ?aciauaeinue ia oanaaeao, a noaooe ia eieiiiao
iiae/a?eeaaee aa?oeeaeueiua iiaeaea?aeeaathuea yeaiaiou.

1.3. AEeaiienue

Nouanoaothuea ia?acoeu ?iiaineie aeeaiiene aeeth/atho a naay oe?aoaiey
a?oeoaeoo?iuo iaiyoieeia, oaeea eae eieiiiu n aano?aeoiuie i?iaiaioaie,
a oaeaea oe?aoaiey noai n ecia?aaeaieyie aenyueo oeaiae. AEeaiieniua
eiiiiceoeee, a /anoiinoe iiaanoaiaaoaeueiua noeaiu ii aeaeaeneei
nthaeaoai e ec aeecie nayouo, oaeaea ecia?aaeaeenue ia oe?ieeo
iiaa?oiinoyo noai. A yoeo eiiiiceoeeyo, eioi?ua i?aeiouanoaaiii
neaaeotho aecaioeeneie aeeaiiene e iicaeea, oeao?u noeeeciaaiu e ieinee,
oae /oi iie aini?eieiathony nei?aa eae neiaieu, /ai eae ?aaeenoe/aneea
ecia?aaeaiey. Iicaeea, oi/ii oae aea eae e aeeaiienue, auea a iniiaiii
aecaioeeneei i?eaiii e oe?iei eniieueciaaeanue a a?oeoaeoo?iiiioi?ieaiee
eoaeueyineeo ?iiaineeo oea?eaae, a iniaaiiinoe a niai?a Na. Ia?ea
(Aaiaoeey) e a neoeeeeaineeo oea?eayo a Oeaoaeo e Iii?aaea.

1.4. Aeaei?aoeaiia eneonnoai

I?a-?iiaineea ooaeiaeieee aeinoeaee auni/aeoaai o?iaiy a
eeethno?e?iaaiee ?oeiienae. A Aiaeee aaaeiay oeiea eeethno?e?iaaiey
?oeiienae aicieeea oaea a VII aaea a Oiee Aeeaiaea (Eeiaeenoa?i).

I?iecaaaeaiey yoie oeieu, yeniiie?othueany a A?eoaineii iocaa (Eiiaeii),
ioee/athony aaiiao?e/aneei ia?aieaoaieai oci?ia a caaeaaiuo aoeaao,
?aieao e eie aonoi iie?uaathony oeaeua no?aieoeu, eioi?ua iacuaathony
eia?iauie. ?enoiee caaeaaiuo aoea /anoi iaeeaeythony a?ioaneiuie
oeao?aie ethaeae, ioeoe, /oaeiaeu.

?aaeiiaeueiua oeieu eeethno?e?iaaiey ?oeiienae a thaeiie e ainoi/iie
Aa?iia ?acaeaaee ?acee/iua niaoeeoe/aneea noeee, /oi caiaoii, iai?eia?,
ii eiiee Aiieaeeinena Aaaou (Ia?eae, Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaeeioaea),
ecaioiaeaiiie a na?aaeeia XI aaea a iiianou?a Nai-Naaa? a Naaa?iie
O?aioeee. A ia/aea XII aaea eeethno?e?iaaiea ?oeiienae a naaa?iuo
no?aiao i?eia?aei iauea /a?ou iiaeiaii oiio, eae oi aea i?iecioei a oi
a?aiy ni neoeueioo?ie. A Eoaeee i?iaeieaeaei aeiieie?iaaoue aecaioeeneia
aeeyiea eae a ieieaoth?iie aeeaiiene, oae e a ianoaiiuo ?inienyo, e a
iicaeea.

1.5. Ia?aaioea iaoaeeia

I?i-?iiaineay e ?iiaineay ia?aaioea iaoaeeia – oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiay
oi?ia eneonnoaa – eniieueciaaeenue, aeaaiui ia?acii, aeey nicaeaiey
oea?eiaiie ooaa?e aeey ?aeeaeiciuo ?eooaeia. Iiiaea ec oaeeo
i?iecaaaeaiee ii nae aeaiue o?aiyony a nie?iaeuieoeao aieueoeo
eaoaae?aeueiuo niai?ia ca i?aaeaeaie O?aioeee; o?aioeocneea niai?u auee
ia?aaeaiu ai a?aiy O?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee. Ae?oaea iaoaeee/aneea
ecaeaeey yoiai ia?eiaea — ?aiiea eaeueoneea oeeea?aiiua thaaee?iua
oe?aoaiey e na?aa?yiua i?aaeiaou; iicaeiea ecaeaeey aa?iaineeo
ceaoieociaoeia e na?aa?yiua aaue, einie?e?iaaiiua i?eaiciuie
aecaioeeneeie iaoaeee/aneeie ecaeaeeyie, a oaeaea caia/aoaeueiua yiaee,
iniaaiii ia?aai?iae/aoua e auai/aoua, ecaioiaeaiiua a ?aeiiao ?ae Iicaey
e ?aeia. Aeaoiy ciaiaieouie ianoa?aie ii iaoaeeo auee ?iaea ec
Aaeueia?-noaocaia, aa?iaiaoe, ecaanoiue naieie a?iiciauie ecaeaeeyie e
o?aioeocneee yiaeuea? Aiaeo?oa aea Eea?.

Naiui ecaanoiui i?eia?ii ?iiaineiai oaenoeeueiiai i?iecaaaeaiey yaeyaony
auoeaea XI aaea, iacuaaaiay «Aiaaeai ec Aaey». Nio?aieeenue e ae?oaea
ia?acoeu, oaeea eae oea?eiaiua iaea/aiey e ae?aie?iaee, iaeiaei iaeaieaa
oeaiiua oeaie a ?iiaineie Aa?iia auee aaacaiu ec Aecaioeeneie eiia?ee,
Eniaiee e N?aaeiaai Ainoiea e ia yaeythony i?iaeoeoeeae ianoiuo
ianoa?ia.

2. Aioe/aneia eneonnoai e a?oeoaeoo?a

Ia niaio ?iiaineiio noeeth ii ia?a ?anoeaaoa ai?iaeia e
niaa?oainoaiaaiey iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee i?eoiaeee iiaue noeeue —
aioe/aneee. A yoii noeea noaee eniieiyoueny a Aa?iia ?aeeaeiciua e
naaoneea caeaiey, neoeueioo?a, oeaaoiia noaeei, eeethno?e?iaaiiua
?oeiiene e ae?oaea i?iecaaaeaiey ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa a oa/aiea
aoi?ie iieiaeiu n?aaeieo aaeia.

Aioe/aneia eneonnoai aicieeei ai O?aioeee ieiei 1140 aiaea
?ani?ino?aieeinue ii anae Aa?iia a oa/aiea neaaeothuaai noieaoey e
i?iaeieaeaei nouanoaiaaoue a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia a oa/aiea ii/oe anaai XV
aaea, a a iaeioi?uo ?aaeiiao Aa?iiu e a XVI aaea. Ia?aiia/aeueii neiai
aioeea eniieueciaaeinue aaoi?aie eoaeueyineiai Aic?iaeaeaiey eae
oie/eaeeoaeueiue y?eue aeey anao oi?i a?oeoaeoo?u e eneonnoaa n?aaeieo
aaeia, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue n?aaieiuie oieueei n i?iecaaaeaieyie
aa?aa?ia-aioia. Iicaeiaa i?eiaiaiea oa?ieia «aioeea» auei ia?aie/aii
ia?eiaeii iicaeiaai, aunieiai eee eeanne/aneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii neaaeiaaaoaai ca ?iiaineei. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia?eiae
aioeee n/eoaaony iaeiei ec auaeathueony a enoi?ee aa?iiaeneie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u.

Iniiaiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai e au?aceoaeai aioe/aneiai ia?eiaea auea
a?oeoaeoo?a.

Oioy ia?iiiia /enei iaiyoieeia aioeee auee naaoneeie, aioe/aneee noeeue
ianeoaeeaae i?aaeaea anaai oea?eiaue, naiiai iiuiiai no?ieoaey a
n?aaeiea aaea, eioi?ue e iaania/ee ?acaeoea yoie iiaie aeey oiai a?aiaie
a?oeoaeoo?u e aeinoea aa iieiaeoae ?aaeecaoeee.

Ynoaoe/aneia ea/anoai aioe/aneie a?oeoaeoo?u caaeneo io aa no?oeoo?iiai
?acaeoey: ?aa?enoua naiaeu noaee oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii aioe/aneiai
noeey.

N?aaeiaaaeiaua oea?eae eiaee iiuiua eaiaiiua naiaeu, eioi?ua auee i/aiue
oyaeaeuie. Iie no?aieeenue ?ania?aoue, auoieeiooue ia?oaeo noaiu. Yoi
iiaei i?eaanoe e ia?ooaieth caeaiey. Iiyoiio noaiu aeieaeiu auoue
aeinoaoi/ii oienouie e oyaeaeuie, /oiau aea?aeaoue oaeea naiaeu. A
ia/aea XII aaea eaiaiueee ?ac?aaioaee ?aa?enoua naiaeu, eioi?ua
aeeth/aee a naay no?ieiua eaiaiiua a?ee, ?aniieiaeaiiua aeeaaiiaeueii,
iiia?ae e i?iaeieueii. Iiaue naiae, eioi?ue aue oiiueoa, eaa/a e
oieaa?naeueiaa (iineieueeo iia eiaoue iiiai noi?ii), iicaieee ?aoeoue
iiiaea a?oeoaeoo?iua i?iaeaiu. Oioy ?aiia-aioe/aneea oea?eae aeiioneaee
oe?ieia aa?uee?iaaiea oi?i, i?e aicaaaeaiee na?ee aieueoeo niai?ia a
Naaa?iie O?aioeee, ia/aaoainy ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XII noieaoey, auee
iieiinoueth eniieueciaaiu i?aeiouanoaa iiaiai aioe/aneiai naiaea.
A?oeoaeoi?u niai?ia iaia?oaeeee, /oi oaia?ue aiaoiea ?anie?athuea oneeey
io naiaeia eiioeaio?e?othony a oceeo iaeanoyo ia noueao ?aaa? (ia?ath?),
e iiyoiio iie iiaoo auoue eaaei iaeo?aeeciaaiu n iiiiuueth eiio?oi?nia e
aiaoieo a?ie-a?eaooaiia.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, oienoua noaiu ?iiaineie a?oeoaeoo?u iiaee auoue
caiaiaiu aieaa oiieeie, aeeth/aaoeie iaoe?iua ieiiiua i?iaiu, e
eioa?uea?u iieo/aee aani?eia?iia aei oao ii? inaauaiea. A no?ieoaeueiii
aeaea iiyoiio i?iecioea ianoiyuay ?aaiethoeey.

N i?eoiaeii aioe/aneiai naiaea eciaieeanue eae eiino?oeoeey, oi?ia, oae
e ieaie?iaea e eioa?uea?u niai?ia. Aioe/aneea niai?u i?eia?aee iauee
oa?aeoa? eaaeinoe, ono?aieaiiinoe aaunue, noaee iaiiiai aieaa
aeeiaie/iuie e yeni?anneaiuie. Ia?aui ec aieueoeo niai?ia aue niai?
Ia?eaeneie aiaiiaoa?e (ia/ao a 1163). A 1194 aiaeo aue caeiaeai niai? a
Oa?o?a, /oi n/eoaaony ia/aeii ia?eiaea aunieie aioeee. Eoeueieiaoeeae
yoie yiioe noae niai? a ?aeina (ia/ao a 1210). Nei?aa oieiaeiue e
anaiiaaaeaeathuee a naieo oi/ii naaeaine?iaaiiuo i?iii?oeeyo, ?aeinneee
niai? i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iiiaio eeanne/aneiai iieiy e aaciyoaaeiinoe a
yaiethoeee aioe/aneeo niai?ia. Aaeo?iua ia?aai?iaeee, oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa
a?oeoaeoo?u iicaeiae aioeee, auee ecia?aoaieai ia?aiai a?oeoaeoi?a
?aeinneiai niai?a. I?eioeeieaeueii iiaua ?aoaiey eioa?uea?a auee
iaeaeaiu aaoi?ii niai?a a Ao?aea (ia/ao a 1195 a.). Aeeyiea o?aioeocneie
aioeee auno?i ?ani?ino?aieeinue ia anth Aa?iio: Eniaieth, Aa?iaieth,
Aiaeeth. A Eoaeee iii auei ia noieue neeueiui.

Neoeueioo?a. Neaaeoy ?iiaineei o?aaeeoeeyi, a iiiai/eneaiiuo ieoao
ia oanaaeao o?aioeocneeo aioe/aneeo niai?ia ?aciauaeinue a ea/anoaa
oe?aoaiee a?iiaaeiia eiee/anoai auna/aiiuo ec eaiiy oeao?,
ieeoeaoai?yaoeo aeiaiaou e aa?iaaiey eaoiee/aneie oea?eae. Aioe/aneay
neoeueioo?a a XII e ia/aea XIII aaea auea ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o
i?aeiouanoaaiii a?oeoaeoo?iie. Naiua e?oiiua e iaeaieaa aaaeiua oeao?u
?aciauaeenue a i?iaiao ii iaaei noi?iiai io aoiaea. Iineieueeo iie auee
i?ee?aieaiu e eieiiiai, iie auee ecaanoiu eae noaooe-eieiiiu. Ia?yaeo ni
noaooyie-eieiiiaie auee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu naiaiaeii noiyuea
iiioiaioaeueiua noaooe, oi?ia eneonnoaa, iaecaanoiay a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia
n ?eineeo a?aiai. Naiua ?aiiea ec aeioaaeoeo aei ian — noaooe-eieiiiu a
caiaaeiii ii?oaea Oa?o?neiai niai?a. Iie iaoiaeeeenue aua a noa?ii
aei-aioe/aneii niai?a e aeaoe?othony i?eia?ii 1155 aiaeii. No?ieiua,
oeeeeiae?e/aneea oeao?u iiaoi?ytho oi?io eieiii, e eioi?ui iie auee
i?ee?aieaiu. Iie auiieiaiu a oieiaeiii, no?iaii eeiaeiii ?iiaineii
noeea, eioi?ue oai ia iaiaa i?eaeaao oeao?ai aia/aoeythuee oa?aeoa?
oeaeaono?aieaiiie aeooiaiinoe.

N 1180 aiaea ?iiaineay noeeecaoeey ia/eiaao ia?aoiaeeoue a iiaoth,
eiaaea noaooe i?eia?aoatho iuouaiea a?aoeee, ecaeeenoinoe e naiaiaeu
aeaeaeaiey. Yoi oae iacuaaaiue eeanne/aneee noeeue aeinoeaaao
eoeueieiaoeee a ia?auo aeanyoeeaoeyo XIII aaea a aieueoeo na?eyo
neoeueioo? ia ii?oaeao naaa?iiai e thaeiiai o?ainaioia Oa?o?neiai
niai?a.

Iiyaeaiea iaoo?aeecia. Ia/eiay i?eia?ii n 1210 aiaea ia Ei?iiaoeeiiiii
ii?oaea niai?a Ia?eaeneie aiaiiaoa?e e iinea 1225 aiaea ia caiaaeiii
ii?oaea Aiueaineiai niai?a, i?iecaiaeyuea aia/aoeaiea ?yae, eeanne/aneea
/a?ou ioi?ieaiey iiaa?oiinoae ia/eiatho onooiaoue ianoi aieaa no?iaei
iauaiai. O noaooe ?aeinneiai niai?a e a eioa?uea?a niai?a Nai-*aiaeue
i?aoaaee/aiiua oeuaee, iiae/a?eiooi ieiaeaeaaeaeiua aeaca,
?aniieiaeaiiua io/eaie ia iaeaiueeeo aieiaeao eieiiu e iaia?iua iicu
i?iecaiaeyo ia?aaeienaeueiia aia/aoeaiea neioaca iaoo?aeenoe/aneeo oi?i,
aeaeeeaoiie aooaeoaoeee e oiieie iaeooioai?aiiinoe.

3. N?aaeiaaaeiaay iocuea e oaao?

3.1. N?aaeiaaaeiaay iocuea

N?aaeiaaaeiaay iocuea iineo ii i?aeiouanoao aeooiaiue oa?aeoa? e
yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui ninoaaiui yeaiaioii eaoiee/aneie iannu Aianoa n
oai, oaea a ?aiiai N?aaeiaaaeiauea ia/eiaao ioi?ieyoueny naaoneay
iocuea.

Ia?aie aaaeiie oi?iie naaoneie iocuee auee ianie o?oaaaeo?ia ia
i?iaainaeueneii ycuea. Ia/eiay n XI aaea ianie o?oaaaeo?ia aieaa 200 eao
nio?aiytho aeeyiea ai iiiaeo ae?oaeo no?aiao, iniaaiii ia naaa?a
O?aioeee. Aa?oeia eneonnoaa o?oaaaeo?ia auea aeinoeaiooa ieiei 1200 a.
Aa?ia?aeii aea Aaioaaei?iii, AEe?i aea Ai?iaeai Oieueea aea Ia?naeai.
Aa?ia?ae ciaiaieo naieie o?aiy oaenoaie i ia?acaeaeaiiie ethaae.
Iaeioi?ua ec noeoioai?iuo oi?i i?aaeainoeuatho aaeeaaeo XIV aaea n aa
o?aiy noainaie ec 7 eee 8 no?ie. Ae?oaea ?anneacuaatho i e?anoiiinoeao
eee ianoaeaeatho eaeea-eeai ethaiaiua ionoyee. Ianoi?aee a
iiiai/eneaiiuo no?ioao ia?aaeatho aaiaeueiua enoi?ee i ?uoea?yo e
ianoooeao.

Oaioeaaaeueiua ianie, oaeea, eae ?iiaei e ae?aeae, oiaea iaoiaeyony a eo
?aia?ooa?a. Any yoa iiiioiie/aneay iocuea iiaea eiiaaea eiaoue
aeeiiiaiaiaio ia no?oiiii eee aeooiaii eino?oiaioa. Oae auei aei XIV
aaea, iiea naaoneay iocuea ia noaea iieeoiie/aneie.

3.2. N?aaeiaaaeiaue oaao?

Ii e?iiee enoi?ee, oaao? a oi?ia eeoo?ae/aneie ae?aiu aue aic?iaeaeai a
Aa?iia ?eineie eaoiee/aneie oea?eiaueth. Eiaaea oea?eiaue eneaea iooe
?anoe?aiey naiaai aeeyiey, iia /anoi i?eniinaaeeaaea ycu/aneea e
ia?iaeiua i?acaeieee, iiiaea ec eioi?uo niaea?aeaee oaao?aeeciaaiiua
yeaiaiou. A O aaea iiiaea oea?eiaiua i?acaeieee iaania/eaaee
aiciiaeiinoue ae?aiaoecaoeee: aiiaua aiai?y, e naia ianna yaeyaony ia
aieaa /ai ae?aiie.

Ii?aaeaeaiiua i?acaeieee auee ciaiaieou naiae oaao?aeueiinoueth, eae,
iai?eia?, oanoaea e oea?eae a aa?aiia aine?anaiuea. Aioeoiiiua eee
aii?inii-ioaaoiua, ianiiiaiey, iannu e eaiiie/aneea oi?aeu
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie aeeaeiae. A IX aaea aioeoiiiua ia?acaiiu, ecaanoiua
eae o?iiu, auee aeeth/aiu a eiiieaen iocueaeueiuo yeaiaioia iannu.
O?aoaieiniua o?iiu (aeeaeia iaaeaeo o?aiy Ia?eyie e aiaaeaie o iiaeeu
O?enoa) iaecaanoiiai aaoi?a i?eia?ii n 925 a. n/eoathony enoi/ieeii
eeoo?ae/aneie ae?aiu. A 970 aiaeo iiyaeeanue caienue eino?oeoeee eee
?oeiaiaenoaa e yoie iaaieueoie ae?aia, aeeth/athuay yeaiaiou einothia e
aeanoia.

3.2.1. ?aeeaeiciay ae?aia eee /oaeaniua iueanu.

A oa/aiea iineaaeothueo aeaoonio eao eeoo?ae/aneay ae?aia iaaeeaiii
?acaeaaeanue, aae?ay a naay ?acee/iua aeaeaeneea enoi?ee,
?acua?uaaaoeany nayuaiieeaie eee iaeue/eeaie ec oi?a. Iiia/aeo a
ea/anoaa einothiia e aeaei?aoeee eniieueciaaeenue oea?eiaiua iaea/aiey e
nouanoaothuea a?oeoaeoo?iua aeaoaee oea?eaae, iaeiaei anei?a auee
ecia?aoaiu aieaa oea?aiiiiua aeaoaee ioi?ieaiey. Ii ia?a ?acaeoey
eeoo?ae/aneie ae?aiu, a iae iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeyeenue iiiaea
aeaeaeneea oaiu, eae i?aaeei, ecia?aaeaaoea noeaiu io nioai?aiey ie?a
aei ?aniyoey O?enoa. Yoe iueanu iacuaaeenue ?acee/ii — ianneiiu
(No?anoe), ie?aeee (*oaeana), nayoua iueanu. Niioaaonoaothuea
aeaei?aoeee iiaeieiaeenue aie?oa oea?eiaiiai iaoa, iau/ii n iaaanaie a
aeoa?a e n Aaeneie ianoueth — eneonii naeaeaiiie aieiaie iiino?a n
?aceiooie ianoueth, ieeoeaoai?yaoae aoiae a aae — ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
eiioea iaoa. Iiyoiio ana noeaiu iueanu iiaee auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu
iaeiia?aiaiii, i?e/ai o/anoieee aeaenoaa ia?aaeaeaaeenue ii oea?eae n
iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia a caaeneiinoe io noeai.

Iueanu, i/aaeaeii, ninoiyee ec yieciaeia, ioaaouaaee aoeaaeueii
ouny/aeaoiea ia?eiaeu, ia?aiineee aeaenoaea a naiua ?acee/iua ianoa e
i?aaenoaaeyee ianoaiiaeo e aeoo ?acee/iuo a?aiai, a oaeaea aeeaai?ee. A
ioee/ea io a?a/aneie aioe/iie o?aaaaeee, eioi?ay /aoei oieone?iaaeanue
ia nicaeaiee i?aaeiinueie e oneiaee aeey eaoa?nena, n?aaeiaaaeiaay
ae?aia aeaeaei ia anaaaea iieacuaaea eiioeeeou e iai?yaeaiea. Aa
oeaeueth auea ae?aiaoecaoeey nianaiey ?iaea /aeiaa/aneiai.

Oioy oea?eiaue iiaeaea?aeeaaea ?aiithth eeoo?ae/aneoth ae?aio a aa
aeeaeaeoe/aneii ea/anoaa, ?acaeaeaoaeueiinoue e c?aeeuiinoue
oneeeaaeenue e ia/eiaee i?aiaeaaeaoue, e oea?eiaue ia/aea au?aaeaoue a
aae?an ae?aiu iiaeic?eoaeueiinoue. Ia aeaeay oa?youe iieaciuo aeey naay
yooaeoia oaao?a, oea?eiaue iioea ia eiii?iienn, auiany ae?aiaoe/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey ec noai naieo oea?eiaiuo o?aiia. Oi aea naiia
aauanoaaiiia ioi?ieaiea noaei ainnicaeaaaoueny ia ?uii/iuo ieiuaaeyo
ai?iaeia. Nio?aiyy naia ?aeeaeiciia niaea?aeaiea e iai?aaeaiiinoue,
ae?aia noaea ai?acaei aieaa naaoneie ii naiaio iinoaiiai/iiio oa?aeoa?o.

3.2.3 N?aaeiaaaeiaay naaoneay ae?aia

A XIV aaea oaao?aeueiua iinoaiiaee naycuaaeenue n i?acaeieeii Oaea
O?enoiaa e ?acaeaaeenue a oeeeeu, aeeth/aaoea aei 40 iuean. Iaeioi?ua
o/aiua n/eoatho, /oi yoe oeeeeu ?acaeaaeenue naiinoiyoaeueii, oioy e
iaeiia?aiaiii n eeoo?ae/aneie ae?aiie. Iie i?aaenoaaeyeenue aeey iaueiu
a oa/aiea oeaeiai /aou?ao-iyoeeaoiaai ia?eiaea. Eaaeaeay iinoaiiaea
iiaea aeeeoueny iaeei eee aeaa aeiy e noaaeeanue iaeei ?ac a ianyoe.
Iinoaiiaea eaaeaeie iueanu oeiaine?iaaeanue eaeei-eeai oeaoii eee
oi?aiaie aeeueaeeae, i?e/ai iau/ii noa?aeenue eae oi naycaoue
niaoeeaeecaoeeth oeaoa n i?aaeiaoii iueanu — iai?eia?, oeao
ei?aaeano?ieoaeae iia noaaeoue iueano i Iia. Iineieueeo eniieieoaeyie
auee /anoi iaa?aiioiua ethaeoaee, aiiieiiua aaoi?u iuean no?aieeenue
ienaoue eaaei caiiieiathueieny i?eieoeaiuie noeoaie. A niioaaonoaee ni
n?aaeiaaaeiaui ie?iaicc?aieai, enoi?e/aneay oi/iinoue ca/anooth
eaii?e?iaaeanue, e aeaeaei ia anaaaea niaethaeaeanue eiaeea
i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae.

?aaeeci eniieueciaaeny a iinoaiiaeao ecae?aoaeueii. Iueanu Iieiu
aiao?iieciia, nnueie ia /enoi ianoiua e ecaanoiua eeoue nia?aiaiieeai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa; ?aaeeyi a?aiaie e ianoa oaeaeyeinue eeoue ieieiaeueiia
aieiaiea. Einothiu, ianoaiiaea e ooaa?ue auee nieioue nia?aiaiiuie
(n?aaeiaaaeiauie aa?iiaeneeie). *oi-oi iiaei ecia?aaeaoueny naa?ooi/ii —
nio?aieeenue niiauaiey i oii, eae aeoa?u aaeaa ia oie?aee aneaaenoaea
neeoeii ?aaeenoe/aneiai eniieiaiey ?aniyoey eee iiaaoaiey, e ia aeoa?ao,
eioi?ua, ea?ay aeueyaiea, aoeaaeueii nai?aee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, yieciae
n ionooieaieai aiae E?aniiai ii?y iia iaicia/aoueny i?inoui
iaa?anuaaieai e?aniie oeaie ia aaeioyi-i?aneaaeiaaoaeae a ciae oiai, /oi
ii?a iiaeioeei eo.

Naiaiaeiay nianue ?aaeueiiai e neiaiee/aneiai ia i?aiyonoaiaaea
n?aaeiaaaeiaiio aini?eyoeth. C?aeeua e ia?iaeiua iueanu noaaeeenue
iianthaeo, aaea oieueei aiciiaeii, e aaeneay ianoue iau/ii auea
ecethaeaiiui iauaeoii i?eeiaeaiey nee aeey ianoa?ia iaoaie/aneeo /oaean
e ie?ioaoieeia. Ianiio?y ia ?aeeaeiciia niaea?aeaiea oeeeeia, iie ana
aieaa e aieaa noaiiaeeenue ?acaea/aieyie. Eniieueciaaeenue o?e iniiaiuo
oi?iu iinoaiiaie. A Aiaeee naiuie iau/iuie auee ea?iaaaeueiua iiaicee.
I?aaeiea oea?eiaiua aeaei?aoeee niaieeenue ouaoaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiuie
ia?aaeaeaeiuie noeaiaie, oaeeie, iai?eia?, eae iaeaiueeea nia?aiaiiua
noaea, eioi?ua ia?aiauaeenue a ai?iaea n ianoa ia ianoi. C?eoaee
niae?aeenue a eaaeaeii oaeii ianoa: eniieieoaee ?aaioaee ia ieiuaaeeao
iiaicie, eee ia iiaeiinoeao, iino?iaiiuo ia oeeoeao. A Eniaiee aeaeaee
oaeaea. Ai O?aioeee i?eiaiyeenue neio?iiiua iinoaiiaee — ?acee/iua
aeaei?aoeee iiaeieiaeenue iaeia ca ae?oaie ii noi?iiai aeeeiiiai,
i?eiiaeiyoiai iiiinoa ia?aae nia?aaoeieny c?eoaeyie.

Iaeiiaoe, iiyoue-oaee a Aiaeee, iueanu eiiaaea noaaeeenue «ae?oaiaoth» —
ia e?oaeie ieiuaaeea, n aeaei?aoeeyie, ?aciauaaoeieny ii ie?oaeiinoe
a?aiu e c?eoaeyie, neaeyueie eee noiyueie iaaeaeo aeaei?aoeeae.

3.2.3. Iueanu-ii?aeeoa

A oio aea naiue ia?eiae iiyaeeenue ia?iaeiua iueanu, naaoneea oa?nu e
ianoi?aee aieueoae /anoueth aiiieiiuo aaoi?ia, eioi?ua oii?ii nio?aiyee
oa?aeoa? ie?neeo ?acaea/aiee. Ana yoi aeeyei ia yaiethoeeth
iuean-ii?aeeoa a XV aaea. Oioy e iaienaiiua ia oaiu o?enoeaineiai
aiaineiaey n niioaaonoaothueie ia?niiaaeaie, ii?aeeoa ia auee iioiaee ia
oeeeeu, iineieueeo ia i?aaenoaaeyee yieciaeu ec Aeaeee. Iie auee
aeeaai?e/aneeie, naiiaeinoaoi/iuie ae?aiaie e eniieiyee eo
i?ioanneiiaeu, oaeea, eae iaiano?aee eee aeiiaea?u. Iueanu, oaeea, eae
«*aeiaae» («Everyman»), iau/ii o?aeoiaaee aeeciaiiue iooue eiaeeaeaea. A
/enea aeeaai?e/aneeo ia?niiaaeae auee oaeea oeao?u, eae Nia?oue,
Iaaei?noai, Aeia?ua Aeaea e ae?oaea ii?iee e aeia?iaeaoaee.

Yoe iueanu ianoaie o?oaeiu e neo/iu aeey nia?aiaiiiai aini?eyoey: ?eoiu
noeoia iiaoi?ythony, iinyo oa?aeoa? eii?iaecaoeee, iueanu a aeaa-o?e
?aca aeeeiiaa ae?ai Oaenie?a, a ii?aeue iauyaeyaony i?yiieeiaeii e
iaceaeaoaeueii. Iaeiaei eniieieoaee, anoaaeyy a i?aaenoaaeaiey iocueo e
aeaenoaea e eniieuecoy eiie/aneea aiciiaeiinoe iiiai/eneaiiuo
ia?niiaaeae ii?ieia e aeaiiiia, nicaeaee oi?io ia?iaeiie ae?aiu.

Caeeth/aiea

N?aaeiea aaea – a?aiy iai?yaeaiiie aeooiaiie aeecie, neiaeiuo e o?oaeiuo
iieneia ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua iiaee au neioace?iaaoue
enoi?e/aneee iiuo e ciaiey i?aaeoanoaothueo ouny/aeaoee.

A yoo yiioo ethaee niiaee aueoe ia iiaoth aei?iao eoeueoo?iiai
?acaeoey, eioth, /ai ciaee i?aaeiea a?aiaia. Iuoaynue i?eia?eoue aa?o e
?acoi, no?iy ea?oeiu ie?a ia iniiaa aeinooiiuo ei ciaiee e n iiiiuueth
o?enoeaineiai aeiaiaoecia, eoeueoo?a n?aaeieo aaeia nicaeaea iiaua
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua noeee, iiaue ai?iaeneie ia?ac aeecie. Aii?aee iiaieth
iuneeoaeae eoaeueyineiai Aic?iaeaeaiey, n?aaeiea aaea inoaaeee iai
aaaeiaeoea aeinoeaeaiey aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u, a oii /enea einoeooou
iao/iiai iiciaiey e ia?aciaaiey. Eae iaeuecy aieaa oaea/iui
i?aaenoaaeyaony ia?ac, i?aaeeiaeaiiue oeeinioii, iaoeiaaaeii e
eoeueoo?ieiaii I.E. Iao?iaui: ii n?aaiee n?aaeiaaaeiaoth eoeueoo?o ni
no?ieoaeueiuie eanaie. Aicaanoe iino?ieeo aac ieo iaaiciiaeii. Ii eiaaea
caeaiea caaa?oaii, eana oaeaeytho, e iiaeii oieueei aeiaaaeuaaoueny, eae
iie auaeyaeaee e eae auee ono?iaiu. N?aaeiaaaeiaay eoeueoo?a, ii
ioiioaieth e iaoae, nia?aiaiiie, nua?aea eiaiii ?ieue oaeeo eania: aac
iaa caiaaeiay eoeueoo?a ia aicieeaea au, oioy naia n?aaeiaaaeiaay
eoeueoo?a auea ia iaa a iniiaiii ia iioiaea.

Aeaeeia?aoey

1. Aaooei I.I. Oai?/anoai O?ainoa ?aaea e ia?iaeiay eoeueoo?a
N?aaeiaaaeiauey e ?aiannaina. – I., 1965 a.

2. Aaniyoia A. Oaao? iiae ioe?uoui iaaii. – Ia?iaeiue oaao?, 1948 a.

3. Ao?aae/ A.ss. Eaoaai?ee n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u. – I., 1987 a.

4. Ao?aae/ A.ss. Eoeueoo?a e iauanoai N?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iiu aeacaie
nia?aiaiieeia. – I., 1989 a.

5. Ao?aae/ A.ss. N?aaeiaaaeiaue ie?: eoeueoo?a aaciieanoaothuaai
aieueoeinoaa. – I., 1990 a.

6. Aea?eaae/ A.I. Ia?iaeiay eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiauey. Naaoneay
i?acaeie/iay aeeciue a eneonnoaa XI-XVI aa. – I., 1988 a.

7.Aeiaeao-?iaeaeanoaaineay.I.A.Eoeueoo?a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai
n?aaeiaaaeiauey. – I., 1989 a.

8 Ea Aioo. AE. Oeeaeeecaoeey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai Caiaaea. – I., 1992 a.

9 ?ooaiao?a A.E. Ai?iaeneay eoeueoo?a: N?aaeiaaaeiauea e ia/aei iiaiai
a?aiaie. – E., 1986 a.

10 ?thiei A.I. Ianniaua i?acaeianoaa. – I.-E., 1927 a.

7. Oa?iaa E.A. ?aaeenno?a yno?aaeu e ianniauo i?aaenoaaeaiee. – I.:
«I?inaauaiea», 1986 a.

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019