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Основные понятия, предмет культурологии

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A??????? ???o ? ????o? ?O

ANO?AOAINEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OAOIE*ANEEE OIEAA?NEOAO

E???o Y??i?e

EIIO?IEUeIAss ?AAIOA

Ii ?????: «E?????ey»

O?a: «I???a ?iy?y. I??? ???????

A???e:

N??? ???COY-88

N??a

I???e:

Ae.Y.I, I.E.

I??i? ?iy?y. I??? ??????

I?????? ? ???a ???ey ??????e e i ??? i ????.

NEIAI cultura (?o.) ???? “????a”, “????ea”, ??a ???y – y? ??????,
?????a?a, ????a ???u ?e ??u ???ey. A ??i ?iy?e ???? ????????? ??????i ??
???ey ????o ????a e y??? e ?????? ????e ????i “??? ???u” – ????. E???a,
??i ???i, ?? ??ay ??a ???ay????e ????, ?????i ??y ? ????th e ?????th?i
??? ?????e ??? ? ??a.

A ???e e a ?????th y?? a ?? ?????? e ????? ???? ?????? ??a ???? ?e
????-?????? ?? ????e eth?e. E??y e???a ? ??? ????????e e ???i?e ?????e
??i ?y?? ? ??i ???i – ???i (y???, y?????????e ia???th). Eth?y ???? ???y
? ????a ??e (y???u) e ???y? ?????? ???e. ????a e ???????? ???? ??????
??? ??? ?y????e ???? – ????? (?e ?????), ???a ???a ???? – ???ey ? ?eue?
n ????i-??????e ?????yie, ? e n ????-????e ???oy?, ??????? ???e. E???a
???? ????o ??? ??e, ????a ????o ??ae?, ? ??? ??? ?????y?y a ??o, ????,
???a ?????o ???iee e ????? ?????, ??ath?a n?? ??????th ????. N???oth ??
a ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?e???? ????e ??? ????? ??iy ????y (???i, ????,
??y, ????i e ???a ???e). I??? ???y (a ?a ????o a ???? ????? y???a ????
????) y?y?ny ???i ???? a ?????e ?????y ???? e ???? ??ey??? ??e a ???oyo
????. E???a, ??i ???i, – y? ?i?y ??a ???ay????e eth?e, ?th?y ?iy??ny
?????eth ??? ??e, ?????? ???? ??????ey ???u e ????y ???? ????e.

N????i ???? ?eth??: ?????e ???? ?????y ???ay????e ???? (y????); ????o
???? ????y; ??? ??????ey eth?e; ???????a ??u (????? ????u), ?????th?a
???? ????; ?????? ???? ?e ?????i ????; ??ue ?e ??????a, ?y??? n
“??????i”, ????i e ???????e? ??, ????, ????o ????e, ??ath?o ??e
?????y?th, ????th?? a ????.

I?? y?? “???o ??????? ????” ??ae ??? ????? ?????, ??? ?i ?????ny ?
“??????e ?y?e”, ???ny ??e ??e ??, ??? ????a?y ????? ?? e ?????? ???a
??e. A XIX a. ??????a ?? ????, ???? ??????o ??y?a e ????e, ??????? a
A??a, N???e e TH?ie A???, I??? e ?y? ????o ??i, ????e ??? ?y ???ey ?????
e ????? a?????e. Y? ????? ???eytho ???e ??? ?????? ????o ????, ? ???????
?? n ???, ?????? ?ey?y ? ?o ??i?? ???e. I???? ????o ???? ?ei ?????? ??a
a ?? ????i-?o????? ???na ?? ?? :

· ???i-?????e y?eth?e ??????? ????a (? ??a ???o ???a e ??a ???i);

· ??????? ????y ????o ??a ????. A ????i ??? ???e ??? ???y ? ??????, ??
?????? ???? ??e?? ???a, a ????? ???n ??????ny ?e ????ey ??????o ?????e
?o????? ??a (?????e ???o ???ey, “????e” ?i ????, ?????? ???o ???? A??e,
A????, TH?? A??? e ?.).

A 30-a ?? XX a. ? ????? ?????? ????nue ??ay ????????y ????? – ???????y
?????ey, ????y ????i ??? ?????ey ??????? ???? e ????u ????o ??a. E??
???y, a ??????? ?? ?????y ????? ???. I????i ????, ?i ?a ????i-????????a
??? ??i ????y y????e. Y???ey – y? ?????ey ????o ?e?? a ???? ????????? e
????i-y?????? (y???????i) ???e ???a. E??i a ??i ci??? ????ey?ny ??? ???
a ??iy?i ????. Ca ??? “y???????” ?????ue ??a?a ????? ??a ????? i ????o
(?e y????????i, ?e e ????, i????? ???i ?eth???i ??th??y, a ??a ?????i
??o e ???ueth-???a).

O??i “?????ey” ?????ny ???i a ?? ???? ???o. Ai-???, y?i ???? ?????ny ??y
??a i ???? e ????. A ??i ???? ?i ?????? ??????e ???? a XIX a. E?? ??,
??????e ???? ????oth ?????eth, ???????th ?????eth e ????oth ?????eth.
N????o ??a ????ay ?????ey, ???o ???e – ??????y ?????? ????a, ???a “???a”
?????e ????, ????a ?i ???????ne? ????a, ??????y ????? ???????e ???y?.

A???????? ???? ???? y?y?ny y??, ???? ?????????i ??ey a ??i. O?? ????
????i ?y?? n ??????i ???e ????, ????? ? ????e ?????? ?c ?????i ???ey
(???? ????i ??, ??????y, ???????y ????, ???? ???????ue?? ????), ????
???????y (???? ??i A??u, A???, A??e e o.ae.) ?e ???e ?????e ????
(???ne?, ??????, ????e, ????? ?? ????…).

I???i ?????ey ????? ?????? y?yth?y ??? ??i ?????? ????, a ????i ???ey –
???u ???a, ???????y y?? e ????, ?????e i?e, ???, ??a, ??e, ??????
y?????? ???, ????? ??????e, ?a??a ???e e ????a a y??????o ???oyo. N????e
??????e ????ny ????i-????????a ??? a A??a, ??? ??i a A??e e O???. A
?/??a ? io?????? ???? i?? ???? ????? ???? e ????ie ????a, ?????? ?????e,
????eth e ????eth ?????-???????i ??? ??????.

I???? ? ??????e ??o ?? ????a ??u ????, ????? ?y a???ey ???o y?yth?y ??y,
??i ???????y ?e ?????y ????ey. E?? y??, ????i ??????e ??o ?? ??? ????,
??????a a ??????? o?? (???????a ????i, ?????, ???), a ?????, a ?/a??
y???? ?????o ???. E????????a ??a???y ??o ?????ny ? ???a ???, ????o ????
???ey ???? ????, ??? ??i ????o ?? ????a.

I??? e ?????th ?iy?y “????”.

I?AEOE*ANEE ?a ???e?ey ???? ??u a ??i – y? ??????? ?e ??? ???ay????e
????, a ? ????. E???a – ???? ?iy?a ?y ?????y ??? ??u ?????e ??e eth?e.
I?y?a “????” ???, ?oy e ? ?a, ??????e ???? ???tho ?e ?????? ?e ???o
????i i???th?o ????a. Y?i ?iy?? ?????y ??ue ?e ????, ?e e ????. I?ii,
???i, ????? ??th ????o, ??? ?a ??? ??????? a ????i-????????e ????, ???
??i NOA. Iiy?? ??a ??????i ?????? ?iy?a “????” ?y ????y ?a??? ??????i
??y.

A ??? ???i ???e ?iy?y “????” e “????” ???i ???atho ?e ????.

??????? ?????y ?iy?y “????” ?y?? n ?i ?e ?? ?????? a ???? ??????e ????e,
?????? ????? ??????y?. I??i ????i? ?iy?th ?e ???e y?eth?????? ?????y
Y.O???. Ii ?????? ???? a ???? ?????? ? y????: ??a??, o????, ????a, ???a
e o. ae. O?? ??????a i ???? i????? ????e ? ?i ????????oth ????th, a ???e
? ?? ??a ???? ?e ?????e. O??e ??? ? ?e ?y? ???yth??y a ???? ???ey y????,
????, ?e ?????a ????? ????a ?????? ???? (??? ??a) ?e y?eth?th ?? ?????o
????e (? ???? ? ???o ???e).

E?? ??????i ?????y, a ??????? ??????e ?a ???a e ???o ?iy?y “????” e
??????? e ? ?????th. I??e ?????o A. E??? e E. E???o. “E???a ???o – ????
?,- ? ????a ?????ny e ??? ?iy?y?? ??, ???eyth?o ????a, ?????a e ??????
?e ??? ????; ?a ????o a ???o?a ?y????e eth?e, ?eth?y ? ?i???a a [??????]
????o. N????a y?i ???? ???eytho ?????? (?????e ?????y) ??, a ??oth ???ue
?, ???i ??????y ??ay ????. E????a ???u ??o ???????y, n ??e ???u, ?e
????? ?y????e eth?e, a n ??? – ?e ? ??ey??”. A ??? ?????e ???? ?? ???o?
?y????e eth?e; ??????a ????? e ? ?????e ???tho ?????? ?n? a ?????? ????
a ????oa? n ??i ???? e ?????th.

E. O?o ? a ?????e ???? ???? e ????i-??????o ????eth. E???a, ??? ii,
????ey? ??e ??n ????a e ya??e, ??ny?o ? ?????e ???? e ??????, ???y
???????y a ye???????? ????a. E???a ?y ?? ????ey? ??e ????th ???????th
??? ??y eth?e, ? ???????th ? ???u ???i ??? ????a e y???.

I???a ?????y ???? ?? ????? ??y?? ??a A. E??? e E. E???a “E???a, ?????e
??? ?????e” (1952), a ???e ??? ???e i?? 150 ?????e ????. O?? ??e ?e
????, ?y?? ? ??? ???a y?? ??a ??i ?a ??a 200 ?????e ????u. O???ue ?
?????ue, ?i ??ue ?i ?????y ??ey? ?ith ??ue a ???? ????, ??? ???y?thny
e???e ????? ?y ?? ?e ??i ?ia ????????? ???. I?y? n ???e?ey? ???? E. O??,
A. E??? e Y. O???a ????? ?a ?yae ??a ?????e.

O? ????? ?????a ?????y ???? ?y?? n ???i ??e ???oe. O?, ???? E. O???o,
“??c ??e, ???? ???o ??? ?e ??y, ????y ????e… E?ue?? ???e ?? ??????
????e e ???e…”

A??oth ??? ???eytho ???????a ?????y ????. I????, O. N??? ???ey? ???? “?e
?????? ??????? ???? e ?i ????i ???yi”. ?.A???o ???? ???? ?e ??????a
????a, ???a ??? ????? eth?e ??? ????ueny ???. N?????oth ??o ??ey ? ????
???e A. N??. Ii ?i ??eth, ???? – y? ??? ???e a ?????i ??. I. O????
??????e ???? “?e ??o ????y e ??? ???ey, ???th?th ??? ????”.

I??a ??i ???tho ?????a ?????y ????. I???a ?????a ? ?o ?????o ?. E?o?o:

a) E???a – y?, a ???? ??a, ? ??a ?i ??????? ???yth??y ???e ??? ????;

a) E???a – y? ????a ??a????i ????y e ??????o ??e???, ????? ???o ???yth?y
e ???th?y ? ????? ???e ???i ????.

E ?????i ??i ???e ?e? ?????a, ??? Aeae. O????i. Ii ???e, ?i ???? ???o ?
?? ??a y???.

I??e – “????i ???????i?a ????a-????, ????, ???a ????e ???”.

A??e – “?????? ????… ????y ????e ???”.

A ???oth?o ??? ??o ????, ?e ???oth?y ???? ????y, ????? a ????o ??o
?????e a ???? ??e ????????? ???. A ????? ???? ??? ??a ?????e (? ??i ??
??a ????? ?a ?e?a: ??????, ??????? ?????y) ??i ???ue ??ae, ?i ?? a ?o ?a
? ?? i ??a ?????e ??e ????, ? in????yo, ??????o ????i ???i. A ??iy?i
???e ?y ?????y ????e ???? ??o ??a ????y?ny ??? “y??????y ????”.

A ?????e ??????e (?e ?, ?e e a ?????? 50-60-o ??a) ????? ?? ??ay ??????y
???? – i ???a ?iy?y “????”: ?e ?iy?a “????a” ?????y n y??ey?, ????e
????????, ???a ?i ????o. I?e ??atho, ?i ?iy?a ???? (?e ?, ?e ?iy?a y??a
e ????a ??? ??a ????e-?ea???e) ?? ?? ??? ????a ??, ?????, ????th?a a
???o ????a (a ??? ??? ??????a), ????? ?????, n ??? ??athu?ny ?????th n
????? ?????? ?????th. Ae??a (??e ?o a ??oth ???ue ??oao ???ue ????ey
?e????? E. O??) ?????th?y ??ey i ????i-????i?i ????a ????, ?i, ???, e
???tho a ?????yo, ?????ay ???? ?e ??n ????a, y???… e ???nyo ?i ????
???????i n ?????oth?? y??ey? ????? ????????.

E? ? ?????y ??? ??????? Ai-???, ??ay ? ??? ????? ?ith ???o, ??aey ?
?????o ????i? ????. A y?i ??? a ??o ?c?eyo ?? ?ey ???. I??a, ???ny i???a
?????y ?iy?y e ??e ??????e ????????. N????e ????y ???? ?e ?????i ?????
??? ????tho: ???? y? ????, ?uy??a, ?e ? ?????? ???i ??i. A???a?i, ?i
???? ?e ??o ?????e ??????i ??a, ??c ??e ????? ???, ??? ???ue, ????ue, ?e
?????oth ??. E????a ????? ????tho ??? a ???eyo ???? e a ????? ????. E??
y??, ??ue ?? ?? ??iy????, ??? ?????? aeey ??????e e ?y ?? i ???? a ??i.

I????? ???? ?e ?c a ?i e ???o, ?i ????a ? y???u e ???? ????tho ?e ??
(????a i????ey), ???y?? ??e ???e ??? y??????e ????. E?e ?e ??? ??o
i???????ny, ????ey?ny a ???, ???eyo, a ????? ??a a ?? y?? ?e ??????
??????? ????? e o. ae. N?i ?iy?a “??” ?e “n?????ue” a ????? e ???? ????
? ??? ?????i-?????? ??a, ? eae???a, ???? ??????a?a. E???a ?????? ???a
??? ?a????e ?????, ??i ???i ???? ???e y?y?ny ??? ??????, ?e ?i???o.
Iiy??, ?????ay, a ???? ??ue ???e, ??? ?????y ?iy?y ??o?u n ??????
????????th, ?? ???ue, ?i ????ay ????? ???? ??o ?a ????y – ????i-??n???a
e ????-????.

O?????y e ?????y ????.

AIO?IIIEIAE*ANEIA ???? ???? ?y???ii ?eth?? a ?ay y?? ?e ?y?ia ?????????,
????a ??????i e ?????? ??a ???a. O?????y ???? (?e ?i ????) – y? (a ??i
??? ?????e) ????, a ???i ??ey?y ????ey?ny ? ????e ???a, ???ee, ??????.
O???????a ?????? ???? ??????ny ???????? ???, ??? ???a, ??iy?? ?????i
c??????? ???a ???, ????? ???i.

O?????y ???? ??????? a ????o, a ???o ????y ????u ?y ??e ??? ????y – ???a
???uo ?????y ???i ? ??e. C?? ??yo ?????th?e ???, ???y?ay e ?????ay ?
????y a ????a ???ey. A??? ?????? ?????e ??iyo ? c???o eth?e. O?????y
???? ???/? ???? a ?? ???eyth?a ? y???u, ???e ? ????o ???a n ????i. Ae??y
???? ????i ???????o n ????, ??a n ?e. Y?o ?i ???? ?????? ? ????? ??????,
?????i ?????y. A???? n???i ????y ?????i, ?i ?? ?????ue ????i ??? eth?a
???e?. E???e ??? e ??? – ???a ????a.

N????? ?i ???? ???????y ????? ???? ????y?, ????y?? a ???? ?????? ??????.
E???e ???, ???, ????? ???a – ???o??????y ???a ????ey e ???ey. O???y ??y
– “??-????”, ??? ???i? ?????o. A???? ???? ????y ? ?e ??e, ?e a ??????
????, a y?? ??a ???i ??e?o ????e (“?? e ??”). I?a ? ??? ?i ??????y –
??iyth?yny ????ay ??o?????ue, ??? ?c ???a??th?y ??a ????u ????? ?? ???
????y. N????? ???? – ????, ?i ???o ? ??a??o ??o ??e eth?e. A?i? ???a ?i
??th??ny a ?i, ?i ?i ??????i – ??????i, ?????? ????i. O?? ???? ?????
???????i a ???o (?e ?? a ?????o, a ?????e ???????e ????????, ?? ?????
???aeuey NOA), ??aey? a ??iy?e ?????e n ????, ????i? ????y ???a, ?????i
???? ye?????? ???a. N?????? ??? ?????e ???? y?y?ny ????? ???? io ????,
????a ???y, ??????, ????a?? eth?e ?e ???????o ????a, ???? ?????i
???????.

O?????y ???? ???????a, ?e ???i, ??????, ???? ?ae ?iy?e a ?e – ????
?cy??i. A?ue ????, e??? ? ?o ?? ??aey?y ? ??? ??u e ???????. N?? ??????a
???ey i ?????? ????o ???u ???i a “Y??????? ???” Aeae. I???a, ???a ???? a
1967 a. A ??iy?a ??y ??? ??ueth??? ?? ??? ??a ?i 600 ?????? ???a (? ????
??a ?e “A???ay ????a ?????? ????e” – Human Relations Area Files).
A?e??oy ????a ???? ??????e, ? e????i ?i ???. A ???oth?i ????e ??y? n
???? “?????ay ????” (????) ??o ??????ny ?e ne??i ?iy?a “????a ????”
(????), a ??a “?????a ????” (????) ??o ??????y ????? ?y?i ?????a?e ????.

A??a ?????i ??? i ?????e ????? ??a ???? n ???? ?????? ????????th.
O?????a ???? ? ?o ?? ????tho a TH?? A??ea, A??a, A????. Eo ?????a ??u ?
??? ?????otho ?? ????, ????? ?? ??a. ????a ????? ??????? ???? – NOA,
???????ay (????y) ??ue ??i A??u. I??a, ?? ??ue a ??, ?i a ???? ????e
???? ??????? ??i ????? ????y e ????eth ??????i ??? ?c?. O?? ???i, a ??e
??? ??o ???iy?ny ?a ?? ???? – ??????i – ??????ay e y???? ????ay,
?????i-???????y. ???y, ????, ????ey? ??e ??i? ????a ?????? e ?????e
??o?.

O?????y e ?????y ???? – ?a ?eth? a ???i ???a ??????o ?n????e. I?? ????
??a e ???i? ?i ???a-????, ?????o a ??????oth ?????eth, ?, ?i ? ??a,
?????o ?? ????? ????. A ??a?? ?????i-??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????
???th?y y???u ?????? e y???? i?????? ????? ????y, ??? ??e, ???a, ??????
?????? ?????ey. I???i ??o ???a y?yth?y ss??y, ????a ??? TH?-A???? A?e e
E??.

E????e (?????) e ??????e ?i?? ???ay????e.

EAE ssANOAOAO ? ?????th?? ????y, ???????th ?? a ?y???, ?c??e e ???????a
???? ??tho ?????e ?y????e ????. Ia y? ????tho e ??? ???? ?????y ????, ?
???o ????th?y ?????e. ??ue ?ao i n?????? ????a ????, ??????o ?????o
????, ? ??ii (?????) ?? ????y ???? ?e i ??????o ??? ?e ??o ?y????e,
????th?o a ??? ????. E?e, ???e, ??????oy n ???th?e ??????in?th ??? ????,
??? “??oth ???o” – ?????oth ???? e ????-???oth ??o ?y????e. O ???a,
??ath?o ? C??, ??????? ?a ?? ??e: ??????-??????e e ????i-???????
(??a??e). N??? ?, ??o??y ???? ? ???, a ?i ??th??ny ????a ?e???? ???a
?y????e.

I? ??????i ?? ??e ????tho ??????i ??????a (?????) ????? ????y, ??i ??ue
??? ????? n ???? ????? ???y?. Oa??? ?y????e ??????i ???i-???????i ????i
????a, ?i ???? e ??????e ????? ???? (????, ???, ??iy?? e o. ae.) e
??????th ? ?????? ????? a ????e ??a ???ey, a ?????? ?e????? ???yo. A
???eyo ???? ??th?th ?? ??tho ??????i-?????? ???e ? ???a ???y – ????u. I?
??? ???? ??????i ?? ???? ???o???y ? ??????, ?????tho ????a e ???????i
??ey?e (???n?). I???i ????e (?????o ?e ??????e ???o ???e) ??? ????, ??
????i. E???, ??o ???i ????? ????ue ??????e ?i ???ay????e ??? a ??? ???u
n-? (“???-???y”). A ???eo??i ?? ??e ?? ??i e ???eth e ?????e ?????
?????a. AE???a a y?????a ???? ??? ??? ? ????????ue, a ?????? ???yo
?iy?ytho ????oth ??????. A?? ??, ???-y??? ???yo i ???e ??oa o ????
(?????ue, ?????ay eth?? e ?cy?o) e o. ae.

A?? oy??ue ?e y?i, ?i ?i ?a???? ??e ???? ? ??a (a ??o ??a) ???, ?i o
????. A?ue o ???? ???? (!) ?o ??? ?? ??i????y ?? n ??? e ???e ???. I???y
? ???eyth?th ?? a ??????i ?? ?????? ????u, ?????ey ????y ????, ??????? a
??a?? ?ny???y, ???e ????? ?? ???????e, ?????? ??i ?????? e a ? ? ??y
?????e ?????e ????y. A?????? ?i ??e ??cy ???ue ???, o.a. ??a ???? ????
?y????e ? ????th n ??o??i ????. Y? ???, ?????i ???? ?ae ?y????e, ?????e
???????ey ???? ? ????? ?ci?i ?? ??.

I???i ?? ?? ??? ?????? ??????ey e ????e ???a ??? e ????y ? ?? ????. A?i
???ii, ?i ???a ?? ????tho ??????? ???? (???) ?y ??? e ?????y ??o ??a.
N??i ???i ?ei i????i, ?i o ????o ????o (?ae ???e) ??? ???o ??e ????ue
??o?a ???e. I?e ??i ??atho ???a ???????i ????, ??? ?atho ??a ???e
??????? ???? ???, ???yth?e ? ??? ?????ue ???a ???????i ??, ? e ????ue
???a ???, ???a e ????? “???eth ???a” ???e ??, e ??? ? ?????e ???????y a.
??????. I????? ????i y??ey o ???? ??i ????i ?? ?e ??? ?????e ???o??????
y????? ???e. I??aey ?? ???e ??????? ??????? ?? ??e, ???o ?????ue ?i
????ue ?e ??u ?????e ??? e ???a ??? ?? ?y? ????a, ? ???o ??e???e ???ny
??? ???ay????e ???? (?????e ????? ????y, ?????y ??????i ??????ey a ?aa e
?.).

A???-???????a ???? ????a ???? ? ?????ey? ???-? ??ai ?? ?y????e a ??????o
????o ???yo. *??? ???n?? ? ??e ???a, ? ??o ?????? a eth?i ??a ???i ??,
????ue ??a ??i???? ?? ?y????e e o. ae. Ii ii ????ny ????i ??? ?e ???e
?????i ????y, a ???e n ???e ????e ?? ?????. I? ???o?e y?? ???y o ?? ?
??e??ny ?? ?i ??????y ????a ?e ??? ????, e ? ??????? ???o. A? ???? ???e
?e ??a ???? ???. Ia ??y??e ????? ???e ???e ?????e ???ny ????? (a ???
io???ey ???????y) – ?a ????y ???ny?y ? ?i “??????? ??” ????. *??? ?e ???
??????e ?ae ??? a ? ? ??y ????? ?????? ????? ??, ???th?o ?i ??????th
???o. A??y ???e e????i ???a Y. I??, ???e ????????y e ???e????, o.a. o ??
????? ????ao ??? ?y ???, y??? ???u.

Aeay????ue ???? ??????. I?? ??e e ???? ? ???? ???? ?o????e ???? (??ey
??a, ????i?a ???? e ???ey, ???, ???, ?? ?a ?????). I????e – ??a, ???,
????? ??? – ????tho a ??????e ??a. A?ue ???? ???? ???o ? ??? ???????
?????a, ????? ?????. A y?i ??? eo???a ???????y ?e ??e ??????i, ???????
?? ????. Aeay????ue ???? ? ???y?ny ??a “??? – ???y”, ? y?y?ny ?? ???i ?
???a ???ae??e. A ?e ?????? ????th?e ??? ?????y, ??????i ???ey ???c? ??,
????th?e a ????e ??a a ?? ??a, ???, ????y. (I??? ?n?? ??? E.I.N???
?????? ???? ?e ??????e, o.a. ??????? ???? ???e, ???n.)

E???i-???oth?e ???? ?y????e y?y?ny ???????e ?????ueth, e??ay ?? ?????ue
??????y e ??iy??i ???????a ????. E?y ?????i? i ?? ?e ????, ???e ????o ?i
? ???e ????????. A???th?a ??, ??? ? ??????o a i?????e ?e ????e ??a.
N?????? ?????ueth ?????i ???a ?y???n? y?y?ny ????a ? ?a ? ????a. Y. O??
???e i ??????e ???e ????? ????? ?????e ????; I.O???? ???ye ?y ???ey y?ai
???? ????: ?iy?a “??a, ????a a ??”; A??ue ??i?? y? y??? ?e ??????? (??).

I????? ??????i ???a ?y????e ???, ?i ??? ???e ??o ?iy? ??e ????ey ?? ?e
??i ???????i ???? e???u. A??ue ???e y? ????????i. I???i ??e ???e ??? ???
y??ey. Ii ??? ???ae??o ?????e ??? ??a ??????? y?o ??i ?iy? ? ???th,
?????, ? “?ath”, ???th ?? a ?? ? ?c???. O?? ??? ?y????e ????o ?????ue
????y ???? ??i ??c??? ???a.

A ? ? ??y ??cy ????, ?i ???e ????o ? ??? n ?????i-??????e ?????, ? e n
???i?e ???e (????ay ?y????ue ??? ?????i ??). Y? ??????o ????? ?????
???????? ? ????th e ????i-?????oth. I? y?i ??ay i????? ???iy???a ???? a
???? e ????ny ????i ??ey??i ?????o?? ??o eth??. I??? ???? ???othuae
?????e ?y????e ???y? ???? i ??eyo, ???? ????i ????y e ???ey, ???a ????o
???ae a ??? ????.

*??? ??o ???????ue ?? ?e ??? ?????y, ????? ??, ?e ???e a ???a ??iyao a
???e ???????? ???a i???u a ????a. E. E??oe ???e y?o ????? ??? ?y????e
?????ueth e ??????, ???eth ????, ? ?ath?o ???a a ????a???e.

A??i ???? ?y????e ???? y?y?ny ? ?????? – c???e ????. N??e ????????e ???e
a ???? y?yth?y ??a, ??e ???o ? ?y?i n ??????, ???? ???. I??a ???u, ??? ?
????? ?????, ???e, ?y? ? ???tho ? ????ey ??y??o ????, a ?atho ?i?????
c???a.

N ???????e “????a-?-?a” ?y????e ???? ?y?i e ??????e, i?????????e ???
?????? ????a. E??i ?????ue ?????ue ?ay ? ?n? “???i”, ?????? ?????i
???eyi, ????i a ??????? ?????eyo, ?? ?????ue ???y?y e ???ey ?e??? ??a
???? ????.

E????e ?i ?y????e ??? ?c “???????y” ?e ????e ???? a e???o. E?? ???e,
???e ????y ?e ? ??? – ??? ?c ????e, ?i?e ?c ???i. O?? ?i ?y????e ??
?????ue ???y? ????? ???? e ?????ue ?????ey, ??? ? ??iyi?i ?? ??? ????.
E????e (?????) ?i ?y????e – ??? ??????y ?e???, ??a?e ???? a ??i.

N??e ?????? ?????:

1. A?? E.I. N????y ??a ???ey. I.,1982.

2. A???a a ??????th. A???,1994.

3. E?? E.A. N????y ????. I.,1996.

4. E?????ey / I? ?ae. A.A.Ae??. ???a i/Ae., 1995.

5. I??? Y.A. A???a a ??a??th e ????oth ?????eth. I.,1994.

6. ???u E.A.O?? ? ??????e. I.,1996.

7. O??? Y. I????ay ????. I.,1989.

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