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Основные модели современной культуры

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AAEI?ONEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO EIOI?IAOEEE E ?AAeEIYEAEO?IIEEE

Eaoaae?a aoiaieoa?iuo aeenoeeieei

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

«Iniiaiua iiaeaee nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u»

IEINE, 2008

Iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a” eiaao nianoaaiioth enoi?eth e iooue noaiiaeaiey a
oeeinioee e eoeueoo?ieiaee.

Aia?aua neiai “eoeueoo?a” ano?a/aaony e Oeeoea?iia, ?eineiai oeeinioa e
i?aoi?a a 45 a. aei i.y., aeey iaicia/aiey aicaeaenoaey ia /aeiaa/aneee
oi oeeinioee. A “O?oneoeaineeo aanaaeao” Oeeoea?ii ioia/ae, /oi
“eoeueoo?a oia anoue oeeinioey”. A ?onneii ycuea A.Aeaeue a 1865 a.
oa?aeoa?ecoao eoeueoo?o eae oinoaaiiia e i?aanoaaiiia ia?aciaaiea.

Aioe/iay o?aaeeoeey a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u iniiaaia ia ia?aiia/aeueiie
yoeiieiaee eaoeineiai neiaa cultura – eoeueoo?a eae “aicaeaeuaaiea,
ia?aaioea caiee”, caoai o?ainoi?ie?oaony a iiiyoea, io?aaeathuaa oa
/a?ou e ea/anoaa, eioi?ua yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii ainieoaiey e
ia?aciaaiey, aicaeaenoaey iauanoaa ia /aeiaaea. A ae?aaiaa?a/aneie
oeeinioee ainieoaiiinoue e eoeueoo?iinoue /”iaeaeaey”/
i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony aa?aa?noao, ionoonoaeth ia?aciaaiiinoe. A
iicaeia?eineee ia?eiae iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a” oaea o?aaeeoeeiiii
annioeee?oaony n ea/anoaii ee/iiai niaa?oainoaa, ia?niiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae /aeiaaea. Iaeiia?aiaiii aicieeaao oaiaeaioeey ia?aiina
eiiieaena i?aaenoaaeaiee i eoeueoo?a ia oeeaae ai?iaeneie e eiia?neie
aeecie, /oi iicaea aoaeao oeene?iaaoueny a iiiyoee “oeeaeeecaoeey”. A
aioe/iie oeeinioee, a caoai e a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey “eoeueoo?a” e
“oeeaeeecaoeey” oiio?aaeythony eae neiiieiu.

Nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey a o?aeoiaea eoeueoo?u i?ienoiaeyo a n?aaeiea
aaea. Oaioeaio?eci aeeth/aao a naay iniaia iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u, a
eioi?ii ianoi /aeiaaea caieiaao Aia, eae aunoaa aeaai e niaa?oainoai,
aneaaenoaea /aai ie? e ana aai ninoaaeythuea iieo/atho i?aanoaaiioth
ie?aneo. Iniiaiia aieiaiea a o?oaeao “iooeia” oea?eae e a noieanoeea
oaeaeyaony ia noieueei eoeueoo?a, neieueei eoeueoo, aeoeaio ia?aiineony
ia iineooaiea e caaioo, ii/eoaiea aunoae neeu, ?anii?yaeathuaeny
noaeueaaie ie?a e /aeiaaea.

Ia?yaeo n oaieiae/aneei iiieiaieai eoeueoo?u a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey
nouanoaotho e ae?oaea i?aaenoaaeaiey i iae, iineieueeo eiaiii a yoi
a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u ia “nae?aeueioth” e “naaoneoth”.
Aeaienoaaiiinoue, aiaeaaeaioiinoue n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u auyaee I.I.
Aaooei, aeieacaaoee, /oi aeey yoiai a?aiaie oa?aeoa?ii ia i?inoi iaee/ea
ioeoeeaeueiie, eaiiie/aneie eoeueoo?u, ii e a? iinoiyiiay eiio?iioaoeey
n eoeueoo?ie ia?iaeiie; “ieciaie”, ioeoeeaeueii ia i?eciaiiie, ii
?aaeueii nouanoaothuae e i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie au?aaeaiea
i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai ioiioaiey e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. I?ioeainoiyiea aeaoo
oeiia eoeueoo? iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue ia an?i i?ioyaeaiee aaiacena ie?iaie
eoeueoo?u /ia oieueei a eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiauey e Aic?iaeaeaiey, /oi
auei auyaeaii I.I. Aaooeiui e o?aioeocneie «Oeieie Aiiaeia»/. Naaoneia
iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u a n?aaeiea aaea aeeth/aei a naay eo?ooaciinoue,
o/oeainoue, ?uoea?neia ioiioaiea e o.ae., /oi oeene?iaaei eiia ioiioaiea
e ie?o e /aeiaaeo, /ai a oaieiaee. Oaeei ia?acii, nouanoaiaaei o?e
iiaeoiaea a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u: nae?aeueiue, naaoneee e ia?iaeiue.

Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey ia oieueei i?eianea iiaoth ieaicc?ai/aneoth
ia?aaeeaio n a? aieiaieai e /aeiaaeo eae niaa?oaiiiio nouanoao,
iai?aaeythuaio naith ?aoeeiiaeueii iniciaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ia
aeinoeaeaiea i?aanoaaiiiai, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai e eoeueoo?iiai eaeaaeia. A
eeoa?aoo?a ?aiannaina einie/aneia, nioeeaeueiia e oaeaniia nouanoaotho a
ia?ac?uaiii aaeeinoaa eae ia?acaeaeeiia aeeaia oeaeia. O?aaeeoeee
aica?aoa e eaeayi e oeaiiinoyi aioe/iinoe neacaeenue e a iiieiaiee
eoeueoo?u eae iaiouaieaiie /a?ou niaa?oaiiie aa?iiie/aneie ee/iinoe, /oi
yaeeinue oaeaea io?eoeaoaeueiie ?aaeoeeae iuneeoaeae Aic?iaeaeaiey ia
n?aaeiaaaeiaoth o?aaeeoeeth ioia?aaeaiey eoeueoo?iiai e aiaeanoaaiiiai;
“nae?aeueiiai”. Oai naiui, iiiyoeth “eoeueoo?a” a yoo yiioo naienoaaiia
aeaienoaaiiinoue, aiaeaaeaioiinoue: ni/aoaiea o?aaeeoeeiiiiai, eaeouaai
io aioe/iinoe ia/aea, e iiaiai, ca?iaeaeathuaainy, iie?athuaainy ia
?aoeeiiaeeci, eioi?ia iieiinoueth aiieioeony a nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeo
oai?eyo I?inaauaiey e Iiaiai a?aiaie. I?iia?ac oaeiai iiieiaiey
eoeueoo?u niaea?aeeony a “Iiuoao” I. Iiioaiy, i?aaenoaaeoaey iicaeiaai
Aic?iaeaeaiey, eioi?ue, aoaeo/e ai?y/ei iieeiiieeii aioe/iie o?aaeeoeee,
n/eoae iaiaoiaeeiui a? ia?ainiuneaiea a aeooa nia?aiaiiie aio
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iiioaiue aiaeece?oao aeeyiea ?aeeaee ia eoeueoo?o,
?aooao ca aeaeaiiiecaoeeth iineaaeiae, aunooiaao i?ioea eaeae
aa?iiioeaio?ecia, iniiaaiiie ia i?eciaiee aaconeiaiie eneeth/eoaeueiinoe
e i?ia?anneaiinoe aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie,
iai?eia?, n eoeueoo?ie Iiaiai Naaoa. Caaea/a eoeueoo?u ii Iiioaith –
inaiaiaeaeaiea aeooiaiiai ie?a /aeiaaea io iaaaaeanoaa e ?aeeaeiciuo
ioo, neaaeiaaiea ii?uaai naiaiaeiiai /aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia. N oi/ee
c?aiey Iiioaiy aa?aa?neie yaeyaony eiaiii eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiauey n a?
nenoaiie oeaiiinoae e oaioeaio?eciii. Aai acaeyaeu ia eoeueoo?o a oiaea
a?aiy i?iiecaiu iioeieciii ii ioiioaieth e ?iee eoeueoo?u a ainieoaiee
ee/iinoe.

Iiyaeaiea ?aoeeiiaeecia e niaiu ie?iaicc?ai/aneie ia?aaeeaiu a yiioo
I?inaauaiey i?eaaee e o?aeoiaea eoeueoo?u eae ?acoeueoaoa aeayoaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/aneiai ?acoia, acaeiinaycaiiiai n i?aaeoanoaothuei iiyaeaieth
/aeiaaea ?acaeoeai i?e?iaeu, ii eiathuaai naie niaoeeoe/aneea oi?iu
naii?acaeoey a enoi?ee iauanoaa e /aeiaaea. A nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneeo
oai?eyo I?inaauaiey neeaaeuaathony aeaa iniiaiuo iiaeoiaea a oeeinioee
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay iinoaiaiii o?ainoi?ie?oaony a iniaue ?acaeae
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneeo aicc?aiee. Iniiaiua aii?inu, aieiiaaaoea
iuneeoaeae yoiai a?aiaie, neiioeaio?e?iaaiu aie?oa i?iaeaiu i?e?iaeu
eoeueoo?u, aicaeaenoaey eoeueoo?u ia ee/iinoue, acaeiinayce n ?aeeaeae,
iaoeie, eneonnoaii, ?iee eoeueoo?u a i?ia?anna iauanoaa. I?e anai
iiiaiia?acee acaeyaeia oai?oeii eoeueoo?u, aaconeiaii, i?eciaaaeny
/aeiaa/aneee aaiee.

A oiaea iieaieee i?aaenoaaeoaeae I?inaauaiey neiaeeeenue aeaa iiaeoiaea
a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u. ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneoth o?aeoiaeo eoeueoo?u
ionoaeaaee Aieueoa?, Iiioaneuea, E.A. Aa?aea? e ae?. Iaoo?aeenoe/aneoth
– AE.AE. ?onni.

Aieueoa? O?ainoa Ia?e A?oy /1694-1778 aa./ ?anniao?eaae i?iaeaiu
eoeueoo?u a iauai eiioaenoa /aeiaa/aneie enoi?ee. Ii aaoi? eaeae
eoeueoo?iiai aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/anoaa, i?e yoii ii?aaeaeythuae noi?iiie
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u iiieiae aeooiaioth eoeueoo?o, i?eciaaae
naiioeaiiinoue eoeueoo? ?aciuo ia?iaeia. Aneaae ca Iiioaiai Aieueoa? –
i?ioeaiee aa?iiioeaio?ecia, ?anniao?eaae n?aaeiaaaeiauea eae canoie a
i?ia?anneaiii iinooiaoaeueiii ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u.

Oa?eue Iiioaneuea /1689-1755 aa./, eae e Aieueoa?, aunooiae i?ioea
oaieiae/aneie iiaeaee enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u. Aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e iiiaiia?acey eoeueoo? Iiioaneuea n/eoae
aaia?aoe/aneea e eeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey. A ?onea i?inaaoeoaeueneie
o?aaeeoeee eoeueoo?a o Iiioaneuea acaeiinaycaia n
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie einoeoooaie, yaeyaony aaaeouei oaeoi?ii
ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey, iineieueeo aeeth/aao a naay eneonnoai e
ii?aeue. Acaeyaeu Iiioaneuea ia eoeueoo?o e a? enoi?eth a oeaeii
aienuaathony a iauoth aeey i?inaaoeoaeae oaiaeaioeeth aoiaiecia e
?aoeeiiaeecia.

Iaeaieaa ?aaeeeaeueiua iiceoeee a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u eae “aoi?ie
i?e?iaeu” i?iyaeeenue a aeueoa?iaoeaiuo iiaeoiaeao AE.AE.?onni e
E.A.Aa?aea?a. AEai AEae ?onni /1712-1778 aa./, eae i?aaenoaaeoaeue
iaeaieaa aeaiie?aoe/aneiai e?uea o?aioeocneiai I?inaauaiey, aiieioee a
naieo ?aaioao iaoo?aeenoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea a eoeueoo?ieiaee. *aeiaae,
oai?yuee eoeueoo?o, aeieaeai enoiaeeoue ec caeiiia i?e?iaeu e
iiae/eiyoueny ei. Eaeaae a eoeueoo?a – anoanoaaiiinoue e aeecinoue e
i?e?iaea, ?ane?aiiuaiiinoue yiioeeiiaeueiinoe e i?e?iaeiie
i?aanoaaiiinoe ee/iinoe. Enoiaey ec i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey eoeueoo?u e
oeeaeeecaoeee, ?onni n/eoae, /oi iineaaeiyy aoaeo /aeiaaea, eca?auaao
aai enoeiiia ia/aei, ionthaea e ciaiaieoue eicoia – “iacaae, e
i?e?iaea”. Ia?aciaaiea e eoeueoo?a aeieaeiu auoue iai?aaeaiu ia
aica?auaiea e iauanoaa e /aeiaaea e eo anoanoaaiiui i?e?iaeiui enoieai.

E.A. Aa?aea? /1744-1803 aa./ – e?oiiaeoee i?aaenoaaeoaeue iaiaoeeiai
I?inaauaiey enoiaeee ec enoi?e/aneiai acaeyaea ia ?acaeoea /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa e eoeueoo?u. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ?onni, ii iieaaae, /oi
oieueei a iauanoaa, a ia a i?e?iaea, /aeiaae niiniaai nicaeaaaoue
eoeueoo?o. Iineaaeiyy – aaconeiaiia aiieiuaiea /aeiaa/aneiai aaiey,
“aaiey ia?iaeia”. Ia?aoiae io i?e?iaeu e oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe ia ?acoeueoao
aiaeanoaaiiie aiee, a i?iyaeaiea “aaiey ia?iaeia” – neea ia?aaeaaaaiuo
io iieieaiey e iieieaieth eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeee, iaaueia, oi?i iauaiey.
Eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea eae i?iaeieaeaiea anoanoaaiii-i?e?iaeiiai ia/aea
?acai?a/eaaaony a ii?aaeae?iiuo enoi?e/aneeo oi?iao, i?enoueo ?aciui
ia?iaeai e anoue ?acoeueoao noaiiaeaiey ycuea, iaoee, eneonnoaa,
?aeeaee. ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iiaeoiae a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u o Aa?aea?a
au?aaeai iaeaieaa iieii, ai iiiaii niaiaaeay n iiceoeeae Aieueoa?a e
Iiioaneuea.

Yiioa Iiaiai a?aiaie e I?inaauaiey iieiaeeea ia/aei eoeueoo?ieiaee eae
iaeanoe nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneiai ciaiey, iiieiaieth acaeiinayce
eoeueoo?iie e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie noa? iauanoaaiiie aeecie.
Eoeueoo?a o?aeooaony oaia?ue eae ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey /aeiaa/aneiai
?acoia, aiieiuaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe iauanoaaiiuo ii?yaeeia e
iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia. Oeiieiaey eoeueoo? iniiauaaeanue ia
niaieoiiinoe aeinoeaeaiee /aeiaa/anoaa a iaoea, eneonnoaao, i?inaauaiee,
ia?aciaaiee e o.ae.

?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneee iiaeoiae e enneaaeiaaieth eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ai e
aeey oeeinioee E.Eaioa /1724-1804 aa./, aeaeaaoaai iaaeinoaoi/iinoue
iieiaeaiey i?inaaoeoaeae i ?ani?ino?aiaiee ciaiee eae e?eoa?ey
eoeueoo?iiai e nioeeaeueiiai i?ia?anna. Aeey Eaioa enoi?ey eoeueoo?u
ninoieo a i?aiaeieaiee /aeiaaeii “a?oainoe e aeeaioiinoe”, a ?acaeoee
aai i?aanoaaiiuo ea/anoa. Iacia/aiea eoeueoo?u – ii?aeueiia
niaa?oainoaiaaiea /aeiaaea, aai iinoiyiiia neaaeiaaiea i?aanoaaiiie
iaiaoiaeeiinoe, aeieao. A oeeinioee E.Eaioa oaea iaia/aia eaeay
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey eoeueoo?u e oeeaeeecaoeee, i?enoonoaoao e?eoeea
aiaoiaai, “oaoie/aneiai oeia” eoeueoo?u, oi anoue iaicia/aia i?iaeaia,
eioi?ay a aoaeouai ioi?ieony eae i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue aeneieiae/aneiai e
oaoiie?aoe/aneiai iiaeoiaeia e aiaeeco eoeueoo?u. “Iu /a?an/o?
oeeaeeeciaaiiu a niunea anyeie o/oeainoe e aaaeeeainoe a ioiioaiee ae?oa
n ae?oaii. Ii iai au? iiiaiai ia aeinoa?o, /oiau n/eoaoue ian
i?aanoaaiii niaa?oaiiuie. A naiii aeaea, eaeay ii?aeueiinoe ioiineony e
eoeueoo?a, iaeiaei i?eiaiaiea yoie eaeae, eioi?ay naiaeeony oieueei e
iiaeiaeth i?aanoaaiiiai a /anoiethaee e ai aiaoiae i?enoieiinoe,
ninoaaeyao eeoue oeeaeeecaoeeth”. / Eaio E. Ni/. a 6-oe o. O.6, N.18.;
I.,1966/.

Aiiaaai ?aoeeiiaeecia a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u yaeeenue eaeae A.O. Aaaaey.
Enoi?ey eoeueoo?u ?anniao?eaaeanue Aaaaeai eae enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea
oi?i naiiniciaiey, eaeaaeueiia ?aca??ouaaiea aaniethoiiai aeooa. Ec
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea ia iniiaa o?oaea aicieeaao eoeueoo?a. Eiaeeo
eoeueoo?u Aaaaeue aeaeae a ia?iiiii eiee/anoaa oaeoi?ia enoi?ee: iaoea,
oeeinioee, ?aeeaee, ii?aee, eneonnoaa. Eiaiii a ieo aaniethoiue aeoo
iicia?o naay: a eneonnoaa a oi?iao nica?oeaiey, a ?aeeaee – a oi?ia
i?aaenoaaeaiey, a oeeinioee – a oi?ia iiiyoey. Ana yoe oi?iu
acaeiinaycaiu ae?oa n ae?oaii. Aaaaeth oaeaeinue auyaeoue acaeiinaycue e
caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey yaeaiee eoeueoo?u, ii aeiaeathuee
eaeaaeenoe/aneee i?eioeei neacaeny e a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u.

Cia/eoaeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia noaiiaeaiea eoeueoo?ieiaee eae
naiinoiyoaeueiie /anoe aoiaieoa?iiai ciaiey ieacaei ?acaeoea yoiia?aoee
a XIX aaea. No?aieaiea e enneaaeiaaieth ia?aca aeecie e eoeueoo?iuo
iniaaiiinoae ?aciuo ia?iaeia ii?aaeaeeee iiyaeaiea
yaiethoeeiiecia,-i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eioi?iai noaee ecaanoiua o/?iua E.
Ii?aai, Y.Oaeei?, Aeae. O?aca?, O. Eaoo?ii, I.Eiaaeaaneee e ae?.
Ia?auaiea e oaeoe/aneie noi?iia nioeeieoeueoo?iiai i?ioeanna, iaiauaiea
yoiia?aoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea iicaieeee iinoaaeoue aii?in i caeiiiia?iinoyo
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u /aeiaa/anoaa. Iniiaiay eaeay
yaiethoeeiienoia – ooaa?aeaeaiea aaeeinoaa /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea e
iauiinoe eoeueoo?u i?e iiiaiia?acee a? oi?i. Ia?iiiue oaeoe/aneee e
oai?aoe/aneee iaoa?eae, i?aaenoaaeaiiue yaiethoeeiienoaie
ia?a?aaaouaaeny a aeaeueiaeoai a naiuo ?acee/iuo eiioeaioeeyo eoeueoo?u.

Enneaaeiaaiea E. Ii?aaiii eoeueoo? ia?aiauoiuo iauanoa yaeeinue iaeiei
ec oaeoi?ia, niinianoaothueo iiyaeaieth eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u E. Ia?ena.
Iaeiie ec oai?ee eoeueoo?u, i?iaeieaeeaoeo o?aaeeoeeth ?aoeeiiaeecia,
yaeyaony aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey, nicaeaiiay
E.Ia?enii e O. Yiaaeuenii. Eoeueoo?a caeanue – ninoaaiie yeaiaio
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai iiieiaiey enoi?ee, nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneee oaiiiai,
ii?aaeaeyaiue caeiiiia?iinoyie ?acaeoey iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.
Eoeueoo?a aienuaaeanue a ?aiee eeiaeiiai i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeo oi?iaoeee. A aeeaeaeoeei-iaoa?eaeenoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u a? anaiauae noanoaioeeae yaeyaony o?oaeiaay
aeayoaeueiinoue. A neeo yoiai eoeueoo?a ia i?ioeainoieo oeeaeeecaoeee, a
yoe aeaa oaiiiaia ?anniao?eaathony eae naiinoiyoaeueii nouanoaothuea e
enoi?e/anee acaeiinaycaiiua. I?e yoii eeanniaue i?eioeei a eoeueoo?a ia
iicaieyao aaeaeaaoii iienaoue i?ioeann a? enoi?e/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey,
aaae?o e iaaeiioeaiea iaua/aeiaa/aneiai niaea?aeaiey eoeueoo?iuo
i?ioeannia.

A XIX aaea eae aeueoa?iaoeaiua iaoo?aeenoe/aneei e ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneei
oai?eyi eoeueoo?u iiyaeythony eiioeaioeee, iniiaaiiua ia
e??aoeeiiaeecia. Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae e??aoeeiiaeecia
aue iaiaoeeee oeeinio A.Oiiaiaaoy? /1788-1860/. Ii aai iiaieth,
eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai yaeythony aunoae oi?iie i?iyaeaiey ie?iaie aiee,
aiieiuaieai /enoiai nica?oeaiey. Aeiieie?othuee oaeoi? ?acaeoey
eoeueoo?u – eiooeoeey, noaaouaathuay aeaenoaeoaeueiue ia?ac ie?a a aai
nouiinoe. Ii Oiiaiaaoy?o, iaeeeaoeaii e aiiaaai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u
yaeythony ?acee/iua aeaeu eneonnoaa, iicaieythuea iinoe/ue nouiinoue
ie?iaie aiee.

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiie ec e??aoeeiiaeenoe/aneeo o?aeoiaie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony
eiioeaioeey O.Ieoeoa /1844-1900 a.a./, ioiaoeaoaai e?ecen aa?iiaeneie
eoeueoo?u naiaai a?aiaie e i?eoaaeoaai e auaiaeo ia oo?aoa iauanoaii
iaua/aeiaa/aneeo oeaiiinoae, iaaeaeaathuaeny aeaaee eoeueoo?u aiiaua.
Iiyoiio Ieoeoa o?aaoao ia?aioeaiee anao oeaiiinoae. Iniiao ?acaeoey
eoeueoo?u o Ieoeoa ninoaaeyao “aiey e aeanoe”, eioi?ay i?iyaeyaony eeai
eae aiieeiiianeia, “naaoeia“ ia/aei, eeai eae aeeiieneeneia, “oaiiia”,
eeai eae ai?ueaa iaaeaeo ieie. Au?aaeaieai “aeecie”, yaeyaony “aiey e
aeanoe” aiieiuaaiay a eaeaa eneonnoaa. Ieoeoa enoiaeeo ec
i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey iaoee e eoeueoo?u, a eioi?ie i?aiaeaaeaao
ieoioai?/aneia ia/aei. Aiey e aeanoe i?e yoii yaeyaony e?eoa?eai anao
nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee, iia iiiiceoeeiiia o?aaeeoeeiiiie ii?aee, ?aeeaee,
ainiiaenoaothuae nenoaia oeaiiinoae. Aeey Ieoeoa oa?aeoa?ai e?aeiee
eiii?aeeci, iineieueeo e?ecen eoeueoo?u e ii?aee, oaiaeaioeee
aeaeaaeaina a aa?iiaeneii eneonnoaa ei ia?aiinyony ia eoeueoo?o
/aeiaa/anoaa a oeaeii.

I?aiaeieaiea i?aaeoanoaothueo oeaiiinoae, eiaeiuo n oi/ee c?aiey Ieoeoa,
– i?a?iaaoeaa “naa?o/aeiaaea”, a eioi?ii niaiaaeatho oeaiiinoe aeecie e
“aiey e aeanoe”. Eiaiii naa?o/aeiaae niiniaai oai?eoue eoeueoo?o,
naiaiaeioth io oneiaiinoae ii?aee e niioaaonoaothuoth i?e?iaea, oi anoue
aeecie. Ieoeoa noi?iiiee yeeoa?iiai iiaeoiaea e eneonnoao e eoeueoo?a,
iniiaaiiiai ia io?eoeaiee ?iee ?acoia e iao/iiai iiciaiey.

A eiioea XIX aaea ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny ineoiaiaeec, aeinoeaathuee
naiaai ?anoeaaoa a neaaeothuai noieaoee. Aai aeaeiaeoee i?aaenoaaeoaeue
C.O?aeae /1856-1939 a.a./ iieiaeee ia/aei ineoieiae/aneei o?aeoiaeai
eoeueoo?u. A eiioeaioeee O?aeaea, iai?aaeaiiie ia caueoo /aeiaaea e aai
aioo?aiiaai ie?a io oaoiieiae/aneeo oeaiiinoae, enoiee eoeueoo?u
aeaeyony a no?aoao e eiiieaenao ethaeae i?ioeiai, eioi?ua ioi?ieaoenue
enoi?e/anee, noaee iniiaie cai?aoia e oaao, iiaeaaeythueo
aanniciaoaeueiua i?ioeannu ineoeee. Eiaiii oa ii?iu, oeaiiinoe, eaeaaeu
e noa?aioeiu iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ua iin?aaenoaii eoeueoo?u nioeeoi
iaaycuaaao ee/iinoe, yaeythony iniiaie oao e?eceniuo yaeaiee, n eioi?uie
noaeeeaaaony ee/iinoue e nia?aiaiiia iauanoai. Auoaniaiea i?ioeai?a/ee
iaaeaeo o?aaiaaieyie aanniciaoaeueiiai e o?aaiaaieyie iniciaiiiai /oi
anoue eoeueoo?u/ eaaeao, ii O?aeaeo a iniiaa i?ioeanna oai?/anoaa a
eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?a. Ineoiaiaeec O?aeaea a eiia/iii eoiaa auaiaeee ana
oaiiiaiu eoeueoo?u ec iiaeaaeaiey naenoaeueiuo aea/aiee.

Oai?ey eoeueoo?u a ineoiaiaeeca – i?aaeaea anaai ineoieiaey eoeueoo?u,
ia?ac?uaii naycaiiay n ineoieiaeae /aeiaaea. A iniiaa ineoieiae/aneiai
ii?o?aoa ee/iinoe, ii O?aeaeo, eaaeeo acaeiiaeaenoaea o?ao nenoai –
«Iii», eee «aanniciaoaeueiia», oa /anoue ineoe/aneie yia?aee, eioi?ay
naycuaaao ineoeeo e oaeaniua i?ioeannu e iiae/eiyaony i?eioeeio
oaeiaieuenoaey. Aoi?ie eiiiiiaio -«ss», niciaoaeueiia, naycuaaao
ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu n ?aaeueiinoueth, iiae/eiyaony ?aoeeiiaeueiinoe e
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioeac io ii?aaeaeaiiuo aea/aiee. O?aouey ninoaaeythuay
«Naa?o-ss», aunoay einoaioeey, niaea?aeauay ii?aaeaeaiiua cai?aou e
eiia?aoeau, ii?iaeaeaaiay eoeueoo?iie n?aaeie. Oai naiui, «ss» caieiaao
i?iiaaeooi/iia iieiaeaiea e niinianoaoao nio?aiaieth aeaea, iaoiaeeony a
ninoiyiee eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo aanniciaoaeueiuie aea/aieyie. O?aeae
auaeaeyao aea/aiea naenoaeueiinoe e aea/aiea aa?anneaiinoe, iiaeaaeyaiua
eoeueoo?iuie e nioeeaeueiuie ii?iaie, /oi ii?iaeaeaao iiiaiia?aciua
iaa?icu, ineoicu, enoa?ee, aeai?annee e o.ae. Caaea/ae eoeueoo?u i?e
yoii yaeyaony iaocaeaiea /aeiaa/aneie i?e?iaeu, a ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu
a naith i/a?aaeue, iaeeaaeuaatho ioia/aoie ia eoeueoo?o /aeiaa/anoaa
/a?ac iaoaieci noaeeiaoeee – caiauaiey. A neo/aa eiioeeeoa Iii e
Naa?o-ss a i?ioeanna noaeeiaoeee ineoe/aneay yia?aey ia?ai?eaioe?oaony a
noa?o eoeueoo?iiai oai?/anoaa. Eoeueoo?a, auiieiyy ?ai?anneaioth
ooieoeeth, iaania/eaaao niaianoioth aeeciue ethaeae, ia?aie/eaay
aioenioeeaeueiua aea/aiey. Ana iniiaiua eoeueoo?iua iaoaieciu
iauyaeythony O?aeaeii n?aaenoaii eiiiainaoeee /aeiaa/aneie oua?aiinoe e
ioeaca io oaeiaeaoai?aiey i?e?iaeiuo aea/aiee.

Oai?ey eoeueoo?u O?aeaea ieacaea cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
ineoieiae/aneeo o?aeoiaie eoeueoo?u. A «aiaeeoe/aneie ineoieiaee»,
aaoi?ii eioi?ie aue Ea?e Aonoaa THia (1875 – 1961), aeoeaio
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey ia?aiineony n eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
aanniciaoaeueiiai ia aieaa aeoaieea neie – eieeaeoeaiia
aanniciaoaeueiia, eioi?ia eiaao ia i?e?iaeiue, a eoeueoo?iue oa?aeoa?,
io?aaeathuaa iiuo i?aaeoanoaothueo iieieaiee. Niaea?aeaieai
eieeaeoeaiiai aanniciaoaeueiiai yaeythony a?oaoeiu. E a?oaoeiai
ioiinyony ia?acu iaoa?e-caiee, aa?iy, ioae?aoea, noa?oea, aeueyaiea e
ae?. Ii THiao, a?oaoeiu e eo aeeiaieea eaaeao a iniiaa niiaeaeaiee,
ieoieiaee, ?aeeaee, oieueeei?a. Oa?aeoa? a?oaoeiia ii?aaeaeyao neiaieeeo
eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?u a oeaeii.

Ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee iiaeoiae a aiaeeca eoeueoo?u E. THiaa ai iiiaii
ioee/ai io eiioeaioeee C.O?aeaea. Eoeueoo?a ?anniao?eaaaony ei eae
acaeiiaeaenoaea nioeeaeueiiai e eieeaeoeaii-aanniciaoaeueiiai, iniaiai
eiiieaena ineoe/aneeo naycae aanniciaoaeueiiai iaoa?eaea, i?enouaai ia
ineoeea ioaeaeueiiai eiaeeaeaea, a niiauanoaai ethaeae. Niaieoiiinoue
ae?aaiaeoeo ieoieiae/aneeo ia?acia, eaaeauay a iniiaa eieeaeoeaiiai
aanniciaoaeueiiai ia?acoao a?oaoei, eioi?ue aeaoa?ieie?oao iiaaaeaiea e
oi?iu oai?/anoaa a eoeueoo?a. Niaia a?oaoeiia, ii THiao, iiaeao auoue
iieiaeaia a iniiao oeiieiaecaoeee enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai eoeueoo?ieiaee XX aaea yaeyaony aii?in i
aaiacena iaua/aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?u, acaeiiaeaenoaee e ?acee/eyo
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuo eoeueoo? ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia. Yoi i?eaaei e
iiyaeaieth oai?ee oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u, aaoi?aie eioi?uo
auee I. Oiaiaea?, I.ss. Aeaieeaaneee, A. Oieiae. Iie iieaaaee, /oi
eoeueoo?a, iiaeiaii i?aaiecio, a nai?i ?acaeoee ia?aaeeaaao ?yae noaaeee
– io ca?iaeaeaiey e ?anoeaaoo e aeaaee.

I. Oiaiaea? /1880-1936 a.a./ ia iniiaa eiooeoeaiiai iaoiaea ?ac?aaioae
oai?eth eieaeueiuo eoeueoo?. Enoi?ey /aeiaa/anoaa anoue i?ioeann
ninouanoaiaaiey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iaiiaoi?eiuo eoeueoo?, iiieiaaiuo eae
“aaeeeea i?aaieciu”. A iniiaa ?iaeaeaiey eoeueoo?u eaaeeo iaeia
ecia/aeueiay eaeay, eino?oiaioii iiciaiey eioi?ie yaeyaony ia ?acoi, a
eiooeoeey, ia?aaeeaaiea. Ia niaio oai?/aneie noaaeee ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u
i?eoiaeeo oeeaeeecaoeey, aaaeouay e ?ac?ooaieth oai?/aneeo i?e?iaeiuo
nee, neiaieece?othuay niaie oiaaeie /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa, ainiiaenoai
oaoieee e neiaie i?ei?eoaoa “iannu”, i?eioeeieaeueii ioaa?aathuay
eoeueoo?o. Oiaiaea?ii auea iaia/aia i?iaeaia niioiioaiey yeeoa?iie e
ianniaie eoeueoo?u, aeinoeaoay ieea naiae aeooaeueiinoe a iaoe aeie.
Enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey eoeueoo?u – yoi niaieoiiinoue
neaaeothueo ae?oa ca ae?oaii oaiiiaiia ioaeaeueiuo ?yaeii au?anoathueo,
nii?eeanathueony, iaeia ae?oaoth iiaeaaeythueo eieaeueiuo eoeueoo?.
Oaeeo eoeueoo?, ii Oiaiaea?o ian/eouaaaony ainaiue: io aaaeeiineie aei
ca?iaeaeathuaeny ?onnei-neae?neie.

Eiioeaioeey eoeueoo? I.ss. Aeaieeaaneiai /1822-1885a.a./, a
i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue oai?ee Oiaiaea?a iniiaaia ia eaeaa iinoeaeaiey
eoeueoo?u n iiiiuueth ?acoia, eiae/aneei ioo?i. Eoeueoo?a oaeaea
ia?aaeeaaao noaaeee ?acaeoey iiaeiaii i?aaiecio, ii ?acee/iua eoeueoo?u
ninouanoaotho, iie ia eciee?iaaiu ae?oa io ae?oaa,
“eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea” oeiu / aaeiaoneee, eeoaeneee, aa?aeneee,
aa?iiaeneee e ae?. / yaeythony aeaenoaeoaeueiuie yoaiaie nioeeaeueiiai
?acaeoey. I.ss. Aeaieeaaneee ?anniao?eaaao eoeueoo?o e oeeaeeecaoeeth ia
eae ia/oi, i?ioeainoiyuaa ae?oa ae?oao, a eae iineaaeiaaoaeueiua noaaeee
aaeeiiai i?ioeanna, yoaiu noaiiaeaiey /aeiaa/anoaa, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
eiaao nianoaaiioth noaeueao, io?aaeaao ineoieiaeth e aeooo ia?iaea,
iniaaiiinoe aai ia?aca aeecie e noeey iuoeaiey. Oaeay o?aeoiaea
eoeueoo?u iniiaaia ia eaeaa enoi?e/aneiai e?oaiai?ioa e
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe oeeeeia eoeueoo?u.

A. Oieiae /1889-1975/, ecaanoiue aiaeeeneee enoi?ee e enneaaeiaaoaeue
eoeueoo?u – noi?iiiee oai?ee e?oaiai?ioa eieaeueiuo oeeaeeecaoeee. A
iniiaa auaeaeaiey eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneiai oeia oeeaeeecaoeee, ii aai
iiaieth, eaaeeo i?eciae ?aeeaeiciiai aa?ieniiaaaeaiey, ia?acothuee
oeeaeeecaoeee eaoieeoeecia, i?aaineaaey, eoaeaecia, eneaia, eiaeoecia,
aoaeaeecia e o.ae. Aeey anao oeiia iauei yaeythony caeiiu oeeeee/aneiai
?acaeoey: io ca?iaeaeaiey aei aeaaee. Yoi oaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea –
noaeueaa anao eoeueoo?. Oai?aoe oeeaeeecaoeee – oai?/aneia iaiueoeinoai,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay yeeoa, iaaeaeaiiay oai?/aneeie eiioeuenaie e ii?uaaie.
Oieia eeoue iiei?ii neaaeoao ca yeeoie, a?aiaiii acaeiiaeaenoaoy n
iineaaeiae aei iaaeeiia oeeaeeecaoeee, oa?aeoa?ecoaiiai oo?aoie aa?u
ia?iaeia a eeaea?ia, ionoonoaeai iauacia/eiuo oeaeae. I?e/eio e?ecena
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u A. Oieiae aeaeae a oaoie/aneii oa?aeoa?a
aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee, eaeouae e aeaa?aaeaoeee e oaino.

?onnei-aia?eeaineee eoeueoo?ieia e nioeeieia I.A.Ni?ieei /1889-1968a.a./
?ac?aaioae oai?eth iiiaieeiaeiinoe eoeueoo?, ninouanoaothueo e aeeythueo
ae?oa ia ae?oaa. I?e yoii a iniiaa nouanoaothueo eoeueoo?iuo noia?neoai
eaaeeo ii?aaeaeaiiay nenoaia oeaiiinoae. Niaia eoeueoo? – yoi niaia
iiiyoee, oeaiiinoae, noeeae e oi?i eneonnoaa. I?aiaeaaeathuay a aeaiioth
yiioo nenoaia enoei ii?aaeaeyao i?e?iaeo ?aeeaee, eneonnoaa, oeeinioee,
yoeee e o.ae. Oei eoeueoo?u iniiaai ia oi?ia ie?iaini?eyoey:
“/oanoaaiiie”, ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie e “eaeaaeenoe/aneie”. Enoi?e/aneee
i?ioeann – yoi oeeeee/aneia eciaiaiea iniiaiuo oeiia eoeueoo?u,
nicaeaaaaiuo aaeeeeie ee/iinoyie, niiniaiuie iiiyoue enoeiu, eaaeauea a
iniiaaiee eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo oeiia.

A XX aaea oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/atho oaoiieiae/aneay e
aeneieiae/aneay oai?ee eoeueoo?u. Anee a ia?aae iieaaaaony, /oi i?ia?ann
iaoee e oaoieee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ianiiiaiiii i?ia?anna iauanoaa,
iie?athuaainy ia oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu i?iecaiaenoaa, oi ai aoi?ie
i?aaeiieaaaaony iaaiciiaeiinoue anoanoaaiii-iao/iiai e ?aoeeiiaeueiiai
iiciaiey oaiiiaia eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay ?anniao?eaaaony eae niaieoiiinoue
i?aanoaaiiuo, ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo, ?aeeaeiciuo e eiuo aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae.
Eiaiii yoe oeaiiinoe yaeythony yae?ii eoeueoo?u, io?aaeatho eo/oea,
iiaeeeiii /aeiaa/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iauanoaa e iiyoiio ia iinoeaeeiu
eiae/aneeie e yiie?e/aneeie n?aaenoaaie.

Noi?iiieee oaoiie?aoe/aneie iiaeaee eoeueoo?u /I. Oiooea?, I. Iae-Ethyi
e ae?. / iieaaatho, /oi ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u e oeeaeeecaoeee caaeneo io
oaoieee, eiaeono?ee, eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee e eiiioieeaoeee, /oi ciaiaioao niaie a iaoe aeie y?o
eiaeono?eaeueiiai aoiaiecia, eiaaea i?aeiouanoaa oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna
aaaeoo e ?inoo eoeueoo?iuo aeinoeaeaiee /aeiaa/anoaa. Ii iiaieth
I.Oiooea?a nia?aiaiiia iauanoai ia?aaeeaaao yiioo “ac?uaiiianiiai ?inoa”
noaeoeueoo?, ?aneaeuaathuaai iauanoai ia niaoeeoe/aneea “ieieeoeueoo?u”,
eioi?ua a neeo naiae iaonoie/eainoe, ianoaaeeueiinoe, iiaeaeaeiinoe n
eaeaeaeineiie/aneie auno?ioie niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa. Ionthaea e
iicae/iinoue eoeueoo?u, a? eciai/eainoue e ionoonoaea iinoiyinoaa.

A aeaaaeoeaoii noieaoee iieo/atho iainiiaaiea oai?ee ea?u a eoeueoo?a.
Iaeiie ec ieo yaeyaony eiioeaioeey ea?u aieeaiaeneiai iuneeoaey e
eoeueoo?ieiaa E. Oaecaiae /1872-1945/, iieaaathuaai, /oi a iaocaeaiee e
eniieueciaaiee i?e?iaeu eoeueoo?a i?ia?anne?oao, iaae?aao iiuue, ii ae
an? aieueoa ia oaaoaao nianoaaiiiai noeey, aa?iiiee e aeinoieinoaa.
Aaeeinoaaiiia n?aaenoai nianaiey – ea?a. “Ea?a anoue naiaiaea”, niinia
nianaiey eoeueoo?u, n?aaenoai aa?iiiecaoeee /aeiaa/aneeo ioiioaiee,
oi?ia enoeiii oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe /aeiaaea. Iia auiieiyao
eoeueoo?iniceaeathuoth ooieoeeth, iineieueeo ia?aiia/aeueii eoeueoo?a
aicieeaao a oi?ia ea?u – ?eooae, iaaey, i?acaeianoaa e ieeiieaaeu,
naoo?iaeee, iocuea oe?aieyee e au?aaeaee aeoo ia?iaeia. A ae?aaieo
oeeaeeecaoeeyo ea?a ii?iaeaeaea eoeueoo?u, ii a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa
oo?aoeea naie oai?/aneea aiciiaeiinoe – eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey eneonnoaa,
nii?oa e ae?oaeo yaeaiee eoeueoo?iie aeecie naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i e?ecena
eoeueoo?u. Ii aeaaiui niaea?aeaieai enoi?ee iauanoaa, ii aai iiaieth,
yaeyaony enoi?ey eoeueoo?u, aiciiaeiinoe eioi?ie au? ia en/a?iaiu. E
/eneo oaeiai ?iaea eiioeaioeee ioiineony oaeaea oai?ey O.
I?oaaa-e-Aannaoa, a eioi?ie ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey ianniaie eoeueoo?u
ioia/aaony, /oi a iae oo?a/ai aeoo e i?aaeea ea?u, nio?aiyaiua e
?acaeaaaiua a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa oieueei eoeueoo?ie yeeoa?iie.

?ao?iniaeoeaiue aiaeec aaiacena iniiaiuo eoeueoo?ieiae/aneeo eiioeaioeee
iieacuaaao, /oi neiaeiue iiiaia?aiiue oa?aeoa? naiie eoeueoo?u
iaoneaaeeaaao iiiaeanoaaiiinoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue a? eioa?i?aoaoeee e
iiaeoiaeia e eco/aieth. Ie iaeii iao/iia iiiyoea naaiaeiy ia aucuaaao
oaeiai iiiaiia?acey noaeaeaiee eae iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a”.

Eoeueoo?iay aio?iiieiaey – ?acaeae eoeueoo?ieiaee, eco/athuee /aeiaaea
eae «aeieoeueoo?iia nouanoai». A i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey eoeueoo?iie
aio?iiieiaee iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea yoaiu:

1.Yoiia?aoe/aneee yoai (1800 -1860 a.a.), aeey eioi?iai oa?aeoa?iu
i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey iaoiaeia eco/aiey yoie/aneeo iauanoa,
iniaaiiinoae eo auoey e eoeueoo?u.

2. Yaiethoeeiienoneee ia?eiae (1860 – 1890 a.a.) Aaaeouea i?aaenoaaeoaee
-Y.Oaeei?, A.Niaina?, Aeae.O?aeca?, E.Ii?aai. Nouiinoue yaiethoeeiiecia
a iiieiaiee eoeueoo?u – i?ioeia /aeiaa/anoaa iiaeao auoue ainnoaiiaeaii
ia iniiaa eco/aiey nouanoaothueo «i?eieoeaiuo» iauanoa.

3. Enoi?e/aneee yoai (1890 – 1920 a.a.) a nioeeaeueiie aio?iiieiaee
iaeaieaa y?ei i?iyaeeny n iiyaeaieai eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie oeieu,
?acaeaaaoae oai?eth eoeueoo?iuo e?oaia. Aeaeiaeoee i?aaenoaaeoaeue –
O.A?aaia? (1877-1934), iieaaaaoee ana yaeaiey eoeueoo?u oieeaeueiuie e
iaiiaoi?eiuie, aicieeathueie oieueei a iaeiii ianoa, a caoai
?ani?ino?aiythueieny iooai aeeooocee. Eai O?iaaieon (1873-1938),
ionoaeaae eaeath noaiiaeaiey eoeueoo?u iiae aeeyieai ii?aaeaeaiiuo
aaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee e oeiia oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, iiyoiio
eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a iiaeao auoue oiiaeiaeaia aeeaiio i?aaiecio ni naieie
?eoiaie aeecie. A i?aaeaeao yaiethoeeiiecia e eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie
oeieu enneaaeoaony ?yae i?iaeai ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u, a oii /enea i?iaeaia
aeeooocee eoeueoo?iuo aeinoeaeaiee. Aeeoooceiieci – iai?aaeaiea a
eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee, enoiaeyuaa ec i?eioeeia caeinoaiaaiee e
?ani?ino?aiaiey eoeueoo?iuo aeinoeaeaiee ec iaeieo oeaio?ia a ae?oaea.
Eoeueoo?iua eiiiaaoeee n/eoathony i?eoaaeoeie ec ae?oaeo eoeueoo?, a
eaiaeaie caeinoaiaaiee i?eciathony eieiiecaoeey, caaiaaaiea, oi?aiaey,
iea?aoeey, iiae?aaeaiea. A i?ioeanna ?acaeoey enoi?e/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee a eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee cia/eoaeueiui aeeyieai
iaeaaeaea oeiea aia?eeaineiai yoiia?aoa e eeiaaenoa O?aioea Aiana
(1852-1942). Aian i?eciaaae ia oieueei iaiaoiaeeiinoue eco/aiey
aeeiaieee eoeueoo?, ii e niiniaiinoue iauanoaaiiie eee eoeueoo?iie
nenoaiu e aioo?aiiei eciaiaieyi.

4. Ineoieiae/aneee yoai (1920-1950 a.a.) – aaaeouea i?aaenoaaeoaee
C.O?aeae, E.THia, E.Oi?ie. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia enneaaeiaaiee – niioiioaiea
eoeueoo?u e ee/iinoe, i?e yoii eoeueoo?a ?anniao?eaaaony a naaoa
ee/iinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee e naienoa /aeiaaea. Yoa i?iaeaia
?ac?aaaouaaeanue a o?oaeao Ia?aa?ao Ieae (1901-1978), ?oo Ooeoii
Aaiaaeeeo (1887-1947), Yaeoa?aea Naie?a (1884-1939), ?anniao?eaaaoeo
ee/iinoue eae ?acoeueoao ?acaeoey ia a?iaeaeaiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo
naienoa e ea/anoa, a i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e ii?aaeaeaiiiio oeio iauiinoe, ia
iniiaa eioi?ie aicieeaao ii?aaeaeaiiue «eoeueoo?iue oa?aeoa?»
-niaieoiiinoue caeiiiia?iinoae ineoe/aneie aeecie, iaoneiaeaiiie
aeiieie?othuae eoeueoo?ie.

5. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeenoneee yoai (1930-1950 a.a.). Eoeueoo?a
caeanue i?aaenoaao eae aaeeiia, aa?iiie/anee ooieoeeiie?othuaa oeaeia,
eaaeaeay /anoue eioi?iai auiieiyao ii?aaeaeaiioth ooieoeeth, i?e yoii
oeaeinoiinoue eoeueoo?u o?aaoao ii?aaeaeaiiie oi/ee niioianaiey.
A?iieneaa Eania? Iaeeiianeee (1884-1942) n/eoae, /oi eoeueoo?a aeieaeia
auoue niioianaia n iaeioi?uie aaciauie e aeieiae/aneeie iio?aaiinoyie
/aeiaaea eee ?anu. Aeo?aae ?aaeaeeiaeae ?aaeeeeoo-A?aoi (1881-1955)
oi/eie niioianaiey n/eoae no?oeoo?o iauanoaa a nayce n aai nioeeaeueiuie
einoeoooaie, nio?aiythueie naiaia?aciue «ea?ean» iauanoaa. Eaeae
ooieoeeiiaeecia aeoia n eiioeaioeeae no?oeoo?aeecia i?eaaee e
aicieeiiaaieth no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea e eco/aieth
/aeiaaea e eoeueoo?u. Iniiaiiieiaeiee yoiai iiaeoiaea Eeiae Eaae-No?in
?anniao?eaae ana eoeueoo?iua ia?aciaaiey a ea/anoaa neiaeiuo
niaieoiiinoae acaeiinaycaiiuo e acaeiiaeaenoaothueo yeaiaioia, niune
eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony eo ianoii a nioeeaeueiie nenoaia, a ia eo
nianoaaiiui niaea?aeaieai. Aeaaiue yeaiaio nenoaiu – aa no?oeoo?a, ia
caaenyuay io niciaiey ethaeae, e ii-?aciiio ?aaeecothuayny a ?acee/iuo
ioiioaieyo.

6. Iaiyaiethoeeiienoneee yoai (1950-1980 a.a.), oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aic?iaeaeaieai eaeae eoeueoo?iie yaiethoeee e i?aaenoaaeaiiue a o?ao
aeaeao eiioeaioeee – «eoeueoo?iii iaoa?eaeecia» O.O. Oeaoa e A.A.
*aeeaea, «iaiaea?aeiecia» Yaeaa?aea I.Oeeniia, e yaiethoeeiiiii
ooieoeeiiaeecia Oieeiooa Ia?niina (1902-1979). «Eoeueoo?iue iaoa?eaeeci»
iniiaiui yeaiaioii nioeeieoeueoo?iie aeeiaieee i?eciaao
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneoth aaco eoeueoo?u, ii?aaeaeythuoth iai?aaeaiiinoue e
oa?aeoa? yaiethoeee. «Iaiaea?aeieci» a ea/anoaa iniiaiie caeiiiia?iinoe
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u i?aaenoaaeyao ioeaee e eneaaeaiey a ?ani?ino?aiaiee
eoeueoo?iuo iiaaoeee, oiiaeiaeyy eo iooaoeeyi a noa?a aeieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia. Nia?aiaiiue iaiaea?aeieci ?acaeaaaony a ?aieao
nioeeiaeieiaee, caaea/ae eioi?ie yaeyaony eco/aiea aeieiae/aneeo
iniiaaiee anao oi?i nioeeaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey /aeiaaea. Yaiethoeeiiiue
ooieoeeiiaeeci a ea/anoaa iiaeaee eoeueoo?u ecae?aao i?aaieci, a eioi?ii
neo/aeii aicieeoea oi?iu eoeueoo?u niinianoaotho auaeeaaieth /aeiaaea. A
nia?aiaiiii iaiyaiethoeeiiecia iiiaieeiaeiinoue a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u
i?aaenoaao eae ?acoeueoao i?eniiniaeaiey e ?acee/iui yeieiae/aneei
n?aaeai. Noi?ie?iaaeinue iiaia iai?aaeaiea iaiyaiethoeeiiecia –
iaiaoeea, iniiaiui iiiyoeai eioi?iai yaeyaony iai – eoeueoo?ii
ianeaaeoaiay aaeeieoea eioi?iaoeee, aiaeiae/iay aaio. I?eia? iaia –
iaeiaeee, eaeae, oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ani?ino?aiythueany e
eciaiythueany a i?ioeanna eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey.

7. Iinono?oeoo?aeenoneee yoai, oa?aeoa?ecoaiue ioeacii io o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
iiaeoiaeia e iaoiaeia a enneaaeiaaiee eoeueoo?u, ia/eiaaony a 70-a aiaeu
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea e aeeeony ii naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue. Aeaaiue i?eioeei
aiaeeca – aeoeaioe?iaaiea aieiaiey ia oao eoeueoo?iuo yaeaieyo, eioi?ua
ia eiatho /aoeie no?oeoo?u, iaii?aaeaeaiiu e ?anieua/aou.
Iinono?oeoo?aeeci a ea/anoaa nouanoaaiiiai oaeoi?a iiciaiey eoeueoo?u
o?aaoao eco/aiey oa?aeoa?enoee naiiai enneaaeiaaoaey. I?aaenoaaeoaeyie
yoiai iai?aaeaiey a nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?iie aio?iiieiaee yaeythony
AEai-O?ainoa Eeioa? (?iae. 1924 a.), AEeeue Aeaeac (1926-1995), AEae
Aea??eaea (?iae. 1930) e ae?.

E /eneo iniiaiuo i?iaeai, eioi?ua enneaaeoao nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?iay
(nioeeaeueiay) aio?iiieiaey iiaeii ioianoe neaaeothuea: ai-ia?auo,
aii?in i aicieeiiaaiee e enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u,
?ani?ino?aiaiee eoeueoo?iuo aeinoeaeaiee ec iaeieo oeaio?ia a ae?oaea.
Ai-aoi?uo – eco/aiea eoeueoo?u eae no?oeoo?iie e ooieoeeiiaeueiie
oeaeinoiinoe, aii?inu aicieeiiaaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nioeeaeueiuo
einoeoooia e eoeueoo?iuo ii?i. A-o?aoueeo, enneaaeiaaiea ?acoia,
iuoeaiey e ycuea eae i?iaeoeoia eoeueoo?iie yaiethoeee e oi?i
eiiioieeaoeee a nicaeaiee «ea?oeiu ie?a» e /aeiaaea.

Nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?iay aio?iiieiaey ia yaeyaony aaeeiui o/aieai, a
i?aaenoaaeaia iiiaiia?aciuie oeieaie e iai?aaeaieyie, n ?acee/iuo oi/ae
c?aiey enneaaeothueie eoeueoo?o eae ie? /aeiaaea.

A eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ineoieiaee Aeueo?aaea Aaeea?a (1870 – 1937) iniiaie
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u i?aaenoaao i?aiaeieaiea eiiieaena iaiieiioeaiiinoe
/a?ac ?aaeecaoeeth i?eioeeia eiiiainaoeee e naa?oeiiiainaoeee ee/iinoe.
?acee/iua oi?iu nioeeaeueiuo ioeeiiaiee e iaoaeiaee naycaiu n
iaaei?acaeoeai /oanoaa iauiinoe, aioiaiinoe /aeiaaea e nio?oaeie/anoao n
ae?oaeie ethaeueie, /oi ii?iaeaeaao iinoiyiiue eiioeeeo iaaeaeo /oanoaii
iaiieiioeaiiinoe e no?aieaieai e naiiooaa?aeaeaieth. Eiiiainaoeey
/oanoaa iaiieiioeaiiinoe ?aaeecoao aeaa iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee –
no?aieaiea e aeanoe e no?aieaiea e iauiinoe, eioi?ua a naith i/a?aaeue
yaeythony oaeoi?aie eoeueoo?iie aeeiaieee.

Eiioeaioeey eoeueoo?u Ea?ai Oi?ie (1885 – 1952) – ?acoeueoao ia?a?aaioee
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo eaeae C.O?aeaea, iaiaauaiey iineaaeieo
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneeie e nioeeieiae/aneeie eiiiiiaioaie. Oei eoeueoo?u
ii?aaeaeyao aanniciaoaeueiua eiioeuenu, eioi?ua niiauathony eiaeeaeaeo
nioeeaeueiie n?aaeie, iiyoiio aioo?eee/iinoiua eiioeeeou io?aaeatho
nioeeaeueiua aioaaiieciu e oaeoe/anee i?iaioee?othony iauanoaii. N
eciaiaieai enoi?e/aneiai oeia eoeueoo?u iaiyaony e oa?aeoa? iaa?icia,
oae eae aeey eaaeaeiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea oa?aeoa?ii aeiieie?iaaiea
ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiiu iaa?icia, aucuaaaiuo eoeueoo?iuie oaeoi?aie.

E /eneo ineoieiae/aneeo eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u ioiineony «aoiaienoe/aneee
ineoiaiaeec» Y?eoa O?iiia (1900 – 1980). Ioaa?aay aeieiaeci O?aeaea,
O?iii enoi/iee eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee aeaeae a nioeeieoeueoo?iuo
i?e/eiao. Iniiaiie eaoaai?eae yaeyaony «nioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa?»,
naycuaathuee ineoeeo eiaeeaeaea e nioeeaeueiua no?oeoo?u. Y?eo O?iii
aian cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a aiaeec caiaaeiie eoeueoo?u, ioia/ay oaeea aa
/a?ou eae aeaaoiaiecaoeey, iio?aaeoaeueneee oa?aeoa?,
aeaia?niiaeecaoeey, io/oaeaeaiea. N?aaenoaii nianaiey /aeiaaea io
eeethcee auoey ii iieaaae «aoiaienoe/aneee ineoiaiaeec», iineieueeo
ee/iinoue, aeeth/aiiay a iiea eoeueoo?u, i?eia?aoaao /a?ou
i?eniiniaeaiey e iauanoao, iaania/eaay naaa iuouaiea aaciianiinoe e
caueuaiiinoe.

E /eneo iaeaieaa cia/eiuo nia?aiaiiuo eoeueoo?ieiae/aneeo eiioeaioeee
ioiineony aa?iaiaaoeea ( io a?a/. ?acuyniyth). A oeaio?a aieiaiey –
i?iaeaia oaenoia e eoeueoo? i?ioeiai. Aeaeiaeoea i?aaenoaaeoaee –
A.Aaaeaia? e I.?eea?, enneaaeiaaaoea aioe/iua e ae?oaea eeoa?aoo?iua
oaenou e ia?aoeaoea aieiaiea ia aii?in i i?aaiia?iinoe oieeiaaiey
yaeaiee iaeiie eoeueoo?u i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ae?oaie. *aeiaae, n oi/ee
c?aiey Aaaeaia?a, caaeai eoeueoo?iie neooaoeeae, iiyoiio ia noieueei
auyaeyao niune oaenoa, neieueei nicaeaao aai caiiai. Eioa?i?aoaoeey i?e
yoii – yoi aeeaeia i?ioeiai e ianoiyuaai. Nia?aiaiiay aa?iaiaaoeea
i?aaenoaao eae eioaa?aoi? ieth?aeecia eoeueoo?.

No?oeoo?ii-naieioe/aneea iiaeoiaeu a enneaaeiaaiee eoeueoo?u oanii
naycaiu n o?aaeeoeeyie aiaeeca eoeueoo?u eae ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaiu
acaeiinaycaiiuo yeaiaioia, eco/atho i?ioeannu aeayoaeueiinoe,
iiin?aaeiaaiiua eniieueciaaieai ciaeiauo nenoai (anoanoaaiiua ycuee,
ia?aiauoiua, nioeeaeueiua, eoeueoo?iua no?oeoo?u). Eoeueoo?a caeanue
i?aaenoaao eae oeaeinoiay nenoaia o?iaiae a aaeeinoaa aa aiaoieo e
aioo?aiieo naycae. Nayce e ioiioaiey enneaaeothony n iiiiuueth
naieioeee. Nicaeaaony «iiaeaeue eoeueoo?u», eae aeai?eoi, ii?aaeaeythuee
eiaeeo ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia, ia?aoiaeia io iaeiiai yeaiaioa e ae?oaiio.
No?oeoo?iue aiaeec i?e yoii yaeyaony iaoiaeii eioa?i?aoaoeee eoeueoo?iie
?aaeueiinoe. E.Eaae-No?in noi?ioee?iaae ia iniiaa no?oeoo?iie
eeiaaenoeee iaoiae eco/aiey ioiioaiee iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie -i?eioeei
aeia?iuo iiiiceoeee, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui iaaeaeo aeaoiy
i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie yeaiaioaie – iiiiceoeeyie anaaaea anoue iiin?aaeothuee
yeaiaio – iaaeeaoi?. Oaea a ia?aiauoiii iuoeaiee e ieoieiaee
i?enoonoaotho oieaa?naeee /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oaeei ia?acii,
ooaa?aeaeaaony ionoonoaea aaeeiie noanoaioeee eoeueoo?u, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaao oieueei eae nenoaia yeaiaioia a aa enoi?e/aneii ?acaeoee.

A naieioe/aneea eiioeaioeeyo eoeueoo?a iiieiaaony eae iaoaieci
ii?iaeaeaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee. Iniiaiie yeaiaio eoeueoo?u –
oaeno. A ?aaioao I.Ooei (1926 – 1984) iaia/ai ia?aoiae io no?oeoo?aeecia
e iinono?oeoo?aeecio. Ooei – nicaeaoaeue «a?oaieiaee ciaiey», oeaeue
eioi?ie auyaeaiea oneiaee aicieeiiaaiey oiai eee eiiai oeia ciaiey, aaae
oa?iei «yienoaia», icia/athuee iaeia iauaa i?ino?ainoai ciaiey,
aeeth/athuaa no?oeoo?u ioiioaiee iaaeaeo neiaaie e aauaie. Eciaiaiea
iieiaeaiey /aeiaaea a ie?a aaaeao e ?ac?uaai iaaeaeo yienoaiaie,
i?eia?aie /aai yaeythony ?aiannainiue, eeanne/aneee e nia?aiaiiue yoaiu
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u. Aaaeioth ?ieue a nenoaia eoeueoo?u ea?aao aii?in i
niioiioaiee ciaiey e aeanoe. Aeanoue ia oieueei caaeneo io noaiaie
iaeaaeaiey ciaieyie, ii naia iiaeao ii?iaeaeaoue iiaoth ?aaeueiinoue,
i?iiecuaaoue ana iauanoai e inouanoaeyoue oioaeueiue eiio?ieue.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiuo /aeiaaea oi?ie?oaony ia iniiaa iaoaieciia
nioeeieoeueoo?iiai iiaeaaeaiey naenoaeueiinoe eae enoi?e/aneie
eiinoaiou. Ia?yaeo n ynoaoe/aneeie e i?aanoaaiiuie ii?iaie eoeueoo?iia
iiaeaaeaiea inouanoaeyaony e iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeanoiuie no?oeoo?aie.
?ieai Aa?o (1915 -1980) enneaaeiaae no?oeoo?o ycuea, auyaeyy oa niuneu,
eioi?ua ycue i?eia?ae a i?ioeanna oiio?aaeaiey. Nenoaiie eii?aeeiao
nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu e ea?oeiie ie?a i?aaenoaao ienueii. Aaeeinoai oaenoa
caeeth/aaony a aai i?aaeiacia/aiee, a a iiiaiia?iii oaenoa i?ienoiaeeo
«nia?oue aaoi?a», iineieueeo oaeno iiaeao o?aeoiaaoueny iaiaeiicia/ii.

Iino?oeoo?aeeci, ioeacuaaynue io o?aaeeoeee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai aiaeeca
eoeueoo?u, iuoaaony auaeaeeoue a iae ii?aaeaeaiiua niuneiaua
ninoaaeythuea. Aeaaiue iauaeo aiaeeca – oaeno, eioi?ue a eiioeaioeee
AEaea Aea??eaeu (?iae. 1930), aeieaeai auoue iiaeaa?aeai
aeaeiino?oeoeee, oi anoue enneaaeiaaoaeue iiaeao auyaeoue ia oieueei
iniiaiua niuneiaua eiiiiiaiou, ii e iiai/iua eeiee, iaoaoi?u, aiaeiaee e
o.ae. Oaeno a oaeii neo/aa i?ioeai?a/eo nai naaa, niaea?aeeo iiiaeanoai
niuneia, a iiyoiio iienuaaaony eae i?ioeann. Ii iiaieth Aea??eaeu
aeaeiino?oeoeey oaenoa iiaeao i?eaanoe e aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee e
aeaeiino?oeoeee eoeueoo?u.

Aaaeoueie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iino?oeoo?aeecia yaeyeenue AEeeue Aeaeac
(1926 -1995) e Oaeeen Aaaooa?e (1930 -1993), noi?ioee?iaaaoea
«oeci-iiiaaee/aneee i?iaeo» eae aeueoa?iaoeao nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u.
Oeaio?e?iaaiiay eoeueoo?a Caiaaea i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony aeaoeaio?e?iaaiiie
eoeueoo?a Ainoiea. Aicieeiiaaiea iinono?oeoo?aeecia oanii naycaii n
eoeueoo?iuie i?ioeannaie, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony oa?ieiii
«iinoiiaea?i» (aoeaaeueii, oi, /oi neaaeoao ca iiaea?iii,
naa?onia?aiaiiue). Iinoiiaea?ieci -iai?aaeaiea nia?aiaiiie
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneie iunee e eoeueoo?u, noi?ie?iaaaoaany a 70-80-a aiaeu
aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea. Iiiaiia?acea e ieth?aeeci oi?i aeecie e eoeueoo?u
iinoiiaea?ieci iieaaaao anoanoaaiiui e iiceoeaiui ninoiyieai.
Oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou iinoiiaea?iecia: i?eioeei «aeaieiiai eiaee?iaaiey»,
ninoiyuee a iaeiia?aiaiiie i?eaioaoeee ia ianno e yeeoo; aica?ao e
caauoui ooaeiaeanoaaiiui o?aaeeoeeyi; noeeaaie ieth?aeeci, niaoaiea
noeeae, aeai?ia e iai?aaeaiee a eneonnoaa. Nia?aiaiiue iinoiiaea?ieci
aunooiaao a ea/anoaa ia?aaeeaiu eciaiythuaainy aeooiaiiai ie?a /aeiaaea
iaoeo aeiae. Iinoiiaea?ieci noe?aao ?acee/ey iaaeaeo o?iaiyie e noa?aie
eoeueoo?u, io?eoeaao iaee/ea eiinoaioiuo aa yeaiaioia. Iinoiiaea?ieci
oeene?oao oaiaeaioeeth ?aniaaea aaeeiiai eoeueoo?iiai i?ino?ainoaa,
io?eoeay oai naiui ana oi?iu eoeueoo?iiai aaeeinoaa.

Iaee/ea ?aciiia?aciuo oaiaeaioeee nia?aiaiiiai eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai
aiaeeca aiai?eo i neiaeiinoe e i?ioeai?a/eainoe naiiai iauaeoa eco/aiey
-eoeueoo?u, i aiciiaeiinoyo aicieeiiaaiey iiaie ia?aaeeaiu e iiauo
oai?ee, io?aaeathueo oaiaeaioeee eoeueoo?iie aeeiaieee nia?aiaiiinoe.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Aeiaaaa O.I. Aaaaeaiea a eoeueoo?ieiaeth. Ii., 1998.

2. Aaee/aeoea aaiee ie?iaiai eneonnoaa: a?oeoaeoo?a, aeeaiienue,
neo-eueioo?a / ?aae.: *aaioa?aaa A.I.,Iao?iiaaeiaa I.A.- Iineaa: ANO;
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a: Iieeaii, 2006

3. Aeeoi?ia A.A. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. I., 2002.

4. Ao?aae/ I.N. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. I., 2005.

5. E?aa/aiei E.N. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. I., 2007.

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