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Основные черты русского барокко

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Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1 Oa?aeoa?enoeea noeey ?onneiai aa?ieei

2 O?ainoi?iaoeey iauanoaa iiae aeeyieai iiaiai noeey

3 Eneonnoai ia?aie iieiaeiu XVIII aaea

a) a?oeoaeoo?a,

a) neoeueioo?a,

a) aeeaiienue,

a) eeoa?aoo?a,

ae) aiaiiia eneonnoai.

Aeia?aoey noeey

Aeey aeaoaeueiiai iciaeiieaiey n ?onneei aa?ieei eiaao niune ?acaeaeeoue
aai ia o?e iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey:

1. “Oea?eiaiia” aa?ieei.

2. “Aeai?oeiaia” aa?ieei – iaeaieaa y?eia e oeie/iia.

3. “Noeoeeiia”, “ia?iaeiia”, aa?ieei, naiia iicaeiaa.

“Oea?eiaiia” aa?ieei

Aai iioeau iiyaeeenue a aeaei?a ?onneeo oea?eaae aua a XVII aaea, a
caoai ?acaeaaeenue a naaoneii no?ieoaeuenoaa e i?iaeoe?iaaiee.
Ciaiaieoia ia?uoeeineia aa?ieei auei e?ani/iui, y?eei, ni/iui ii oeaaoo
e aeeaui a eeieyo e ieanoeea.

Iaaa?iia, iiaeii iacaaoue aai iioeienoe/iui. Naycue ia?uoeeineiai
aa?ieei n ia?iaeiie o?aaeeoeeae aiai?eo i aai iaueo ei?iyo n ” ?onneei
noeeai”.

A a?oeoaeoo?a e aioo?aiiai oa?ainoaa ?onneeo oea?eaae ia/aea XVIII aaea
neacaeanue o?iaaoaeueiay ?onneay naioeiaioaeueiinoue e oi, /oi enoi?eee
iacuaatho naaoneei aeeyieai. Aianoi eoiieia i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony
ia?yaeiui aeaei?aoeaiui oeoa/eai eee aaciiai, aianoi i?inouo ieineinoae
eee oeao?iuo ?inienae – aano?aeoiui i?iaiaioai, ?icaiai e
“aeiia?aaeueyi”. Oa?aeoa?iui i?eia?ii ?aiiaai iineianeiai aa?ieei iiaeao
neoaeeoue ciaiaieoay eieieieueiy Iaioeeiaie aaoie. Caeanue e iaeeea
aeaei?a – aeaaea, /oi iacuaaaony, “n ia?aai?ii”, – e cieioua oeoa/ee, e
y?ei-e?aniue oeaao naiie iino?ieee. Eiaaea-oi eieieieueiy auea
iineaaeiei ieneii iiaeu, naiaai ?iaea iineianeei iaaine?aaii, aea aua e
caii?neie aeeeiaeiie a niunea no?ieoaeueiie oaoieee e iaeeea.

?aiiea aa?i/iua caeaiey a ?innee iaycaoaeueii e?aneee a e?aniue eee
neiee oeaao, oaeei ia?acii, oiaea auaeaeyy n?aaee ae?oaeo, ia aa?i/iuo
iino?iae. Aioo?e oea?eaae, ?aiaa ne?iiiuo, io?aaeaaoeo ?aeeaeiciia
ie?iaicc?aiea, iiyaeeenue iuoiua, a iniiaiii ?aciua eeiiinoanu n aeouie
eieiiiaie, ecoe?aoaiiuie oeaaoi/iuie i?iaiaioaie, ?icaie, ae?eyiaeaie.
Eeiiinoanu neiaii ia?aoee a eaoaai?eth c?aeeua ?ay e eciaeeey, ninoaaeyy
?aceoaeueiue eiio?ano /a?iui eo?iui e?anoueyineei ecaai. Oaea a eiioea
XVII aaea a oea?eaao noaee ano?a/aoueny iiciei/aiiua ?aiu e ?acueaa
eeiiinoania, iaee/ieeia, i?iaiia e oea?neeo a?ao. “I?yie/iue” iaeee
?onneiai “oea?eiaiiai” aa?ieei eaaei e anoanoaaiii ni/aoaeny n
nia?aiaiiuie aio no?ieoaeueiuie oaoiieiaeyie. Iicaeiaa a Iaoa?ao?aa
oea?eae i?eia?aoatho aa?iiaeneee iaeee.

“Aeai?oeiaia” aa?ieei, eee “aeai?oeiaue noeeue”

A eiioea XVII aaea a aiy?neii auoo aia?aua i?ienoiaeeo aeaeaiea aeeeiai
i?ino?ainoaa ii ooieoeeyi – ia iiiauaiey, a eioi?uo niyo, i?eieiatho
ainoae e o. ae. Aei yiioe Iao?a I aeaaea a E?aiea ia auei, neaaeai,
o?aiaciuo eee i?eaiiuo. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?acaeie/iua noieu
?annoaaeyee a A?aiiaeoie eee I?oaeaeiie iaeaoa.

Aaeeeea e iaaaeeeea eiycuey iiaee i?eieiaoue /aeiaeo/eeia e caii?neeo
iineia aeaaea a iii/eaaeueiyo, iieoeaaea ia ia?eiao e iiaeooeao,
oe?uaoenue eenueeie oeo?aie io oieiaea. Aeaeaiea aeiia ia, eae iu
oaia?ue aiai?ei, ooieoeeiiaeueiua ciiu i?ienoiaeeei ii aeaoi i?eioeeiai:
ia ainiiaeneea iiiauaiey e iiiauaiey aeey i?eneoae; ia aeaineoth e
ioaeneoth iieiaeiu. AEeeua iieie a aiy?neeo oa?aiao no?ieeenue ai iiiaii
ii i?aaeeai, iauei n e?anoueyineeie ecaaie. Iai?eia?, iaaunieea iioieee
e ieceea aeaa?iua i?eoieiee aeeeoiaaeenue niia?aaeaieyie yeiiiiee oaiea.
Anthaeo – ai aeai?oeao, a aiy?neeo e aeai?yineeo aeiiao, a e?anoueyineeo
ecaao – nio?aiyeanue o?aaeeoeey ano?iaiiie iaaaee. Oae /oi yeiiiie/iue
aa?eaio i?aaiecaoeee eioa?uea?a, aiiaue aioaaeoee a iiaeo a eiioea XX
aaea, ecaanoai aue iaoei i?aaeeai oaea o?enoa eao iacaae e oe?iei
i?eiaiyeny eie.

Aia?aua a ia/aea XVIII aaea a?oeoaeoi?u ia/eiatho i?iaeoe?iaaoue
aioo?aiiaa ioi?ieaiea caeaiey iaeiia?aiaiii n aiaoiei, oi anoue
iiae/a?eeaatho acaeiinaycue aiaoiaai e aioo?aiiaai ia eeea, niia?acoynue
n iiiyoeyie oaeianoaa e e?aniou.

2 I?eiyoea iiaiai noeey a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?a iiaeaeei ca niaie
eciaiaiey a oeaiiinoii-ii?iaoeaiie nenoaia iauanoaa. Aa?ieei iio?aaiaaei
ea/anoaaiii eiuo i?eioeeiia ie?iaini?eyoey. Iiaua ynoaoe/aneea eaiiiu
oaeeaeoaeueiui ia?acii niaaeeieee a naaa ?aciiia?aciua i?aaenoaaeaiey.
*aeiaae a nenoaia aa?i/iiai ie?iaini?eyoey noae ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
i?ioeai?a/eaay, iiiaiieaiiaay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue n eioaineaiie
yiioeeiiaeueiie aeeciueth. I?ienoiaeeaoea eciaiaiey a ie?iaicc?aiee,
oeaiiinoii-ii?iaoeaiie nenoaia ia iiaee neacaoueny ia ii aaaeaiee.

?onneia aa?ieei iaoei naia y?eia aiieiuaiea ia oieueei a nenoaia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u, ii e a nenoaia yeeoa?iiai iiaaaeaiey. A
a?enoie?aoe/aneie n?aaea, iiae aeeyieai iiaiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai noeey,
oi?ie?oaony eiay ciaeiaay nenoaia. Iia iaoiaeeea naia c?eiia aiieiuaiea
ai aiaoiai aeaea e ooaa?aeaeaiee iiauo yoeeaoiuo i?aaee.

Aiaoiee aeae, einothi, iiaeiua oa/aiey ai ana a?aiaia auee acaeiinaycaiu
n ainiiaenoaothueie ooaeiaeanoaaiiuie noeeyie. Ia?aiaia noeey aeaeei ca
niaie ia oieueei eciaiaiey a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?a, ii e ai anai
eoeueoo?iii i?ino?ainoaa. I?ienoiaeeee eciaiaiey e a iaeeea /aeiaaea.
Iaia?a noiyoue, neaeaoue, oiaeeoue e o.ae. iai?yioth noaea naycuaaoueny
n ainiiaenoaothueie oeaiiinoiuie nenoaiaie. Iie, a naith i/a?aaeue,
aeaeieciaiyeenue aianoa n eciaiaieai ainiiaenoaothueo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
noeeae. *aeiaae yiioe eeanneoeecia aiaoia cia/eoaeueii ioee/aeny io
/aeiaaea, aeeaouaai a yiioo ainiiaenoaa noeey aa?ieei, a oai aieaa a
yiioo ainiiaenoaa noeey ?iiaioecia. Eciaiaiey, i?ienoiaeyuea a
ainiiaenoaothueo noeeyo, eae /ooeei aa?iiao?ii, oeaaeeaaeenue iiaeie,
anaie ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey.

?onneia eoeueoo?iia i?ino?ainoai, iinea iao?ianeeo i?aia?aciaaiee,
ieacaeinue /aoei ?acaeaeaiiui ia ia?iaeioth e a?enoie?aoe/aneoth n?aaeu.
Aeaiiay aeia?iay nenoaia niinianoaiaaea ooaa?aeaeaieth eciaiaiee oieueei
a iaeiie ec naieo /anoae.

Ana iiaua noeee e iai?aaeaiey ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u iaoiaeeee n aia
aiieiuaiea oieueei a n?aaea yeeou. Ia?iaeiay n?aaea aua i/aiue aeieaia
a?aiy aeeea ii o?aaeeoeeiiiui ii?iai e i?aaenoaaeaieyi.

?onneay a?enoie?aoey ieacaeanue aoyiooie a auno?ieciaiythueany (ii
n?aaiaieth n o?aaeeoeeyie) ooaeiaeanoaaiiua noeee, eioi?ua iaoiaeeee
naia au?aaeaiea a o?aaiaaieyo iiaeu e yoeeaoa. I?eiyoea aa?ieei
iio?aaiaaei ia?aiai a ii?iao iiaaaeaiey e ai aiaoiai aeaea a?enoie?aoee.

Iiaea yiioe aa?ieei aaaea iiaua iaoa?eaeu e oe?aoaiey, iauee aeae
einothia noae eiui. Iaeaaeaea iieo/eeanue i/aiue aeeaiieniie, iia
aeieaeia auea iiae/a?eeaaoue iaiiaoi?eiue iaeee /aeiaaea. Oi?ia
iaeaaeaeu (naiaiaeiay, aeaei?aoeaiay) noaee niioaaonoaiaaoue iaia?u,
aeanou (iaaeeaiiua, ieaaiua). Any nenoaia ii aaaeaiey noaea
iiae/eiyoueny aeanoeiio oea?aiiieaeo. Aieiaiea ia/aee oaeaeyoue ethaiio
aeanoo, iica, aeaaea, aeaaicao/eth aieina. Ana yoi aeieaeii auei
auaeaeeoue a?enoie?aoeth ec ie?oaeathueo aa ethaeae. I?e/ai, aicieeaao
ia i?inoi aiaoiee eiio?ieue, a i?ioeanna nioeeaeecaoeee nenoaia eiio?iey
ca eoeueoo?iui oaeii ia?aaiaeeeanue ai aioo?aiiea iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea.
Auei n oi?ioee?iaaii iniiaiia o?aaiaaiea, i?aaeuyaeyaiia e a?enoie?aoo:
aani?a?uaii neaaeeoue ca naiei iieiaeaieai oaea eae a iauanoaa, oae
oi/ii e a oaaeeiaiee .Yoi aeieaeii auei niinianoaiaaoue cae?aieaieth
aa?i/iiai noeey iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ue iiae/eiyeny aeanoeei oea?aiiieyi.
Noeeue iiaaaeaiey noae aini?eieiaoueny a aeaea aiaoiae iaiei/ee, eioi?ay
iiae/a?eeaaao aeonu /aeiaaea, aai ainieoaiea, oi ie?oaeaiea, a eioi?ii
ii iaoiaeeony. Ecyuanoai iaia? aini?eieiaeinue enoi/ieeii iaiaeiai
ynoaoe/aneiai oaeiaieuenoaey. Ciaiea yoeeaoiuo o?aaiaaiee noaiiaeeinue
i?iioneii a a?enoie?aoe/aneoth n?aaeo.

Yoeeao ia?ac?uaiuie ocaie aue naycai n iiaeie. Iiaea yiioe noeey aa?ieei
oyaioaea e aieueoie noeeecaoeee e eneonnoaaiiinoe. Iia auea naycaia n
iaia?aie, eioi?ua ana aieueoa e aieueoa noaiiaeeenue ?aoeie?iaaiiuie.
Aiaoiee aeae iaycai aue iiae/a?eeaaoue aunieee noaoon /aeiaaea. Iiyoiio
iaeaeoaa ia?ooaiea a onoaiiaeaiiii einothia aini?eieiaeinue eae
aunooieaiea i?ioea iniia anaai Auoey. Aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue
aieiaiui oai?ai e ia?eeai. Ia?ee, eae eneoniia aeiiieiaiea e einothio, a
yiioo noeey aa?ieei, aeieaeai aue naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue i aeinoieinoaao
aai iaeaaeaoaey, iiae/a?eeaae, /oi aai oicyei eca?aiiue ie?a naai. Ia?ee
ia i?inoi aue caaa?oaieai iiaeiiai neeoyoa, ii ian aieaa aeoaieoth
ciaeiai-niuneiaoth iaa?oceo. Ii canoaaeye iaiaeanoaeyoue i?aaeoaey eee
aeai?yieia, o.e. noaiiaeeny ciaeii naaoneie aeanoe.

Iiae aeeyieai aa?i/iiai ie?iaini?eyoey aeeciue a?enoie?aoee
i?aa?aoeeanue a oaao?aeueioth iueano, eioi?oth iaaei auei ea?aoue n
?aiiaai oo?a aei iicaeiaai aa/a?a.

Ii yoi auei ia i?inoi ?acaea/aiea. Any ciaeiaay nenoaia, neiaeeaoayny ai
a?aiy ainiiaenoaa noeey aa?ieei, aeieaeia auea iiae/a?eeaaoue ioee/ey
a?enoie?aoe/aneie n?aaeu, oneeeaaoue aaniethoioth aeanoue, /aoei
noaaeoue a?aieoeu a nenoaia aeenoeeieeia?iuo i?ino?ainoa.

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay aeeciue Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa caieiaea anaaaea ii/aoiia
ianoi a ?acaeoee ?onneiai eneonnoaa. A yoii ai?iaea o/eeenue e ?aaioaee
iiiaea auaeathueany ianoa?a aeeaiiene, neoeueioo?u e a?aoeee. N ia/aea
18 aaea Iaoa?ao?a noae iniiaiui i/aaii iiaie naaoneie eoeueoo?u ,
niaieaoae ?aeeaeiciia ie?inica?oeaiea noa?ie ?one.
Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneee iiaeuai ?innee neacaeny e a ecia?aceoaeueiii
eneonnoaa, eioi?iio Iao? I i?eaeaaae aieueoia cia/aiea: “Aac aeeaiiene,
e a?aaee?iaaeueiiai ianoa?a, – ienae ii Naiaoo, – iaieoenue iaaiciiaeii
aoaeao iiiaaea ecaeaiey, eioi?uy a iaoeao /eieoueny aoaeoo (aaeaee iiuy
nio?aiyoue e ioaeeeiaaoue) eiatho ?eniaaiu e a?aaee?iaaiu auoue”.
AEeaiienoeu e neoeueioi?u ioaeiu auee e aeey oe?aoaiey no?ieaoeony
caeaiee, aeey eniieiaiey ii?o?aoia. A 1724 a. aiciee i?iaeo (ia
inouanoaeaiiue i?e aeecie Iao?a) nicaeaiey Aeaaeaiee ooaeiaeanoa,
nianoaaiiie iaoeeiiaeueiie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oeieu. Iieiaeie Iaoa?ao?a
noae oeaio?ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ia?aciaaiey a ?innee. A ia/aea 18 a.
aieueooth ?ieue a ainieoaiee iieiaeuo ooaeiaeieeia nua?aee ?eniaaeueiay
oeiea i?e iaoa?ao?aneie oeiia?aoee e “aeeaiieniay eiiaiaea” i?e
“Eaioeaey?ee io no?iaiee”, aaaeaaoae iino?ieeie e oa?ainoaii oea?neeo
aeai?oeia a Iaoa?ao?aa e aai ie?anoiinoyo. A ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey iinea
iniiaaiey Iaoa?ao?aa a iai auaeaeioeanue a?oiia iieiaeuo ooaeiaeieeia,
ii?aaaoeo n canouaoeie eaiiie/aneeie oi?iaie ae?aaia?onneiai eneonnoaa,
ia?aoeaoeony e ecia?aaeaieth ?aaeueiiai ie?a, e ia?aaea/a
ineoieiae/aneiai iaeeea /aeiaaea. Ia?aua ?onneea ii?o?aoenou Eaai
Ieeeoei e Aiae?ae Iaoaaaa auee iineaiu Iao?ii I ca a?aieoeo
niaa?oainoaiaaoue naia aeeaiieniia ianoa?noai. Ieeeoei iaienae
ianeieueei ii?oaoia Iao?a I , aio aea i?eiaaeeaaeeo ?yae ii?o?aoia
yia?ae/iuo , aieaauo aeayoaeae iao?ianeiai a?aiaie (“Iaiieueiue
aaoiai”,1724 a.). A 1757 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa ii oeaco Aeecaaaou Iao?iaiu
auea o/?aaeaeaia Aeaaeaiey ” o?ao ciaoiaeoeo ooaeiaeanoa”. *a?ac naiue
eao Aeaoa?eia II i?eaeaea ae noaoon eiia?aoi?neie. Iia noaea iiaeeeiiui
oeaio?ii ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeecie ?innee, iauaaeeiyaoei eo/oeo
aeeaiienoeaa, neoeueioi?ia, a?oeoaeoi?ia e a?aoeeia. A Aeaaeaiee, iaeiii
ec eo/oeo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee Aa?iiu, nioie iieiaeuo
ooaeiaeieeia iieo/aee na?ueaciua ciaiey a iaeanoe ?enoiea, aeeaiiene,
eaiee, aiaoiiee, ia?niaeoeau e ae?. Oioy ?oeiaiaeeoaee Aeaaeaiee
noa?aeenue oaa?a/ue iieiaeaaeue io aeeyiee i?ia?anneaiie iunee,
ia?aaeiaua eaeae ?onn eiai iauanoaa i?iieeaee a n?aaeo o/aieeia e
i?aiiaeaaaoaeae. Yoiio niinianoaiaaei oi, /oi ii/oe ana e?oiiaeoea
?onneea ooaeiaeieee 18 a. auee auoiaeoeaie ec ia?iaea. Ia?aua aea
auionee Aeaaeaiee e ono?aeaaaoeany ath n 60-o aa.

18 a. ioaee/iua aunoaaee iieacaee aunieee o?iaaiue iiaeaioiaee aa
ieoiioeaa. Oaea a 18 a. ia/ae neeaaeuaaoueny iocae Aeaaeaiee n
i?iecaaaeaieyie ?onneiai e ca?oaaaeiiai eneonnoaa. Aeaaeaiey n/eoaea
aaaeiaeoei aeai?ii eneonnoaa enoi?e/aneoth aeeaiienue. Enoi?e/aneea
ea?oeiu A. I. Einaiei, E. A. Aeeiiaa, A. E. Oa?thiiaa, ianiio?y ia eo
oneiaiue, aeaaeaie/aneee oa?aeoa?, ainieouaaee o nia?aiaiieeia aoiaiiua
/oanoaa, ethaiaue e oaaaeaiea e i?ioeiio naiae ?iaeeiu, e aa?iecio
?onneeo ethaeae.

a) ?onneay a?oeoaeoo?a ia?aie iieiaeiu 18 aaea yoi i?aaeaea anaai
a?oeoaeoo?a no?iyuaainy Iaoa?ao?aa , io?aceaoay /a?ou iiaie eoeueoo?u e
oa eciaiaiey, eioi?ua i?iecioee a ?onneii a?aaeino?ieoaeuenoaa e ia/aeo
18 aaea .

Naaiaeiy, eiaaea iu aiai?ei ia ynoaoe/aneie ai?iaeneie n?aaea, iu eiaai
a aeaeo aa?iiie/aneie ni/aoaiea e?aneaiai aiaoiaai iaeeea ai?iaea e aai
?acoiiie i?ino?ainoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee. Ia yoii ia/oae e oea?ue Iao? 1.

Caoayiiue ei aeaaioneee a?aaeino?ieoaeueiue yenia?eiaio anaoeaei aue
iiae/eiai nicaeaieth ?onneiai Ia?aaeeca, ii i?e ia?o iiethaeaoaainy
oea?th Ainoa?aeaia n aai i?aeoe/aneei neeaaeii aeecie e no?iainoueth
nia?oaee, oaeiaiie e aeeeie a?oeoaeoo?ie aioo?e.

Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia no?iaeaeoea cai?aou oea?y, Iaoa?ao?a aieaa eee iaiaa
i?eaeeaeaeny e oiio eaeaaeueiiio ?aaoey?iiio ai?iaeo, eioi?ue ?eniaaeny
a aiia?aaeaiee Iao?a. I?yiua oeeoeu, ia?anaeathueany iiae i?yiui oaeii,
oe?ieea ieiuaaee, ?aaoey?iua naaeu e ia?ee ana yoi iaiaoeeinue aua i?e
Iao?a e inoaaaeinue a oa/aiee anae iineaaeothuae aeecie .

Ia?aua iao?ianeea caeaiey auee no?iaeie e ne?iiiuie ii oa?ainoao,
i?aeiouanoaaiii aea?aayiiuie e iaeiiyoaaeiuie. Iaaieueoea iino?ieee,
i?eaeaoua e caiea aea?aayiiua aeiieee aeey eeoe iauaineiai caaiey. Nioie
oaeeo aeiiia auoyaeaaeenue aaeieue oeeoe nieioiith oanaaeith. Auea
ii?aaeaeaia oe?eia oeeoe, aunioa aeiiia, oa?aeoa? a?oeoaeoo?u e aeaaea
iaoa?eae ee?ie/, ecaanoue, oeaiaio.

A ia?aiia/aeueiie cano?ieea Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aa ainiiaenoaiaae eaeiie/iue
noeeue ?aiiaai eee Iao?ianeiai aa?ieei. Caeaiey eiaee i?yiioaieueiua
i/a?oaiey.

Ia?aue yoaae neoaeee eae au iueaaeanoaeii caeaiey, noaiu aoi?iai e
o?aoueaai yoaaeae /aua anaai auee ieineinoiuie, ni ne?iiiuie oe?aoaieyie
a aeaea ieeyno? e ea?iecia. Ee?ie/iua noaiu oooeaoo?eeenue, ioaeaeu
aaeenue aeaoaeyie ec aeaaano?a, iniiaiia iiea oanaaea iie?uaae inue
io?ie eanii-a?onie/iiai oeaaoa eee e?aneeinue a aieoaua oiia.

Ia?aiia/aeueiue ai?iaeneie oeaio? noae oi?ie?iaaoueny a
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io e?aiinoe, ia Iaoa?ao?aneii ino?iaa.
Caeanue iaoiaeeeenue caeaiey Naiaoa, oi?aiaua ?yaeu, oaiiaeiy,
eaioeaey?ey ai?iaeneeo aeae, naiay aieueoay a ai?iaea O?ieoeeay
oea?eiaue. Iaaeaeaei io aeiieea Iao?a 1 ia aeai?yineie oeeoea
?aniieaaaeenue aeiia aaeueiiae e ciaoe.

Io Aaeie?aeoaenoaa, eae au iaia/ay oeaio? ai?iaea, ?anoiaeyony aeaaiua
ia?niaeoeau: Iaaneay (iai?aaeaiea ia Iiaai?iae), Aicianaineay (iooue ca
a?aieoeo), iicaea A?iieei i?aaeeiaeee o?aoueth, aoaeouoth Ai?ioiaoth
oeeoeo. O?e ia?niaeoeau, iai?aaeaiiua ia aaeie?aeoaeneoth aaoith,
ii?aaeaeeee ieaie?iaeo oeaio?a naaa?iie noieeoeu.

Ia?aua a?oeoaeoo?iua ieaiu-i?iaeou Iaoa?ao?aa auee nicaeaiu
caia/aoaeueiuie a?oeoaeoi?aie AEaiii Aaoenoii Eaaeiiii ((1679-1719)
i?iaeo Eaoiaai naaea, Ai?aeneia aeai?a, Iaoa?aioa) e Aeiiaieei O?aceie
(1670-1734). Aaia?aeueiue i?iaeo Eaaeiia aue aa?oeiie a ?yaeo
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiuo ooiiee. Ii aiieioee a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua eaeaaeu anae
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u. Iao? 1 ia i?eiye i?iaeo Eaaeiia, ii aue
neeoeii oiuoeaiiui, aano?aeoiui e /oaeei aeaaea aeey oaeiai
aa?iiaece?iaaiiiai /aeiaaea oiai a?aiaie, eaeei aue ?onneee oea?ue.

A?oeoaeoi?ii, eio?iio Iao? anaoeaei aeiaa?ee aiieiuaiea naieo ieaiia,
noae Aeiiaieei O?aceie. (Iao?iiaaeianeee niai?, Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneay
eaa?a, Ceiiee aeai?aoe e ae?.). A?oeoaeoo?iue noeeue O?aceie aue iacaai
Iao?ianeei, ?onneei aa?ieei, aieoaaoei a naay ?acii?iaeiia aeeyiea aai
aa?iiaeneeo oi?i: aieeaiaeneiai o?aioeocneiai iaiaoeeiai eoaeueyineiai.
Aai iino ?ieee i?acaeie/iu e ieanoe/iu, aac ieo o?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
Iaoa?ao?a.

Auaiaeu

1 Noeeue aa?ieei i?ae?anii i?eaeeeny ia oieueei ia caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie,
ii e ia ?inneeneie ii/aa. Aini?iecaaaeaiiue a aea?aaa e eaiia, ii
naeaeaeny neiaieii ?ineioe e iuoiinoe, ecauoi/iinoe e /?acia?iinoe.

Neioiiey aa?i/iiai eciaeeey (eee oioy au ioaeaeueiua aa iiou) cao/eo a
iaoeo eioa?uea?ao oaea o?e noieaoey. I?e/ai o?aaiaiou noeey iiaoo
i?iyaeyoueny ia anao nooiaiyo nioeeaeueiie eanoieoeu e ia anao o?iaiyo
aeona – e ai aeai?oeao, e a oeaeeiao. Oae, noaaie?ii-?anieniay oioeiia n
cieiouie oeaaoaie e naea?aeaiii-neiyy aaeaeue auee, ii nooe, aa?eaioaie
iaeaiiai ia?iaeiiai iiae?aaeaiey aaeeeieaiiie “aeai?oeiainoe”, iaeiaei
aeaoaauie iaoa?eaeaie. ss?eea oeaaou ia e?anoueyineeo ieaoeao e eiooao
oaeaea caia/aoeaee ionoue oi?iuaiiia, ii iaiin?aaenoaaiiia ia?iaeiia
iiieiaiea aa?ieei. Eoae, /oi aea oaeia ?onneia aa?ieei e /ai iii
ioee/aeinue io, neaaeai, eoaeueyineiai? Ai-ia?auo, yoi ana aea
io?aaeaiiue naao “aeaeaeie aa?iiaeneie caacaeu” ia?aienoi/ieea,
aiia?aaeaaiiai n/anouey iaeie i?ae?aniie e aeaaiiieo/iie caiee. I?e/ai
iiiaie?aoii ia?ainiuneaiiue aa?iiaeneee ia?acaoe eciaieeny ianoieueei,
/oi aii?o aiai?eoue i naiiauoiii e aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiii yaeaiee
?onneiai aa?ieei.

Eae oaea neacaii auoa, aoiinoa?ie aa?ieei a aai iaoeeiiaeueiii iiieiaiee
i?iieoaeenue, ia/eiay n XVIII aaea, ana neie iauanoaa – io a?enoie?aoee
aei e?anoueyi. Iaueie aeey noieue ?aciuo i?iyaeaiee noeey auee,
ai-ia?auo, /oanoai oi?iu, ai-aoi?uo, aeaei?aoeaii-ieanoe/aneia e,
a-o?aoueeo, oeaaoiaia /oanoai. Ia anao o?iaiyo – io
ooii/aiii-i?ioanneiiaeueiiai aei noeoeeii-ia?iaeiiai – a a?oeoaeoo?a e
aioo?aiiai oa?ainoaa aeiiia i?enoonoaiaaee o?e iniiaiuo
ecia?aceoaeueii-au?aceoaeueiuo eiiiiiaioa: aneiiao?ey, eiio?anou,
e?oiiua iauaiu.

Iianthaeo – e a iaaaee, e a oe?aoaiee eioa?uea?ia – iu aeaeei iaeeea
aeaei?a, oaeo/ea e a oi aea a?aiy aeeiaie/iua oi?iu, ieanoe/iua eeiee.
Ia iaiaa aaaeia aeey ioa/anoaaiiiai aa?eaioa noeey y?einoue oeaaoiaiai
iyoia. Aneiiao?e/iua aeaoaee aeaei?a eee eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia
neoaeeee aeey ia?aaea/e aeaeaeaiey.

?onneia aa?ieei eiioea XVII – ia/aea XVIII aaeia – ia?aue aieueoie
aa?iiaeneee noeeue, eaaei e i?aaie/ii aienaaoeeny a iaoo iaoeeiiaeueioth
o?aaeeoeeth. Aianoa n oai yoi auei a?aiy ia?aiai ianooaaiiai aoi?aeaiey
aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u a ?onneoth aeeciue.

1 . Yaeeia A. I/a?ee ae?aaia?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u. Nioey, 1914. 2. N.21.

2. Iae?ania A.E. I/a?ee ii enoi?ee ae?aaia?onneiai ciae/anoaa XI XVII
aaeia.

I., 1936. N.307.

3. Noeoaiia I.A. ?aoeaicey ia ni/eiaiey aeaaeaieea A.I.Iaaee iiaa
“Enoi?ey ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u”, “Ae?aaiinoe ?inoianeea e ss?ineaaneea”,
“Ae?aaiea o?aiu Aeoaanea e Iieioeea e aea?aayiiua oea?eae a. Aeoaanea”
NIa., 1897. N.38.

4. E?anianeee I.A. I/a?e enoi?ee iineianeiai ia?eiaea ae?aa ia?onneiai
oea?eiaiiai ciae/anoaa (io iniiaaiey Iineau aei eiioea ia?aie /aoaa?oe
XVIII aaea). – I.,

1911. – N.374-375.

7. Ai?iinoaaa O.O. I/a?e ae?aaiaai ciae/anoaa Iineau//Iooaaiaeeoaeue ii
Iineaa, ecaeaiiue Iine. a?oeoaeoo?iui i-aii. I., 1913 C.CLXX.

8. Cao?a A.A. I?iaeaia aicieeiiaaiey aa?ieei a ?innee/ /Aa?ieei a
?innee. I., 1926. N.13 42.

9. Ieoaeeianeee A.A. I iaoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo iineianeie
a?oeoaeoo?u eiioea XVII aaea: Aaoi?ao.aeen. … eaiae.a?oeo. I., 1949.

10. Aeiia? A.?. A?oeoaeoo?a ?onneiai aa?ieei . I., 1978. N.12.

11. Eeueei I.A. E aii?ino i i?e?iaea a?oeoaeoo?iiai oa?ainoaa
“iineianeiai aa?ieei” / /Ae?aaa?onneia eneonnoai. XVII aae. I., 1964.
N.232 235;

12. Ieeeoaoueaa I.I. ?aiiee iaiyoiee iao?ianeie yiioe//I?iaeaiu neioaca
eneonnoa e a?oeoaeoo?u. E., 1983. Aui. XIV. N.18 25.

13. Iiiaaethe N.N. A?oeoaeoo?iua oi?iu “oieiaeiuo” o?aiia “y?ineaaneie
oeieu”//Iaiyoieee ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?u e iiioiaioaeueiiai eneonnoaa. I.,
1983. N.64 91.

14. Oaeueoaaneee I.A. I?iaeaiu aa?ieei a ?onneie a?oeoaeoo?a:
Aaoi?ao.aeen. … ae-?a eneonnoaiaaaeaiey. I., 1965.

15. Eoae?yaoeaa A.A. Enoi?eei-a?oeoaeoo?iia ianeaaeea XIX ia/aea XX aaea
e aii?inu aai nia?aiaiiiai eniieueciaaiey (ia i?eia?a a. Na?aoiaa);
Aaoi?ao.aeen. … eaiae.a?oeo. I., 1984.

16. Aoeyieoeeee I.O. O?aaeeoeee eeanneee e /a?ou ?aiannaina a
a?oeoaeoo?a Iineau XV XVII aa./ /AI I.. 1978. 26. N.13-30.

17. Iiiaaethe N.N. Iauiinoue ?acaeoey aeaei?aoeaiuo oi?i a ?o nneie e
iieueneie a?oeoaeoo?a XVI XVII aa.//Eoeueoo?iua nayce ia?iaeia Ainoi/iie
Aa?iiu a XVI a. I., 1976. N.176 186.

18. Iiiaaethe N.N. Iauiinoue ?acaeoey aeaei?aoeaiuo oi?i… N. 185.

19. Ia/aaa A.I. Ioo?iaua iaeaou a ?onneie aeeaiiene XVII a.//?onneia
eneonnoai XVII a. E., 1929. N.58.

20. Aaneia I.A. A?oeoaeoo?iay oai?ey a ?innee XVIII a. – I., 1975. –
N.29.

21. Aeaauaeiaa EE. Ynoaoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey ?onneeo ethaeae XVII a./
/I?iaeaiu enoi?ee. I., 1978. Aui.7. N.34.

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