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Невьянская икона. Традиции Древней Руси и контекст Нового времени

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Iaaueyineay eeiia. O?aaeeoeee Ae?aaiae ?one e eiioaeno Iiaiai a?aiaie

Iaaueyineay eeiia… Yoi neiaini/aoaiea caiyei iuia a o?aeueneii
eneonnoaiaaae/aneii eaeneeiia ianoi ?yaeii n oaeeie iiiyoeyie, eae
ia?ineay aea?aayiiay neoeueioo?a, eaneeineia /oaoiiia eeouea,
ceaoionoianeay a?aath?a ia noaee. A aua iaaeaaii iia auea ecaanoia eeoue
oceiio e?oao ciaoieia-e?aaaaaeia.

Eioa?an e o?aeueneie eeiiiiene iaiaoeeny a ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa
ioa/anoaaiiiai e?aaaaaeaiey ia ?oaaaea XIX – XX aa., i /ai
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho iaoa?eaeu a ?acee/iuo caineeo e aia?oeaeueiuo
ecaeaieyo, a oaeaea aia?aua ioaeeeoaiue a ianoiyuae eieaa oaeno
aeieeaaea N. Aetheiiaa, i?i/eoaiiiai ei a 1923 a. ia canaaeaiee
O?aeueneiai iauanoaa ethaeoaeae anoanoaiciaiey. Iicaea, aianoa n
oiaaeeii e?aaaaaeaiey, caaeio e eioa?an e ianoiie eeiia. Caaeio,
eiia/ii, ia nianai. Iaeuecy ia auoue aeaaiaea?iuie oai o?aieoaeyi
iocaaa, eieeaeoeeiia?ai, ooaeiaeieeai, neoaeeoaeyi eoeueoa, eioi?ua a
oyaeaeua aeanyoeeaoey aoaenoe/aneiai aeeeoaoa naa?aaee caia/aoaeueiua
i?iecaaaeaiey o?aeueneiai eeiiiieniiai oai?/anoaa.

Eneonnoaiaaae/aneia iniuneaiea ioa/anoaaiiie eeiiiiene XVIII – XIX aa.
ia/aeinue a iaoae no?aia a 1960-a aa., ia O?aea – aeanyoeeaoeai iicaea.
Yoi auei naycaii ni neiaeiuie ia?aiaiaie, i?ienoiaeeaoeie a aeooiaiii e
ynoaoe/aneii niciaiee iauanoaa. Ianiiiaiii, ia?auaiea e eeiiiiene Iiaiai
a?aiaie yaeeinue eiae/aneei i?iaeieaeaieai eiathuaai aeoaieoth iao/ioth
o?aaeeoeeth eco/aiey aecaioeeneiai e ae?aaia?onneiai eneonnoaa.

I?aaeaea /ai i?enooieoue e aiaeeco ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae
iaaueyineie eeiiu, iaiaoiaeeii aniiiieoue iniiaiua aaoe o?enoeaiecaoeee
O?aea, ia/aoie a 80-o aa. XIV a. ienneiia?neie aeayoaeueiinoueth
Noaoaiey Ia?ineiai. Iinea e?auaiey Ia?ie Aaeeeie a 1462 a. e
i?eniaaeeiaiey aa e Iineaa ii aa?aaai ?ae caiaaeiiai neeiia O?aeueneiai
o?aaoa aicieeatho aea?aayiiua oea?eae, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVI a.
iiyaeythony ia?aua iiianou?e, a e eiioeo noieaoey iiianou?neay
eieiiecaoeey ia?aiauaaony a Cao?aeuea.

N onoaiiaeaieai aeaaiie Neae?neie aei?iae, ii eioi?ie “oaaeeaaea
aeaiaaeiay e niaieeiay eacia e oeaaiua i?eianu”, ec oeaio?a Aa?iiaeneie
?innee /a?ac ss?ineaaeue e aa naaa?iua ?aeiiu ia Nieeeaine e aeaeaa ia
ainoie e Aa?oioo?ueth, iniiaaiiiio a 1598 a., ia/aeinue eioaineaiia
canaeaiea O?aea e Neae?e ?onneeie e?anoueyiaie. Iineaiiue Iao?ii I a
Eeoae aieooeiaoe Eca?aio Eaean ienae a ia/aea 1690-o aa. i naieo
aia/aoeaieyo io O?aea: “Iooaoanoaea nooei iooai aei Iaaueyinea
aeinoaaeei iia aaee/aeoaa ianeaaeaeaiea, oae eae ii iooe ano?a/aeenue
i?ae?aniaeoea eoaa, ?aee, ica?a e naiua ieiaei?iaeiua e i?ae?anii
ia?aaioaiiua iiey, eaeea oieueei iiaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue, ana oi?ioi
canaeaiiua ?onneeie. <..> Io Iaaueyinea y aiiaue ioi?aaeeny aiec ii
?aea. Aiaeiue iooue aei Oo?u oae iianthaeo iaaeaeo aa?aaaie n aonoi
canaeaiiuie ?onneeie aea?aaiyie e neiaiaeeaie e n oi?ioi ia?aaioaiiuie
iieyie”. Oaeei ia?acii, e eiioeo XVII a. einoye ?onneiai e?anoueyineiai
ianaeaiey ia O?aea oaea neiaeeeny.

Ca o?enoa eao nthaea ia iiaee ia i?iieeiooue iiaai?iaeneea (aaaeue
a?aieoeu Iiaai?iaeneiai eiyaeanoaa i?inoe?aeenue io Aaeiai ii?y aei
O?aeueneeo ai?), naaa?iua, a caoai iineianeea e iiaieaeneea eeiiu.
Eiie?aoii noaeeoue iai anai yoii nae/an aanueia iai?inoi: ia?aua
eeiiinoanu ia ooeaeaee, en/acei aieueoeinoai aeieoiaioia, i?iyaeythueo
naycue eeii, o?aiyueony iuia a o?aeueneeo iocayo e oea?eayo, n eo
ia?aiia/aeueiui ianoiiaoiaeaeaieai.

Caiai/eai ia/aoue enoi?eth o?aeueneiai eeiiiienaiey ni no?iaaiianeie
eeiiu. Caeanue iu iiiaaeaai iiae aeiiic iacaaiey, ia?aciaaiiiai io eiaie
aeaaeaeueoeaa i?eeaineeo nieaaa?ai. Ii ii nouanoao eeiiu,
ecaioiaeyaoeany ainoaea?aauie ianoa?aie ii caeacai nieai?iiuoeaiieeia
Iaeneia e Ieeeou No?iaaiiauo, – iineianeia noeeaaia yaeaiea eiioea XVI –
ia/aea XVII a. ?acoiaaony, ian, i?aaeaea anaai, eioa?anoao aai
i?iaeioeeaeueiay aaoaue – eeiiiua ai?ieoeu No?iaaiiauo a
Nieueau/aaiaenea e eo ia?ineeo aio/eiao. Anoanoaaiii i?aaeiieiaeeoue,
/oi no?iaaiianeay o?aaeeoeey ia?aoiaeeea ec I?eeaiuey ia Oeaio?aeueiue
O?ae e a Cao?aeuea e aini?eieiaeanue ianoiuie iiianou?yie: Ieeieueneei a
Aa?oioo?uea (1604), Aiaiyaeaineei ia Iaeaa (1622), Oniaineei Aeaeiaoiaui
ia Enaoe (1644), aaea iiaee iaeoe ?aaioo nieueau/aaiaeneea ecia?aou,
iniaaiii iinea cae?uoey eeiiiuo ai?ieoe. Iaeiaei yoi ia oaaaeaeaao a
oii, /oi no?iaaiianeay o?aaeeoeey iieo/eea naia aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea ia
O?aea.

Aiai?eoue i nianoaaiii o?aeueneie eeiiiiene iiaeii eeoue n iao?ianeiai
a?aiaie. Eanaynue ia?auo aeanyoeeaoee XVIII a., i?eoiaeeony
ia?aie/eaaoueny aeieoiaioaeueiuie naeaeaoaeuenoaaie e i?aaeaieyie.
O?aeueneoth eeiio XVIII – XIX aa., eae e eeiiiienue yoiai ia?eiaea
?innee a oeaeii, oneiaii ?acaeaeei ia o?e iai?aaeaiey. Ia?aia
ninoaaeytho caeacu ioeoeeaeueiie i?aaineaaiie oea?eae, iiaeaea?aeeaaaiua
Nayoaeoei Neiiaeii e ainoaea?noaii e i?eaioe?iaaiiua ia
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneoth eoeueoo?o oiai a?aiaie. Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea – eeiiu,
nicaeaaaaoeany i?aeiouanoaaiii aeey noa?iia?yaeoeaa (oioy e ia oieueei
aeey ieo) e iniiaaiiua ia ae?aaia?onneie e aecaioeeneie o?aaeeoeeyo.
O?aouea – eeiiiienue oieueeei?iay, auoiaaaoay a oe?ieeo neiyo ia?iaeiuo
iann, naycaiiay n a?oae/iuie ieanoaie eneonnoaa. Iia iaei eciaiyeanue ni
a?aiaiai e ei/aaaea ii iaiauyoiui i?inoi?ai ?innee.

*oi eanaaony ia?aiai e aoi?iai iai?aaeaiee, oi eo ?ani?aaeaeaiea ii
oa??eoi?ee O?aea iaeaaeaei naiae caeiiiia?iinoueth. Ia?aia caoaaoeei a
iniiaiii I?eeaiuea e Cao?aeuea. A iaeiii neo/aa yoi iauyniyaony
aaia?aoe/aneie aeecinoueth e Iineiaee, a ae?oaii – oai, /oi a Cao?aeuea,
n aai aaeieieno?aoeaiui e ?aeeaeiciui oeaio?ii Oiaieueneii, auee oaeaea
neeueiu iiceoeee ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eae. Aniiiiei e i caiaoiuo oe?aeineeo
aeonao caeaoiaai aeooiaainoaa, iauyniythueony aai eeaaneei
i?ienoiaeaeaieai.

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea oa?aeoa?ii i?aaeaea anaai aeey ai?iicaaiaeneiai
O?aea, noaaoaai iieioii “ae?aaeaai aeaai/anoey”. Ia?aaeienaeueii, /oi
eiaeono?eaeueioth aaco iieiaeie ?innee caeeaaeuaaee ethaee, aaaeaaoea io
iao?ianeeo i?aia?aciaaiee, oa, eoi ni/aoae aeaeiaeoinoue e aea?ceea
ii?uau oai?/aneie yia?aee n i?eaa?aeaiiinoueth e iao?ea?oaeueiui
eaeaaeai. Eiaiii iiyoiio ecia?aoaoaee anaaiciiaeiuo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee,
nicaeaoaee iiaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e niioonoaothuaai ae eneonnoaa (ecaeaeee
ec iaeaoeoa e yoiu, /oaoiiiai eeouey e a?aath?u ia noaee) auee
iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaiinoiuie o?aieoaeyie ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo o?aaeeoeee
?onneiai n?aaeiaaaeiauey.

O?aeueneay noa?iia?yae/aneay eeiiiienue ia/eiaao i?iyaeyoue /a?ou
naiiauoiinoe, i/aaeaeii, n 1720-o-1730-o aa., eiaaea e ?aneieueieeai,
?aiaa ia?anaeeaoeiny ia O?ae ec oeaio?a ?innee (ec Ooeu) e n Iiii?uey
(ec Ieiioea), i?eniaaeeieeenue iinea “auaiiie” n Aa?oiae Aieae,
Ea?aeaioea e ec ?aeiiia, iia?aie/iuo n Iieueoae (n Aaoee e ec
Noa?iaeoauey) iiaua iannu noa?iia?yaeoeaa. “Ec yoie oeuioaoae eaaeiu
ouny/iiai ethaeneiai io?aaaeieea io i?aneaaeiaaiee e iuoie, io/aiee e
eaciae aieueoay /anoue ?annaeyeanue ii O?aeo, /anoueth ia /anoiuo
caaiaeao, aaea iaoiaeeea iieiia iie?iaeoaeuenoai caaiaeneeo aeanoae e
aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiiai eniiaaaeaiey naiae aa?u ii noa?ui i?aaeaieyi e
ia?yaeai”.

Iaiyoieeia o?aeueneie eeiiiiene ia?aie iieiaeiu XVIII a. nio?aieeinue
i/aiue iaei. E anoue iniiaaiea i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi aa ?anoeaao
i?iecioae iicaea, ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII – ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
noieaoey, noeioee?iaaiiue iiaeuaiii i?iiuoeaiiinoe e yeiiiieee e?ay.
Auee e ae?oaea i?e/eiu oniaoia o?aeueneie eeiiiiene eiaiii a yoi a?aiy.
Iinea ?aca?iia i?e Aeaoa?eia II neeoia a Aa?iiaeneie ?innee ianooaaiua
neeu noa?iia?yae/anoaa nin?aaeioa/eaathony ia O?aea. Ianiio?y ia ana
i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo niaeanueyie, iie, eniuouaay aeaaeaiea ainoaea?noaa
e ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eae, a oaeaea oaeanoi/aiea ioiioaiey e naaa ni
noi?iiu ianoiuo aeanoae, ia iiaee ia ii/oanoaiaaoue naiaai aeooiaiiai
aaeeinoaa. Niea/eaathuay ?ieue i?eiaaeeaaeaea /aniaaiiiio niaeaneth
i?eaiethueo nayuainoai noa?iia?yaeoeaa-iiiiaoeaa. Iie ionoiyee naie
i?eioeeiu aeecie, oea?eiaiue ia?yae, eiaiii eo “ouaieai e ona?aeeai”
iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue ia O?aea eeiiiienue. E ae?aaia?onneay
ooaeiaeanoaaiiay o?aaeeoeey ia?aaeeea caeanue iiaue, iiaeao auoue,
iineaaeiee aceao.

O?aeueneoth noa?iia?yae/aneoth eeiio iu iaicia/eee a naia a?aiy iiiyoeai
“iaaueyineay oeiea”. Iacaaiea, eiia/ii, oneiaiia, ii ioithaeue ia
i?iecaieueiia. Au?inoee ec iinaeea i?e iaoaeeo?ae/aneii caaiaea,
iniiaaiiii a aa?oiaueyo ?aee Iaeau (Iaauee) a eiioea XVII a., ai?iae
Iaaueyine – ia?aay ai?iay noieeoea Aeaieaeiauo – noae noa?iia?yae/aneei
oeaio?ii O?aea. I?ioeainoiy Oiaieueneo eae oeaio?o ioeoeeaeueiie
oea?eae, ii iaeiia?aiaiii ioee/aeny e io aeeaeaeoeo ninaaeae – Ieaeiaai
Oaaeea e Aeaoa?eiao?aa, a eioi?uo neeaaeuaaeenue aieaa ?acaeoua oi?iu
naaoneie aeecie. Aiciiaeii, Aetheiia ianeieueei i?aoaaee/ee,
ooaa?aeaeay, /oi ii/oe ana o?aeueneea eeiiiienoeu aeeee a Iaaueyinea.
Iaeiaei ianiiiaiii, /oi eiaiii Iaaueyine ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XVIII –
ia?aie iieiaeia XIX a. nia?ae eo/oeo ianoa?ia. Ai?i/ai, e iaaueyineie
oeiea iu ioiinei eeiiu, nicaeaaaaoeany ia oieueei a naiii Iaaueyinea:
oaiioiea ecia?aou, auiieiyy ?acee/iua caeacu – io iaaieueoeo aeiiaoieo
eeii aei iiioiaioaeueiuo iiiaiy?oniuo eeiiinoania, – caaiaeeee
ianoa?neea e a ae?oaeo ai?iaeao, e oaeei ia?acii eo aeeyiea
?ani?ino?aieeinue ii anaio O?aeueneiio o?aaoo aieioue aei THaeiiai
O?aea.

Iie?uoua iioaiiaaoae ieeoie iaaueyineea eeiiu ia?aaeei i?eieiaeenue ca
no?iaaiianeea. Eo aeaenoaeoaeueii naeeaeatho oaeeeiaiiua i?iii?oeee
oeao?, ecuneaiiinoue iic, oiieinoue ienueia, iaeeea cieiouo i?iaaeia.
Iaaeaeo oai ioee/ey aanueia iuooeiu. Ia yoii iai oaea i?eoiaeeeinue
aiai?eoue a i?aaeieo ioaeeeaoeeyo. Iaeiaei iaeioi?ua ?annoaeaeaiey
oeaeaniia?acii caino?eoue, iineieueeo iie i?iyaeytho iaeaieaa y?eea
iniaaiiinoe iaaueyineie oeieu. No?iaaiianeea eeiiu ienaeenue ia
ieeaeiai-caeaiuo eee io?yiuo oiiao, a ieo aieaa oia?aiii i?eiaiyeinue
cieioi. Iaaueyioeu aea i?eaaaaee e nieioiiio ciei/aieth. Eenoiaia cieioi
iaiineeinue ia iieeiaio – e?anii-ei?e/iaaoth e?aneo, eioi?ie
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iie?uaaeny eaaean. Iieeiaio i?eaeaaae cieioo ianuuaiiue
oaieue oii. Iii caiieiyei n?aaeiee e iiey, ?aca?aie/aiiua oiieie
oeaaoiie eee aaeeeueiie ioaiaeeie, ecia?aaeaiey ieiiiuo ia?aieaoia,
eoiieia e oieeae a?oeoaeoo?iuo iino?iae, neyei a ieiaao. Aeane aai
ia?aeeeeaeny n ionaaoaie oai?aiiai cieioa, iiaeaee?othuaai iauaiioth
ieanoeeo iieeo?iiiuo ae?aie?iaie, a a iniaie a?oiia eeii, n a?acaiiuie a
n?aaeiee eeouie iaaeiuie neeaaeiyie e e?anoaie, aoi?ee aeeeothuaio
ciei/aiiio aa?aeueaoo. Aeaai?iaeiue iaoaee neaci/ii iaiaauaeny
oeaa/aieai, a?aae?iaeie, /a?iaaui oci?i/ueai. Cieioay iieeoiiey
neeaaeuaaeanue ec eiio?anoia oaeoo? e iiaa?oiinoae, aeeaiienii
i?aeiieythueo eo/e naaoa. Eeiia noaiiaeeanue eo enoi/ieeii.

Eiei?eo iaaueyineeo eeii i?eia/aoaeai aeaei?aoeaiinoueth. Iooaiee
e?aniiai aa?uee?othony a iaeiii i?iecaaaeaiee e aeaaea a ioaeaeueii
acyoie oeao?a: iaaeiue caieyie/iue e eeiiaa?iue n ?acaaeii e
aeiaaaeaieai io?u, oieiaeiue iaeeiiaue e /enoay eeiiaa?ue,
?iciai-eeeiaue e io?io?iue. Aiaaoa iaeeo?a caeaiiai e neiaai n ithainaie
aieoaiaaoi-caeaiuo oiiia. Aeene?aoiua y?eea iyoia a?oiie?othony aie?oa
oaiii-aeoiaauo, iauaaeeiyynue a oeaeia io?aie, iooaieaie caiaeue e
cieioii. Iaaueyioeu eneonii aeaaeaee anaie nae?aoaie ianoa?noaa e oiaee
au?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa aeeaiiene e ae?oaeo iaoa?eaeia neeoue a aaeeiia
aa?iiie/aneia oeaeia.

A ia?a/ia e?anie, eioi?uie iieueciaaeenue o?aeueneea eeiiiienoeu,
i?eaiaeeiii a iaeiii ec e?aaaaae/aneeo ecaeaiee eiioea i?ioeiai aaea,
cia/aony ea?iei e eeiiaa?ue, a a iiiaoao, naeaeaiiuo ianoa?aie ia
i?i?enyo, – e?aieae e aaeai. Eo neiaeiuie ni/aoaieyie e iauyniyaony
iaaueyineay aaiia. A oiiiyiooii ia?a/ia iacaaiu oaeaea ionoonoaothuea a
n?aaeiaaaeiauo ?oeiaiaenoaao aeey eeiiiienoeaa (“oieeiauo iiaeeeiieeao”)
ieia?aeueiua ieaiaiou, i?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai eioi?uo auei inaiaii
oaea a XVIII – ia/aea XIX noieaoey: oaaeioo?oneay caeaiue, e?iiu –
caeaiue e aeaeoue, – aa?eeineay eaco?ue, iieoiaaiua ia E?aeoneie e
Ieaeaai?iaeneie y?ia?eao. Iiyoiio e inoaaony io iaaueyineeo eeii
aia/aoeaiea naaaeanoe, iiaeciu. Iaaueyineay eeiia /ooei io?aceea
ie?iiuouaiea noa?iia?yae/anoaa: aeaeaiea nio?aieoue eieeaeoeaioth
oeaeinoiinoue a i?ioeainoiyiee “ie?neie” oea?eae e ie?oaeathuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe i?iyaeeinue a i?aiaeaaeaiee iauaai iaae
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui e a iiiaioeao?iuo eiiiiceoeeyo, e a noeaiao
i?aaenoiyiey n eo “iaacee/aiiui ee/iui”.

O?aeueneea noa?iia?yaeoeu, neiaii aniiieiay caaaou i?ioiiiia Aaaaeoia,
eeaeieaoaai “aeeanoai” eeii Neiiia Ooaeiaa, a ee/iii ienueia
ioeacuaaeenue io ?aaeenoe/aneeo caaiaaaiee. Noa?aioeiiinoue eeeia
eiiiaine?iaaeanue aeeiaie/iinoueth ?aeo?nia, iaoaoeeie aeanoia, ?eoiii
eeoayueony ae?aie?iaie, eioi?ua ieoouaatho oeao?u ii aeeaaiiaee,
aeioiia?acii cae?o/eaathony e ?annuiathony a aeaea iaeeeo a?aaaoeia aiei
eee ieniaaeatho, i?eoiiiaeaynue ?eoie/aneeie iiaoi?aie eieaaethueony
cieiouo i?iaaeia.

Eiia?niiaeueiue, iono?aiaiiue, oei eeea, iniaaiii oa?aeoa?iue aeey
aaaeouae aiaaou?aaneie ianoa?neie, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae ieeiaeaeiue,
iieiiuaeee, n oe?iei iinoaaeaiiuie aieueoeie, neaaea iaaueaoa aeacaie, n
i?eioooeie aaeaie e ei?ioeei, i?yiui, n aaeaa caiaoiie ai?aeieie iinii,
n ie?oaeui iiaeai?iaeeii, aieienoie eeieae /ooue oeuaathueony aoa, n
/a?oaie eeoea, naeeaeaiiuie ii aa?oeeaee. Iaeiaei iaeuecy ia ioiaoeoue e
iaiiaoi?eiua, ino?ua ii oa?aeoa?enoeea yeni?anneaiua ia?acu a
iaeiioeao?iuo eeiiao e n?aaeieeao aeeoeeiuo. A ecai?iaeaeaiiuo ii?ueiaie
eeeao Eeuee I?i?iea, Eiaiia I?aaeoa/e, Ieeieay *oaeioai?oea, nayoeoaeae,
iaienaiiuo n eiio?anoii oaiiiai naiee?y e aio?aiey a aaeecio, iuooeiu
ioaieinee oaioaiianeiai ae?aiaoecia.

Iaaueyineea ianoa?a iaia?oaeeaaee oaiaeaioeeth e nio?aiaieth e
aic?iaeaeaieth ae?aaieo o?aaeeoeee, aieioue aei ?aieienoeaioeee
e?aniioiiiie iiaai?iaeneie eeiiu. Ii ana aea eiaiii a oiiao, iaecaaeiuo
e eioa?uea?iuo, ino?aa neacuaaeenue aayiey Iiaiai a?aiaie: oeie/iue aeey
eeiiiiene ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea eiii?iienn iaaeaeo iauaiiui eeeii e
ieineinoiui aeiee/iui iaa?ioeny o iaaueyioeaa iaiau/iinoueth ni/aoaiey
noeeeciaaiiuo oeao? e eeeia n aeoaeiie i?ino?ainoaa. Eaiiie/iua oeao?u
ecyuiu, ieioue eo oia?aiia, a eiiaaea e /?acau/aeii “oiieinoia”
(iai?eia?, ecia?aaeaiea i?aaeiea/ee e aieaiae n aea caiaoiuie iaoaaoaie
caiynoee e ueeieioie, ?aaa? e nonoaaia). Aaeeeueiua, ii/oe aac
oiiaeueiuo ia?aoiaeia ieioiua aio?aiey ii naiee?th, eiathuaio na?ue
iiaiie, a nouiinoe noeeeciaaee “o?ycue”, aeaaaee eeoue eeethceth
“aeeanoaa”, inoaaaynue ieineinoiuie. Noeeecaoeey naaoioaie a ee/iii
ienueia naiaeeeanue e a?aoe/aneei eeieyi e iyoiai, iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iui
ia iiaeai?iaeea, iaae aa?oiae aoaie, a ?enoiea aeac, aaea iiaea?iaiay
oaiue ?aceie /a?oie niaaeeiyea neaciee e ia?aiineoeo. Oaeia ienueii auei
naienoaaiii iaiauaiiui, iiioiaioaeueiui ia?acai. I?ioeaiiieiaeiay iaia?a
eniieiaiey iauaiiuo eeeia iyaeeie ieaayie oaeaea ecaanoia iaaueyioeai,
ii iia iaiaa naiiauoia e /aua i?eiaiyeanue a iaaieueoeo ecia?aaeaieyo e
eiiiiceoeeyo.

Eaeea au o?aaeeoeee ie i?inaa/eaaee a iaaueyineie eeiia, iia i?aaeaea
anaai iie?aaony ia XVII a., eneonnoai eioi?iai noaei i?ioia?aoii aeey
anaai iicaeiaai eeiiiienaiey. Aeaaiuie aeey iaaueyineie oeieu ieacaeenue
ia no?iaaiianeea o?aaeeoeee, a oa, eioi?ua auee caeiaeaiu Iineianeie
I?oaeaeiie iaeaoie oaea a na?aaeeia XVII noieaoey e ?acaeou a eiioea
XVII – ia?aie iieiaeia XVIII a. a ss?ineaaea, ?inoiaa Aaeeeii, Eino?iia.
Yoei ii?aaeaeyaony ioee/ea iaaueyineie eeiiu io o?anoiiaoeeiie
iaeaoneie, eioi?ay eae ?ac aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueii iie?aeanue ia
no?iaaiianeoth iniiao.

Aicieeaao ia?aaeienaeueiia yaeaiea: iaeaoaia, a iniiaiii ianeoaeeaaaoea,
a ioee/ea io iaaueyioeaa, iiaoth, a ia noa?iia?yae/aneoth oea?eiaue,
ieacaeenue aieaa caaeneiu io ae?aaia?onneie noeeenoeee. Aeinoaoi/ii
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oaioanoe/aneea iaeaoee e ai?ee-eauaaeee a
iaeaoneeo eeiiao e iaeeaaeeaineea aeai?oeu e iaecaaeii-ea?oeiiua
(i?yii-oaee eeiae-ei??aiianeea) i?ino?ainoaa a iaaueyineeo.

O?aeueneea eeiiiienoeu, aac niiiaieey, ciaeiieeenue n ecaeaieyie oeia
eeoeaauo Aeaeee (iai?eia?, n “Ithiaa?aneie iaiaoeeie Aeaeeae”) eee oeia
oanoeoiiiie “Aoanao?neie cieioie ?acueau” n ia?acoeaie aeey thaaee?ia,
neoeueioi?ia e noiey?ia. I?iaiaeieeaie aa?iiaeneeo aeonia auee
i?iaeeaaaoea ?yaeii n “ea?aeaeaie” auoiaeoeu n Oe?aeiu (“oioeu”),
ieaiiua iieyee e oaaaeu, eiino?aiiua niaoeeaeenou, a iniiaiii ec
Aa?iaiee e Oaaoeee, ?aaioaaoea ia ai?iiaeiauaathueo e iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo
i?aaei?eyoeyo. Aa?iiaeneei aeeyieyi ia iaaueyineoth eeiiiienue a
i?ioeanna aa yaiethoeee niinianoaiaaee e acaeiinayce iaaeaeo oeaio?aie
“ae?aaeaai aeaai/anoey”, /anoue ec eioi?uo iaoiaeeeanue ia eaoiee/aneeo
caieyo a Iieueoa, I?eaaeoeea, ?oiuiee, a oaeaea ca?oaaaeiua eiioaeou
Aeaieaeiauo e ae?oaeo i?iiuoeaiieeia. Neiaeeaoayny a aeoaeia ?innee, ia
a?aieoea Aa?iiu e Acee, iaaueyineay oeiea, eae ieeaeay ae?oaay, ia
iniiaa aecaioeeneie o?aaeeoeee neioace?iaaea ?acee/iua caiaaeiua
aeeyiey.

Iaaueyineay eeiia ianao i?eiaou noeey aa?ieei eae a aeiiao?ianeii
(aeeceii iaiuea?ecio), oae e iineaiao?ianeii aa?eaioao: iuoiua cieioua
ea?oooe, ia?aieythuea cieioua aea iaaeiene ia oaiii-e?aniuo oiiao,
“ninoaaeaiiua” ec auaiooi-aiaioouo caaeoeia au/o?iua o?iiu,
oyaeaeiaaniua oci?/aoua ae?aie?iaee, ioe?uaathuea ia?niaeoeaiua
nie?auaiey a?oeoaeoo?u e oeao? aeaeueieo ieaiia, aaniieieiua, auethueany
eeiee iaeaeia e ai?eciioia. Oa?aeoa?iu oaeaea ni/aoaiey oee?iaee e
aeanne?iaaiey, neiaeiay iieeo?iiiay i?iaiaioeea iaeaaeae n /anoi
ano?a/athueieny eieieieiia?aciui oeaaoeii e ?iaii eciaeeey. Noeeue
aa?ieei, au?aaeathuee naienoaaiiia ia?iaeiiio niciaieth yeni?anneaiia
aini?eyoea ie?a, ia?anoaao a iaaueyineie eeiia aieioue aei eiioea XVIII
a. e ai iiiaii nio?aiyaony aei na?aaeeiu XIX, anoanoaaiii niueaynue n
yaeaieyie aoi?iai aa?ieei eae ?aciiaeaeiinoueth yeeaeoeee.

Aoaeo/e oeiieiae/anee naycaiiie n aa?ieei, iaaueyineay oeiea ia?eiaea aa
?anoeaaoa o?iiieiae/anee niaiaaeaao n ?acaeoeai a ?onneii eneonnoaa
eeanneoeecia, eioi?ue, ianiiiaiii, aian a aa noeeenoeeo naith aeieth. Ia
?oaaaea XVIII – XIX aa. a a?oeoaeoo?a O?aea ia/eiaaony noaiiaeaiea
eeanneoeecia, e iaaueyineea ianoa?a yoiai a?aiaie ieooo caeaciua eeiiu e
aeey aiie?iuo eioa?uea?ia. Oae, eeiiinoan iieaeueie iniaiyea E. E.
?anoi?aoaaa – I. ss. Oa?eoiiiaa a Aeaoa?eiao?aa, i?aaenoaaeyaoee niaith
ii?oee ei?eioneiai i?aea?a n eaiiaee?iaaiiuie ieeyno?aie, caiieiyee
eeiiu iaaueyineie ?aaiou. ssniue ?eoi a?oeoaeoo?iuo aa?oeeaeae e
ai?eciioaeae iiae/eiee naaa aa?i/ioth aeeiaieeo aeeaiiene, i?iaeeeoiaae
nicao/iua eioa?eieoiieyi i?iii?oeee eeiiiuo aeinie (aeaoo/anoiua
ai?eciioaeueiua i?acaeieee).

Ni a?aiaiai a?oeoaeoo?iua oiiu a naieo eeiiao eeanneoeece?othony,
i?eia?aoatho noiaenoai n eioa?uea?aie ?ioiiaeaeueiuo o?aiia,
cae?aieythony /aoeeie eiioo?aie. Eae ie no?aiii, iaeiaeeaoenue ia
n?aaeiaaaeiaue eaiii, eeanneoeeci i?iyaee eeiaa?ioth iniiao eeiiu,
ecia?aceoaeueiua n?aaenoaa eioi?ie iiaeii iacaaoue a?aoe/aneie ieanoeeie
eee iauaiiie a?aoeeie. A iaaueyineie eeiia, eae, ai?i/ai, e ai anae
eeiiiiene XIX a., niieioeenue aioe/iua o?aaeeoeee, aini?eiyoua
ae?aaia?onneei eneonnoaii /a?ac Aecaioeth, n oaie, eioi?ua aic?iaeaeaei
i?eaioe?iaaiiia ia aioeeo eneonnoai eeanneoeecia. Iineaaeiea,
aaconeiaii, aeiioneaeenue a noa?iia?yae/aneoth eeiio i/aiue ia?aie/aiii,
/oi ?acei ioee/aei aa io eeii, auiieiyaiuo a oaoieea ianeyiie aeeaiiene
ainieoaiieeaie Iaoa?ao?aneie Aeaaeaiee ooaeiaeanoa, eo o/aieeaie e
iineaaeiaaoaeyie.

Caoaaoeee iaaueyineoth eeiio e aayiey ?iiaioecia. Iie iaoee ii/ao a
ae?aiaoe/aneii ie?iaini?eyoee, “?aeeaeiciii ianneiecia” noa?iia?yaeoeaa,
iuouaaoeo naay ecaiaiieeaie oea?eae e ainoaea?noaa.

ss?eia naeaeaoaeuenoai yoiio eeiia Aiaaou?aauo “?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai”, a
eioi?ie aeaaiia niauoea nii?iaiaeaeaaony noeaiaie, aeoeaioe?othueie
/oanoai o?aaiae, no?aoa ia a?aie aeecie e nia?oe, iaeeaeaiey iiaiie,
aeanoieie ?ani?aau. ?iiaioe/anee aicauoai ia?ac Eueaa Eaoaineiai a
aiaaou?aaneie eeiia, nieiaiiie iaeiiio ec eeaea?ia e ?ani?ino?aieoaeae
?aneiea Eueao ?anoi?aoaao. Nayoeoaeue neiaii ia?eo iaae iicaiii a
aaeeeieaiiii iaeayiee, oiiiyiooii a oaenoa aeaoo eeaei. A iaeiii ec ieo
/eoaai: “aieaea n iei [aieoaii] ai iaiue, e noiyoa, aea?aea aai naycaii
iiioi?ii, aeiiaeaaea nai?a aieoa naiiai aea e iaea/aiee aai ia a?aaee
iaiue”, a a ae?oaii: “<...> iioaoa oaeea ai?yue a iaeaaeaea naiae, e ia
ieaeyoany iaeaaeaea”. Oeao?a iiaeaeaeieea oaeinoaaiii iaoa?eaeecoaony a
naaoei-caeaiie io?aaeaiiie eenoiaui cieioii aoiinoa?a.

Oioy /aoeeo oi?iaeueiuo i?eciaeia ?iiaioeci a eeiia ia eiae e oa?yeny a
noeeenoeea aa?ieei, ii niinianoaiaae ia/aaoaiony aua a XVII a.
ia?ainiuneaieth eeiiiiai i?ino?ainoaa, ?acaeaeaiiiai ia n?aaeiee e
eeaeia, a oaeaeaiioth n ?aciuo oi/ae c?aiey ?acaa?ioooth ia ieineinoe
a?aiaeeicioth iaii?aio. I ?iiaioe/aneii ie?iiuouaiee iaaueyineeo
eeiiiienoeaa aiai?yo e cieioua iaaana, iiae naaoyueiny “aiaeanoaaiiui
nooiaoi” eioi?uo aicieeaao neiaieece?iaaiiue ia?ac i?e?iaeu; e noeaiu
iieeiiaiey aieoaia, eneooaiey Eineoa, ai?ueau Aiaaea, i?ienoiaeyuea a
naaeo o ca?inoeo auethuaeny caeaiueth oooiauo ?oei, iaiiieiathueo i
a?aiiinoe caiiie aeecie; e niaa?oathuaany a othoiie iaua?ea, iioiaeae ia
eneonnoaaiiue a?io a ai?iie ii?iaea, iiiaaiea ieaaeaioea. ?iiaioe/iu
aeaeu anoanoaaiiie i?e?iaeu – aeieeiu n ianoueieny o ?ae noaaeaie,
ia?uau ni naenathueie ei?iyie e o?aaaie, ?oeioai?iua ia?ee,
ia?aaeaeaiiua no?ieiuie ?aoaoeaie e aaciiaie ia noieaao.

Iiiaea iioeau, i?eoaaeoea a ?onneoth eeiiia?aoeth ec caiaaeiuo eeoeaauo
Aeaeee e ynoaiiia aua a XVII a., ieacaeenue nicao/iu ianoiui o?aeueneei
?aaeeyi. Eeiia “?iaeaeanoai Aiaiiaoa?e” oiiaeiaeeanue ai?eciioaeueiie
ea?oeia, nthaeao eioi?ie ?acaeaaaony a aioeeaaeao aiie?iiai aeai?oea.
Aiaaeu i?aaenoaee Aa?aaio a aeeaiieniii “aiaeeeneii” ia?ea ia?aae
aiaaoui iniaiyeii, iaiaeathuei ia n?aaeo iaeoaiey caaiae/eeia e
ia/aeueieeia ?oaeieeia. Iiyaeyaony oa?aeoa?iue o?aeueneee eaiaeoaoo n
iaua?uaaieai ai?ie-eauaaeie eae auoiaeia ai?iuo ii?iae, “eaiaiiuo
iaeaoie”, ii?inoeo oaieiuie aea?aaueyie. Aa?aaa Ei?aeaia iaiiieiatho
anoieieaiiua aa?aaa Iaeau, neiaii oaeaeaiiua n y?onia iaeeiiiie
Iaaueyineie aaoie, /ae neeoyo oaaaeuaaaony a ecia?aaeaieyo iaeaiueeeo
ai?iaeeia ia aeaeueieo ieaiao. Oaeei ia?acii ?iiaioe/aneea oaiaeaioeee
ia?aoiaeyo a ?aaeenoe/aneea. Iaeiaei ie oa ie ae?oaea ana-oaee ia
aeaeatho eeiio ea?oeiie, iiae/eiyynue aeiaiaoe/aneiio niuneo. Oae,
iaua?a neiaieece?oao nae?aeueiia oaaaeeua, iiaeaeue anaeaiiie;
Aeoeaaineay iaua?a – “ie?, ii?aaeaiiue a?aoii ii aeia /aeiaaea, a
eioi?ii ainneyei nieioea i?aaaeu”, a oaeaea ia?ac “?iaeaeathuae
Aiaiiaoa?e e ?iaeaeathuae caiee”; aioe/iua ?oeiu – ycu/aneee ie?;
ai?enoue eaiaeoaoo – ai?iaa, aeooiaiia ia/aei; naiaeu e a?ee eioa?uea?ia
– iaaaniua naiaeu. Noa?iia?yaeoeu i?e anae naiaiaea eioa?i?aoaoeee
aiaineianeeo enoi/ieeia, aaconeiaii, ciaee e /oeee eo.

Iaeiaiaa eco/aiiay naaiaeiy i?iaeaia – iaaueyineay oeiea e nia?aiaiiay
ae aeeaiienue ae?oaeo noa?iia?yae/aneeo oeaio?ia. Iiea iiaeii
iiaeaeeoueny eeoue i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuie niia?aaeaieyie ii yoiio iiaiaeo.
Iie?athuayny ia iauea ae?aaia?onneea iniiau, eeiiiienue ?acee/iuo
caiaeue iiae aicaeaenoaeai eiioeuenia Iiaiai a?aiaie e ianoiiai oeeaaea
i?eia?aoaea naie naiiauoiua /a?ou. Iie – a a?aoeea iooi/aiiuo eeiee
Auaa, a “ieaoi/iie” (oeaaoi/iie) i?iaiaioeea e aaiia aeoiaauo,
iaaanii-aieoauo e e?aieaii-caeaiuo e?anie aaoeianeeo ianoa?ia, a
ni/aoaieyo iano?ie ?ane?aoaiiinoe e niauoeeiie aeai?iainoe aoneeoeeie
eeiiiiene. A ?acoeueoaoa neiaeiuo iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia o?aeueneea
ooaeiaeieee aieouaaee e oai?/anee ia?a?aaaouaaee caaiaaaiey
noa?iia?yae/aneie eeiiiiene ?innee. A naith i/a?aaeue, iaaueyineay oeiea
ieacuaaea ia?aoiia aeeyiea ia auoaiacaaiiua oeaio?u e iaeiia?aiaiii
?ani?ino?aiyea naia aicaeaenoaea ia ainoie – ia Neae?ue e Aeoae. Ii yoio
aii?in o?aaoao niaoeeaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey.

Eiia/ii, ie?iiuouaiea noa?iia?yae/anoaa ia inoaaaeinue iaeciaiiui.
Aniuoee ?aneieueie/ueaai oaiaoecia iinoaiaiii oaanaee, ?inei aeeyiea
ioeoeeaeueiie oea?eae e naaoneeo ia/ae aeecie. “Iiiai/eneaiiia
eoia/anoai aaaeao iaoe?ioth oi?aiaeth, e i?e yoii aieueoay /anoue
eoioeia – cieioii?iiuoeaiieee. AEaeue oieueei, /oi ana iie ii/oe
noa?iia?yaeoeu, eee ?aneieueieee, ai?i/ai, yoi ia iaoaao ei auoue
aeinoieiuie a?aaeaeaiaie e ethaeueie ia /oaeaeuie iauanoaaiiuo
oaeiaieuenoaee”, – ienae a 1843 a. ?aaeaeoi?o aeo?iaea “?aia?ooa? e
iaioaii” iaeei ec aeaoa?eiao?aneeo ei??aniiiaeaioia.

Yoi ia iiaei ia neacaoueny ia iaaueyineie eeiia, eioi?ay noaea
yaiethoeeiie?iaaoue a noi?iio aeaei?aoeaiiai eneonnoaa, ?ineioiie aaue,
ieeoeaoai?ythuae aaniineiaiua eaieoaeu o?aeueneeo caaiaeiaeaaeaeueoeaa.
N 1830-o aa. cieioi i?eiaiyaony a iaaueyineie eeiia noieue iaeeueii, /oi
ia/eiaao cao?oaeiyoue aini?eyoea aeeaiiene, eioi?ay aeaeaaony ni
a?aiaiai nooie e ae?iaiie, oiaaea eae ia ?oaaaea XVIII – XIX aa. cieioie
oii ea?ae ?ieue ii?aau aeey ae?aaioeaiiie, ia?aeeaathuaeny iooaieaie
aeeaiiene, aa?iiie/ii aeiiieiyy aa.

Oai ia iaiaa, iaaueyineea ianoa?a nicaeatho cia/eoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey
e ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a. Yoi eanaaony, a /anoiinoe, aeeianoee
*a?iia?iaeiuo, eioi?ua ia?aoee a aaeeiiaa?ea e iinea cai?auaiey a 1845
a. ?aneieueie/ueae aeeaiiene ?aaioaee aeey i?oiaeienaeueiie oea?eae,
aeaiiino?e?oy aunieia ianoa?noai e noeeaaua i?eciaee oeieu. Oae, E. I.
*a?iia?iaei a 1863 a. “iiaeienae” iaeei ec o?ao eeiiinoania (N?aoaineee)
aeey Ieeieueneiai o?aia, iino?iaiiiai a aea?aaia Auiueae iiae
Iaaueyineii aua a eiioea XVIII a. ?acaeoeth iaaueyineiai eeiiiienaiey
niinianoaiaaei iinoaiaiiia eciaiaiea iieeoeee oea?neiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
ioiioaiee noa?iia?yaeoeaa, /oi au?aceeinue, iai?eia?, a eiia?aoi?neii
oeaca 1883 a., aiiaue ioeoeeaeueii ?ac?aoeaoai ei caieiaoueny naiei
i?iiuneii.

Ia noaeueau iaaueyineie oeieu ieacaee aeeyiea e iaeioi?ua
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aayiey, caoaaoeaoea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a.
eoeueoiaia eneonnoai ?innee a oeaeii. Eeiiu ia?aoaaeoaai a aaeeiiaa?ea
ianoa?a Noa?iooeeineiai caaiaea O. A. Oeeaoiaa, iaa?aaeaeaiiua a?iiciaie
iaaeaeueth ia ninoiyaoaeny a 1887 a. a Aeaoa?eiao?aa Neae?nei-O?aeueneie
iao/ii-i?iiuoeaiiie aunoaaea, auee iaicia/aiu eae “ecaeaeey naiae
eeiiiieniie ianoa?neie a aecaioeeneii noeea”. ?a/ue caeanue eaeao ia i
oie aecaioeeneie o?aaeeoeee, eioi?oth i?aaie/ii ?acaeaaei eneonnoai
Ae?aaiae ?one e n eioi?ie ieeiaaea ia ?annoaaaeanue noa?iia?yae/aneay
eeiiiienue, a ia oaea/aiee iicaeiaaecaioeeneie, oae iacuaaaiie
eoaei-a?a/aneie eeiiie. Iaeioi?ua i?eciaee iaaueyineie oeieu iiae
aeeyieai yoiai oaea/aiey en/acaee. Oaieua eanne?iai/iua io?u
aecaioeiece?othuae eeiiu XIX a. auoaniyee oaea oiiieiaaoothny
iaaueyineoth aaeieeeinoue.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, iiaia ia?auaiea e aecaioeeneei caaaoai
niioaaonoaiaaei no?aieaieth noa?iia?yae/anoaa naa?a/ue no?iainoue
eeiiia?aoee e noeey, aini?aiyonoaiaaoue i?iieeiiaaieth a eoeueoiaoth
aeeaiienue iaoo?aeecia. Aaaeue ia neo/aeii “aecaioeeneee noeeue” ioia/ai
o ooaeiaeieea, ecaanoiiai naiei ia?iiiui nia?aieai eeoeaauo iaaueyineeo
iiaeeeiieeia. Caoeene?iaaiiua a ieo i?eciaee iaaueyineay eeiiiienue
iuoaeanue nio?aieoue aieioue aei ia/aea iaoaai noieaoey. Iaeiaei yoe
i?eciaee oe?aaee?iaaeenue ana aieaa iaoaie/anee e ia iiaee ia
ineaaaaaoue. Oeaeinoiinoue niaiyeanue yeeaeoeeie, aneaoe/aneee eaeaae –
naioeiaioaeueiie e?aneainoueth. Nie?auaeinue eiee/anoai caeacia: “A
i?aaeiaa a?aiy i?iiunae iaoiaeeeny a n?aaieoaeueii oeaaoouai ninoiyiee,
eeiiiieniuo ianoa?neeo ian/eouaaeinue aei aeanyoea, oaia?ue aea caeacu
ianoieueei oiaiueoeeenue, /oi e a o?ao ianoa?neeo neaeyo eiiaaea aac
?aaiou”, – niiauaeinue a iaeiii ec e?aaaaae/aneeo ecaeaiee.

Noa?iia?yaeoeu iiiaia naeaeaee aeey nio?aiaiey a ioa/anoaaiiii eneonnoaa
i?aaineaaiie, ae?aaia?onneie o?aaeeoeee. A oi a?aiy, eiaaea
i?oiaeienaeueiay oea?eiaue i?aaeii/eoaea aeaaeaie/aneoth aeeaiienue,
iaueiu “ae?aaeaai aeaai/anoey”, iie?aynue ia nianoaaiiua eaieoaeu,
iaania/eaaee naieo eeiiiienoeaa ?aciiia?aciie ?aaioie e iiaeaea?aeeaaee
a ieo oai?/aneia ia/aei. Ii a eiioea XIX – ia/aea XX a., eiaaea a neeo
?acee/iuo eaeaieiae/aneeo e ynoaoe/aneeo i?e/ei o?aaeeoeee Ae?aaiae ?one
ieacaeenue oe?iei aino?aaiaaiu, noa?iia?yae/aneea ianoa?a inoaeenue a
oaie eeiiiienoeaa Iaeaoa, Oieoy e Inoa?u, anaaaea eiyeueiuo e
ainoaea?noao, aai oea?eae e noaaoeo eniieieoaeyie eo caeacia.
Iaaueyineay oeiea ooiaeeea a i?ioeia. Ooiaeeea ia aanneaaeii. Ia
i?ioyaeaiee naiaai ?acaeoey iia ieacaea caiaoiia aeeyiea ia
oieueeei?ioth eeiio, aeieueoa ia ?ano?aoeaooth oai?/aneee iioaioeeae, ia
ianoioth eieaeioth ieieaoth?o, ia ?inienue ii aea?aao e iaoaeeo, ia anth
ooaeiaeanoaaiioth eoeueoo?o O?aea.

Eco/aiea iaaueyineie oeieu oaaaeaeaao a oii, /oi yoi e?oiiia yaeaiea a
enoi?ee ioa/anoaaiiiai eneonnoaa, ?anoe?ythuaa i?aaenoaaeaiea ia
eeiiiiene Iiaiai a?aiaie. A ia?eiae naiaai ?anoeaaoa iia aeinoeaea
iiaeeeiiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aunio. No?iaay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue
ai?iicaaiaeneiai e?ay, ioithaeue ia eaeaaeueiua i?aau, oea?eaoea a
n?aaea eoioeia e cieioii?iiuoeaiieeia, iaiieieee noa?iia?yae/aneoth
eeiiiienue iaoinii no?anoiie i?iiiaaaee. Ii ca eiie?aoiie enoi?e/aneie
neooaoeeae, ca oea?eiaiuie ?ani?yie o?aeueneea aeeaiienoeu i?ic?aaaee
aiaa?aiaiiua ooaeiaeanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe. Enneaaeiaaoaeue ae?aaia?onneiai
eneonnoaa A. E. Aaaia? aiai?ee i i?ioiiiia Aaaaeoia, /oi ii “aioae a
enoi?eth ia noa?iia?yaeoeai, a au?aceoaeai aa/iinoe ai?ieo eaeaaeia” e
/oi eiaiii iiyoiio “ae?aiaoe/aneay aeeciue e ae?aiaoe/aneia oai?/anoai
aai auaeyaeyo oae nia?aiaiii”. Yoe neiaa iiaeii ioianoe e e eo/oei
ianoa?ai iaaueyineie eeiiiiene.

Enoi/iee: Noa?iaa?u a Naia?a

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