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E????ay ??? ? ?e????? ? ??:

I?? A???

Ie?

1. A????e I?????e ??e

2. I?? ?o?? A????

3. A????y I?????y ?e?ay

1. A????e I?????e ??e

A????e I?????e ??e ?e ???i a 1802 ??. C?????th ?? a y?i ???e ?? ??????
I????ey, ???a ?e ? ?? A??a, ?e e a A??? ??????? ???eth ?y ???e ???e
????o ????????o ????e. N???th I?????? ??y a A??? ??????e ?a ?? ???:
???ae???y ????i ???? ?????i A????a ???i ????? ???a ?????? ?i??????.
I???ue ??? ? ?, ??u ????? y?e ?? ?????i yc?? A???, ? ???? e ?iy???
?i???e ???e e o. i. Y? ??? ??a ?? ????a e a ????? A????? I?????? ??y e
A???e ?? Aa??e. I???? A????? I?????? ??y ?y?? n ??? O?a?a N??e, ??? ?
?????o, ?-????? ??c???o ?????? ??a OOO— ??? XIX ??. N?uey N??e ?a a ??a
XVDI ?? ??a??? ????? e ??, ??u ??????a ? ????? e ????e ????? ?a????ue a
???????a, e ??iay n 1786 ?? N??e ?????? ?? ??a?y ?e ?? ?y A??????? ?????
(?????i ???e ? ?? ??????). I??o ???ey ??o e ?????o ??e O??? N??e ???ey?
???a ??? ? N???a. N??ay ????th ??, ? ????y e ?????eth ?????i e ?????i
????a, ?e ?e ??a ?y???i n ?????. A ??? ? 25 ?y?y 1802 ??, ???i N??e
????? ????e ?? ????e a ?? ??e, ?? . ????? ???a: ???y ????? ?e?a ????ny
«Bibliotheca Hungarica Familiae Comitum Szechenyi Patriae Sacrata». N ?o
?? ????ay I?????y ????? ??o y? ????. A ??? ?????y ???????i ??? ????y
????? ??iy? ? 11 884 ???? ?????, 1150 ????e, 142 ??a ??????? ?? e ??th?
e 2019 a??a. E y?? ???eth a 1807 ?? ?? i?????u 2675 ??o, ?????o ????a e
i???? ???, ????????? a ???? «Catalogue Nummorum Hunga-riae». N???i 24-e
??? ??ia ? 1807 ?? ?? y?o ???? ?? ??iy?? ????? ??e. A ??ue ????ey ?????
a ?? I?????? ??y ????? ?iy??.

O? a 1804 ?? ????? ?? ???a ?y ???????. A ??oth?a ?? I?e???? ??e ?????i
?????y ? ?? ???e e ????. A 1814 ?? ? ????? ????? e ??i ???iy???i ????a
??o e ?????o ????a. A 1825 ?? ?e ???i ??? ???e ?o?? y?? ???ey ?ae ????i
«Cimeliotheca Musei Nationalis».

I??i ????? ?y ????e I?????? ??y ??i ??? ????i ??ia ?. I??. I???????e ???
?ae I??i ????eye ?????e ????e E??, ???e n ???e eth??th e ???e ????y e
??i e ??? A????? I?e????i ??y. A??? ????e a?i ????ue ???y?a ?y ????e
????a. O? a 1807 ?? ????e E?? ???e ????o ?????o E??o O?? ??? ??ey
I?????? ??y. I??o, ???, ? ?e ???? a ??ue, ?e ?e ??a?? ?y ????e Io?y ???e
???ny ????i e ??????i ?-? ???th?e ???e ????e.

N??y ????a ??y y?o ???e i??y? ? ???, ? ???i e ??? ??o A????e I?????e
??e. I??i ??????i ?? ???? ? ??? ??y, e ??ei A??????? ???? n??a 1836 ??
??a ?iy?? y?i ????. I??o ??ey ????e E?? ???e ? y?o ?c ????o ?????o I?ath
I???, e 28 ???y 1836 ?? ?e ???? ???? ? ????a ???. N?????? ??ey a?i ?/a?
22 ethiy 1837 ??, ? a 1838 ?? ?i ?? ???? ?-? ??????i? ????ey. A????a
??ey I?ay ?? ????i ?? a 1847 ??. N?????? ?i ?????? ??i ?ny? ?o. Ae?? ???
I?ay 109 ???. I?? ???? ????? ??o? ? ??? ??? ???? ???, ??? ???a 34,7 ??a.
O??i o???a ???? ?????ay ??? ith????i ????? ??ayey I??. A??a ???o ?
?????e ??? I???e, ????? ???????e ???? I??, E????, E??? e N??.

A ??a 1846 ?? a ??i ??? I?ay ????ue ??ay y????y — ?e ????ay A??ay I???.
A ??? 1848 ?? ?y ???e ?? ???u ?a y????e.

I?y? n A???e I??? ???iy???i ???i I?ay, ??????i ????? ????? e ????? ????,
?? ????ay ???y I?????? ??y. I? ??/?a ???? A????e ???e e y?y?? ????e
??ueth A??? ???? I?????ai ??y.

C?????y ?? ??? ? ?eth I?e????i ??y ? ??y ??????i? ??? 1848 ??. A ?? I?ay
?????e ?????y ???? ???? e ???? n??e, a a ???? ?? I?ay ???? ??iyy ???
I?????? ???ey.

I?? ????y ???????e ??? a ??e I?????? ??y ???e oy??a ???a. I?? ???? ????
????, ?i ????yi ???? ???? a A?o. I??i ?????? ??? ??a ????i a ??? ????a
I?????? ??y. Ii ????? A????? ?th? ??? ?e ??? ???? ?ae. A ??? ????i n?a
?e ?i? n ?????? a ???? ?? I?ay ????a, ????i a e??? ??i ???? O??oe Y??ue.
A 1858 a?o ????i ?????e O??oe E?o. Ii ??????i ??? ? ????? i I??, e ???
?i ?????ue. E???? ??e ????e ???youeny ??i ?????, e ??? A??ay ????a ? y?
??y ????i ??? y????a. I?? ?? ?e a 1867 ?? ?? ????? ????? ??o A???e e
A???e, ????a Ia?????i ??y ?????. Ii ???e ??iy?? ath??, ?? ???ia?u ???th
?????a e ?????? ????y, i??? ???a ????a; ???th? I?ay ?e ???i ???ueth E?iy
E?? e I?a O?a. I??i ???? ?e I?ay, ???y n 1870 e ??? ? 1902 ??, ??????i
?????? a ??o ??? — ?y ?na??e ???e ???. Ai ??a I?ay ?? O??oe I??e, a ???
????? ???? ???a O??o ???, a ??a Ei-?o O??e. A ????? ??? y?o ?? ????
A????e I?????e ??e ae??a ??iy ?????o ???. A????y ? ????o??? ?y????e
???ea ?? ??? ?? ????? e ??? ? ???eth ???o ?iy??? ????a e ????, e a ????e
?? ? ??ei ??e ????ue ???? ?????y e ??e. A 1867 ?? ???????e ???? I??????
??y ?e i??? ? A???? ???? a I??a. N????i y?? y??? ??????? a 1876 ?? a
A???? I?????? ???????e e ??????a?? ????u, a a ?y? n ????i ?? ???? ????
???? ??????i ???????? ???a? A???.

A 1870-o ??o a ????? ???ey e ????ey ????e I?????? ??y ? ?? ????? ????a
?????a ????e, ???a ??e ???iy???? ??y?.

A 1870 ?? ?????i ??? ??th ???th ????oth ???th ????th — n???a ??a Y???? —
e ? ? ?? ???? A??????oth ????th ???th, a ???th ?? ?eth?? ??a ???ey I???
e E??. Ia ?? ?????y Ai??????e ????e ???e n ????e a???e I?????? ??y
?????y I?ae ???????o ????, ??i ? ????e ???? ?e ??yo a 1896 ??. A 1884 ??
???? A????y ?????ay a??ay, ???th ??a ?????? e I?ath ???????o ????, a n
1934 ?? ?a ??a ??a a ??? I?????? ??y.

A 1872 ?? a ??? I?????? ??y ?????y ???iy???e y??????? ??e, ????y?? ss??i
E????, ???e ???? ????th ???, ????y ?????? ??i ????? ?????. A ???e?i a ??
???ey ??????? yoi??????i ????a ???? ??th??y ???e ?????o I?i O??? e ss??
ss?i. A 1925 ?? ??a ??? ????o ????e ??e ???e ?????a ???. N???y???e
???????? ???? Y??????? ??e ?? ??? a 1947 ?aeo.

A 1878 ?? ?????y ???iy???e I?ae ?????i ????a, ???? ???? ?e ???i a 1885
?? ? ????e A??? ?????. A 1890 ?? ?e ??i ??? i ??????a ??ey ?y I?ay
?????i ????a ? ????a TH??e.

I?? ?????? ?? ??a ??ee ?e ????y ??ue I?????? ??y. I????? ?i ?? ?? ??????
I?????? ??y O??? N??e, TH??? O?o??, ???y a 1808 ?? ???? I?????? ??th
???th ????th ????a. A 1870 ?? a ???a I?????? ??y i?????ue ?e ???iy???o
???: ????a, ?????? e ??????e. N???y???e I?? ???e ?????? ?? ?e ??? a 1933
??.

A????a N??e e A????e I????i? ??e ????? a ???e i?? ????. A 1949 ?? ?e
?????ue, e a ??iy?a ??y I?????? ??th ?????o ??? ????? ???????a e ??????a
????e.

Ai ??y ??? ???e ??u ??? I?????? ??y ??? ????? ? ??y?a (a ?? ?? ???nyo
iy? ????e), ??e, ?? e ??a ?? o????u. Oy??e ?? ?e ???i ????yi. I?i ????,
??? ???, ??? e th???? ???e, ????th ???. E ?a-o?e, ????y ? oy??a ???, I??
?n?i ??y?y ? ??. O? a 1948 ?? a ?i ??? ?? ???a ??ay ????y ????. A 1952
?? ?????ue ??ay ??????y ??ey. A 1956 ??, ? a?iy ?????th?e, ??? ??ue ??ue
?????i.

A???iyy ????a I?????? ??y a ???? ????a ?????ia ???a, ?????y a ??? ?i
?????y. A ??iy?a ??y I?? ?eth?? ??oth?a ???:

I?? ?????. I??? ??? ???eytho ???????a ????u ? ????a ? X ??, ????a
??th???? ? ????? A???. E 1970 ?? a i??a ???u??? 337 167 y????a. A?ue
???? ???? ia iy? ???o ????e: ???? (40 431 y???o); ?????y y?? (123 216
y????a); ??????y y?? (44 869 y????a); y?? ?????y ???a (84 228 y????a) e
????y ????n?e ???? (44 423 y????), ????y a ???a ????o iy???? ?o.

A ????yo ??? ???ny ??i ??th??y ?iy??? ????, ?ath?o ?????i? ????. N??
??????? y????a ????e ????a — ??e ??e ??? ???????? ??? ????, ????? ?e ?
??o ???e a ?? A??o-??o a 1965 ??. Y?o ??e ??? — ??e ???e a A??a e ?y??
y?y?ny ????? y????i. Ae???u ????ey ??a ????? ??ey ? ?????? a E?aoa
?????o ??e.

C???? y???? ????e ?????e y??: ?? ? Oe???, ??ae a ??a ???e ? A????a, ???a
??u A??o?-?? ???? ? O??o e A?y???a, e???a ????a, y???? ? ??th ??? «??? e
???? ???a ??e. A ????e ???e y?? ??????u ???y?e ????e ? I???e, ????y
?a??a n ???? ? I??, ????u ??n?? ? O???a, ????????e ???? ? N?-??a e ????e
a y?i ????a ??ae, ??oy?a ? ???? ei?e, ????th?y A??, ? N???ay e, ???oe,
????, ????a ?e ????o O????? ????i- Oe??i-????????? ????. E???ey y??
?????y ???a ???? y????, ??th??y ?? a ???i ????, ????, ??a, ?e ???? ?
???? a N??-I?????, ??????? ??th ????i ???e, ????? ???a ??u ? N????? e
A????u, a ??a ????a ?e ????o a ??? ??? A??? (A?a, I??, E??i? e o. ae.)
???y ???? ???.

I?? n??? ??a. E ??o e????????y y?? ??? ??ny?y ?iy?e? X—XVI ??a. Ii ???
1964 ?? ???? ?????o 48 822 y???y?.

C?????th ??ue ?i ???eytho ?iy?e? ???e ????y ???? ???, a ?i ??a ???? ?y
??o?ey ??????o ??e ?????, ??????oth?a i ???e ???a ????e ???a. A y?e
????e ??eyth?y ??a y????, ?e ???a ??????i ????? E????? I???a, ???e,
?ath?e ??o ????, ????? ? O???a a ??? ???e ???, ?y?a ? E?????, ?th?,
????? ????e y??th, ??e I??, ????? ???e ?? ? ??? ????e ??e??e ??? a n.
A??a, ??e ??ey I?y?, ????a ???e e Y???, ??ny??y e XVII ??, ????? y?eueth
c??? ??e ???????? ?ycy Ae??y I ?a?? e o. ae.

I?? ??? ???e. I?? ???o ? ????? ????e ??? ????: ??ey, th???? e ?????o
???e, ???, ????, ?????o ?????? e ???i ??????? ????a.

A 1964 ?? ???? ?????i 33 793 ??, n?? ?o ????i y????a ???? ???ey: ????ae
I???, ???i Y????, ?? I??-A????u, ?y? A???? e E??. I??eyth?y ??ue ????e
????e ??? a I?? ??a 1945 ?? ? ??? ?a??e, a ?i ??a e ? ????e A?o??. I?
???o ? ???e ????i e ?e ?????i ?????i ??y, ??? A???? A??????? e ???? ????
?y?u AE??? E???e. I?? ??? ?a?? ???? ??a ????th ??? e th???? ???e, ??e
???o ?n??u ????ey ???? ?a?e ? ??oe??i ??a O??? II ???e e ??? ? ???i
?e?a, ??????? I??-O???.

I??????? ???o. A???? ????e y?? ????: ???ay ????y, ????ay ???? ????e e
???e y?o; ????y ??o ????? ???, a ?i??i ???a, ???? ??? ? ????i e ???i
????; ????y ????? ??o (??? ? ??o ??); ????y ?iyo?o ???e e ???a. A
???????i e??aoa ??y?y ??a ??a y?i??u ???? ???ey, ?e ???a ???a ??? ?
E??u, ???a ???? V ?? i. y. ? N???, ???y ??? a 100 ???a ???????? ?ycy
I?ay A??; ?????ay a E?????a ???y ??? a 100 ???a n ec????? ?. A??a,
????ay ???i XVHI ??; ???oe, ??i C???i ??a e ?? e ?? (XIX a.). A 1964 ??
a ???a ???????e ????e ??????ue 226 744 ????.

E?????y ????ay ???y. I?????ue a 1884 ??. E ??o ?e???????y y?? ??? ??ny?y
?ath?a ???? ?????? ????? ????, ??th? e ????. A?ath??y y????i ????e
y?y?ny «I??? ???? ??? A?? I??? (1703). A 1964 ?? ???? ????e ??iye ? 84
638 i????.

I?? ??????. Y?o ??e ?e ?a???? a 1952 ??. E ?? ????y ????a ??i ????i
????a (??ay ???ea ???? ??), ???? e ????. I?ae ????ey? ?? e ???th ????,
????y ? ????? A???, e ????ao a ???????i ???? ??? ? ???eth ???????o
?iy???. C?nue ? ???ny ??th?yny ???? ?????ey.

A??????ay ?????. A????a, ?e e ??e ??????, ?? ???a a 1952 a?o; y?y?ny
????i ?? ??????, ???????? ???y. A ?e ???ny 75 000 ??a ????o ???e e
??????e ?????u. Y? ?? ? ??o ?????? ????? ???????? ????e.

A ??? I?????? ??y ??yo o?? ????????? ??e ??????i ??? ??ey I?y? a A???? e
??ny??y e ?? ??e; ??e ???e a O????? n ?????i a ?i ???, ?i a I??a, a ???i
???y E?? E??, e ???????e ??e a A?????? — ?iy?a ?????? ????.

A ??iy?a ??y a I?????i ??a ?? ?a ??iy?? y????e.

I??y ????? ??a ?????? ???????a ????u ???a ? ????a ? ??a IX ??, ????a ?
????? A?a?e. I? ? ????? a ????? y??i?? ??? ????a ????ey y???oe??? ???e,
?i ??? ???? ??e ? ??o ??????? a ???e I?ay ni ???e ?i ????y.

A??y y????y ?? ???a a 1967 ?aeo. Aa ????u ?eth???tho ???th A??? ? ???e
???a ????? ??? a ??? Ae?ay ? ???? XIX ??. A y?e y????e ??e ??? y????a
??aey?y ??a ??? ???u ????e, ??/??e e ?????? ????? ?????u, a ?i ??a
????th ????????? ?? ? ?????? ???? ??? A???? ???? — ??th??y ???oe ?????i
????a ??? ? ??th. Y? y????y ???a ? ?? ? ??? ??o???i ????a I?ay, a ?e
?????? ??a ????u, ??????a ??? ??yi ???????? ???ey e ????i ???oeeyi,
???????a ? ?a??? ?????a I?????? ??th, ??u ?a ?????? ???u ?? ?????? a
y??c?? ?iy???e ??? ???? ????.

Ii ??? ???? a ???? ?? I?ay ??i ????th?y ????. A ????a ??y ???i ??i
?????a ??ae ???? ???o ?????, ??th?o ? ??????, ???? e ???????? a I??.

E??ey I?ay: «Folia Archaeologica» (A??u I?????? ??y), «Folia Historica»,
«A??????? ????, a ??a ???????a ???y: ????o?e, ???? ?????u, ??ey??
??th?u.

2. I?? ?o?? A????

A ??? I?ay ???e A???? ??? ????, ???? e ??iay ????a ?????, ??ny??y e ???e
??? A???? e ???a, ??? ? ?i ?????. I???e i ??e?o ????yo ?????y a ???o e
??ey?????? ???, ?????ny ? ????o e, ??i ???i, ????ny ??iy?? ???e ???e.

E???? I?ay ?nyo ??e ??????e ????, ???y ? ???????? ????a, ?eth?y ????a?y
???????? e ?????i-?????i ????a, ????u ? ???e ??????? e ????????? ? ????e
?????? ??????.

I?y? n ???????e ???e I?? ?ye ? ?ay ???th ?? a ???? ??? ? ???e ???u A???.
Iiae ?????? I?ay ??e ???th?? ????a ?????? ?? — iy? ??a ???? ???u A???. A
??? ?? ???????y ???y A???? ? ?????o ??? ? 1300 ??, ? ??? — ???a 1300 ?
1686 ?ae, a ???i — ? ina?????? ??? 1848 ??, a ????i — ? 1849 ?? ? 1918
?? e a iy?i — ? 1918 ?? ? ??? ???e. A ??? ?n???ny ???? ???, ???y ?i
y??????, ?????? e ????? ??e ? ??y??e ???? ?i ???e. A ??a?e y?? ???????i
? ?u?o ??a ???-????a A???? ????e ???a e ????? I?ay.

I?? ???e A???? ?e ???i a 1887 ?? ?e N???? ??e. A?? ?y ?i ????y ????e
???? ???o ????e, ???a ??? a oi ??y ia ????? A????, e ???? ???? ????y
A???. A 1894 ?? ????ue ???? a ?????i e y?? ???e ??a «A???.

A y? ? ??y ???y ?? ?????a ???e ??? ???e. I??th ???? ????? ???e ???
No???e ??e ??? a 1899 ?? a ?????i ????e a A???? ??a (A????o). A 1941 a.
I?? ?????y a ??a E???e.

N???a ??????e ?????? ????e ????y e ????i ??i. I??th ???? ????? ??????e
???? A???? I?? ??? a 1932 ?? a ????i ????. I??ay n 1945 ?? ???? ???i ??i
??? ??? ????e ???, a ??iy?a ??y ? y?y?ny ?? ??i ???i ?????? ??? a A????
????. I?? ???e A???? ???y ? ?e ???, ???th?o ???th n???y ?i ????e.

I?? ???e ?????? e ????i ???e ????ny ????? e ????i ???????o ?????,
???th?o ???th ???a, ??? ? ????? A???? ? i??? ???a. A??e ??ueth ????e
y?yth?y ????u ????? ?? n ??i? *?a ?, ???? A?????e y?? ? A????? e ????u
???? ?????-????? ????y a O??a e ? ?? A???. Ia ??a ??? y?y?ny ???? ???e
y??, ?????? a??? ???i ?e ????o A???. Ii ??y? n ?iy???e ? ?????? e ????
????e A??? ????? ??a ???? ???? ????i ???? ???? ???a?y (castrum) e ????
???? ????y ? o????e ?e ??? A????, A?????. I?y??e y?? ???? ?????a (I— IV
a. i. y.) ????? a ??a «A???. Y????y ??y «AE?? ??yi a A???» ??????o ???
?????a ??yi ? ????? A??? e ???? y?e ??e? ???e ???e I???e. Y?o ??ae n
50-?ny?? ????? ??e ??oth ?? ? ???-???a ???? ???e. A iy? ??o ????? ????u,
?eth???th?a ???th ????ey a A??? ???o ?e?, y?????oth ??ue A???, ??ue
???iey ???e e ?????e ??? ??i?, ?i ????, ????i, ???th e ????y. A???a
????? ???thth ???, ???? ??o ?? (??e ?o ???a? ??oy?e TH???-N????, ???y???
????-?? e A???), ????u ??????? ????? ? ???a e ??y, ?????, ???? ? ???? e
???, th???? ???y e ?????a ??e, i??u e ???. I?? ? ??o ??? ?iy??? y?y?ny
????? ?????e ?????o ??i-????n. N??? ? ???eth ?iy??? y?y?ny ????y ? ??y
???? ???e ????e ????? ? o????e ???? ??? ??a ? ???e ??u, ????y ?????
«????» ???a.

A y????e I?ay ????? ????y, ??? (??e ?o ???? ? ?ay ???? ??oy ? ???iy?,
????th?y ?a?th O???-I???o), ?????? ????, ????u ???? ???o ????, ???ay
???a N???? ? ?y??? ?? I??u e ???a ? ??? A???, ????y ? ??y ???? ? ???a, a
??ia ????????i ???. Ia ???? ??e??e ?oe?? ?? ?ath?y ?a ?a ???e, ?? ? ???o
????? «I???? Ae??», ??ay — ??o ??? a ????.

A ????? ???o a 1880 ?? ???? A??? ?? ???u ??u ????i ???a, ?????y ????
???y I??i e ???. C???e?ue ?????y ???o ??, ????? ??a, ?y??? ???, ??ey ??
e ?e ?????i «???? ?e?i ??», a a ??iy?a ??y ?????a?y ????? ?????? ????y
A???. E?? y????e ?????i ??y e ??y-??, ?? ??i????a ????a ???? a ??? ???
???? ?iy??? ???e y??. Ia ???e 15 I?? ????? ?iy??e ????i ???? E??-A???, a
?i ??a ???e ?????? ????ey, a I?? O????? ???? ???a ??????a ??nn?i, a
I??-??a ? ???e O??? ????? ???? ??/?e ???u e ????, a I?? ? ?e? I??a —
?iy??e ???e. E?? y?o ????, a ???y??e ???e ??aey?y ??u ?? ???o ?????a.

I?? N?????uey ????ny ???i?i e ????i ?iy??? ???e ????? ???u ? ???e ???a
???a ? ??a y?? ????i ?????a. E???ey ???o ???i ???i ? ?????a??i ????a,
?????? ??????? ????a e ?????? ????? ? ??i???? A?u, I??, I?? e ???th?o ?
????? ????e.

N?? ??? ????? ????e y?yth?y ?iy??e ???? ???, ?????? ?ae?ey e ???yy ???.
N?? ?o ????? ???? ??o ???? ? A?u, ???i ???i ? ??? A???? ????, a ??a
????o e ??o ???. ?yae? n y?? ?iy???e ????a ??i ???tho ?iy??e ??? A????,
????y ??? ?. I?? a A???????a e ??oea a I?e. I ???e ????i ?????a ?tho
??????a ????o??a ????u ? ???e, ???? ?? e ae??a ??.

I???a ?????? ??????a ?iy??e e ??a ???a ? ????? ?? ???i ? ??y ?????e ?
????? ????? ?????? ???. A?????? i???e ?eth?? ??a 1000 ?iy??? ??ee e
?????. Ii y?i ??????i y?i??i (???eyi, ????? ???, ????eyi ?? e ????, ????
??yi, ???? ???, ????, ???, ?????? ???ieyi e ????? ????) ??i ????? ????a
y?? no?????a ??? ? ??? ??? ? ?????. I??????e ?iy???e y?yth?y ????e ?
?????e ??? ???? ??? a ??a ???e ??? e ????e ????? XII ??. E???ey ???
????, ????y ? ?ith ???????ue, ?? ??????a a? ? ??e ???a ????a ????? ???.

I?? ??e ????y ??????? ??? ?????otho ???? ?? e ??ey i?????a, ????a ??
??ey, ???ay o??ue, ????u ??ey?? e ????o ??e?.

N?? ???i y?y?ny ???? y?? A????ey, ??????oth?e i ??? e ???e ??? I?y?
E???. Ai ???a I?y? ????e ?????e ??? ?? ???? ??? ???????y ??????a. E??i
??ue ???a a A??? ????y ??ue A????ey e ?nth? ???????y ? ?? ???. E ????th,
???a??a ?? ??? ? ?????ue, ??e ?? ????u ?????? ?????u, ??y?a ??u ????
????? ??uey??o ??????. I?y? n ??????? ?iy???e ?e?????i ?aa?u ???? ???e,
a ???o ????e ??? I?y? ????ny «Ae??? ???o y??», y?yth?y ???? ??, ???,
?????? ???, ???u, ??e e ????y.

I???e ???a ????? a I?? e A?a ??e ??????ny ????? ?? e i??? (???a ?????
????e ???? e ????e ???, ????u ??ey e o. i.). I?y??? ?????u a y?e ??e
????e ??. E??? ????eytho ?????a ???? ????y n ????e?, ?ath?i ??o oth??a.

I???e N?????uey e A????ey ????i a ?? ??iy?? y????yo I?ay. I?a ? ?o
?????y a ????i?o e ???????? ??????o ????yo ??? ? ???? y????e «????? e
??o ???? «N?????? ?????e ???». Ae??y y?y?ny ??ueth y????e ???e A????
«O?y???a ???n?e ????.

N?ay ??ay ????????ay ??ue A???? ???? — ??yy ???y, ?????y a ???? XIV ??,
? ?? ??y???, ???? ss??i, ????i ????? ??? E??a A?e??.

Ai ??? ???? XV ?? ??iyy ??ue ???e ?? ?????a e ??a ??? ???ey ??e ?. ss??
U???, ?? ??? e ?? ???a. N?? y?e ??i? ???e ?????ue ???? ? ??? 6 i, ? y?e
? ??? ?? ????? ??ue ????i ??? I?? O???. ?????????e ???e ????? ?e — ??a
???a ????a ???. A ?i ????u ??? y???y? ??????? ?e???, ??e ?o — ????a ????
Iaoy? e ?i ???e, A???u, ?????a ? ??? ???a E????? ???i.

A ????????? ??????o ??o ??? ????u ????u, ?????oth?a ??ue ??? a ???a ??.
A ??o n ????i ??? ??aey?y ???? ???? ??y??y e ???, ???? oth???i ???a e
???ay ???; a ??? y?? ?e??i ?????i ?? — ????y, a ???? y????e ????? ????a,
a ??e??? ???a ?????oth?y ??ey ??????e ?????u e ?????? ???e, ??ey ??a. A
????i ?? ????i ???? y?? A??aeae?ey. Ai ????eo ????, ??????o ??e ?????
??, ????e ???????? ??????a ??e. I???e ???e ???o ??a ?????o?ny ??a a ??a
I???? ? ???e E????i. O ???uey ??a ????a ??ae?ny ??i ??e? Ath?-??, a ???i
y????th?y ???? ??????e oe??e.

I?? ??e e ???? ???e ????ny ??? e ????i ?????? ?iy??? n 1686 ?? (???e
?????ey ? ??oe?? ?????a) ? ??o ??.

ss?i ????e ??? ??a?y? ???? ??th? n ?????y? ???, ??e??th?a ??a 1000 ???.
I????i ?i ????a ????y ??th? Y?a E????e, ???i?y A????. N y?o ?? ????y
???y?ny ??e ???i-??? ??????e ??th?ie n ?????? ???a. A??? ? ? ????o
y?y?ny ????y ??i?a e ??th?, ????th?o ? ??? A???o, ? e ???? eth?e, a ??a
??oey ??e ???, ?? e o. i. E???ey ????, ????? e ?????? ????a ???o ?
?????? ????a, nay??? n ???? A????, ????th ????a ?e ??? e ????, ?y??ui n
A????i.

A???? ??????a ??? ???th?y ?????????i ?????? ?iy??? e ????? ????a ??????.
*?? ?????? ?iy??? ??ae?o ??ue ?? a???: I??, A?u e I??. A??? ???? — ???e,
??u, y???, ???? ?oa e ????y — ??????o ???th ?????o ??a. Oe??? ?iy???e
?????? ???? y?yth?y ??ey ????? ????a; ??? ???, ?a?ue, ????iay ?y ????e
????a e ???ey ?ia. Ia ??a ??? y?y?ny ?????? i???e ??? ???e, ???? ??oth
?? a ???e A?u, I?? e I??, ???a? ??ey ?????? ?????, ????, ??????, th???a
e ???e?a. E?th?y ??a ?iy??e, ???????i ?y??ua n ???? ???, ???? ????
?n???e ??? ??o, ????o ????o ?????e, ???a e ???a.

C?????e ??ueth ?????? ?iy??? ??? y?yth?y ?iy??e ???e ????i??e, a ??oth
???ue ???, ??e ??i e ????u. I?? ??? ??i ???? ??a ?iy??e ???e ??????oe,
???a ???e ????th ?? a ??e ???u A???, ???? ????e ?? I???a, ??? ???????
Ae?e, A?? e C??i??e e ??th??? *??.

A??? ???????? ???? ???? ????y ?????, ???a, ??, ????, ????e e ???? ???e.
O?????ey ???? ?????, a ???o ?????u ??? ???y ??e ???, ?i ??ey e eth?,
??a?a ??oth ?? a ?i ???e. A ??iy?a ??y I?? ???o ???, ???oth?a ????a ???y
????e ??e. O?, ????, ?????u ???, ?????? a ??iy?a ??y ?o ??? «A??, ??? ?
??????e ????? ??? e ????a ???th?a ?i??.

A??a ???? a ???e ??? ?atho ???????? e ????e ????u. I?? ??? ???u ??ey
«A???, ??a E???, ???y ?ae A???? ????th, ??ee I?? e I????a, ????? ????.
I??a ???? ?atho i??? ? ????? e ??????e ???.

A? ?????? ???y ????e ??e ???? a ????? ????e ????e e ???? ???e, ?????
????a ????y e ??u ????? ????ey, th??e?a ??, ????u ????a, ????, ???u,
???????a ???, ?????a ????? e o. i.

?????e ???? ??? ?iy? i n??? ???yo ????? ???e e ????. C?? ??aey?y ????a
???? ??? ??eth?e 1848 ??, ???? ???i ????y «I???a ??????i ?????y», ??ia
E??? N??e, ??a A?? E??a, ????u ????e I?????? N??a 1918 ?? e ????e N???
???o e ????? ae???? N???? ?????e 1919 ??, ????? y???y? «O?????e nth??
A?u A??? e «A????? ???» C??? Ei?y.

I???e ??? ??e e ???? ???e ????i a y????e ???e ??? a ????i ??? e a ??a
E???e. Y????y ???e ??? ??????o ?c??? y?? ???ey A????, ????? n??ey ????e
??e e ??????? ????, ?eth???th?e ?? A???? a ??e A???.

I?y??e ???e ??????? ??y?y a ????yo I?ay a E???e, y????y ???? ????? ??a
??? n ??e ??ey ???ey A???? ???e ??????? e ? ?ey?a ? ??ue ???.

3. A????y I?????y ???y

N??y ??i ?o ??a ????y A????e I?????e ???e ??i n ?????ueth ???????, ?i
y?o ??e ??????? ???ey ??? ? ? ??a ???a ?????, ?e y? i?? ????ny, ?aey ?
????? ???o ???e ?i ??????y. A ???? ??ae?????i ???ey ?????i ????????
????a XIX e XX ?. A??ay y??? ???? ????? I?ay ???????o ???? e ????e A???
????. Iiy?? a ????? ?????? ?y????e ????? I?????e ???e ??i ????ny ????ny
??? e ????? ??????? ???oe, ????? ?a a ??? ?o ???, ? ?? ???? ???o ??
????? e ???? a ???iy??i? ????? I?????y ???y. A?e ? ??y? ? ???? ?????
???a ?????? ???a «alma mater» I?????e ???e — I?ay ???????o ????,
???????y ? ??? XIX e XX ?. ??i ?ey?y ???oe? I?????e ???iie ???e (?????
???? A????? I?????? ??y) e A??????? ???e, ? ??? y??, ?i ???y A????e
I?????e ???e ?-??iy?? ???? a ???? ?i??i ??, a ?o ???, ??a ?? ???ey
?????? ????u e ??????? ?????y ?y? a ?? ?? ??? ??????e ????? ??e.
E????i?y ??? ?????oth ?? a ??? ? ??????ue ????? ??e, e, ?oy o??ey n ???
??? ? ????y????e ???eth ???????o ???oa a ??e ??, ?e ???eth ?????, a? ?
???? ???a ?????? ??????a ???? ? ?????th ??????i ???ey.

I??? ??????i ????ey ?????ii ?eye ? ????, ????? e ???o ?a ? ????? ??eth?e
e ???????e ??? 1848—1849 ??a. I???e, ?y?, ?????? ?y??, ???? — ?a ?????,
?i ? ?? ??ae ? ?????o ??a ??e, ?? ? ???? ???? ?????, e ?y?? n ????????
????i ???e ? ???e ???ne? ????? e ?????a, ??????? ????o ? ???u ????,
????? ???e ? ??????i ??ey ?a ????, ?th ???? ????y ????a. E?? «??? ?????
????? E??i O??? ??? ??e ? ??a a 1822 ?? ??uei??? ???o *??? e ???ioth
??oth «I???? («I??i ?y?? ???o?), ?i ????y? a ??, ?????y a ?i ?????i
????a, ???e ?? n??? ?????ey ?????, ?iy?a ? ??? ???? ????a ?? ???e. A
1835 ?? ????? ????? ????e ????ny a I?? ????a I??? A???a, ???? ????ay
???a a ???e ?? ?y?? ?????i a ?e ??????? ??e. A 1839 ?? ?????? I???a
?u??i ????, ???a a ???a ??a ?i ?? ?ny???e ?????i ?? ???e, ??ey?i ????y
???? ????ia-??????a. Ia y?o ????o ??????? ?? ??a, e ? ?????? ?????iey
????? ???u ?y ???? ? a ??????ue ?????a. A ????? ??o ?e?? ?????? ???
?????? ????, ?y ???? ???i??? ???ay ????a, ?????a ????a e o. ae.

N?? ????? ?????, ????? y?? ???e, ??a ?y???a ???? ??a? ???? ???????e
????e ???e ??i ? ??? ??????, ? e ????i-?????? ????. I?i ???ey ??????i
???ey ???? ?e ?????i ??i ?????e (a ??? I?????? ??y) I?????e ????e ???e.

19 ??a 1846 ?? a ??i ??? ???a? ??iy?ay y????y, ???i ???i ????? ????. A
y????e ?? ????? ??a ???a ?????i ????a Ea?y I?? ???? «AE???? ?. O???»,
????ey?ay ??e ?eth???th e ??e ec ?yi ???ey — ???? ss?? I???. A?e ?????
??a ?????ey ????? E??? O???: ??y? n «I????» e ?????e ????? ?? ???a??u
????a ???u, ?????a ?????i ?y ????????i ?iy??a ??eth I?yoo.

I???a ??? ??iy?? y????e ?y? ????i ????i ethaeyi A??? i ?i, ?i a ???????
??e ??e ?a ??ue ??i ????, e ?? ?o ??? ???? ????ue ????? ???ae, ??i ?????
e ?????? ??????yi. Ia ?????? ??????y ?? a ?? ?aiy ?????a ???ay ???a I???
A???a, ?????ay e a ??iy?a ??y a ??? ??, ? ?o?? ??? ???ny ???ue ?????? ?y
?? ???e ????????e ???e: «I???e ?????e ?????e ????? ???i?e ??? — Ia?????
?i ????? E??a A????e ????e ???a a 1846 a.». O?y ?????? ??????y ia ??e
???? ???????? ????ey e ???e ?????e ?y????e ???e, a?-?? y? ?? ?????a ????
a ???e ????? ????, ????? i ????? ???o eth?e ??ue ? ?ay ?????? ?y???? e,
??????i, i ??????? ???a, i ?????e a i?????o ??o, ?iy???i ?????e ?????,
???????, ??? ??y??? e ?i?????e, ?????? e ???????e; ???oe, y? ?? ???????
?a ????th?? ???? ???e e ???i ????a.

???th?y e ???????y ??? 1848— 1849 ??a ???e ???????? ?ey?a ? ??? e ?????
????? ?????. I? O? e I?? E?? ?????e i?y?? ???y e ???ey y?e y??; I??o
A??? ??? ??th ???????o ????a, ???y ???a ???th ?? a ??ey???e ??? ??eth?e.
Ae?th??? ?? iiy? I??? — O?a I?? I??/ ??? a y? ?? c?y?y a ????? A???e
????a e n ???i a ??? ???y ? ?????? ??????, ?? oy??a ???a ? ??? ?i ?
n?iy. A??? ??? ????? ?????? ???? A??? I??? ????? a ??? ???????e ??u,
??aeynue ? ?eyo ???? ? ??? ????y ??au ? ??????. A y?e ?????e ???a
??y???y ? ??? ??? ????? e ??e ?yae ??a ?????? ????ia.

N??y ?a ?? ??a ????y ??a??e ????? ??eth?e, 8 ??y?y 1851 a?a ????ue
I?????y ????y ???y. I?????y ????? ????? ?? ????iu ??? ?a ? ??? ?e ?????
e ?????? y????e A??? I?????ai ??y; ?e ????? ????? ???iy???th ??ue ????e,
????eyth?th «????oth ????oth ???. A?i ????? iy??nyo ?a ???u ???? ?ay?
????? ?????, ??e ?o ??a ??i ?? ?????? E?? I?? ???e e I??o A???. A???? ?
????o ?????? ??a E?? E???e, ss?o Ae??, ss?a I???? e ss?o I??. E?? y??, a
y????th ?? ?eth?? ?????ey ??a ???? ????y ?????: A??a E??e, O?u I?? I???
e I?ay C?e.

A y?? «??eth??? (?e ???? ??? ???e), ??????e ? ??????i? ???e, ????e ????
??e a ???e ???? ?iy??y, ???e, n ?a ???e ??e. A oy??o ???yo, ?ae ????i
????i ???u, ????y ? ???e ????? ??? ???e, ???n e ?? ??????i ????a ????e.
«I??oai ????y ?????, ??th ????i ?? ??? E???? ???a, ? ????? ??ay???i ?? a
?? ??????i ???a e y??????i ??iy, ????ay ?????? ??????? ???ey ??????i
?ny?? ??? ??????. I??a, ??cy ???ue, ?i ???? ?? a y? ??y ?????.

A 1855 ?? ??th??y ????oe, ?????a?? ???? ??????? ??e ????? ????? ??? ????
XIX a., E?? A??e, ??? e ????? a A??e, ???e ????? ??e ?n??? ???, ??e ???o
????? ???? ?? ??? a y???? ????a, ????? Ei-?? — E??y I???a e Ae??y E??e.
Ia ?????? ??? a y? ??y ????, a ????, ???u ? ?????? ??, /? ???????i ?ayi
??ii???i ??????y, ????, ??a, ?e «N???a????a ?oycy Ae?? E??a I??? e
«Acy?a a ?? Iy? e I??» I?a O?a. A 1859 ?? ??i ? ??i ?? ?????? ??iy?? ???
A??? I???a — ???a, ???ath?y ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ????, «E?? O?y? ?
???? ?????.

A ??? ?e ?????i «????ey», ??a ??y?a ??e ??? ???????ue ??iy?a ?????? ?e,
???? ?? o?? ????? ????i ?a ??a ????i? ??u. I????a ?? ?? ???oe?, e ??e ?a
?????? ? ?????oth ath???th ????o, ? ?????? ??th??? ????? ?????? ????? e
i??????? ???? e ???? ??i. A ? ??y ?e ????ay ?????ey, ??u?e e ??iua
?????u ??e ? ????? n ?????e ?????th?e ????e, ???? ??u e ??? ??????e
??????e ?? ??? ???a e ??e a ????th ?????e ????. ??????? ??????? ????,
?uy?y?? I?????? ?i???ey, ? ????? e ??????a ?????ey ?a ? ?? ????i
??y????? ?y ???e, ?e ????a ??????? ?????? ????y a ??? «??eth???. Ii
????a ?????? ?????e ??????? ?????eth ????ii?e ????y? ??? ?a? ??????
????, ??e ???o, ??n???, ?? e ??th??y ?????ey, ?????a ???????e, ????????
?ay?.

A 1870 a. ?????i ??? ? ???i ??? ???? ???? ???? Y???? — ??th ???th ???th
??????oth ????th ?? ???e, ??o ? ???a ?y ? ????ey A??????oth ???th ????.
O?? ???i, a ???a ??a ?i ???? ??, ??? ? ?????y I?ay ???????o ????, a
A???? ?? ?a ??e?? ???e. I??ay n 1875 ??, ????a ??? ????? ?a ??? ???????
??u ??????e ?y????e y?o ?????. N????e I??i??? ????e ???e ??i ?????
?i?????? ????i, A??????? ???e — ??a??a.

A 1896 ?? ?e ???? I?? ???????o ????. A???? th???? ???? ????y????a
??????o ????th ??? ??y. A????e ???? I?ay ?e ??a ????, ??? ?? ???u
?????ey ?????, ???? ??????th ?? a ???? ????? ????. I?i ? ??? ??e ????
????e ?iy? ?n? «I??? ???» I?a N?? I?? e ??? ?????ey ????? ?????? ??u.

A ? ??y ?????? ??? n ??e ??e ????a ?ay ????e n??i ??????i ????a. I???u
i????y e ??ey???e ?????i ????a ???????ue ??? ???? e ????e ?e ??eth???a.
I???e e ???e, ????????y ??? ???a «Ith??, ????ue ?ae ?????i ??????? ae??
A???. I??e ???? ??e ????? ????a ????a E?? Ae??-Ae?? ???? ???? ???? ??
????y ???iyo??? ????? ????e ???e. Ii ??a????? ????y ???e ? ???ey ???
eth???e ????a ?o ?eo, ?i ?????a ???? I?ay ???????o ???? a ?i ????e ?????
a A???? ??a ?a ? ????i ???i ????i ???ey ?????i ???????? ????a e ?i
??ey???e, ? ????i ???? ????y ??????i ei??? e ??. Ae??????, a ???? ???
I?ay ????? ????u e ????? ? ???? ????? ??a, a y????e ?e ?? ????u ??? n
?a????e ?????e ?????e, ?i ???i ? ???? ?????ue ??????i ??? eae ?????i, ?e
e ?????i ????a.

E?? ??? 1914 ?? ???i ????? I?ay ???????o ???? ?? Y?e I???/, a ?i ?? ??e
???e ??e A??? ???e ??? ?????ey, ???e, ? ???ay ? ?ey ??ey ???? ??i ??????
?o ????ey, ???? ????i ????y e ????o ???eth, i??? ????a e ???e ??ey???e
?????i ???????? ????a. Ii ????e I??i a ???a ?? ?ny???e, a ?????i
?????y?? ???yo ??? ???e ??u e ??a ????y a ?e A???. A ??????e ? ??? ???
I???/ ?e ???? ??e ???? ?cy??i, ?ay ??ue ????e ath??, e??ue ????a a ??
???i y??????i ????y ???, a ??a — ???ny n ??????i?ueth ?????o ?????????
?????. Ii e a y?o i????ey?? ???yo I???/ ?? ???ny ????? ???? ??????i. Ii
???e ??? ??o ???? ????e e n ???i ???? ??? ?e ?????i, ?e e ??????i. N
ai??e ???e ? ????y e ????th ?????? ??? ????? ????? e e ???i???th y??
????a a ??e ????e. I???? ?i ???e a ?? ??ey???e ??e ????? ????, ???e e
?????, a ??? ? ??????? ii?? ?????o ????o ????? ?n? a I??. I???/ ???? ?y
I?ay ??i ?????? ? ???i, ?i ?? ???i ?????e ????????, ??????????, ????e e
y????????, ? ? ?????e ?e y?i ? ???? I?ea?, ? ????? ?????e ?i?, ? ?????
??? ???? ????y, ?????? a ??? ??o ??y ???? ???e, ?????e ???? I???/ ??e e
n ???i ??? ???e ? ?????ey ?y I?ay. I?? ???ue, ?i a ????? ?oi???? ??????
I???/ ??? ??a ?????? ?????ey E??a ???-???, E?iy O???, A?u Ea?e-A?th???a,
E?-?? ??e, E??? *?a, A??? O???, E?? I?????, ss?? A??e, E??a E??. I????i
?? ?????u ?y Iocay ??a ????i ????o ???ey ?????? Oth?? Y. A?a, Aeth?
???e, E?iy E????, A?u Oe??a, ???? A??y, Y?? I??, E??a Y?e, O??? I???e,
E??? N?e, A??a A?i?a. A ? ? ??y ???? I?ay ? ???e e ????? ?a???. Eo
?????ey, ?? ? ???a ? ??e??? ??a ?a ??? ?????, ?? i????? I????i ?y I?ay n
???th ??? ?????a ????a — ????a e ???o ??????, ???o ? ??ue o?? ????e e
????a ????a. Oa?i ??i I?? ???????o ???? ???e «AE????», «Aeth???th ??» e
«Ae?o a ???? I?a N?? I?? e ??? ?????? I?ay I???, E?? I?a e A???? N?ay.

I????e a ?????o ????yo I???/ ????? ????? ?i, /? ?a?ny ????y a ???y??a
I?? ????ie ???e ?????o ????e N??? ??ia, ???a a ??iy?a ??y ???? A?oay ??a
???????? ????a. A y?i ???, ? ??? ????a O??, I???/ n 1928 ?? ???eye
???ai?th ????oth ???? (???y n ?????? ??u), ???? ? y?o ?? y??????a ?????e
??? I?ay ???????o ?e??a ?y ????a ????a XIX ??. Y?o ?a, ???, ? ???? ?ay,
?e ?e ??, ???a ??e ?? ????aa? ?y y????e ???? a ???i ??? I?ay ???????o
????, ?? ?-???? ?????u y????? ????? ?????e ????, a ? ? ??y ?e? ???ey
?????i ????a ?e ???o??i ???? ? ?a ??e (??ue ???aea ????? a I?? ??????i?
????, ??ue — a N??i ???). I??, ??a ??oth?e ???? I?ay ???e??e y?o ?????e
???????e ??? a y????e, ??i ????i, ?i ??????a I??i ??a N??? ??? ?
??????ei ???th ???? ? ????.

Ii ?? ???ey ???a, ???? ???? ?? oy???ny ???????th e ?????? ????a I?ay,
?y?? I???/ a 1935 ?? ?e ???? ?? a ????. I?? y??, ??? ? ?????ey A??? a
1945 ??, a ???a ?ny? ?o a ???a I?ay ???????o ???? ?????a? e ???, e
??????????; ????a, ????? e y????e ?????i ???a? ????? ???????th e
???????th. Y?????ay ??th??? ???a ????? e ??a ???? ????a ????a a ath??a
I?ay, ?i ????i ???i?? ??a ????e. Ii e y? ? ???? ???e ??? I?ath, ?e ?e
?ae ?ey?? ????? ????e ???????a ???e ???? ?a ??a ???????. Iae?????
ca????a ??????a A??? ??ae ?th?? A???? ??? I?? ???????o ???? ????? ???
e??i, ?e ?e ????? ????u ???eyee ? ???????o ????e ???e ???? e ??uey??i
«??uey?.

Ca y? ??y, ??? a 1933 ??, ?????? N???ay ????y ???y ? ?? ?o ?????? ???? e
???o?u, ???a, ???y n 1880 ??, A?????e ??????o ???e ? ??????y ?a ??a
??????e ?????a ????. *?? ??????o ??i ??a?i ?????? ? ????a ??iy ????i
????????ey, ? ? y?? ????a ??i ?? ????ue ????? ????. O? ?e ????y ?????? a
????? ????, ?????o ? ????o ?????o ????ia, ?, ?????i, ????e ????e ???????
??th ?????th ?????i?th ????th. A ??a ?????y N???? ???e ??a ?????ey ???e
???? ??a ??? e ?????????i. ???a N???? ????e ???e ????a ??iy?a ???? ???i
i??? ??a ?????ey A???, ??a A??ay ??a i?? ? ??o ???? ???a ????? ???yth??y
e ????ath?e ?a ??a ???????e ???? ??????? ??e ???. ?????a ?ey?y A??? ?
????oth ???? ??i e ??eo??a ???u. C??a A??? ??e ? ????? ? ??y ???o ??, e
?y?? ??a ????y A??ath ??? ??o ?????? ? ????eth — ?y ????. O??? ? ???
????ue ? ??ae ???? A???. E ?oy ??a ???a ???e ?? ?ie???eyi, ???? ? ????a
?????a ????i ????eyi, ?a-?? ??? ??a ????y ??u ???ue ??i??? ????? ?????
???? ? ??? y????a A???. A ?e ?e ??e ???e ???e N??a I???? e I?????a ??o?u
?? ???? y?i???? ????o ???e ?y ?????, ? ??y-? ?ey ath??a ?? ???? ??a???
???u e ? ???e ?????? ????a. ?????? y?o ?????o ??iy?e?? y??y ?o ??, ?i a
???a 5—6 ?o ??a I??iae??y N???ay ????y ???y (????y ? ?? ?? ????ey ??i ??
????? ???ey) ??? ??? ???????? ????. A??ay ????? ??? ? ?????eth ???????
????a e ????, ??th ???e ?e ??? ?????i ???yi a ????a, a ??a ?????
???-???????th ??? ??e ???o ???? ?? n ??th ? y?????e y?????e ??????.
A??ay ????? i ???? ???? ?????? ????a ????a, ?????o ? ??? ?? a
?aae???th?e ?????eth ???, i ?????? e ????? ?????? ????a ???????? ???????
e ?????? i ??ey???e ?????? ????. *?? ????? N???? ????e ???e ??????
??????ueth ??i ???a ????? ?????ee Aeth? Ae????, E??? Ae?e O??a e ??? ???
A??u ???????? ????? (E?? I???a, Ae??y A???a, E?iy Oay, Y?? A. O??, A??a
O??a, A??? O???, I?a E??? I??u, Ae??y E???, E??a ???, Iaea A. TH??, Y??
N????, I?a A??? e ?.), a ??a ??? ?????? ?????ey ??? ????y ????a (O???
I??a, A? E??e, E??? O?a, E??a N????, Y?? Ae????e, E?? A??, O??? E???,
Ae??y E??u, E??? Ae. E??a, E?? N?i, O??a Ae??, E??a O??e e ?.).

A???e A??? ????? ???? ???? ? ??? ????? ???? ???e ?????i ????a e ?i
??iy?? ?n?y?y. Ia ????o: «N? ?o ????? ????, «A????y ????????», «A?a???
?????, «A????a ?????a ?????, «I?e ??????a ????» ?????? ?? ????a
???????ny n ??e ??ey ?? ?? ?e ??i y??ey a ?? ???ey. I?? ????y ???e
??????e ????ue ??????y ????? ??????y. A A??? ?????? ???????a ????, ??th
???o y?y?nue ???? ? ???ey ??th??y, ? a ?? ??y ? ????o ? ?????o ?????? e
??oth?o ????? ????????e: ??ath??y a ??i ???? ???????? ????i ? ??? ?? ??
??? ?ey?y ? ??? ? ?????th?o ????? ?????. A ????? y?e ????? ?????ey ss??
I?ue A??a, Oth?? Y. A?a, Aeth? Ae????, E??? Ae?e O??a, E??? I?y, A?
I?ae-A???, A? N???a, E??a Y?e, E??a E??, Aeth? ???e e ?. ?? ???? ?y
????y ? ??? a N???? ???a; ???o? ?????a ???? ?????? y?o ?ae???a ?????? a
Ae?? ???? ???o ?????? ???ey?e e a ??o ????e, a ??????? ??yo e a ????yo
???? ?????e. I???ue ????? ????? ????? ????a n ??th ????? ????? ??e ?a??
? ???? ???oyo ?????? ??e?e. N?? ??? ?? ???? ???????a ???? E?? I?iy??,
E??a ???-???, E?iy I?? ????, E?? I?a e A???? N?ay.

A??y ???y ??a ????a ??i ????e ?????o ??? e ???? ??e?? e ?????? ??? ???.
N???ay ???y ????? ??? n?th ?eth a ??oth y????a ??? ? ?????th A???, ????y
????, ?????a ?n??e, ???a ????? ???a ?????ey ?????i ????a e ???i ???. N??
??? ?? ??????? ????e N???? ???e ???? ???? «I????ay ???? ?y ????? ????,
???y ?? ???? a 1948 ?? a ?ny? ???, ? ??? ???o ??? ??y, ????i ????? y???
?y ???????y ??????i ??????.

I????? e ????? ?y????e N??/?e ???e a ??, ??????a ca ??? ???e ??? e
??????i, o?????? e ?o ??, ?i a y?o ??? ????? ??????? ???? ? ???? ??????
??a ath. O?? ???? ??iy?? a A?a, N????a, E???, I??a, A?e?a e ??a. E?? ??,
N???ay ???y ???a I?ath ?????e?? ???? (?????y n ????y? ? ??????eth ??????
??ey), ??ya ?a?? a ????? ??? ???e ?????? ????? ????, ??????? a ?y? n
??iy??ny a A???? I?????? ????? ???? a 1949 ??.

A 1953 ?? ???? N???? ???e ?? ???? I?ath ???????o ????. Ca y?i ???ey??
?????e ?? ??? ? ?????th ????? ?? ???, ???????y ??a????y, ??????ey,
?????y. E???e ??th y?e ??? ?? ??????y ????? ????a e ???o, ??a ?????ey
?????i ????a ???o ?? ??e — ???th A????th Ia????oth ???th. Y? ?????? ???a
????i a 1957 ??, ??i ?ny? ?o ??oy ??a ????? a 1947 ?? ???ae?ey N????
???e ? ????? ???iy???? ??y ???????? ???ey ?y ???ey ????e ??????i ????a.
O?? ???i, ?????ny ???, ????? ia????? ??? e ???? a ???a ?a ???? ?o ?ae
??? ? I?????? N??a, ? A????e ????e ???e, ? A????e ???e.

???th???a ???-???y??a ??????i ???? a ???y??a A????e I?????e ???e ??????a
?y ???? ?? ??? ???i ??, ??????a ??ce I????a, a ??? A????. A ??i ????e
????? ??iy?i ?????? ?????? ????a ?????ue ??a ? n???eth n ?? y????y?,
???a ?? ???? ? neo ??. Iiy??? ?????ue ??iy?? ???? ? ??? ????, ? e ?????
e ?????? ????a. E?? ??, a 10 ????yo ??i ????? ????a ????. O?y ???y ???ey
??? e ????? a ????? ?? ?????????u, ?e ?a-?? e??, ?i ???, e ??y??y ?i
???a??y ????a ???? ?y ???e ????e.

I?a I?????y ???y ?????? a ????????? ??? ?????? ??? a E???e. I??, n
???????e ??e ??ey ?????a ????y ????o ?????i ??a ????y??, ?i ? n? ??,
???y ?y ??? ?????i ?i??????i ????a. I?? ???i ?????i ????a ????i ? ????e,
???a ????e a A????th I?????th ???th ??? a 1973 ??. Aei ?? ?e ????? a I??
???????o ????, ???y ??e ??e n A???e ??? ????. ss?i ???ey ???eytho ???,
??????a A???e ??? ???? a ?? ??ey??i ??a, ???? ? ??y ??? ???e ??u, a ??a
?n? ????e, ?e???a ? I?ay ?????i ????a e I?????? ??y. Y? y?i ???i ???a??i
?????, ?????i a ????a ?a ?ny???y, ????y ???????i ???? e ?????eyi ?? ??i.
N???ayny i?a ???y e ?ci????yy ????y ?????? XI—XVIII ??a ??? ???? ??????a
???? ????? ???? e ?????.

O??i-?????a ????a e ???????a ????? ??e ???e e ??e ???o ?????th ?iy???
???? ?????i ????a. Oi ??a, ?i ???i ? ??o ae?e, ???y? ?? ?????? i ?i ?e?
????a. Ec ???? ???? ? ?n ?iy??? ????e y?? ??ey?ny ??? ???a ??? a ??
N????.

Io ????a ???, ???o ???? ??ny ??o ?a n ????e ???ey, ????? e ?????? ??????
?????ue ?a ? ?e ??. E????y, ??e???? ???y ?????e ??a «I???» ? N?o-?? (??
*?????y) e ??ny?yny e ?? ? ???e ??a ???ay e ????y «I???» ? O??? (??
*?????y) ??????otho i ?i, ?i ? ??y ????y ???e ? ???? Ai? a ????? ????a
?????i ?ey?a ?????o ????. N???y, ????ay ??? ?y?e Ae??? ? ?? A?? (??
*?????y) ????a a ?e ????? «iy??» ??a, ???e a ??? XV ?ea ???????y ? ??
Oe????? A??a. I????, ? ???? ??? ???? i??oth? ???? ? O???a (?? O???,
*?????y) e ?a ???e ????i ???y a ????-???? ?? ec Aa??? (?? A??a, *?????y)
??????otho i ??????i a ??? e ???? XV ?? ????? ????a ????? ???e e i ?y?
?i n ???e ????th. Iiy???? ???u ????u ??e «I??? G. I.» n ???? ???? ??
??o?th?o ?oe ??u ?????ey. A ??ie ???? XVI ?? ???e ???? ???e ????? ???
???? ???a, ???? ?????? ????, ????e a ???e ???? ?e «I??? I. S.». A? ??e
i????? ?????ay ??a «A??? I?? n A?????, ???y ??????i ????? a ???i ?????
??? N???e A??? O????a (?? A??a-O?y??a, *?????y). I ???e ??????? ??a?e
y?? ??th???? ????? ???a ???yo e ??? ????????? ?aiu «N???e O????» ?
O?????? ??y a Y????, a ??a «I????a ???? a I?? E?ey. Ae? ???? ??? ? I???i
(?? *?????y) ??e ?????? ????a ??????otho i ?a ??a ???i ???????e ??????i
??a, ???e ????? ??????? ???a????a ????i ????? ???e. I?y??ia ??????i
????a A????ey, a ????a ??ey I?y? ?????i a A??? ?ae ???????? ??????
??uey??o ????, ???? ??? ??iai. Ii ?, ?i ?????ue, ????y ? ?ith ???????ue
e ?????, ?tho ??? i?????? i ?????e ???a ????? ?????? ?????. A???? ? ?o —
??? ????? ???y ? ??????e ???? ??? Ae???e Ae???: ??? ?? ?y?o ?i, ?iy?? ?
?a ???u io ??? ???u.

Ec ???? ??? ?iy??? ????i ????a XVII—XVIII ??a ???o ???? ??? ???i ??????i
?????i ????a ?e y?? A?? I???. A????? e ???o ?ycy O??? II ???e, ?????
????? ???? ? ?e, ??????otho i ?i ??th??y ???a ?????a. Aea?a a ???? I?ay
???y ????i yo???o ???, ????th?o ??, ???, ??u ??? ????a-?oth????a ss??
A??iy. ??? ? Na??? A???, ? ??? ?? ?e a A??e, ?a ????y ????? ??oe? ?????e
??e. Ec ?iy??? ???? ????? ??i ???o ???? ?y?? ??? ?y?o ??a e N???y? ?
Y???a.

N?? ???a ??iy?? y????e I?????e ???e ????? ???i o ???e ???th?y ?? ?????
???? XIX ??. C?? ????ey ???atho ?????ey E?iy I?? ???? e E?iy A??e, a ??a
??? E?iy E????. A ???? i??? ???, ??????? ????oth ??eth?th, ???th?y ??ue
e ??u ???? ??? ???? XIX ??. I???u ??? ss?? Ae??a, A??a I??a, I??? A???a,
E??a A???, A??? Ae??y, ss?? N?a, E?iy E?? e ?. ???th?y ????? ????? ???a
????? ????a. AE???a ???u y?o ????? ?tho ??????a ? ??ayo y??, i ????o
y???o, ?? ?? ???e. A 1847 ?? ?????e ??????? ????oe I?? C?e ???o ???i
??????th ???o «N?????y ???. A ? ? ??y, ????y ????n?a ???a XVII ??, ???n?
A??o E?o ???? ? ????oth ?u????th ???? — ??? ?????? ?a??.

I?????y ????? ?????? ???ne ????? ??i ???tho ???y ????e ????:
?????i-???????th ???a?o e ???????? ????. E??y ???a A??? I???a — ????????
???o ??? ?????i? ?????y. A???i N?? ?e ?????i ?????? ?????a. Aeth? A???
???? eth?? ??y?a ????, ????th?e ??????i? E?? O?y?. Ae? ??? ?????ey y??
????a — «AE??? a ??» e «*?ath?y» — ???u ???? a ????? ???? e ????o ???o
(??????a n ???? E?? I?a e I???). C? a A?a?a, ?iy?e ?????ey? E?iy E??, —
???? a ??? ??, ?i ? ?? ?y?ny ??ey??? o ???e ?????e ?????i ???? ??, ?? y?
?????y ?????????u. O????? ????? ???e A?u I??y ??????otho i ?y??? a A???
??y?? ????. «I??? ?e?? I?a N?? I?? e ??? ?i ??? ???ytho ?????e ??e ?????
?????e ? ?? ??????th. C?????? ??? ?????i ?????? ???? I?? I??? ?a???? a
y????e I?????e ???e ??e ??? ????e. Aai ?????ey ????atho ?????e ??????th
????, ??????e ???????ueth ???a. Y? ????i ???? ???nyo ??????? «E?? E??
I?a, ?i ??? ?????i ????ey ???e. I?????y yo? ?? ??? ???i ??eiytho e
??iytho ?oa ??a. A ??? ??o ?????oth?y ?????ey ????? XIX ??; ? ???tho
???u ???? I???, ?i ???o ?????e?, ???? ??????oth ?y????ue ?ae ?????? ????
???a y?? ???a. I??i ??e?y ????? ???? XX ?? ?????? ?????i ?????e N????e
???e ?ae???a, ????e A??? O??? e E?? I?????. I?????? e ??? ??????e ????i
E?? I?iyi?e ???? ??ue y???, ????y ? ?, ?i ?i ???u ???tho ??e ?e. Oi ?
??a ??i ???ue e i ????? ???-???, ??? ? ????? ?????e ?????e ???????
?????e «I??. Ae???ue ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?i ????? (???????????, ?e ?e
i????? «????, ????????? e ?????i) ?????? a y????e. I?????ey ??????
?????, ????? ???o ???? ??? ??????? a A??ee (???u O??a O???, E?iy O???,
A?u E??-A?th???a, E??? *?a), aeatho ??????a i ???? y?? ?????y. A y????e
A??? ????? ?????ey ???? ????a-????, ???? e ?a???i y??????? I?ay O???a
*???e E??e. ?y?i n ?????e ?i ????ie ????e a y????e ia???y ??a ????i ????
e ????? «a ?????th ????», ???? A??? ?n??e ?????e ? ????a ????. A?o???? a
y????e ???u-«???y» «????? Ae??? E??a A??e, ??? ??????? ?????? e ??????e,
??????, ?????e ??????e, ???tho ?iy? e ?eth?? y?? ????a. A A??? ????th
?????? ??u ??????? ??? «A????» — ?????i ???? ???a. Y????y ???y? ?????
????? ?? E?iy E?io??, A???? I?a, ???? A??y, Y?? I??, Ae?? Oe??y, A?u
Oe??a, E??a O??e e Ae?? I??a. A??ay ???? ???? ??a n ?????i ?????, ?????o
???? ???????: ss?? I?ue A??a, A?u O?oea, E??a I?? E???a, A??? I???o *?u,
A??? O?????, A?u E?a?, E?a N???. A????a ??i ?????i «A???? a y????e
?????? ???ue?? ????e O??? A???a.

I?????y E??? I?y, E??a E??, ss?? O?iye, Aeth? ???e, E?? O?? aeatho y??
??????a i ????a ?????e o?? ????; ? ???u ???tho ????th ????o, ???oth a
??e ???? ????e A???, ??e ??o ???iy?? e ??? ??a ????y. N?? ??y?th?a y???
????? ???? ??o ?oiy ???? ???e — y? ????? Aeth? Ae????, ?? ???e ???? ?ea
??? ? ???? ?????? ????? ???????e ?????. A? ????? i?????i a y????e ??a ?i
?ny?th ????e.

N???????y ??????? ?e??aa ?? ????? a y? ??y ??a aeey E??? Ae?e O??a e
Ae??y E???, ?e ?????ey ??a ????? a A??aa. Y????th A??? ???atho ?????ey
???? ????o ????? ??? ???? XX ??: E??? N?e, A??a A???, Ae??a A? I??a,
E??a Y?e, ss?? A??e, I?a Oe. I???, ss?? E??e, ??a A????a, ss?? O??e, A?
A??e, A? A??e, A?u O?e, Y?? Ae????e e E?a A??.

I? ????? ????? ??i ?? ????ue ?????e ?????u ??ey, ?????? ?a ?????e: ???a
???ee ???e ????, ?????a ????, ???? ????a ??a ?????? ???i e ??i ????
????e. A?ue ?????? ????, ? ??th??? ??o, ?????o a ???? ???yo, ????i ??oa
n ?????e ????. Y????y ?????? ????? ???? ???? ???th?, ???? ??iy??? ???e
y?? ???they, ???? ???oe e o. ae. I????? A??? ????o «I???? E??? O???,
??????? ???? ???e — «Ia?? ????» — ????o ? ??y ???ey y?e ???: ?y???
??????i ???????? ????a A???. A???a ?????e ????? e ????y ??oy A??? O???
«I?a ??». A ???th? i???ny ?a ??e ?yae ?????? ????a?e ???? ???a: «A?»
E??a Y??a, «E????» ss?? I???, «O?? E???? O???, «I???? ???? O??? I???e,
«E??uey??e ???? E?? I???a, «N?y?e ???? Ae??y A????, «E???? E??a O??e. A
???? ???a ?i??i y?? ????u ????a ???u I??-? E?, ?i ????? ?????ee,
????th?a ??oth?o ???yi, e ?????a ????. Ia y?i ? y?? ?????i ?yae ??????
????? ???????i ????a: y???ay ???a (?????o ?c??a) ??????i ?iy??a I?yoo
??? ss?? O???, «I???, ??th?e a ??? E??? N????e, «Ae??» Y? E???, «Ae???»
E?a *??a. Ia ????i y?? ?????a y????y ?????e ????? ?????. ??????? ??ue
?????ey ????tho ?? ???ey ????? a ???i???? ??y?a, ? ?????o ????e ????y
????? ?????a ??? XX ??: I?? A???, Oth?? Y. A?a, A??? O??a A?a e O???
I???e ? ??o ?????o ?????a ???? ii???y: A?e O???, I?a I??, O??? I?o?,
O??a A??, I??? A???, A? E?a?, E??? O?a, E?? N?i, E??a O??e e, ???oe, ???
?????a ??a ???? ????y: O??? A??e, E??? I??a, E?? I???, Aeth? E? E??a,
O??a A?a. A ????yo, ?a ?????a ??iy?ay y????y ????, a ???ao ????? ?????ey
?????i ?????? ????a.

A???? ???? A??? ?iyth?y a ???i ??? ?c a ?ae. O???ath?y ????, ???? ???o
???y? ??iy?oth y????th ??????? ????? ????o ?o, ??? ?????ey? ?????o
?????. E?tho ??i ????a ???? ????? ?????e ?e ???e ?????. I???a ??i a
????? ??o ????th?y ?????? ??in????a ???? ?e ???? ????a ?????i ???o?,
?????? e th??yi e ????? e ??????oth?a ???oth i ????eyo ?o?? ??? A???.
I???? ????o ???? A??? ??????o ???? ????? ????o ???ie: «E??????? ????i
A??? ??a I?????y», «I?????a ?????, «A?????a ?????, «E??ey ????? ? ????a
N???», «N????y ???y ?????», «A??a ???????? ?????», «A????a ???????a
?e??? ??? ???? e o. ae. N?? ??????? ???????o ?????? ????, ?????o A???e ?
??y ? ??????y, ????? ???i ?????? ???? A??? A? I??a, Aeth? A???, A???
O???, ss?? O?iye, Aeth? Ae??a?a, E??? Ae?e O??a, ???? A??y, ss?? A??e,
E??? *?a, A?oa-?? I?a, E??a Y?e.

E???oy ?????? ?? ??e ???n???? — N???? ???e, A????y I?????y ???y ????o ?
?? ??? ?????th ?y????ue e o????th ????oth ???. A??ay ????? ????eyao ???
? ??? ?????, ?????e e ????? ???? ?????i ????a ? ????. E?? ??, a ?y????
A??? ??yo ?????? e ????? ?? ???, ???th ?a ??u?? ??????? ??yi a ???e ???e
????e, ??????? e ?????e ?????.

N???y A????e I?????e ???e ??? a ????????? ??a. Ca ??y, ????a ??a ?????ey
A???, ???? ???? ?????i ??e??y. A?e ???ue, ?i ????y ????ue ? 120 ?o, ?
???? ?? ??ue ?? ??aey??y a A??? ?????? ????a y?y?ny ??????i ???? ??????
?o. A??ay ??ue — ???ue ??a ????a. N????e I?????e ???e ?i??i ???i ??atho
?th ???????ue ???o ? ?o ???????o e ????????? ??/ ???, ??a ???????ny
????e ???, a ???i ??? ??????a ????? ????? ? ?y ???ey ????. C??, a ?????
???/a?? ??a, A??ay ??? ??a ??i ???i?ue y????th ?????i ????a, ?eth?y e ?i
???a ?iy??e, ?i ??? ?a ??? ??????? ????eth ?????? ?? ?????i ????a.

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