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Культура Японии XV-XVII вв.

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

?AOA?AO

Ia oaio: Eoeueoo?a ssiiiee a XV-XVII aa.

Auiieieea: Aaoeaaceia A.A.

II-64 ?

I?eiye:

Ea?aaaiaea – 2006 aiae.

Iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey.

Eoeueoo?a ssiiiee yiioe ?acaeouo oaiaeaeueiuo ioiioaiee iauaaeeieea a
naaa ?acii?iaeiua, oaeoe/anee o?oaeii niaianoeiua yaeaiey – yeaiaiou
eoeueoo? i?eaeai?iie oyeaineie a?enoie?aoee e aiaiii-oaiaeaeueiiai
aeai?yinoaa, ?aciiia?acea eeoaeneiai aeeyiea e aeoeaiia aicaeaenoaea
naeou aecyi ia oi?ie?iaaiea ie?iaicc?aiey e ynoaoe/aneeo acaeyaeia
yiiioeaa. Ca a?aiy, i?ioaaeoaa n caaiaaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe
aiaiiui nineiaeai, i?aanoaaiiua e ynoaoe/aneea eaeaaeu naio?aenoaa
i?aoa?iaee nouanoaaiiia eciaiaiea.

Eoeueo ioaeanoaaiiie neeu e iiaeaeaa, inaauaiiue ii?aeueth aineaei,
i?iaeieaeae nouanoaiaaoue, ii aneaoeci e no?iaay i?inoioa auoa,
oa?aeoa?iay aeey ia?eiaea noaiiaeaiey nenoaiu n?aoiaoa, oaea ia
niioaaonoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeaieyi e o?aaiaaieyi aeiaeaoaainy
aac?acaeaeueiiai ainiiaenoaa a no?aia aiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa. Ana
io/aoeeaaa iaia?oaeeaaaony aai no?aieaiea e iiae?aaeaieth aeecie
oyeaineie ciaoe, i?iyaeyaony oyaa e ?ineioe, e eciu?aiiie, ooii/aiiie
ynoaoeea aeecie, auaoae ?aiueoa i?aaeiaoii inoaeaeaiey e aeaaea
i?ac?aiey.

Iaiaeia aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea ynoaoe/aneeo i?eioeeiia yoie yiioe
ieacaei aecyineia iiiaoanoai, aoaeaeeeneea iiianou?e, iiiaea ec eioi?uo
auee oiaaea eoeueoo?iuie, i?inaaoeoaeueneeie oeaio?aie.

Yaiethoeey eeoaeneiai aeeyiey, i?aaeaea anaai oo?aoa aecyi /enoie
?aeeaeiciinoe, naienoaaiiie eaiaeo?neie yiioa, niaeaenoaiaaea eciaiaieyi
ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo iniia eoeueoo?u ssiiiee. Iiiuoee naycaoue
iaioaenoe/aneea eaeae aecyi n ieoieiaeae e einiieiaeae neioi iaoee
io?aaeaiea a i?aeoeea ?aciiia?aciuo eneonnoa (naaeiaia eiino?oe?iaaiea,
eaiaeoaooiay a?oeoaeoo?a, /aeiay oea?aiiiey, ninoaaeaiea aoeaoia e
o.ae.), eiaaea ioaea/aiiua, ?aeeaeicii-oeeinioneea eaeae aiieiuaeenue a
eiie?aoiuo oi?iao ie?a i?e?iaeu. Eaaeaeia ec yoeo eneonnoa ia?aaeeei ia
yiiineie ii/aa a OIV-OVI aa. na?ueacioth o?ainoi?iaoeeth, aeinoeaioa a
eioaeeaeooaeueiii e yiioeeiiaeueiii iniuneaiee iaiau/aeii ?ac?aaioaiiiai
e niaa?oaiiiai o?iaiy.

Ynoaoe/aneay eiioeaioeey ia?eiaea Io?iiaoe neiaeeeanue, oaeei ia?acii,
ia iniiaa neioaca auoaeceiaeaiiuo ?acii?iaeiuo yaeaiee. Nooueth aa noaei
ia?auaiea e e?anioa – ae, iinoeaeaiea e iinoiyiiue iiene aa, aeaaiui
ia?acii a i?e?iaea, eae aiieiuaiea niaa?oainoaa ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, eae
eaeaaea e aeey ie?a /aeiaaea.

Yoa eiioeaioeey io?aaeaea iiaue yoai a neiaeiii e aeeeoaeueiii i?ioeanna
iiciaiey yiiioeai ie?oaeathuaai aai ie?a, iiiuoee ia oieueei
iinoeaiooue, ii e ii?aaeaeeoue naia ianoi a iai. Anee ?aiaa aeaaiui a
aini?eyoee /aeiaaea auea iiaeaaeythuay aai aane?aeiinoue ie?icaeaiey, a
eioi?ii ii iuouae naay ian/eieie, oi iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a aeaaaei aio
aieaa eiie?aoii-inycaaiua, i?eaeeaeaiiua e eaaeaeiaeiaaiie aeeciaiiie
i?aeoeea i?eaioe?u. Yoi au?aaeaeinue a no?aieaiee io?aceoue aiaaonoai,
e?anioo e iaen/a?iaaiia ?aciiia?acea ie?a a niceaeaoaeueiie, oai?/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea – a?oeoaeoo?a aeeeeua, naaea, i?eeeaaeiii
eneonnoaa e o.ae.

Aaaeiie /a?oie iiaie ynoaoe/aneie eaeaaea noaei oiaiea aeaeaoue
i?ae?aniiai a iaeii, naiii iauaeaiiii e iianaaeiaaiii, oeaieoue ia
aiaoithth e a?ineoth y?einoue, a i?eaeooaiioth e?anioo i?inoiou,
ninoaaeythuoth, niaeanii yoei i?aaenoaaeaieyi, aioo?aiithth nouiinoue
i?aaeiaoia.

Yoio iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee yiiineie eoeueoo?u n?aaeiaaaeiauey
oa?aeoa?eciaaeny o/anoeai aieaa oe?ieeo, /ai ?aiaa, nioeeaeueiuo neiaa,
ia oieueei a?enoie?aoee e naio?aenoaa, ii e aecyineiai iiiaoanoaa,
naiaai ?iaea eioaeeeaaioeee, aeooiaiie aa?oooee aiaiiiai aeai?yinoaa, a
oaeaea ai?iaeai e e?anoueyinoaa. Eiaiii iineaaeiea aianee a
ynoaoe/aneoth nenoaio Io?iiaoe aeeaeoaeueioth no?oth aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
ia/aea, ioe?uaoaai aicauoaiiinoue e iaeooioai?aiiinoue a i?inoie
aeeoaeneie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Iaeiiia?acea e onoie/eainoue iaueo
i?eioeeiia naeaeaee aiciiaeiui eae neioac ?aciiia?aciuo eneonnoa, oae e
eo noeeaaia aaeeinoai.

Iaeaieaa y?ei naeaeaoaeuenoaa iiaiai ie?iaicc?aiey i?iyaeeenue a
a?oeoaeoo?a e eneonnoaa eiino?oe?iaaiey naaeia.

A?oeoaeoo?a. Naaeiaia eneonnoai.

Iiaeeeiiuo nii?oaeaiee ia?eiaea Io?iiaoe aei iaoeo aeiae ia aeioei,
iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeaiea ia yoii no?ieoaeuenoaa iiaeii ninoaaeoue ii
nio?aieaoeiny a Eeioi iiianou?yi: Iaiaecyiaece, Aeaeoieoaece,
Oieoooeoaece, Cieioiio e Na?aa?yiiio iaaeeueiiai.

Cieioie iaaeeueii ioiineony e /eneo iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo iino?iae OIV a.,
nio?aieaoaainy aei iaoaai a?aiaie. Ii aoiaeee a /enei iino?iae
caai?iaeiiai aeai?oea, iino?iaiiiai a 1398 a. N?aoiii Aneeaaa ?neieoeo.
Eaaae?aoiia a ieaia caeaiea, oaai/aiiia aeaoiy e?uoaie, e?uouie ei?ie
aea?aaa oeiiee, iaiiieiaao ii naiei iauaiai eeoaeneea aeai?oeiaua
iaaeeueiiu oiai a?aiaie. Iaeiaei iiae/a?eiooay iaiaaeaiiinoue
eiino?oeoeee – oiieea iii?u e e?iiooaeiu, i?inoua ia?aaeaeaiey oa??an e
iaoiaeiuo aaeeiiia, ?acaeaeaeiua aeaa?e, io?aaeaiea iaaeeueiia a aiaeao
i?oaea, nicaeathuaa aia/aoeaiea eaaeinoe anaai nii?oaeaiey, – ana yoi
auee /a?ou, oa?aeoa?iu aeey iaoeeiiaeueiie a?oeoaeoo?u. Eiiiiceoeey
ia?aiai yoaaea aua nio?aiyea aeai?oeiaue noeeue (neiaeyi) n aaeeiui
aioo?aiiei i?ino?ainoaii, ?acaeaeaiiui eeoue eieiiaie oiieeo oiieeo
aea?aayiiuo iii?; aoi?ie, cae?uoue yoaae eniieueciaaeny eae naeii iocuee
e iiycee; o?aoee i?aaenoaaeye ec naay /aniaith.

Naia iacaaiea iaaeeueii iieo/ee io iie?uoey noai nia?oaee e aioo?e
iicieioie e eaeiaie ?inienueth.

A 1408 a. Eiiieaen aeai?oeiauo iino?iae, a eioi?ue aoiaeee Eeieaeoaece,
aue i?aa?auai a aoaeaeeeneee o?ai ?ieoiiaece. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy cieioie
iaaeeueii e iiiai/eneaiiua aanaaeee a iaoe?iii ia?ea, ie?oaeathuai
eiieaen, iieienoueth ainnoaiiaeaiu.

Na?aa?yiue iaaeeueii (Aeieaeoaece), iino?iaiiue a ainoi/iie /anoe Oyeaia
a 1468 a. aeey n?aoia Aneeaaa ?neiana (1449-1471), i?aaenoaaeye niaie
aaaeiue yoai a yaiethoeee aeeaie a?oeoaeoo?u. Ii iauaaeeiye /a?ou
aeai?oeiaiai noeey neiaeyi n yeaiaioaie iiauo aeeeuo nii?oaeaiee, oae
iacuaaaiuo n?ei. A caeaieyo noeey neiaeyi ana iaoe?iia aioo?aiiaa
i?ino?ainoai inoaaaeinue aaeeiui e ioaeaeyeinue io aiaoiaai i?ino?ainoaa
e ?acaeaeyeinue ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe ii ia?a iaaeiaiinoyie oe?iaie e
caiaaanaie. Aeey noeey n?ei, aeinoeaoaai ?anoeaaoa e eiioeo OVI a., auei
oa?aeoa?ii niaaeeiaiea ianeieueeeo caeaiee iiae ?aciuie e?uoaie. A
ioee/ea io aeai?oeiauo iaaeeueiiia neiaeyi, iiaeiyouo ia aunieeo
noieaao, nii?oaeaiey n?ei auee eeoue iacia/eoaeueii i?eiiaeiyou iaae
caieae. Iie eiaee oaeaea aieiaia e?ueueoei (ayieai), aaea iau/ii
inoaaeyeinue i?oaeea, a aiineaaenoaee – iaoaue, eioi?oth nieiaee i?e
aoiaea a aeii.

Ia?aue yoaae Na?aa?yiiai iaaeeueiia caieiaee aeeeua iiiauaiey, ai aoi?ii
?aciauaeny aoaeaeeeneee o?ai. Oaeia, ia eiaaoaa i?eia?a ?aiaa,
niaaeeiaiea eoeueoiaiai e aeeeiai iauaiia a iaeiii caeaiee auei a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a iiaeaioiaeaii oi?ie?iaaieai a OVI a. ainaiaey
aecyineiai iiianou?y.

Auno?ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea aa?io/aiey aoaeaeeeneie naeou aecyi iauyniyeinue
aa aeoeaiie aiaeeyoeeae e oe?ieei ia?iaeiui iannai, i?aaiaoeciii e
caiiui oa?aeoa?ii aa i?iiiaaaeae, io?eoeaaoeo oaeea o?oaeiua e
aeeeoaeueiua niiniau iinoeaeaiey enoeiu, eae ia?yaeiinoue, /oaiea
nayuaiiuo oaenoia, iieeiiaiea eeiiai e o.ae. Enoeia, oaeei ia?acii,
noaiiaeeanue iauaaeinooiiie, iia ioe?uaaeanue ethaiio eae i?inaaoeaiea,
ica?aiea – naoi?e, aeinoeaiooia a caiiie aeecie n iiiiuueth
?aciiia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, aoaeue oi eiioeaio?aoeey aiee
eeai aioo?aiiyy nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue eee aeinoeaeaiea niaa?oainoaa a
auiieiaiee ethaiai ec iauaeaiiuo aeeoaeneeo aeae.

A niioaaonoaee n yoie aeieo?eiie eciaieeinue e ioiioaiea e o?aio,
i?iecioei aeoeaiia aai i?eaeeaeaiea e aeecie yiiioea. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie
eoeueoiaiai ciae/anoaa noaea e?aeiyy no?iainoue e ne?iiiinoue,
iieiinoueth eneeth/athuay iuoiinoue e y?einoue aeaei?aoeaiiai oa?ainoaa,
anth oi?aeanoaaiioth iiiiaciinoue o?aia-aeai?oea ?aiiaai ia?eiaea
?ani?ino?aiaiey aoaeaeecia a ssiiiee. Ia?anoaei auoue iaycaoaeueiui aeey
aoaeaeeeneiai eiiieaena no?ieoaeuenoai iaaiaeu, eioi?oth caiaieei
ne?iiiia o?aieeeua ?aeeeaee (ny?eaeai), ii/oe iieiinoueth aue oi?acaeiai
aeoa?ue n aai iaaeaaiae ianuuaiiinoueth ?aciiia?aciie neoeueioo?ie.

A oi aea a?aiy, iineieueeo aeinoeaeaiea enoeiu iuneeeinue a iauaeaiiie
aeeciaiiie i?aeoeea /aeiaaea, iiaeieiaeanue ynoaoe/aneay cia/eiinoue
naiuo iau/iuo aeeeuo e iiaeniaiuo nii?oaeaiee, aoiaeyueo a eiiieaen
aoaeaeeeneiai iiianou?y – aeeeuey iiiaoia e ianoiyoaey, aaie, eooie e
o.ae. Iie auee noieue aea aaaeiu ii naiae ynoaoeea, eae e o?aiiaua
iaaeeueiiu.

Yoa ?aaiioeaiiinoue n oi/ee c?aiey aoaeaeeeneie aeieo?eiu e iiaiai
ynoaoe/aneiai eaeaaea e aeaeaea aiciiaeiui niaaeeiaiea aeeeiai e
o?aiiaiai iiiauaiey a Na?aa?yiii iaaeeueiia.

Aaaeiay ?ieue, eioi?oth nua?ae Na?aa?yiue iaaeeueii a yaiethoeee aeeeie
a?oeoaeoo?u, caeeth/aeanue oaeaea a oii, /oi ii auyaee e
neiioeaio?e?iaae iniiaiua a?oeoaeoo?iua i?eioeeiu yiiineiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeeeeua, ieii/aoaeueii neiaeeaoaainy e eiioeo OVI a. e
nio?aiaiiiai nia?aiaiiui o?aaeeoeeiiiui aeeeui no?ieoaeuenoaii ssiiiee.

No?aieaiea, iauaaeeieoue aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai n ie?oaeathuae
i?e?iaeie i?eaaei a caeaieyo n?ei e nicaeaieth eioa?uea?a, ia/eiay n
Na?aa?yiiai iaaeeueiia, n eiino?oeoeeyie neieuecyueo aea?aayiiuo aeaa?ae
(aiaaei) e neieuecyueo aea?aayiiuo noai (n?aece). N?aece, oae aea eae e
aioo?aiiea ?acaeaeaeiua ia?aai?iaeee (oonoia), i?aaenoaaeyee niaie
aea?aayiioth ?aoaoeo. I?e yoii n?aece ieeaeaaeenue n ia?oaeiie noi?iiu
?eniaie aoiaaie, i?iioneathuae naao, a oonoia – iai?ic?a/iie aoiaaie n
aeaoo noi?ii.

Oonoia iiaee ?acaeaeyoue aanue aioo?aiiee iauai ia ?yae iiiauaiee,
ooieoeeiiaeueiia iacia/aiea e ?acia?u eioi?uo iiaee aa?uee?iaaoueny a
caaeneiinoe io iio?aaiinoae.

Iie aue iie?uo oaoaie – iaoaie ec ?eniaie nieiiu, ieioii oeiaeaiiie a
o?inoieeiaoth ?aio – iie?uoeo. ?acia? oaoaie aue noaiaea?oiui (0,9 O 1,8
i) e noae neoaeeoue iiaeoeai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ieiuaaee iiiauaiey.

Ieioiinoueth ?ane?uaathueeny e eae au neeaathueeny n i?e?iaeiui
ie?oaeaieai eioa?uea? ii?aaeaeee ieieiaeueioth caiieiaiiinoue aai
i?aaeiaoaie auoa. I/aa n aea?aayiiie ?aoaoeie – eioaoeo – eee aea?iaiy
n oaeyie, noaayueany a oaeoaeaiea a iieo a oieiaeiia a?aiy, iaaieueoie
noieee oeoeoy e ianeieueei iiaeooae aeey neaeaiey iau/ii ninoaaeytho
auoiaia oa?ainoai yiiineiai aeiia. Ana aaue aaeaaeiaaiiai auoa, aeeth/ay
niaeueiua i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe, iiyaeythony a iai ii ia?a iaaeiaiinoe,
o?aiynue iau/ii a noaiiuo oeaoao – eo?a. Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho eieae e
i?aaeiaou eneonnoaa, aaaaeaiiua a eioa?uea? caeaieyie n?ei.

Iacaaiea noeeth, yeaiaiou eioi?iai aia?aua iiyaeeenue a Na?aa?yiii
iaaeeueiia, aeaei iiiauaiea aeey caiyoee oeia eaaeiaoa – n?ei. N?ei
auaeaeyeny ec aeaaiie eiiiaou iiaeiyoeai iaaieueoie /anoe o?iaiy iiea.
Ia caaeiae noaiea aai ano?aeaaeanue oe?ieay ieoa – oieiiiia, a eioi?ie
auea iieea – oaia aeey eiea e ienueiaiiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae e ianoi aeey
iyeaooeo – i?iecaaaeaiee eneonnoaa. ?ieue iyeaooeo iia auiieiyoue naeoie
aeeaiiene e eaeeea?aoee eee aaca n aoeaoii oeaaoia. Eo e?anioa
iiae/a?eeaaeanue naaoii, iaaeathuei ec ieia, eioi?ia auei i?i?acaii a
aieiaie noaiea oieiiiia. Ninoaaeaiea aoeaoa aeey oieiiiia o?aaiaaei
aunieiai ianoa?noaa, iineieueeo caeanue oaeaea i?enoonoaoao neiaieeea.
Eaiiiu auee caeinoaiaaiu ec Eeoay, ii yiiineea ianoa?a, e, i?aaeaea
anaai Eeyiiai ec Eeioi, noaaoee ?iaeiia/aeueieeii iaoeeiiaeueiie oeieu
eeyaaia, aianee naia iiieiaiea e a nenoaio a?aiaee?iaee oeaaoia.

Oaeei ia?acii, a eioa?uea?a caeaiee n?ei iiyaeeny oeaio?,
ooaeiaeanoaaiii i?aaiecothuee ana aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai.

Aianoa n oai i?eia?aei aieueoia cia/aiea ie?oaeaiea aeiia – naae,
eneonnoai nicaeaiey eioi?ia i?aoa?iaei a yoi a?aiy cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey. Naaeu, ?aiaa ?ann/eoaiiua ia i?acaeie/iua aoeyiey, oaia?ue
oiaiueoathony a ?acia?a e i?aaeiacia/athony aeey oaaeeiaiiuo i?iaoeie
eee nica?oeaiey n ioe?uoie oa??anu aeiia – yiaaaa, eioi?ay, ii nouanoao,
auea i?iiaaeooi/iie ciiie, niaaeeiythuae eioa?uea? n naaeii.
Neeaaeuaathony eaiiiu iino?iaiey naaea, aai neiaieeea. Aie?oa
iiianou?neeo caeaiee eee ?aceaeaioeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae aunoaai
naio?aenoaa ?acaeaaeenue iaecaaeiua naaeu, caaea/ae eioi?uo yaeyeinue ia
aini?iecaaaeaiea eiie?aoiuo anoanoaaiiuo iaecaaeae eee neo/aeiuo
i?e?iaeiuo ni/aoaiee, a nicaeaiea aa?iiie/aneiai oeaeiai, ianouaai
ii?aaeaeaiiue oeeinioneee niune. Eaaeaeia iiaeiaiia eiino?oe?iaaiea
i?e?iaeiiai ie?oaeaiey auei nicaeaieai naaea – neiaiea, ?iaeaeaieai
neiaiee/aneie ea?oeiu anaai ie?icaeaiey.

I?iaeoe?iaaee oaeea naaeu ooaeiaeieee, aecyineea iiiaoe, oiaei
aaiaeeaoea a anneiao?e/ioth ieaie?iaeo eaiie, ianie e a?aaee,
i?e/oaeeeaiai iaeeea e oi?iu neaeu, aea?aauey, eonoa?ieee, ?o/uee e
aiaeiiaaeu, aa?oeeaee e ai?eciioaee nii?oaeaiee, eneonnoaaiiua oieiu e
aiaeiaiu.

Ia?aiia/aeueiue naae aie?oa Na?aa?yiiai iaaeeueiia i?iaeoe?iaae iiiao –
ooaeiaeiee Niaie. Ii eniieueciaae iniiaiua i?aaeea i?aaiecaoeee
naaeiaiai ainaiaey n iaiythueieny iaecaaeaie, onoaiiaeaiiua ecaanoiui
ianoa?ii naaeiaiai eneonnoaa iiiaoii Ioni Eieone (1276-1357).

Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie oaaeaa?aie naaeiaiai eneonnoaa yaeythony naaeu
eeioineeo iiianou?ae Oyi?thaece, Aeaeoieoaece, Aeaeaiaece e Naeoiaece
(O?ai ioia). A 1339 a. Ioni Eieone ?acaee caeanue naae, aeaaiui
aeoeaioii e oe?aoaieai eioi?iai noaei aieaa iyoeaeanyoe aeaeia ioia,
ii?aaeathueo iaiaueiiaaiiie oeaaoiaie aaiiie, ia?aoiaeii iooaieia io
cieioenoiai aei ii/oe aonoi – /a?iiai.

A XV a. a ssiiiee oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieeinue eiino?oe?iaaiea oae
iacuaaaiuo nooeo naaeia, i?aaenoaaeythueo naiaia?aciia niaaeeiaiea eaiiy
e ianea. Ec ?anoeoaeueiinoe a oaeii naaeo iiaee auoue eniieueciaaiu
?acee/iua aeaeia ioia, iie?uaathueo eaiie. «Nooea» naaeu n
«i?e/anaiiuie» i?aaeeueiuie ai?icaeeaie aaeui ianeii eee a?aaeai iau/ii
?acaeaaeenue ia iaaieueoie oa??eoi?ee e auee i?aaeiacia/aiu ia aeey
i?iaoeie, a aeey nica?oeaiey, aeey oeeinioneeo ?aciuoeaiee. Iaeaieaa
ecaanoiui yaeyaony Naae eaiiae i?e iiianou?a ??aiaece, nii?oaeaiiue
auaeathueiny ooaeiaeieeii – iiiaoii Niaie. Ia ia?aaeaeaiiie n o?ao
noi?ii iaaieueoie ieiuaaeea, canuiaiiie aaeui a?aaeai, aneiiao?e/ii
?aniieiaeaiu 15 eaiiae ?acee/iie oi?iu. Neiaeiay e eioa?aniay
eiiiiceoeey ec aeua, ii?inoeo ioii, e eaiiae, na?oiie?iaaiiuo a
au?aceoaeueiua neoeueioo?iua ecia?aaeaiey, caaeoiaia oae, /oi, eaeoth au
iiceoeeth ia caieiae /aeiaae, neaeyuee ia oa??ana iiianou?y, 15 eaiaiue
anaaaea ana a?aiy oneieuecaao ec aai iiey c?aiey, «i?y/anue» ca
ae?oaeie. Naae-neiaie iaaeyaeii aeaiiino?e?oao iieiaeaiey aecyineie
aeieo?eiu – iaiiciaaaaiinoue ie?a, oneieuecathuoth enoeio iiciaiey,
/oi-oi anaaaea aua inoathuaany iaioe?uoui aeey /aeiaaea. A oi aea a?aiy
/?acau/aeii ?ieee c?eoaeueiue ia?ac eiiiiceoeee aeaao eaaeaeiio naia
«i?i/oaiea» «noeaia?ey» naaea. Aeey iaeieo yoa neiaiee/aneay ea?oeia
ie?icaeaiey, aeey ae?oaeo – i?inoi no?iaee eeanne/aneee iaecaae: aieiu
ieaaia, iiuaathuea neaeenoua ino?iaa. No?aieaiea ooaeiaeieea aucaaoue o
iinaoeoaeae oeaiue ?aciiia?aciuo annioeeaoeee aeaeaao eaaeaeiai, eoi
i?eoiaeeo a ??aiaece, e oai?oeii, e niaaoi?ii ciaiaieoiai Niaie.

Ia?eiae oaiaeaeueiuo iaaeaeioniaeoe, e?iaii?ieeoiua aieiu iaaeaeo
eiycueyie, ia/aaoea n «aanii?yaeea» aiaeia Iiei (1467-1477)e aeeeaoaany
aieueoa noieaoey, ieacaee ii?aaeaeaiiia ?ac?ooathuaa aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea
iauaiaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Oeaio?aie, nio?aiythueie eoeueoo?iua e
ooaeiaeanoaaiiua o?aaeeoeee a yoi a?aiy, i?iaeieaeaee inoaaaoueny
aecyineea iiianou?e. Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae aianei aecyineia iiiaoanoai a
?acaeoea iiiio?iiiie «/a?ii-aaeie» aeeaiiene, noaaoae aua e eiioeo XIV
a. aaaeouei iai?aaeaieai yiiineie aeeaiieniie oeieu.

Iiiio?iiiay aeeaiienue.

Oe?ieiio ?ani?ino?aiaieth iiiio?iiiie aeeaiiene noeaieo niaeaenoaiaaea
aeayoaeueiinoue aoaeaeeeneie naeou aecyi, caiaieaoae ?aeeaeicioth
eeiiia?aoeth ecia?aaeaieai i?e?iaeu. Niaeanii aoaeaeeeneiio
ie?iaicc?aieth, i?e?iaea auea aunoei i?iyaeaieai enoeiu e aa?iiiee.
Iaecaae ?anniao?eaaeny, eae anoanoaaiiay aiciiaeiinoue au?aceoue
aeoaieia oeeinioneia iniuneaiea ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, aunieea
eaeae e /oanoaa. Ooaeiaeanoaaiioth au?aceoaeueiinoue noeaieo,
caeinoaiaaiiie ec Eeoay aua a X-XIII aa., ninoaaeyea eaeiie/iay, aeaeay
eeiey oooueth e oooaaia iyoii ia aaeii, iacaiieiaiiii oiia naeoea. Iie
iiaoi?yee, eae i?aaeei, iniiaioth noaio e ninoaaiua yeaiaiou
eeanne/aneiai eeoaeneiai iaecaaea.

I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue i?iecaaaeaiea aecyineiai nayuaiieea iiianou?y
Oiooeoaece Ieio? (1352-1431) «Oeaeeia iooaeueieea o ai?iiai ?o/uey»,
ninoiyuaa ec aeaoo /anoae: iiyoe/aneie iaaeiene e iaecaaea. Oiieie
a?aaeaoeeae oiiia oooe io /a?iiai aei na?aa?enoi-na?iai ooaeiaeiee
ecia?aaeaao aea?aauey, iaeaio ooiaia, ec eioi?iai aunooiaao oeaeeia n
oeao?eie neaeyuaai a iae /aeiaaea, aaeue iioie, iiuaathuee na?ua eaiie,
aaeaa i?inooiathuea eiioo?u ai?iuo aa?oei. Eaaeee ?aciua oooe nicaeaao
aia/aoeaiea aicaeooiie n?aaeu, aeoaeiu e i?ino?ainoaa ecia?aaeaiey.

A oaeii aea noeea nicaeai e naeoie ooaeiaeieea Aec?nyoeo (XV a.) «Eiaey
?uau oueaie»: ia aa?aao ai?iiai iioiea ecia?aaeai noa?ee, iuoathueeny
iieiaoue a aai aiaeao ?uao oueaie-ai?eyieie.

Iai?eoycaoaeueiua, ia ia?aue acaeyae, nthaeaou noeaieo ianee aeoaieee
iiaeoaeno. Aeey aecyineeo iiiaoia auea aaaeia ia aeaei?aoeaiinoue, a
cia/eoaeueiinoue e neiaiee/iinoue, eioi?ay i?aaeaaaeanue eae naiie iaeie
aeaoaee iaecaaea, oae e iauaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi /aeiaaea. Iai?eia?, oneeey
i?e iiiuoea iieiaoue ?uao aini?eieiaeenue eae neiaie no?aieaiey e
aaneiia/iiai o?oaea, iaecaaaeiiai ia iooe e iiciaieth e iinoeaeaieth
ie?a; noa?inoue – eae aeeeoaeueiinoue yoiai i?ioeanna; aaooinoue e
aaaeiinoue iaeaaeaeu eae i?aiaa?aaeaiea e ie?neei, aeeoaeneei aeaaai e
o.ae.

Ianiio?y ia oi /oi aeeaiienue noeaieo auea iaeanoueth, a eioi?ie a
oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie eeoaeneia aeeyiea i?iyaeyeinue iaeaieaa
neeueii, a oai?/anoaa o/aieeia e iineaaeiaaoaeae Aec?nyoeo e nayuaiieea
iiianou?y N?eieoaece, iieacuaatho aeoaieia i?iieeiiaaiea a oaeiu
neiaeiie nenoaiu iiiio?iiiie aeeaiiene e iaiaueiiaaiioth eaaeinoue, e
naiaiaeo ienueia. A aai naeoeao «Iaecaae n ica?ii e ai?aie», «Aeii, a
eioi?ii iiaeii neooaoue ooi aao?a a aaoayo niniu», «Aa/a?iyy ca?y ia
ica?a e a ai?ao» nicaeai iaiauaiiue e aaee/anoaaiiue ia?ac i?e?iaeu,
eniieiaiiue aioo?aiiae aa?iiiee e e?aniou.

Ei aoi?ie iieiaeia XV a. ?acaeoea noeaieo a ssiiiee aeinoeaaao naiuo
cia/eoaeueiuo aunio. ?anoeaao aai naycai n aeayoaeueiinoueth ciaiaieoiai
yiiineiai ooaeiaeieea Nynnth (1420-1506). Oai?/anoai Nynnth ioiinyo e
naiui cia/eoaeueiui yaeaieyi eneonnoaa Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea. Aianoa n oai
iii i?aaenoaaeyao y?eia iaoeeiiaeueiia naiaia?acea e niaoeeoeeo yiiineie
aeeaiiene oiai a?aiaie.

Aeey ?aaio Nynnth oa?aeoa?ai iooiae io o?aaeeoeeiiiie noaiu iaiauaiiiai
oi?aeanoaaiiiai ia?aca Anaeaiiie e i?eaianaiea a ecia?aaeaiea i?e?iaeu
nianoaaiiiai iano?iaiey, naycaiiiai a oi aea a?aiy n iauei oa?aeoa?ii
ie?iiuouaiey yiioe. Yoio oai?/aneee iaoiae iicaieee ooaeiaeieeo, ia
ionooiay iieiinoueth io o?aaeeoeeiiiiai eaiiia, nicaeaaaoue a aai ?aieao
i?iecaaaeaiey iaiaueiiaaiiie yiioeeiiaeueiie ianuuaiiinoe e
iaoeeiiaeueiie ie?aoaiiinoe. Nynnth aeinoeaae yoiai niaaeeiaieai a
naeoea aeaoo ieaiia: ia?aiai – n i?eaeeaeaiiui e c?eoaeth au?aceoaeueiui
ecia?aaeaieai (niniu, eaiie) e aoi?iai – o?aaeeoeeiiiiai ia?aca
a?aiaeeiciie Anaeaiiie a aeaea aaee/anoaaiiuo ai?.

Ecaanoiua ?aaiou Nynnth «Iaecaae» e «Ceia» iino?iaiu eiaiii ii yoiio
i?eioeeio. Ia?aue ieai «Iaecaaea» ecia?aaeaao neaeenoue aa?aa n aeaoiy
niniaie, noath ioeoe, a ioaeaeaiee iiaeiyaoeony iaae aiaeie, a ooiaiiie
aeuiea ooiaeyuee aaunue einye aeo?aaeae. Ia aoi?ii ieaia –
o?aaeeoeeiiiay aeey noeaieo iaaiciooeiay canoueinoue a?iiicaeyueony
ae?oa iaae ae?oaii ai?iuo aa?oei. Niniu, iaienaiiua neeueiuie, ?aceeie
oo?eoaie, i?eaeaeatho n?aco aieiaiea c?eoaey. Aoeaieaoeany a ?anuaeeiu
neae, ?acei eciaiooua e iiaenoea iaae aiaeie, enoeanoaiiua aao?ii, iie
oi?yii oyioony aaa?o. Au?aceoaeueiinoue e iaaeyaeiinoue neiaiea
noieeinoe auea i/aaeaeia e iiiyoia yiiioeo. A naeoeao Nynnth ana
neeueiaa aii?aee eaiiio i?iyaeyaony naiy, yiioeeiiaeueiay o?aeoiaea oaiu
i?e?iaeu.

Iiaiaaaaeaiea iiyaeeinue e a n?aaenoaao ecia?aoaoaeueiinoe. Ooaeiaeiee
ana ?aaea eniieuecoao oooaaia iyoii, aeaaiie noaiiaeony aeaeay,
ianuuaiiay eiiathuayny eeiey. Oae, eiiiiceoeey naeoea «Ceia» iino?iaia
ia ?eoia ia?aeeaeueiuo e ia?anaeathueony eeiee. Ae?ooiciia aeaaeaiea
oo?eoii iicaieyei ooaeiaeieeo au?aceoaeueii i?aaenoaaeoue oaeiaaoua
i/a?oaiey iie?uouo niaaii oieiia e iaeaiueeiai o?aia, caia?cathuee
?o/ae n ia?aoiaeyuei aai aa?iae /aeiaaeii. Ii ana aea aeaaiui, /oi
aeaeaei ?aaiou Nynnth iaiau/iuie, auei oiaiea ia?aaeaoue yiioeeiiaeueiue
iano?ie – a naeoea «Ceia» yoi iuouaiea neiaaiiinoe anaai aie?oa ceiiei
oieiaeii.

Iiiuoee aeaeueiaeoaai eciaiaiey eaiiia iiiio?iiiie aeeaiiene
iaia?oaeeaaao aeayoaeueiinoue ooaeiaeieeia XVI – ia/aea XVII a.,
i?aaeaea anaai oae iacuaaaiie oeieu Eaii. Iniiaaoaeai oeieu Eaii
n/eoaaony Eaii Ianaiiao (1434-1530), ioeoeeaeueii i?eciaiiue i?eaeai?iui
ooaeiaeieeii, i?eieiaaoee o/anoea a oe?aoaiea ?inienyie aeai?oeiaiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa n?aoiaoa.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae oeieu Eaii Iioiiiao
(1476-1559). Eaoi Iioiiiao – ia?aue ooaeiaeiee, eioi?ue, aua aieaa
iiae/a?eeaay aeaei?aoeaiinoue eiiiiceoeee, aae a iauoth noaio
iiiio?iiiiai iaecaaea y?eea, e?ani/iua ni/aoaiey – aeaoaeueii e oi/ii
ia?aaeaiiua ecia?aaeaiey oeaaoia, ioeoe e o.ae. Iaeaieaa ecaanoii
nia?aiea i?iecaaaeaiee ooaeiaeieea «Oeaaou e ioeoeu», ninoiyuaa ec 49
naeoeia. ss?eea, e?ani/iua ni/aoaiey auee caeinoaiaaiu Eaii Iioiiiao o
oeieu Oina, i?aaenoaaeythuae eeanne/aneia eneonnoai ssiiiee.

Oneeaiea aeaei?aoeaiinoe naeoea eeoeei noeaieo i?aaeiaai niaea?aeaiey e
oaeoe/anee i?aa?aoeei ooaeiaeanoaaiioth nenoaio iiiio?iiiie aeeaiiene a
oneiaiinoue. Ii oai ia iaiaa Eaii Iioiiiao e aai iineaaeiaaoaee
aeiaeeenue aa?iiie/aneiai neeyiey o?oaeiiniaaeeieiuo yeaiaioia:
oeaaoiaie ianuuaiiinoe noeey Oina e no?iaiai, iiiio?iiiiai ?enoiea,
oa?aeoa?iiai aeey ooaeiaeieeia oeieu Eaith.

AEeaiienue oeieu Eaii noaea ia oieueei iai?aaeaieai, ii?aaeaeythuei
?acaeoea eneonnoaa XVI-XVII aa., ii e aaaeiaeoei aeeaaeii a
iaoeeiiaeueioth eoeueoo?o.

*aeiay oea?aiiiey.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea ?acee/iuo aniaeoia eoeueoo?u ieacaei
?acaeoea oae iacuaaaiie /aeiie oea?aiiiee (oy ii th). ia?aiia/aeueii
aicieeoee a aecyineeo iiianou?yo iau/ae ieoue aeey aiae?inoe ?aaeeee,
i?eaiciie ec Eeoay iaieoie- /ae – a XV-XVI aa. iieo/ee oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a a?enoie?aoe/aneeo e naio?aeneeo e?oaao. No?iaee
?eooae oy ii th aue ?ac?aaioai aoaeaeeeneei iiiaoii Io?aoa Nthei i?e
n?aoia Aneeaaa ?neiana (1449-1490). Oea?aiiieth noaee aicaeaaeyoue
niaoeeaeueiua ianoa?a /ay (oyaeceiu), eioi?ua i?eia?aee aieueoia aeeyiea
a n?aaea aunoaai naio?aenoaa, a oii /enea e i?aaenoaaeoaeae n?aoineie, a
oaeaea e i?eaeai?iie a?enoie?aoee. Aeayoaeueiinoue oaeeo ciaiaieouo
ianoa?ia /ay, eae Iiaie (XV a.), Nyiii ?eeth (XVI a.), Niaie (XVI a.),
a iicaeiaa Oo?ooa I?eay (XVII a.), ieacaei ia?iiiia aicaeaenoaea ia
oieueei ia oi?ie?iaaiea eaiiiia /aeiie oea?aiiiee, ii e anae
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u ssiiiee.

Ia?aiia/aeueii /aeiay oea?aiiiey i?iaiaeeeanue a ioai?iaeaiiie oe?iie
/anoe aeeeiai iiiauaiey. A XV a. noaee no?ieoue ioaeaeueiue iaaieueoea
ii iauaio iaaeeueiiu, iaiiieiathuea e?anoueyineoth oeaeeio n
/aou?aoneaoiie nieiiaiiie e?uoae. No?iainoue e aneaoe/aneay i?inoioa
yaeyeenue aeaaiui, /oi ii?aaeaeyei aiaoiee e aioo?aiiee iaeee /aeiiai
iaaeeueiia (oyneoeo) – aea?aayiiue eee aaiaoeiaue ea?ean n caieyiie eee
aeeiyiie oooeaoo?eie, aeaaeeea, aac oe?aoaiee oaeaea ioooeaoo?aiiua
noaiu niieieiuo oiiia, aaiaoeiaue iioieie, iaaieueoea ieia n ?aoao/aouie
?acaeaeaeiuie ?aiaie, ieeaaiiuie ieioiie aaeie aoiaaie. Neaaue
?annayiiue naao, i?iieeathuee a oyneoeo, aeieaeai aue niaeaenoaiaaoue
aoiinoa?a niieienoaey, nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe, iano?iy ia
nica?oeaoaeueiinoue e ynoaoe/aneia aini?eyoea anaai ie?oaeathuaai.
Aaeeinoaaiiui oe?aoaieai e ooaeiaeanoaaiiui oeaio?ii /aeiiai aeiia auea
oieiiiia, a eioi?ie iiiauaee naeoie iiiio?iiiie aeeaiiene e aoeao
oeaaoia, iau/ii ii?aaeaeythueo aeaaioth oaio oea?aiiiee, aa oeeinioneee
iano?ie. No?aieaiea naeaeaoue /aeiue iaaeeueii ianoii oaaeeiaiey
aaeaioia naeou aecyi io noaoiiai ie?a, nica?oeaoaeueiinoe e oeeinioneeo
?aciuoeaiee ii?aaeaeeei oeaeue ?yae onoaiiaeaiee aeey /aeiie oea?aiiiee,
naeaeaiiuo naiui ecaanoiui ianoa?ii /ay Nyiii ?eeth (1521-1591). Ii
ii?aaeaeee ?acia? /aeiiai iaaeeueiia oieueei a /aou?a n iieiaeiie oaoaie
(ieiei 7,3 ea. i), ?ann/eouaay ieiuaaeue anaai eeoue ia iyoue o/anoieeia
oea?aiiiee.

Iiieii iau/iiai aoiaea n caaeiae noi?iiu aeiieea aeey ainoae –
ieaece?eaooe. Eiino?oeoeaiia aai oiaiueoaiea – oaeoe/anee aei ?acia?ia
eaca (90O90 ni) ii?aaaeuaaeinue ia oieueei iauei nie?auaieai ?acia?ia
iaaeeueiia, ii e oie neiaieeeie, eioi?ay i?eaeaaaeanue Nyiii ?eeth
eaaeaeie aeaoaee – ieceay i?eoieiea canoaaeyea eaaeaeiai neeiiyoue
aieiao, neaaeiaaoaeueii, «o?aaieaaea» a /aeiii iaaeeueiia
i?aaenoaaeoaeae anao nioeeaeueiuo neiaa.

Neiaiee/aneia cia/aiea eiae e iaeei ec iii?iuo noieaia oieiiiia –
aeaei?-aane?a. Iaia?aaioaiiue, nio?aiythuee ei?o noaie aea?aaa aeieaeai
aue i?aaenoaaeyoue ia?ac?uaioth naycue eioa?uea?a n i?e?iaeie.

Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth /aeiiai aeiia aue iaeaiueeee e oeoee /aeiue naae –
oyieaa, n aonoie ?anoeoaeueiinoueth, n o?iieieaie ec ieineeo eaiiae aeey
oaaeeiaiiuo i?iaoeie, n eaiaiiui oiia?ai e eaiaiiuie ninoaeaie aeey
aiaeu – oeoeoaae. ?ac?aaaouaay a aeaoaeyo /aeiue iaaeeueii, Nyiii ?eeth
oioae aiieioeoue a eiino?oe?iaaiee naaea e /aeiiai aeiia ynoaoe/aneee
i?eioeei naae, icia/athuee aa?iiie/aneia neeyiea i?inoiai e ecuneaiiiai,
ia/aeueiiai e niieieiiai, ianouaai eae au iaoeio a?aiaie.

Iaeaieaa ?aiieie ec aeioaaeoeo aei iaoeo aeiae /aeiuo iaaeeueiiia
n/eoathony eeioineea Oiaoaei (1485), Na?aa?yiiai iaaeeueiia (1489),
iiianou?y Naeoiaece (eiiaoe XVI a.). Yoaeiiii /aeiiai iaaeeueiia e naaea
n/eoaaony ciaiaieoue Oyeyi – naae a o?aia I?eeai, nicaeaiiue a 1573 a.
Nyiii ?eeth.

I?inoioa e eaeiie/iinoue eiino?oeoeee /aeiiai iaaeeueiia ieacaee aeeyiea
ia oi?ie?iaaiea a XVI a. iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeeeeua, /oi yaeyaony iaeaieaa
na?ueaciui aeinoeaeaieai yiiineiai ciae/anoaa oaiaeaeueiiai ia?eiaea.

No?ieoaeuenoai e?aiinoiuo nii?oaeaiee.

A ia?eiae iiaouanoaa oaiaeaeueiiai aeiia Oeaey?ne a no?aia oei oe?ieia
no?ieoaeuenoai aiaaouo ?aceaeaioeee aunoaai neiy naio?aenoaa,
aicaeaeaaeenue caiee – e?aiinoe a oeaio?ao i?iaeioeee. ?ani?ino?aiaiea
iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey a ssiiiee XVI a. i?eaaei e nicaeaieth iiaie
aiaiiie oaeoeee – no?ieoaeuenoao caieia – e?aiinoae ni neiaeiie nenoaiie
iai?iiiuo oe?aieaiee. Iiaeiaiuo nii?oaeaiee ia auei a ae?oaeo no?aiao
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea, iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaiyoieee, oa?aeoa?iua
eeoue aeey yiiineiai ciae/anoaa. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee yiiineie
a?oeoaeoo?u naycuaatho iiyaeaiea caieia n eniieueciaaieai
oi?oeoeeaoeeiiiiai iiuoa e iiiiue ii?ooaaeueneeo eiaeaia?ia. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe caiee ia yiiineie caiea no?ieeenue e aei iiyaeaiey
iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey, ia?oaeiua caieiaua oe?aieaiey auee
aeeiiaeoiuie, a XVI a. noaiu caieia noaee nii?oaeaoueny ec ieioii
iiaeiaiaiiuo ae?oa e ae?oao eaiaiiuo aeua. I?eia? iiaeiaiiai
no?ieoaeuenoaa i?aaenoaaeyao caiie Eiyoia, iino?iaiiue caaeieai aei
iiyaeaiey ia?auo ii?ooaaeueoeaa ia ssiiineeo ino?iaao.

I?e aicaaaeaiee e?aiinoe – caiea iau/ii o/eouaaeenue i?e?iaeiay
aicauoaiiinoue, iaee/ea ?aee eee ica?a, aiaeiia i?ino?ainoai eioi?uo
eniieueciaaeinue aeey caueou iiaenooiia e caieo. Eaiaiiua noaiu oaeie
e?aiinoe iiaeieiaeenue ia naie-, ainueieiao?iaoth aunioo, a ioaeaeueiuo
neo/ayo aeinoeaaee ni?iea e aieaa iao?ia. Eneonnoaaiiua ?au aie?oa caiea
eiaee aeaaaeoeaoeiao?iaoth oe?eio e aeoaeio naiue-ainaiue iao?ia.
Aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai i?aaenoaaeyee niaie neiaeioth nenoaio e?aiinoiuo
aeeiiaeoiuo e eaiaiiuo noai e aioo?aiieo aeai?ia, oiuoeaiii
nieaie?iaaiiue eaae?eio ia neo/ae, anee a e?aiinoue ai?aoony a?aae.

Aeey ianee?iaee oe?aieaiee ia oa??eoi?ee caiea naaeaee aea?aauey, a
oaeaea ?acaeaaee naaeu, ie?oaeaaoea aeeeua iiiauaiey aeaaeaeueoea
e?aiinoe e aai i?eaeeaeaiiuo. Aeaaiui nii?oaeaieai oe?aieaiiie
oa??eoi?ee auea iiiaiyoaaeiay noi?iaeaaay aaoiy oyintheaeo («ainiiaeei
iaaan»), a iaeioi?uo caieao aeinoeaaaoay naieyoaaeiie auniou. Iia
aeaaaea oi?ioee iaci? ianoiinoe, a aa iiiai/eneaiiuo iiiauaieyo
o?aieeenue aiai?eianu e i?iaeaio, noaiu aa, eae e ae?oaeo iino?iae,
eiaee i?i?ace aeey no?aeueau ec eoea, o?aoaieueiua e e?oaeua ioaa?noey
aeey iaiano?aeueiiai i?oaeey, ?aoao/aoua aunooiu aeey na?anuaaiey
eaiiae. Aicaaaeaiiua ii oaeai e?aiinoiuo noai 2-3-yoaaeiua aaoie (yao?a)
oaeaea eniieueciaaeenue aeey o?aiaiey aiai?eiania.

Caiie aue nioeeaeueiui oeaio?ii neeaaeuaathueony e ?acaeaathueony
ai?iaeia, aie?oa iaai a?oiie?iaaeenue eaa?oaeu ?aianeaiieeia e
oi?aiaoeaa, a iaeaieaa ii/aoiie ciia ai?iaeneie oa??eoi?ee – aie?oa
caiea – nii?oaeaeenue ?aceaeaioeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae aiaaouo naio?aeneeo
aeiiia (aannaeia eiycy)

A?oeoaeoo?iue iaeee caiea i?aaenoaaeyao neiaeiia /a?aaeiaaiea e?uo e
o?iioiiia, iinoaiaiii oiaiueoathueony e aa?oo yoaaeae, /oi c?eoaeueii
iaeaa/aao ana a?aiaeeiciia nii?oaeaiea. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi iiiaiyoaaeiua
eaiaiiua e?aiinoe ?acei ioee/aeenue io iauaai ieceiyoaaeiiai e
aea?aayiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa yiiineiai ai?iaea, iie ia auaeyaeaee
eii?iaeiui ae?aieaieai. Eae au?aceoaeueiinoue a?oeoaeoo?iuo oi?i, oae e
?aniieiaeaiea caiea ia aicauoaiiinoe aeaeaee aai anoanoaaiiui oeaio?ii e
aeiieiaioiie anae ai?iaeneie cano?ieee.

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiui ec e?aiinoiuo nii?oaeaiee oaiaeaeueiie ssiiiee
yaeyeny caiie – ?aceaeaioeey Oeaey?ne, iino?iaiiue a 1583 a. a Inaea.
Naiui e?oiiui oaiaeaeueiui aeaaeaoaeyi auei i?eeacaii iinoaaeyoue
eaiaiue ia no?ieoaeuenoai caiea. Oeieieue aue neiaeai ec iiuiuo aaeoiia.
Naiue aieueoie ec ieo (520 o) eiaao ieiuaaeue 87 ea. i. A caiea auei o?e
eiiieaena caueou, eaeouea iaeei ca ae?oaei. Aiaoiyy iieina oe?aieaiee
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iiiynuaathuee anth oa??eoi?eth e?aiinoe aeoaieee
12-iao?iaie oe?eiu ?ia n aunieei caieyiui aaeii, ca eioi?ui oee eaiaiiua
noaiu n iiiai/eneaiiuie aieieoeaie. Iaeiaei aiaoia caiie eacaeny eaaeei
e naaoeui aeaaiaea?y no?ieiie, n aaeuie noaiaie, noi?iaeaaie aaoia,
iiaeieiaaoaeny ia 42-iao?iaoth aunioo. Iaeeea cieiouo oe?aoaiee ia
o?iioiiao y?onia nicaeaei e?aiinoe neaao «cieioiai caiea». A
iiiai/eneaiiuo n?aaeaieyo neiaeiay nenoaia caueou e?aiinoe auea
?ac?ooaia. A iaoe nouanoaoao eeoue noi?iaeaaay aaoiy, ainnoaiiaeaiiay a
1931 a. e aiaoia iiaoi?ythuay i?aaeithth iino?ieeo.

Cia/eoaeueiui e naiaia?aciui iaiyoieeii iaoeeiiaeueiiai ciae/anoaa
yaeyaony oaeaea caiie a Oeiyaece, iino?iaiiue a XIV a. e
?aeiino?oe?iaaiiue a eiioea XVI a. Aai aunieay noi?iaeaaay aaoiy
ie?oaeaia nenoaiie aioo?aiieo aeai?ia n iiioiaioaeueiuie eaiaiiuie
noaiaie e iauaaeeiyaony a aaeeiue eiiieaen n o?aiy aaoiyie iaiueoaai
?acia?a. Eaiaiiue iinoaiaio anaai nii?oaeaiee, ioee/athueeny iaiau/iie
aunioie, iaania/eaae iai?enooiiinoue caiea. Aiaaonoai a?oeoaeoo?u e
aaeecia noai niinianoaiaaea oiio, /oi a i?inoi?a/ee ii noae iacuaaoueny
«Caieii Aaeie oeaiee» (Oaeo?iaec?).

I?ae?auaiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea iaaeaeioniaiuo oaiaeaeueiuo aiei e
iauaaeeiaiea no?aiu, caaa?oaiiia Oieoaaaa Eyyno a ia/aea XVII a.,
niaeaenoaiaaee iauaio yeiiiie/aneiio e eoeueoo?iiio iiaeuaio.

Auno?ue ?ino ai?iaeia, oa?aeoa?iue aeey XVI e XVII aa., aue naycai n
aeoaieeie nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeannaie – auoiaeii ia enoi?e/aneoth a?aio
iiaiai eeanna – iieiaeie yiiineie ao?aeoacee. Oe?ieia ?acaeoea
ao?aeoaciie, oae iacuaaaiie ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u i?eaaei e iooaniaieth
ia aoi?ie ieai eoeueoo?u i?eaeai?iie eeioineie a?enoie?aoee e
naio?aenoaa.

Oieoaaaneee ?aaeei any/anee niaeaenoaiaae nio?aiaieth oaiaeaeueiie
nenoaiu ai anao iaeanoyo aeecie no?aiu, a oii /enea e iaeanoe eoeueoo?u.
Ca ia?eiae ecieyoeee i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia ionoaaaiea yiiineie iaoee
oiai a?aiaie io aa?iiaeneie. Iaeiaei iinoaiaiii aeeyiea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
aoaeaeecia ana aieaa oa?yao naith neeo e oeaio?u eoeueoo?u ia/eiatho
ia?aiauaoueny ec o?aiia e iiianou?ae a auno?i ?acaeaathueany ai?iaea,
i?aaeaea anaai a yeiiiie/aneee oeaio? no?aiu Inaea e iiaoth noieeoeo
Yaei. Ii/oe aanue XVII aae ai?iaeneay eoeueoo?a iaeaieaa aeoeaii
?acaeaaeanue a Inaea, aaea i?iaeeaaei naiia aiaaoia eoia/anoai e aaea
nenoaia i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ?aaeaiaioaoeee aeaenoaiaaea neaaaa, /ai a
noieeoea. A oi aea a?aiy a Yaei eoeueoo?a o?aoueaai nineiaey
?acaeaaeanue a oneiaeyo, eiaaea n?aoiao no?aieeny ia?aianoe nthaea e
nio?aieoue a?enoie?aoe/aneoth eoeueoo?o noa?ie noieeoeu ssiiiee.
I?eaeaoaiiua n?aoiii ooaeiaeieee, neoeueioi?u, ienaoaee e iiyou aeieaeiu
auee niaeaenoaiaaoue nicaeaieth oeaio?a, ia onooiaaoaai Eeioi ie III
aiaaonoao e iuoiinoe, ia ii cia/aieth a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u.

Eiaiii oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?u ai?iaeai, aeinoeaoae ?anoeaaoa a eiioea
XVII ia/aea XVIII a., i?aa?aoeei Yaei, a oaeaea Inaea a aeaenoaeoaeueiua
eoeueoo?iua oeaio?u a ianooaaa anae no?aiu. Oaia?ue oaea iie ieacuaaee
aeeyiea ia i?aaeithth a?enoie?aoe/aneoth aoiinoa?o noa?ie noieeoeu
ssiiiee, ia naio?aenoai. Iaeiaei ia?eaioeeeci, no?aieaiea e ?ineioe,
iiaua ii?aeueiua ii?iu eoioeia e ai?iaeai, ia eiaaoeo iieeoe/aneeo i?aa,
ii caaiaaaaoeo iieiaeaiea a iauanoaa i?e iiiiue aiaaonoaa, noaee
aucuaaoue iaaeiaieuenoai i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Naiua ecaanoiua i?aaenoaaeoaee
ioeoeeaeueiie eiioooeeaineie oeieu, oaeea, eae A?ae Oaeonyee
(1657-1725), aunooieee n inoaeaeaieai yoe/aneeo ii?i o?aoueaai nineiaey,
e?eoe/anee ioeaieaaee eoeueoo?o ia?eiaea Ayi?ieo, n/eoay iaaeiionoeiui
i?ineaaeyaiua ath aieueiinoue, aaaeiieci, ionooieaiea io noa?uo
eaeaieiae/aneeo eaiiiia. Ii yoi i?eaaei e aicieeiiaaieth iiiiceoeeiiiuo
oa/aiee – a caueoo «ioa/anoaaiiie» , a oaeaea aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u e
iaoee.

Inoaiiaeoue i?ioeann aeaiie?aoecaoeee eoeueoo?u auei iaaiciiaeii.
Aieueoia cia/aiea a ?ani?ino?aiaiee iiauo eaeae eiaei oe?ieia ?acaeoea
eieaiia/aoaiey, caeinoaiaaiiiai a XVI a. ec Ei?ae. I?e iiiiue
iiaeaeaeiiai o?eooa auei iaia/aoaii 757 eiea. Iaeiaei iieeoeea ecieyoeee
no?aiu i?eaaea e ainnoaiiaeaieth eneeia?aoe/aneiai niiniaa – ia/aoiue
noaiie ni/ee i?iyaeaieai «eiino?aiiiai aeeyiey». Oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea
eneonnoaa a?aath?u a ecaanoiie ia?a oaeaea niaeaenoaiaaei eniieueciaaiea
eneeia?aoee – ii/oe a eaaeaeie a?aath?a ecia?aaeaiea ni/aoaeinue n
oaenoii, aeaei?aoeaiinoue eioi?iai noaiiaeeanue iniaaiii auea?uoiie i?e
i?eiaiaiee eneeia?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea.

Aeaiie?aoecaoeey eoeueoo?u aucaaea e aeecie iiaua oi?iu oaao?aeueiiai,
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa, eneonnoaa neiaa. A XVII a. aicieeatho oaao?
Eaaoee e eoeieueiue oaao? Aec??o?e, oeaaoiay a?aath?a ia aea?aaa,
aeaiie?aoe/aneay i?ica, io?aaeathuea iiaia aeaeaiea ie?a, iiaoth nenoaio
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai iinoeaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.

Aiaeu iaeaunoaai ?acaeoey ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u ssiiiee – ia?eiae Ayi?ieo
(1688-1704)o – auee ioia/aiu ?aaeeei nicaacaeeai oaeaioia aeeaoeo e
oai?eaoeo oiaaea ianoa?ia: i?icaeea Eo?a Naeeaeo, ae?aiaoo?aa Oeeaiaoeo
Iiiaecayiii, iiyoa Iaoeoi Aan?, ooaeiaeieeia Ii?iiiao e Iaaoa Ei?ei,
ia?iaeiiai neoeueioi?a Yieo.

Oeiea e i?inaauaiea.

Oneeaiea nioeeaeueiuo iiceoeee ai?iaeneeo nineiaee i?eaaei e
eeeaeaeaoeee ?aiaa nouanoaiaaaoae iiiiiieee aunoeo eeannia ia
ia?aciaaiea. Anee ?aiueoa iao/aiea aeaoae i?ienoiaeeei a oeieao i?e
aoaeaeeeneeo o?aiao (oy?aeiy), oi a oieoaaaneee ia?eiae yoei noaee
caieiaoueny ia?aciaaiiua ethaee – auoiaeoeu ec ?acee/iuo neiaa iauanoaa.
Oy?aeiy iinoaiaiii i?eia?aoaea oa?aeoa? naaoneie oeieu, aaea
naie-ainueieeaoiea iaeue/eee e aeaai/ee a oa/aiea naie eao iao/aeenue
/oaieth, ienueio, a?eoiaoeea, iieo/aee iaeioi?ua i?aeoe/aneea ciaiey.
Eiee/anoai o/aueony iau/ii ia i?aauoaei 30 /aeiaae – aieueoea oy?aeiy
auee oieueei a Yaei e Inaea. Ii ieii/aiee oeieu aeaoe ninoiyoaeueiuo
?iaeeoaeae i?iaeieaeaee iao/aiea a /anoiuo caaaaeaieyo, inoaeueiua oee a
iauaaeeiaiea ?aianeaiieeia eee a oneoaeaiea a aiaaoua aeiia.
Nouanoaiaaee /anoiua oeieu iiauoaiiiai oeia, aaea aic?ano e n?ie
iao/aiey o/aueony ia ?aaeaiaioe?iaaeenue. Caeanue eco/aee eeoaeneoth
eeoa?aoo?o e enoi?eth, oeeinioeth, yiiineoth enoi?eth, ae?aaithth
eeoa?aoo?o. Eaeaieiae/aneie iniiaie i?inaauaiey auea eiioooeeaineay
eaeaieiaey. Ia iniiaa eiioooeeainoaa no?ieeanue e nenoaia aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey. A 1633 a. a Yaei auea iniiaaia aeaaeaiey, aioiaeaoay aunoea
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua eaae?u. Aeey iao/aiey aeaoae naio?aaa auei nicaeaii
aieaa 200 i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e eiyaeaneeo o/?aaeaeaiee, i?aiiaeaaaiea a
eioi?uo aaeinue ia iniiaa iaieiioooeeainoaa. Caeanue eco/aee
«a?aaeaeaineea e aiaiiua i?aaeiaou» – eeoaeneoth e yiiineoth eoeueoo?o e
eeoa?aoo?o, aiaiiia eneonnoai e iaaeeoeeio. Auioneieee oeie a
eiyaeanoaao iinooiaee a aunooth noiee/ioth oeieo (nyeoi), aaea iie
oaeoe/anee i?iaeieaeaee ia?aciaaiea. Iinea ieii/aiey nyeoi iie iiaee
?aaioaoue i?aiiaeaaaoaeyie eee /eiiaieeaie.

Eeoa?aoo?a.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie eeoa?aoo?u yoiai ia?eiaea auei iiyaeaiea
i?iecaaaeaiee, a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a inaiaiaeeaoeony io aeeyiey
aoaeaeecia e aeeai io?aaeaaoeo iianaaeiaaioth aeeciue ?aciiia?aciuo
neiaa iauanoaa. Iaeiaei iiaia iai?aaeaiea neiaeeeinue ia n?aco.
Naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo o?aaeeoeeyie n?aaeiaaaeiaie eeoa?aoo?u e
eeoa?aoo?ie ?aaeenoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey noaee i?iecaaaeaiey eaiaaecine
(aoea. eieaeee, iaienaiiua neiaiaie acaoeie oiio?aaeyeenue e ea?iaeeou,
ii ii?aaeaeythuei auei oi, /oi iie iauaaeeiyee i?iecaaaeaiey, iaienaiiua
ii-yiiinee, a ioee/ea io i?iecaaaeaiee, ienaaoeo ia eeoaeneii,
o?aaeeoeeiiiii eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea, aeinooiiii ia?aie/aiiiio
iauanoaaiiiio neith oeaieoaeae e ciaoieia eeoaeneie eoeueoo?u.

Ia?auaiiay e oe?ieiio /eoaoaeth eaiaaecine aeeth/aea iiiaeanoai aeai?ia:
iiieii iiaanoae i?iecaaaeaiey, aeeceea ii oa?aeoa?o e enoi?e/aneei
o?iieeai, ia?aaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey ec eeoaeneie e aa?iiaeneie i?icu,
?aeeaeiciua e yoe/aneea o?aeoaou, iooaaiaeeoaee ii no?aia – naiaia?aciua
o/aaieee aaia?aoee, i?aaio/eoaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey e ynna.
Cia/eoaeueioth /anoue i?icu eaiaaecine ninoaaeyee iiaoth
iiaanoaiaaoaeueiua aeai?u: ?acaeaeaoaeueiay, eiie/aneay e ia?iaeiay
eeoa?aoo?a. Aoaeo/e aaaeiui ia?aoiaeiui yoaiii e ?aaeenoe/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a, i?iecaaaeaiey eaiaaecine aucuaaee aieueoie eioa?an – iie
aoiaeeee a /enei ia?auo eiea, iaia/aoaiiuo n iiiiuueth iiaeaeaeiiai
o?eooa.

Ii iiaeeeiii iiaia iniuneaiea aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe n iiceoeee ao?aeoaciuo
neiaa ai?iaea i?ienoiaeeo a oei?aecine – aeaiie?aoe/aneii e
?aaeenoe/aneii iai?aaeaiee eeoa?aoo?u, iniiaiiieiaeieeii e aeanoyuei
i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?iai aue Eoa?a Naeeaeo (1642-1693).

Neiai «oee?», aeaaoaa iacaaiea i?ica, a n?aaeiaaaeiauea eiaei
o?aaeeoeeiiiia aoaeaeeeneia cia/aiea – «a?aiiue ie?», «ie? a?ac». Ai
a?aiaia Naeeaeo iii i?eia?aei ae?oaie iooaiie. Aeaaiui a iai noae
aeoeaio ia iinoiyiioth eciai/eainoue ie?a. Oee?aecine – yoi iiaanoe ia
«eciai/eaii ie?a», i nia?aiaiiie aaoi?o auno?ioaeouae aeecie ni anae aa
aeeoaeneie y?einoue e aeaneii.

Aoaeo/e eoioeii ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, Eoa?a Neeaeo i?ae?anii ciae
aoiinoa?o ai?iaea. Aai ?iiaiu e ei?ioeea iiaaeeu io?aceee aeeciue
?aciiia?aciuo neiaa ianaeaiey. E?eoe/aneia ioiioaiea e a?enoie?aoo
anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaeinue iieacii oia e niaeaeee neoae, aeaaeiinoue
?inoiaueea, oi?aiaoea iiae/a?eeaaeinue aanei?unoeai e /anoiinoueth
i?inoiai o?oaeaieea. Iaiaei no?aieoe a aai i?iecaaaeaiee auei iinayuaii
oyaeaeiio iieiaeaieth yiiineie aeaiueiu, e i?aaeaea anaai naiui
aani?aaiui ec ieo – iaeoaoaeueieoeai «aanaeuo eaa?oaeia».

E iaeaieaa ecaanoiui i?iecaaaeaieyi Naeeaeo ioiinyony «Enoi?ey ethaiaiuo
iioiaeaeaiee iaeeiieiai ioae/eiu», Iyoue aeaiuei, i?aaeaaoeony ethaae»,
?anneacu i naio?aeneii aeieaa», ssiiineay nie?iaeuieoea»,
i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie yioeeeeiiaaeeth aeecie eoia/anoaa, e ae?.

Iiioey?iinoue Naeeaeo e i?e aeecie iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony iiiaie?aoiuie
ecaeaieyie aai i?iecaaaeaiee, a oaeaea aeayoaeueiinoueth iiiai/eneaiiuo
iineaaeiaaoaeae e iiae?aaeaoaeae. Oai?/anoai ienaoaey, aiieiuathuaa
aeaiie?aoe/aneea eaeae naiioeaiiinoe /aeiaa/aneie ee/iinoe e
naiioeaiiinoe caiiiai /aeiaa/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, ia oieueei noaei
aaaeiie nooiaiueth a ?acaeoee yiiineie i?icu, ii e ieacaei aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea ?aciiia?aciuo iai?aaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u.

Aeeyiea eaeaaeia o?aoueaai nineiaey io?aaeaaony e ia ?acaeoee iiycee
yoiai ia?eiaea. Iiaeiui eeoa?aoo?iui aeai?ii noaiiaeony iiycey
«iaiecuaaiey» no?ie – ?yiaa, eiaaea iineaaeiaa neiai noeoa noaiiaeony
ia/aeii iiaiai noeoioai?aiey. Iiycey ?yiaa auea ecaanoia e ?aiaa, ii
iaiaeeaeaiiia ni/aoaiea ooii/aiiinoe, oa?aeoa?iie aeey eeanneee, n
eaeneeie aeeaiai, ?acaiai?iiai ycuea – iineiaeoeaie, iiaiai?eaie –
i?aa?aoeei noeoe a ia?iaeeeioth oooi/ioth ?yiaa. Iniaaiii aue ecaanoai
iiaeiaiuie noeoaie iiyo Niei. Auioneaeenue nai?ieee ia/aeueiuo no?ie
?yiaa – n/eoaeinue, /oi ia?aoth no?ioo iaienaoue anaaaea o?oaeiaa.

Iinoaiaiii no?ioa ?acia?ii a 17 neiaia auaeaeeeanue a naiinoiyoaeueiue
aeai? oieeo, eee oaeeo (oooi/iay no?ioa). Iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa yoio
aeai? aeinoea a oai?/anoaa ciaiaieoiai iiyoa XVII a. Iaoeoi Aan?. Noeoe
Aan? ioee/athony e?aoeinoueth e oi/iinoueth ia?acia, aucuaathueo oeaeoth
oeaiue annioeeaoeee. Eo niaa?oainoai caeeth/aaony aeoaieii
yiioeeiiaeueiii aicaeaenoaee ia /eoaoaey. Oaiaoeea oaeeo Aan? iaoe?ia,
i?aaeaea anaai yoi ainiaaaiea aaee/ey i?e?iaeu, iaecaaeiay ee?eea.
Aianoa n oai aeaiie?aoe/aneee oa?aeoa? iiaiai aeai?a eneeth/ae
iano?iaiea oiuiey, aaciaaeaaeiinoe, i?ec?a/iinoe caiiiai nouanoaiaaiey,
oa?aeoa?iie aeey eeanne/aneie iiycee i?ioeiai. Iiyo aeaeeo ie?oaeathuee
ie? i?ae?aniui, e io?aaeaiea iiiaiia?acey aeecie i?iieeiooi a aai
oai?/anoaa aeooii ?aaeecia.

Iiaue iiyoe/aneee noeeue eiae iiiai/eneaiiuo iineaaeiaeiaaoaeae,
iaeaieaa ecaanoiua n?aaee ieo – iiyou Aonnii, Enna e ae?.

Cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey i?iecioee e a o?aaeeoeee eciaiaiey nicaeaiey
eeoa?aoo?u aeey oaao?a. Aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy oaenou iinoaiiaie auee
i?eieoeaiu – oniao oeaeeeii caaenae io ea?u aeoa?ia. I?eoiae a oaao?
Oeeaiaoeo Iiiaecayiii (1653-1725), ienaaoaai iueanu aeey Eaaoee e oaao?a
eoeie Aec??o?e, ea?aeeiaeueii eciaiee neooaoeeth. Ae?aiu Oeeaiaoeo,
noaaoea aunoei aeinoeaeaieai oaao?aeueiie ae?aiaoo?aee, ia/aee naia
o?eoioaeueiia oanoaea ii no?aia n 1675 a. e e iaania/eee ianoiyuee
?anoeaao oaao?a eoeie. Oeeaiaoeo ienae enoi?e/aneea ae?aiu i ae?aaieo,
eaaaiaea?iuo a?aiaiao, i a?aiiuo iiaeaeaao, i neaaa naio?ay, aa?iiai
naiaio aieineiio aeieao, nicaeaaae «iauaineea» ae?aiu nyaaiiii, aaea
iiaeieiae i?iaeaio aeieaa – ae?e – a aa neiaeiii e iiiaicia/iii
cao/aiee. Ae?aiu Oeeaiaoeo, a /anoiinoe «iauaineea», auee iniaaiii
iiiyoiu e nicao/iu iano?iaieth i?inoiai ai?iaeaieia. Aa?ie ia noeaia
neiaii iiaoi?yee aanoeo?inoiua aeeoaeneea neooaoeee Inaeneeo e Yaeineeo
eaa?oaeia. A 1703 a. aia?aua auea iinoaaeaia ae?aia «Naiioaeenoai
aethaeaiiuo a Niiyaecaee». A iniiao ae?aiu auee iieiaeaiu
aeaenoaeoaeueiua niauoey ec aeecie n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ai?iaea Inaea:
iieiaeie oi?aiaaoe e aeaaooea ec oaanaeeoaeueiiai eaa?oaea Niiyaecaee
iieii/ee aeeciue naiioaeenoaii a o?aiiaie ?iua.

«Aanaeue eaa?oae», aai ia?niiaaee, auaaaeaiiua ia oaao?aeueiua
iiaeiinoee, e aeaieiia naiioaeenoai aethaeaiiuo, eioi?ia iacuaaeinue
«neiaecth» (ene?aiiinoue na?aeoea»), ana yoi auee oeie/iua yaeaiey ec
aeecie n?aaeiaaaeiaie ssiiiee, oae aea eae e cai?aou neiaecth
i?aaeoaeuenoaii, iainiiaaiii ?anniao?eaathuaai eo eae naiaia?aciue
oaiaeaeueiue i?ioano. «Aanaeue eaa?oae» aue aaeeinoaaiiui ianoii, aaea
aiaaoue ai?iaeaiei /oanoaiaae naay ?aaiui naio?ath. Caeanue iaeaieaa
y?ei i?iyaeeenue nioeeaeueiua eieeecee, aeaaoea ieuo oai?/anoaa
ooaeiaeieeia e ienaoaeae.

AEeciue eo?oecaiee, ethaiaue e iae eoioea eee naio?ay noaea oaiie
iiiaeanoaa ae?ai e ?iiaiia, nthaeaoii ?aciiia?aciuo aniaeoia
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa.

Ooaeiaeanoaaiiay oeaiue i?iecaaaeaiee Oeeaiaoeo oiiea e iaiau/aeii
iiyoe/ia. Oioy a iniiao i?iecaaaeaiee Oeeaiaoeo eiaeeeenue ?aaeueiua
i?ienoanoaey, oaeaio aaoi?a i?aa?auae i?inooth aeeciaiioth enoi?eth a
ae?aiaoe/aneoth iiyio aunieiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai cao/aiey. Oeeaiaoeo
nicaeae aeaayiinoi «enoi?e/aneeo iuean» e aeaaaeoeaoue /aou?a «iauaineea
ae?aiu», oaaeoea ai iiiaeo oaao?ao no?aiu. I?iecaaaeaiey Oeeaiaoeo
Iiiaecayiiia noaee na?ueaciui aeeaaeii iaoeeiiaeueiie ae?aiaoo?aee a
iauaie?iaoth nie?iaeuieoeo eoeueoo?u.

Oaao?.

Iio?aaiinoe e aeonu ai?iaeai ii?aaeaeeee eciaiaiey a ?acaeoee
oaao?aeueiiai eneonnoaa yoiai a?aiaie. Oaao? Iii, neiaeeaoeeny a XIV a.
e ?acaeaaaoeeny eae ooii/aiiue a?enoie?aoe/aneee oaao?, iieueciaaeny
iiaeaea?aeeie e iie?iaeoaeuenoaii aunoeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae naio?aeneiai
nineiaey. Oae, n?aoi Aneeaaa ?neieoeo (1358-1408) acye a?oiio Iii iiae
naia iie?iaeoaeuenoai. Oaiaeaeueiue aeeeoaoi? Oi?oiie Oeaey?ne ia
oieueei iiaeaea?aeeaae ?acaeoea oaao?aeueiiai eneonnoaa, ii e ea?ae a
iueanao Iii, auae?ay aeey naay iaeaieaa oi?aeanoaaiiua e aeaai?iaeiua
?iee. Ii aai caiuneo ienaeenue ae?aiu, a eioi?uo ii ea?a naay, aunooiay
eaaaiaea?iui aa?iai, iaea/aiiui aiaeanoaaiiie aeanoueth.

A ia/aea XVII a., n i?eoiaeii e aeanoe aeiia Oieoaaaa, ia/eiaaony iiaue
yoai a ?acaeoee oaao?a Iii. Ii nouanoaiaae oaia?ue iiae
iaiin?aaenoaaiiui iaaethaeaieai e iie?iaeoaeuenoaii n?aoiaoa e
noaiiaeony ioeoeeaeueiui, oea?aiiieaeueiui eneonnoaii (neeeaaeo). Ia?aui
i?iyaeaieai iiaiai iieiaeaiey oaao?a auei oea?aiiieaeueiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea a /anoue i?iaicaeaoaiey Oieoaaaa Eyyno n?aoiii a 1603 a.
N yoiai a?aiaie neeaaeuaaaony o?aaeeoeey ioia/aoue oi?aeanoaaiiuie
i?aaenoaaeaieyie Iii aaaeiua niauoey a aeecie i?aayuae yeeou: i?eoiae e
aeanoe n?aoia, a?aeini/aoaiea e ?iaeaeaiea ianeaaeieeia a eiaieouo
naiueyo e o.ae. Iuoiua, oi?aeanoaaiiua iiiaiaeiaaiua i?aaenoaaeaiey aeey
eca?aiiuo ono?aeaaeenue a caiea n?aoiia a Yaei. ?eooaeueiue oa?aeoa?
i?aaenoaaeaiee niinianoaiaae oiio, /oi oneiaii-neiaiee/aneia ?aoaiea
niaeoaeey i?eia?aei oa?aeoa? iacuaeaiiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai eaiiia, a
ea?a aeoa?ia noaea ?acaeaaoueny eae iinoiyiiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoieee
eniieiaiey.

A yiioo Yaei aeoa?u Iii aia?aua iieo/eee a?aaeaeaineee noaoon,
i?e?aaiaiiue e ieaeiaio ?ac?yaeo naio?aaa, e ?eniaue iaae – aeaeiaaiuea,
eioi?ia auiea/eaaeinue ei n?aoiii e aeaei?. Auee neo/ae, eiaaea aeoa?
oaeinoaeaaeny aunoaai naio?aeneiai caaiey – aeaei?, ii ecaanoiu e oaeou
eiaaea ca ieiooth ea?o aai i?eioaeaeaee naeaeaoue nyiioeo.

Niaeoaeeue oaao?a Iii i?aaenoaaeye niaie aa?iiie/aneia niaaeeiaiea
?aciiia?aciuo eneonnoa: neiaa, iocuee, oaioea, iaioiieieee,
aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa, ynoaoeee. Iaeiaei a XVII a.
eeanne/aneay iaoeeiiaeueiay ae?aia oaao?a Iii – ?e?eo, i?ienoaaeoay io
i?inoaeoeo ia?iaeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee (ianie, oaioeu, ae?iaaoeea,
aeiiaee?iaaiea e o.ae.), ana ?aaea noaaeony aeey i?inoie ioaeeee.
Eioa?anu ai?iaeaieia, aeeciue auno?i ?acaeaathuaainy e yeiiiie/anee
oneeeaathuaainy ai?iaea noae io?aaeaoue oaao? i?inoiethaeeia – Eaaoee –
oaao? aeeaiai aeoa?a, e Ieia? aec??o?e – oaao? ia?eiiaoie.

Aicieeiiaaiea Eaaoee a ia/aea XVII a. i?eiyoi naycuaaoue n aunooieaieyie
auaoae o?aiiaie oaioeiaueoeu Ieoie, noaaoae iniiaaoaeueieoeae iiaiai
iiioey?iiai c?aeeua auoiaiai oa?aeoa?a – iia eniieiyea ianie,
oaioeaaaea, ?acua?uaaea iaaieueoea noeaiee. N 1603 a. ia ioe?uouo
ieiuaaeeao oaea aunooiaao o?oiia Eaaoee. I?aaenoaaeaiey ninoiyee
i?aeiouanoaaiii eo oaioeaa n iacia/eoaeueiuie aaaaeaieyie ae?aiaoe/aneeo
noeaiie. Oaeno iuean ia nouanoaiaaei, aeoa?u eii?iaece?iaaee ii oiaeo
noeaie/aneiai aeaenoaey. Ii oaea e eiioeo XVII a. a Eaaoee noaaeeenue
iiiai-aeoiaua iueanu n nthaeaoaie, ia?aaeei caeinoaiaaiiuie ec
aa?ie/aneiai oaiaeaeueiiai yiina. A aieueoeo ai?iaeao – Yaei, Inaea,
Eeioi – nouanoaiaaee oeaeua oaao?aeueiua eaa?oaeu n iiiauaieyie aeey
oaao?aeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee e aeiaieueii neiaeiui iai?oaeiaaieai noeaiu.

Ia?aiia/aeueii a o?oiia Eaaoee ea?aee oieueei aeaiueiu. Iaeiaei
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue eiio?ieue iaae oaao?ii, iiioey?iinoue eioi?iai ana
aic?anoaea, i?eaae e cai?aoo a 1629 a. aunooieaiee aeo?en. Ia noeaio
oaao?a aeiioneaeenue oieueei thiioe. Iaeiaei e yoio oaao? a 1652 a. aue
?aniouai eae «aaci?aanoaaiiue». Oieueei a 60-o aiaeao XVII a. n
aieueoeie iaiai?eaie oaao? Eaaoee iieo/ee ?ac?aoaiea ia ioe?uoea, ii
ea?aoue ioiuia ana ?iee iiaee oieueei ioae/eiu. Yoi i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth
niaoeeaeueiiai aiieoa iiiaaaoa – eniieiaiea ioae/eiie aeaineeo ?ieae,
eioi?ia yaeyaony iaeiie eo oa?aeoa?iuo iniaaiiinoae Eaaoee e a iaoe
aeie.

I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay iieeoeea ?aaeaiaioaoeee ii ioiioaieth e Eaaoee, oae
aea eae e e ae?oaei oaao?ai ai?iaeai, aeeth/aea nioeeaeueiua ia?aie/aiey
e oa??eoi?eaeueioth eciee?iaaiiinoue aeoa?ia. I?aaeoaeuenoai ai?ieinue n
oe?ieie ecaanoiinoueth e ia?iiiui oniaoia aeoa?ia a ai?iaeneie n?aaea. A
oi aea a?aiy iii ia iiaei iieoe ia cai?ao oaao?ia, iiieiay, /oi
oaao?aeueiia aeaenoai aunooiaei naiaia?aciui «nioeeaeueiui
a?iiiioaiaeii», iicaieythuei ioaeaeaoue iecoea neie ianaeaiey io
ianouiuo nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai. Oaiaeaeueiua ?aaeaiaioaoeee no?iai
ii?aaeaeyee iacia/aiea oaao?ia: Eaaoee aue ai?iaeai, Iii –
eneeth/eoaeueii aeey naio?aenoaa.

Ia aeonu i?inoiethaeei aue ?ann/eoai e Ieia? aec??o?e – oaao?
ia?eiiaoie, iiyaeaoeeny a XVI a. ec onoiiai ianaiiiai neaca,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiiai aeeiiiaiaiaioii nyienyia e ea?ie eoeie. Niaoeeoeea
oaao?aeueiiai aeai?a aec??o?e caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi eoeeu caeanue
aaciieaiu e eeoue eeethno?e?otho iaiea e aeaeeaiaoeeth ?anneac/eea –
aeaeath, aaaeouaai aanue niaeoaeeue. Ia?aua eoeeu ii/oe ia aeaeaaeenue
ii noeaia. Iinoaiaiii iaoaieci oneiaeiaiey eie oneiaeiyeny, e iie
«Iaeeee». Au?aaioaeanue oaeaea o?aaeeoeey, eiaaea eoeeiaiae, aaaeouee
aieueooth (a aeaa o?aoe /aeiaa/aneiai ?inoa) eoeeo, ?aaioaao ia aeaeo o
ioaeeee: ianoa?a – a oea?aiiieaeueiie iaeaaeaea, n ioe?uouie eeoeaie, eo
iiiiuieee – a /a?iuo einothiao e eaithoiiao n i?i?acyie aeey aeac.

Iueanu, eioi?ua ienaeenue aeey eoeieueiiai oaao?a, ninoaaeee iniaoth
ae?aiaoo?aeth, iiaeieiaaooth naiua ino?ua i?iaeaiu aeecie ai?iaeneeo
nineiaee. Iacaaiea iuean, oae aea eae e oaao?a, i?iecioei io eiaie
aa?ieie iiioey?iiai «Neacaiey i aeaaooea Aec??o?e». A 1684 a. a Inaea, a
a 1675 a. a Eeioi auee ioe?uou oaao?u Ieia? aec??o?e, caiyaoea iniaia
ianoi a iauanoaaiiie aoiinoa?a ssiiiee oao eao aeaaiaea?y noaaeaoeieny
caeanue ae?aiaie aaeeeiai ae?aiaoo?aa Oeeaiaoeo Iiiaecayiii.

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