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A???a

N?? «????» y?y?ny ??i ? ???? ????y?? a ?????i y??. I?????a ????????y
??????y n ????? ???o ?????e e ???????o i ?????? ???? ????. E???a – y?
?????? ?????e ????ie ?y????e eth?e; ???y ?????????y ???a, ??ath?y a ?ay
??????a a??? ?????? ?y????e. E???a ????y e ??o ????? y??? ?????? ??e. I?
???? e ?????ue ??? n ????i, e ?n??y? ?, ?i ?????i ???? ?i ? ?? ae?? ???a
e ???u. A ???a ?ny???e ???? ?????? ?e ??i ????a??a e ?????a ? ???? e
???aa. *?????i ??i ? ??i ??yi, ?i?i a ???? ???ey ?i «???aey?ny» ? ????i
??????o, ????o ????. E??y ? ?o, ????ny a ??????o ???yo ??e (???????,
e?????o, ???????o, ???o e o.ae.), ??????o ?ith ???th, ????o ?? ?????a. A
??a ?????? eo?o??-??????i ???? ???? C???????e?i N?????uey ????? y?? ??o
????ueth e ??i ????. A ?ith ?a??, y? y?? ??a ??? ???u. A ??i ?y ???????
????a ????? ???? ????a A??????, ???oeey, ??eth?ay ????????ue ??a e ?a,
???? ????i, ????? ????a ?e???? ???i, ????? ?? ????. A ?????eyo ????a,
??? ??i a c????, ?????, ????? ????a ??a ???? ???/a??. I??????e ?? a
?????? e ???? ????o ???ny ?????th a ??yo e ??n???eyo ? ???th?i ??, ?????
? ??e e ????a ??a. E???y a ?u????e ??e ?????ny ? ??????y i ?? ???,
e????ue ??y? ? ?????? e ??y. N?????ay ???? ???? ?????e ?????ueth,
??????ie ?????i e ?????i. E???a A???e ???? ? ???y?? ?? ???ey?, e ?a ?
????? e ?????? ?n ??e ????o?e, ?????, ?e??e e ?????.

1. I????? ??????i ???ey A???e

A ???a ?????e ??a ??e ???e A?????y ???y – i??????a ??????a ?????i – ??ea
???? ??? ???ey ? ???ey ?????ey e ?ae??th, ???? e ??? ?????i ??y. E??ey
A???e ?e ???iy???? ?????a (8 ?y?y 324a. – 29 ?y 1453)a. ???? n ???a ????
???e ? A???oth e C???th ??e. N???e A???? ???ie ???e ?? E???????, ??a??e
?????i E?????i (?. 285-337). I?? ???aey ????? ??? a 476 a. C???y ???y
????? ?? ??????a, a A???ay ??ue ???e ??a ? ?????. N?e ????? ???? ?ith
???th ????? ????, o.a. ???? e???e, a E??????? I?? ???. I???? E???????
????y ? ??a ???e ?a??? ???e A???e, ? ?y?? ???eth e ?th A???oth ??ue ??e
???? A????e? ????, ?e A????.

A ???e A???e ???ae?ath?y ?????e, ?y??? n ????/??i, ??????e, y??????e,
y?????, ?????? ???a?. N???a ??i-???o ???? ???? i???? ? ?????oth ??ue,
????????ue, ?????-???o?? ??, ???? e ????i ???e??? ????. A???y ??a ??i
?????? ??i, ? ??? ???? ? ??a ??i ?e A???, ?e e C??a.

O????y A???e e ?i???? y????. A ??? ??? ??????y A???y ???? ??i?e ?????e.
I? ?eth?? I?oth Aceth, A????e ?????, ??ue I????? e A???, N?eth, I????,
A??o, ???a E?o e E??, O???n a I?????? e E??o ? E???, ????a ???e A??e,
???a A????i N??????uey. A?????e? ????a ??????? ?ycue ?c????e ?????e n
??y ????? ??? – A???i e C???. C?? ????e ????a ???? ?? – ????? e ???e
«???? ?? a E??» e «i?ue ?????» – ??c A??th e ??? E???? ??y, I????? ??? e
????? ?aa?. A ????? ? ??a A???y ???? ??? ????th?o ???? n ??????e y????e
e ????e i???e. I???? A???e ? A???o – O??y, a ?e ? A??o ?? ??i?e ????e
???e. A I?? A?e ????? ?????? ??, ??oy?o ???, ??????o ???e, ?? ??? ???i
???????, ?????i, ??????. A???y ?? ????? ???, ????? ????i ?cy??a, ????e
?????e, A A???e ?????ue ???a, ???o ? ??e a C???e A??a: ?????? th????
???e, ??ey?? ???, ??oy?o e ???? ??ae. N???? ???yi ?? ??? ?i ??a, ?i
??????i ???a ????a ??e, ???a ???.

??ue ???a e ????y. A IV-V a.a. ?????e ???? ?? A?e???y, A???y, Y?n, O?,
A??o, Y?n, N??a, I?ay, E??o. A??a ??? ???? ??e, ??e ??oth ????? o?oe n
????e e ???y?, ?????e n??y?. E?eth????th ?? ??e E??????eue, ??? ??????e
a ???a A???. A VI ?? ? ?????y a ???i-?????e ???. A ?i ?? ????e ?ny?e
????? ??a ? ??? ??i. E????i ???? ? ???? n E??i, E??e, E??i. ??? ????
E??????ey ?e ?????i e ?????? ???. A ???a ?n? ??????i ???? ???, ????o
?????, ???. E ??? V a. ??ue ????i 150 ?n. ???e, a ??? ???? VI a. – 375
?n. E??????? ?????ye ?? e ???o A?????e ???e.

I???? A???e, ?????a 30-35 ?i. ???e, ??iy? ? ????o y????o ?o?: ????, ???,
?iyi, ???, ???. I??a ??? ??? ???y? ?ith ????i?ue, y?e, ????, ??u e ???.
I????i a A???e ?????ny y????a ????a y?i – ??e, ??? ??e ??????? ?????th.
A??????? y??i ? VII a. ?e ????e y?e, a a VII ?? ????e.

Y?? ???ey ?????a. Ca ?ny?e?ithth ???th A???y ??? a ????i-y?????? ????e ?
????????? ??y e ?????o, e??? ????ny a XI-XI ?. A IV-VI ?. ???i ?? ??
??????? a A???e, ?oy ??i ??e ??? ??th, ? ?????ue ??ue ??th e n?????
?cy??i, ??????ue ??i ??a, ????? ? ?eth. I? ?ey?? ????ey ??yi ???? y???
?cy????e ??e Ae??? ??a ???ay ???. O?ae ??a c??y?y ??? ????o ???yi. X-XII
?. ??e ???? ?????y ????? ????e, o????ey ???e ????? ??????e. A?o???i
??????? ????? ??e, ?o?y??y a ??????e ???a, ??i ??i ?i ??????, ??????
???. A??o??? ???u ? ???? ???? ????. N?i A?????a ?????i ?? ??????i ????
????o ????, ??????o «???????? ??ouey??». E?? A???y ????ue ? ??e ??
?????? ?? ????a, a y? ??y ???? ?? ????? ??????, ???e ???????e ??? ? ???
???e e ????.

A???y e ???. E?? A?????e ???e. A??oey ?????? ????yi ??a, ??y?e? ???
(V-VI ?.), A????? ???a, ????? ???????a ????e ? ???u E??, n ???i ?a
????ay ??a ? ???? ??. A ???e A???e VII a. ?e ?????i – ???? ???a, ????a
?ith ????????ue e ?????? ??e ???? – ???????, ????e N?eth, I????, N???th
A??o. O????y ???e ?????ue ??a. A IX a. A???e ???ue ???i???y ?e ???e
???????? ???e, ???e ?a ????? ? XIII a., ??a ???y ? ??o. A 1204a.
E??????? ?e ???? ??????e, ???y ??ue ??a?? ? ??e. I???y ? ??????? ????
A???y a XIV-XV ?. ?a ??? ??e?? ? ??u. E??ey ???a. A?ey ?????ue. A 1453
?? ??e ????? Ei??????ue, ???? ?e y?i ?th ???th. A?????y ???y ????? ??
??????a.

2. A?o?????a ????? A???e

E?? ??????e ???. A???y ?? ??????-?i??e, a ???i ????? ????eye?ue ? ???. A
???a ???ey?? ??? ???a, ? ?a ???ey?? a ????e ???? ???e, a ???o ????e ?e?u
? ???y ???o ??a. E???? ?? ?????e ??????oth ???, ?a ?c?? ????o, ? ??ay ?
? ????a, ?????? ????i, ????ue ? ?e???. I??? ???????e ???th, ???? e
???eye ??ithth ????. E???ue ? ??ueth ??u ????ey? ????e ?????. A? c????
???ey ?? ???u. I??i ????? ? ????ey?y a ??? ??? y?? ??a, ? ???ny ????
???e?, ? ? ????th e ???? ? ?e ???? I?a I????. Iay????th ????? ?? ????ue
A?o. Y?e ?? ?e ???? ??? ????e ??e, E???? ??? ????y ? ?????; ?? a? ?e
?????i, ? ?i ???y? a ?????a e ????? ?e ??i ?y O??a – a ???? ?i ???a ?
???a ????e ??o.

N??a ??? ?????? ?????a ?? ????e: ????? ??? ? ?o ???i. I??a ? ?o ?? ???
??e ??????i. Oe??ay ??? ????? ??y ?????nue ? ?????. O???? ????? ????y
??? e ???i, ????o ?????a ???e. A O a. ????y ??yae ????ey ? ???e – ???
????? ?????? ??ae ia ????a, ??? ?i ???e ? ???i ?e A??? ????? a ???i ??a
??? – ??a ?y?e N??. N y?? ???a ????? ????y ??i e ?????i.

E?y ???e ?y??e ??????? ??????e ??ey?. E?? ??????e ??? ?e ????i y????
???????e ???e.

A?y?a ???. A??e ???e ??e a A???e ?? ???ue. E????u ????? ?ay ???e ???
???. A ???????? ?e ?????i ???y??? ????? ???, ????y ????? ? ??? ????eth.
A?????y ???ey ???? ?? ???? ???, ????a ???? ?ey?a ? ????, ? ?????a ????y.
Ii a ? ? ??y ???ue ??a ???? ?????a ? ?????? ????. O?????i ?? ???? a IV
a. ???????e ????, ? ? ???y ? y? ??a ????? ??y????. I????? ???? y????
???a ???y?? ? ??a V a. A ???yo ? XII a. ?????e ??o Ae???, ?????y ????ey.
I??? ????y e y???? ?a??iye ????? TH?? (331-363), ???o, ???e ?????. Ii
???e ?????? ?????, ? ?? ?????i, ???e ?e?????ue e y????. O?????y ???ue
???? ?i I?????. O????? ?????? ????i ??????a, ????a ????? y???? ?iy??e,
??u. O?, a A????? a ??a IV a. ?e ???? ??? y????i ??? N???i, ???a ?????.
Io ?????e ??u ????a-???? ???a ???a-??n? E??y (370-415). A?i ????i ?????
i????? ??. E???? ?????o y?/??o ??? ????? a ??? ??u. Iae?? ????? y????
???? ???i, n?iyy? ??????, ???a ?? ??? ???ey? ???oth ??ue A???e. Oe??? ??
??? n ??y?, ?????? ??aiey?, ????e ???o ???y?? ? ?????? ??ey. A???? e
???e ???? ?yu??a ???a ?-???o, ?y?? ???ay ?c? ????ey? ??e ?? ??u, ?a
?????? ?iy ????a eth?e ??u ? ???y. A ???a ??? ?? ??a ??????y A?????e ???
?u ?????a ?? ?iy? ?????? ?????y? e ??????? ???e. Ia ????? ???o ?a ?? i
??????e ?e ?????i?? ???. N???? ??u ?? ??? a??? ??u ?????? – i ??ie e
????e O??a, ?eth?th?e a ?ay A?a-I?a, A?a-N?a e A?a Ae?a ?y??. A???e
eth?e ??? i ???a O??a: ?a ? ? ???e? A ??? ??ey ?????ue, ?iy??. N ????
???e ????? ?????ey ??o ?????? e ?????ie ??ay?. O? ??? ??o ??e ???i e
?????????i ????? ? ?????? e ?????a ?????. A IX a. A???ay ???ue ?????ue ?
C???e. A XI a. ????e ???, ????? ???? ?????ay e ?????ay ???ue no?e
i?????e ?????y? ??????. Io ????i ?????? ????? ? ??? A???y, ? e ? ????a ?
???e ???y.

3. I??ae ???? N?????uey

I??? ?????ey ????n?e ???? ??ny ????i ????. A?????a ??n?? ????ey? ??e
??oth, ???th ???o ????? ????e. E?a??y, ????y?a a ??e ? ??, ??u??? e a
???.

I?????. A A???e a ??? N??? ??a ?? ??? ?????? eth?e, ?i a ???? A??a. N??a
??? ???? ??e – A??, A????ey, A??o, ?????ue ??a. A ????o ??? ?????e ???,
???, ??, ???e ?y? ???, ???? Y??a e N???. I???? a ??? ?? ???e. Aeey
??????e ????? ??? ???e ????? e ea???? y??a ?????? ??e. A E??????? ??
???a ??ay a A??a ??ay ??a. C?? ? ?? ???i ??? ?ae???? ???a. I????? ??????
?? ????i: ? ??? ??? ???ey?y ??????e ??i ???, a ???i ii ??e ???o.

I??? ??ey. A???u ??i ???e ??u ??i e ??e, ??u ????o ????a e ????, ?i ??
?y C??a ?a ?ae????i. A IV a. ??ue ???? ???a ?????, e?????? a ???e ?????
e ?????. N?????y ?????y y?????y a?th?? a ?ay 70 ??.

I?? ?????y ?????? a ???? ???????e ???e ??? ??????e ??e ?????? ???yi,
?????? ??i? ???, ?????ue o??, ???-???ee ????? ?????oth ??ue A???????
?????. A ? ? ??y ?y ???n???ey ?????? ?????ue ????a ??? ???? ??u.

I?? ????ny ??????. A VI a. ??o E??a E????a ???e «O????eoth ????eth», a
???e ???e ???o I???y ??????? A??e. A??????a ???y, ?iy?y ???? «??????i
y????. I??e ????? ????? ????ey ?o? e ?ith ????. A???? O????e e??e ????th
e ???th ?o??i? ????. I?? Y???e ???? y?????th ? ???? e ?????. A????u ????
«??a?? ??? – ??????th ??ue ? ???, ??u e ???u. E? ????e ???o????e ????
????. E??y ?yae ??i? ??? ? ????, a ???o ?oe???y ??? y?? ???a ???? n i???
?????th?? ???. A IX a. ????a?? ??ay ??a a E???????.

O???ey. A ??? ???? N?????uey a A???e ?e ??????i ?????? – ???i? ?????i,
y?????? e ??????i ??? n ????? I??? e A????y. I??????: I?? (410-485), E??
A????. A ????? ?????o ??? ???th ?? ??? I??i E????e. Y? y?? ??a ???? ???
????o ?????o ??yae? e ??????ey ? e ????i ?????i ????.

E????a. A???a ???? ?? ??? ? ?? ???yo ????e, ???? a ?y?e. Iiy? ?? ???e
?????atho ???? ??. I ???? ????? ?aeyo ? ????e ????? ?? ???e. ???i y??
???a ?e ??? N?????. Iiy??? y???? ??e i ??? n ???e, i ???? ?u???a. A??a
??? ??? ????? y?i???? ???? ????a a ??? ???? ?????. I?????? ??????
?????u: E?? I????, E?? Ae???i, O??? N??o. I???o O?? (?.810-890) ???o
???e «I?????», ??iy?e ? ????e e 280 ???? e ????????i ?????eyi n ?????y?.
I???a ????? ???? ?ey?a ??y??e ?????e.

Ec??????a ????i e ?????a. I???? ???o ????a ????ny ? ??y ????y TH????
(482-565) e ???? a ??o ???? ???????a e ?????a ??. E ??o ??th??y ?iy???
???? V a. ????y ?????a ??? ?i???a O???y A??. A E??????? ????y ???
??????e ????: ????, A??? ae??oe, ?? ?y?e N?? (?????u A??? e E???).
I?y??e ?????u ?????ue a ????yo e ???yo N??, I?? A?e e A??a. ?????ai??e
?o??e ???e ???? ????ny ????y i???. I???i???e ???oe ???????i ????a A??o?
???a N?? E????????? (???? IO a). I????a ????i – y? ???, ????? ? ????
??e. E???? ????o ? ???????i ????i ???? e ??????? ?????th ?y?o.

I??a. I????? ????i A???e ???? e ?????, ????e, ?iy??e ?????, a ?e ? e
???????i e ???i ???yi. N???y ??? ?? ???i ??y. N?????? ??u ????u. A???
???ea ???? ??????? ???? -?????y, ????? ????a ??e a ????? ??a a ??????e
??? e ??u. A?a ???? ?????y ??? ?????a e ????. O?i?a ???????a ???? ??u –
?????-?????y ???. E??a ??u E??a Ae???? ??????u ? 8 ??? a «Ie???. N IX a.
???i ???????a ?? N????e ????ue, ?a ???ny ????e ??o O??? N??o. Aei IX a.
?????ay ??? ??ea a A??a ??oth ?eue, ???ay a ??, TH?oth E??th, O???eth,
E???th.

4. I??ae I????? ???? e ???? E???a

A ??? I????? ??n?e (842-1057) e ???? E???a (1057-1204) a ?????? ???a
??ue ?????ny ???n ????? e ????e. I????a ????? ?i??? ????? ?????
?????th?? ?a?a ?a ????? ???? ???? e ??? ??i ???? ???? ?????? e ??i
????i.

I????? e ???a ?a?y. A XI-XII ?. c?????e ?? ????? ???? ?????a, ????? ?
???? ???eyo. A E??????? ?????ny ?????o – ??? ?????y ?y ?? ???e. Ia
th????? ????? ???e ???a ??i, ???, ???? ??e, ?????, ??ai?? ????o ???. A?
??a ?? ??? ?????ue ?????? e ????th. O a. ?y?i n ????i ?????ee y????????i
????a. I? ????? E????? VII A??y???? (913-959) ??? ?????ay, ?????y????y,
????eay e ?????ay y?????e. A?a ????? ?????ay y?????y, ????ay ??i 30 ?n.
???, ??????o a ????? ??y?a: ?uy??ey ???? ???e, ??????? ???e, ??? e o.i.
????u. O?? ???i e ???ey XI a. Ieo?? I??a ??? «O?????», ??????e ?????a,
?tho ???e ???? ?y ???ey ???e ?????? ????. ???a I.I??a «????» – ??? ??a
????i ?????y, ?eth?th?? ??? ????: ?????, ????th, ????eth e ???, ????? ?
????e y?e; i??y? ? ???? ????? a C???e A??a.

A ???e ???? a y?o ??? ????e? ?????ey ? ??????, ??o ? ??????? ???, ????i
??. I?????u ????y i ???? e ???. A ???e ?????? ?? ?????ey ??? ???? ???? e
???. Ia XI-XII ?. i????y ????ay ??????ue ?????e ae????. A??? ??????e
I.I?? e E?ii O?e ???? ???? ????th ? ?a???y, ?oy e ????? ia ???yo ????a.

E?????y ??ue a y?o ??ae??o ????a. A? ??????e – E?n??? VII A??y????, N??i
I????, ????a??th?a ????? ???? e ????i ?????th?e y??. ?????ueth ??????
??e ?? ??e?a ???a, ?i ??????? e ???th ?? ? ???? ??e. A???? ??????ue
????? ????? – I??e I??, ?? ???? ???e??e ??u ? ???e, ????eth, ?????, ?
??? ???, ?, y???i. O??? I??? (1100-1170) ?????e a ?????eyo ??i??? y?e ??
???e. A? ?????o ??i a ??? «???? e Ae???, ?y? «A?? ??e e ey???. O???
???????a a ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? n ???i ??o e ????? ???.

A y?o ??? ?y?yth?y ?????ey, ???th?a ??y? e ????ey ?????ue?e ????? ??e e
????o ??i ????? ????y. ?????i ??????i ?e??a ??? «O???? i ??? e ??ayo
A???e.

E??????? ????i e ?????a. A ???? IX-XI ?. ??th??ny ???o ??????i ?e???,
???e ???i ???tho ?????i A?????i, ?i ?y?? n ????i y??????, ??????, ???e e
??????e ?? ?????????y A???e. N???o XI-XII ?. ???ey? «??????» ???, ?
??????a ?iy??e y?o ?? ???? ???eytho ??oth ???, ????y ? ???ey a ??o e
???o ??????? ????i?.

A ????e ?????a ????? ????-????e ??. E???i-????a c???? ??i ?????? a A???e
e ?????? n ?e ???o. I??atho ???????a ????a ???, ?????? ?? ??? a ???,
???a ???? ?????o ???e ?ae ??a. O??u ???th?y ????e e ??????e, ??? ??i ?e?
e ???o ???a, ???a ?y?y?ny a????y. O??????y ???????ue ??ey ??????y ????y
???? ???. O??i ???ytho ????o ???a ?????? ??ai, ????i ????i. I?? ?i ??a
???? a ???? A??ey ???iy??. E XI a. ??ny?y ??a ?iy??e ?????u, ?e ??
E????, ????ue Ae?? ?? Ao?, N?? ????y O??n E??, ???ue A????e, ???ue O???
a A??o (1049), ???ue I?????a a N??e (XIII a.). A ???e ??/ ????ey ????
???? ?????y ??? ???a ??????ay ????, ???y ???y?ny ????a. A? ??u ???thony
? ?c e ???? ?????? ??a. I?eth??ny ??? a ????a ????e. O???i y?y?ny ??a
A??ie??e A????e, ?????e ?y ???? ?ycy. Ae??y ?????ay ??a XII a. «A???e
*?????. I????a ????i e ???th? ?????? ??y ?????y? – ????e ?e???? ??????
????a e ?????ey? ?y ??a ????e/?o ??? ????y. E??ey ? ???? ??e e ??y,
??????? ??? e ??e, ??u, ???? ?? ??????? a ???? ???e. A???i ????? ?????
???? a ????a ???.

I??a. A ?y? n ??e y?eth?? A???e, ? ??????i ??y e ???? n y?? ???e ????ny
?????e ??? ?????? ?e???: ???o ?????ey, ?????ue e ????? ???a ????atho a
????e ???.

5. Y?? I????a

Ae???y I????a – ?n??yy a ???e A?????e ???e. Y?o ??? ???i ????ny I??????i
A?????i (1261-1453).

I??i ???a ????? e ????. A XIIIa. E??????? ?e ???? ?a????? e n 1204-1261
?. ?????? ?????i? A???e. A??y ???y ????ey? ??e ???o ? ????o ?????. I?e?
???????y ??? a ???? ? e???u.

A???? ?????? ????? ????, ?????a ??y??ay ??? ?????? ??? n «??iy??». Iiy??
a XII-XIV ?. ??????e? a ???? ?????? ???? e ??????a. I???a ???e ?o?? y??
???a – Ie?? O??o, ??? ????i ??a ? 21 ?e?, ????th?? ??? n 1180 ? 1206 ?.
O?ae ???? ??? ???ey i ????i ????i ??? e ????eyo A???e ??????e e ???
«?????» ????ey, ?????ny ?????i ?y A???e. I??? A??? ??? ????e ? ????e
«E??ey C??» e «A???e ?????. E??n ????? ??? ??? ??? n ??? e ???? ??ey?.
I??oe?i ???y? ?a i??? ??e, ??????a ?????y ???ytho ?? ?????. Ec-?
???????y ??? ? ?e ???? a ??ue ??e ????ue I???a A??? (1236-1360). A ? ?
??y ????? a ???o ????????o ???i? ???aao ???n e ????eyi ??e. A ??? ?? ???
???a i????a, i ?i ??????otho ????y ? ????e, ??????e, ?????, ????.
Iiy?yth?y y???u ???????? ??????y. A??? I??i (1335-1452) ??? ??? ??ae
ia?? ?iy? e ?uy??ue ???o ?e ????, ?e e ???o A????.

I????ay ??a ?eth?? a ?ay ???eth, ????eth, ?????eth. Ia ?????i ?????
I????i ?????? ? XVII a. ?e?iy?? ?????i ? ?????, ?????? a XIIIa. ??????
??? I???i I????i.

E?????a ??u ???? ???? ????o ?????-?????? ?????e a ??a ?????th?? ???
A???e.

????a ??e ?????i ???? ??a??a 1453a., ?????? ??? ??o??? e ?????a ??????
??e ?????a ?iy?. A ????e ???ath?y ?????a ???y. I?ae????e: A???e N??o
(??ae XIII-XIVa.), I??? E???a (XIVa.), A???e I??a (?.1297-1360). I?????i
?????y ??a, ?????a ?????????o ????o, ?????a ?????a, ??oth ?? a ???i ??e
A??? I??i.

E????a. A?????y ????? ? ???y? ??ai ?????y ?e I????o. N????ny ??? ??????
???? ??? e ???, ?i ???n?oth?e ???, ??????? e ??????? ???a ?ey?y. I??????
????? y?? ???e – I??? A???a, E??, A???, ????? ?y? I??e I??e e I??e O?.
Ae?? ? ?n ??? «E??? A????a, «A????» e ???. I??e O????, I??i, A???? I????
y?yth?y ??????y? ???y, ???? ? ?? n ????? e ????n?? ???eth ??? ??uey??o
?????.

E????y ??ue ??????i ???? i????? ??a ????y: ?????y ????a?a ??? ?e ??????e
?????, ?ath?e ??? ????e y?e e ???a ????? ???a. I??????? ???? e ??????e
???? ??a ????a a ????e I??? I??a, ???e ???e i?????? ???ey ????i ???ey e
??? ec ?? ?o ????e, ???a ???oth?y n ??????e ???e, ????? ????e ??????ue
???a ????i e ??????i ????e.

C?eth??a

A?????y ???? a ??i ???a ?????? ?ey?a ? ????a?a ??uey??? ?????a. I?? IV
????ai ??? (1204a.), ????? e ???th E??????ey, A???y ????? ?????? a
???i-???? ???? ??uey??o ???a. ????i ????i ?????? y?? ??i ?????a ?????
??? e ????an?? y??, ????i-?????e ???? ??????i ??.

A???y ??a ???i-????? ?????a ? E???th ??ue. ??ue ??y? ?????? ?????? e
???? a 988 ?? ?e ?y? A????. A?????a ?ey?a ????o a ??????a ????a ??a.
N?ay??a ??? ??iy? a ???????i ????a ???? ????ey ???? e ??? ???, ????a
??????e e ???????e.

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