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Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa 1. ?aiiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea

1.1 «Eoeueoo?a aaciieanoaothuaai aieueoeinoaa»

1.2 ?ieue oea?eae a ia?eiae ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey.

1.3 O?oaaaeo?u

Aeaaa 2. Aunieia (eeanne/aneia) N?aaeiaaaeiauea.

2.1 Ca?iaeaeaiea «ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u».

2.2. N?aaeiaaaeiauea XIV-XV aaea

Caeeth/aiea.Aaaaeaiea

N?aaeieie aaeaie eoeueoo?ieiae iacuaatho aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae a enoi?ee
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu iaaeaeo Aioe/iinoueth e Iiaui A?aiaiai. Yoio ia?eiae
ioaaouaaao aieaa ouny/aeaoey n V ii XV aaea.

Aioo?e ouny/aeaoey i?eiyoi auaeaeyoue ii iaiueoae ia?a o?e ia?eiaea:

· ?aiiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea, io ia/aea yiioe aei 900 eee 1000 aiaeia (aei
X – XI a.a);

· Aunieia (Eeanne/aneia) N?aaeiaaaeiauea – io X -XI aaeia aei i?eia?ii
XIV aaea;

· Iicaeiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea, XIV- XV aaea.

Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u a eiioaenoa N?aaeiaaaeiauey ?anniao?eaatho e oae
iacuaaaiue ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae io N?aaeieo aaeia e Iiaiio A?aiaie (
XVI-XVII aaea), iaeiaei i?aaenoaaeyaony aieaa iainiiaaiiui
?anniao?eaaoue ia?eiae ?aoi?iaoeee e Eiio??aoi?iaoeee eae ioaeaeueiue
ia?eiae enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u, ieacaaoee aieueoia aeeyiea ia aeaeueiaeoaa
oi?ie?iaaiea eoeueoo?iiai niciaiey ia?iaeiuo iann.

Ia?iaeiay eoeueoo?a yoie yiioe – iiaay e ii/oe ia?acaaaeaiiay aua a
iaoea oaia. Eaeaieiaai oaiaeaeueiiai iauanoaa oaeaeinue ia oieueei
iooanieoue ia?iae io n?aaenoa oeenaoeee aai iuneae e iano?iaiee, ii e
eeoeoue enneaaeiaaoaeae iineaaeothueo a?aiai aiciiaeiinoe ainnoaiiaeoue
iniiaiua /a?ou aai aeooiaiie aeecie. «Aaeeeee iaiie», «aaeeeee
ionoonoaothuee», «ethaee aac a?oeaia e aac eeoe» – oae eiaiotho
nia?aiaiiua enoi?eee ia?iae a yiioo, eiaaea aeey iaai aue cae?uo
iaiin?aaenoaaiiue aeinooi e n?aaenoaai ienueiaiiie oeenaoeee eoeueoo?iuo
oeaiiinoae.

Ia?iaeiie eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiauey ia iiaacei a iaoea. Iau/ii, eiaaea
aiai?yo i iae, oiiieiatho naiia aieueoaa inoaoee ae?aaiaai ie?a e yiina,
ia?aaeeoee

ycu/anoaa. A oao n?aaieoaeueii ?aaeeeo neo/ayo, eiaaea nia?aiaiiue
niaoeeaeeno ia?auaaony e ia?iaeiie ?aeeaeiciinoe n?aaeiaaaeiauey, o iaai
ia iaoiaeeony aeey iaa eiuo oa?aeoa?enoee eae «iaeaiay», «i?eieoeaiay»,
«iaioanaiiay», «a?oaay», «iiaa?oiinoiay», «ia?aeiae/aneay»,
«?aay/aneay2; yoi ?aeeaey «ia?iaea-?aaaiea», ia?aiieiaiiay noaaa?eyie e
i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia neaci/iia e aaniineiaiia.

E?eoa?ee aeey iiaeiaiuo ioeaii/iuo noaeaeaiee aa?oo ec «aunieie» ?aeeaee
i?inaauaiiuo e eiaiii n eo iiceoeee noaeyo i niciaiee e yiioeeiiaeueiie
aeecie i?inoiethaeeiia, ia noaay ia?aae niaie caaea/e ?anniio?aoue aa
«ecioo?e», ?oeiaiaenoaoynue aa nianoaaiiie eiaeeie. [2, no?. 9]

Oaeei ia?acii, aeieaia a?aiy a enoi?eei-eoeueoo?ieiae/aneie eeoa?aoo?a
ainiiaenoaiaae acaeyae ia N?aaeiaaaeiauea eae ia «oaiiua aaea». Iniiau
oaeie iiceoeee auee caeiaeaiu i?inaaoeoaeyie. Iaeiaei enoi?ey eoeueoo?u
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai iauanoaa auea aeaeaei ia noieue iaeiicia/ia.

1. ?aiiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea.

1.1 «Eoeueoo?a aaciieanoaothuaai aieueoeinoaa»

?aiiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea – a?aiy, eiaaea a Aa?iia i?ienoiaeeee ao?iua e
i/aiue aaaeiua i?ioeannu, oaeea, eae aoi?aeaiea aa?aa?ia, caeii/eaoeany
iaaeaieai ?eineie eiia?ee. Aa?aa?u naeeeenue ia caieyo auaoae eiia?ee,
anneieee?iaaeenue n aa ianaeaieai, nicaeaaay iiaoth iauiinoue Caiaaeiie
Aa?iiu.

Iiaua caiaaeiiaa?iiaeoeu i?e yoii, eae i?aaeei, i?eieiaee o?enoeainoai,
eioi?ia e eiioeo nouanoaiaaiey ?eia noaei aai ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aeeaeae. O?enoeainoai a ?acee/iuo aai oi?iao auoaniyei ycu/aneea
aa?iaaiey e yoio i?ioeann iinea iaaeaiey eiia?ee oieueei onei?eeny. Yoi
aoi?ie aaaeiaeoee enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann, ii?aaeaeyaoee eeoei ?aiiaai
N?aaeiaaaeiauey a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia.

O?aoueei nouanoaaiiui i?ioeannii auei oi?ie?iaaiea ia oa??eoi?ee auaoae
?eineie eiia?ee iiauo ainoaea?noaaiiuo ia?aciaaiee, nicaeaaaaoeony oaie
aea «aa?aa?aie». Ieaiaiiua aiaeaee i?iaicaeaoaee naay ei?ieyie,
aa?oeiaaie, a?aoaie, iinoiyiii aithy ae?oa n ae?oaii e iiae/eiyy naaa
aieaa neaauo ninaaeae. Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth aeecie a ?aiiaa
N?aaeiaaaeiauea auee iinoiyiiua aieiu, a?aaaaee e iaaaae, eioi?ua
nouanoaaiii caiaaeeyee yeiiiie/aneia e eoeueoo?iia ?acaeoea.

A ia?eiae ?aiiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey eaeaeiua iiceoeee oaiaeaeia e
e?anoueyi aua ia ioi?ieeenue e e?anoueyinoai, oieueei ?iaeaeaaoaany eae
iniaue eeann iauanoaa, a ie?iaicc?ai/aneii ioiioaiee ?anoai?yeinue a
aieaa oe?ieeo e iaii?aaeaeaiiuo neiyo. [1, no?. 16]

Aeaaiay ianna ianaeaiey Aa?iiu oiai a?aiaie – naeueneea
aeeoaee, ia?ac aeecie eioi?uo aue anaoeaei iiae/eiai ?ooeia, a e?oaici?
aei e?aeiinoe ia?aie/ai. Eiina?aaoeci – iaiouaieaiue i?eciae yoie
n?aaeu.

E?anoueyinoai e aai aeeciue ii/oe aiana ia io?aaeathony a nioeeaeueiie
ea?oeia ie?a, eae iuneeeanue iia a oo ii?o, e yoio oaeo nai ii naaa
aanueia neiioiiaoe/ai. Iauanoai, aa?a?iia ii naiae i?e?iaea, no?ieaoaany
ia yenieoaoaoeee e iiae/eiaiee oe?ieeo neiaa naeueneiai ianaeaiey, eae
au iicaieyei naaa eaeaieiae/anee eaii?e?iaaoue nianoaaiiia aieueoeinoaa.

Ia?aaeien: i?inoie ethae, i?aaeaea anaai – e?anoueyinoai, i?ace?aaiia e
eaii?e?oaiia ainiiaenoaothuei eeannii, aianoa n oai, a ii?aaeaeaiiii
niunea, aeiieie?iaaei a aeooiaiie aeecie ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey.
Naeueneay aeeciue n aa iaoi?iieeaie ?acia?aiiinoueth e ia?eiaee/aneie
niaiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo naciiia, auea aeaaiui ?aaoeyoi?ii nioeeaeueiiai
?eoia iauanoaa ([ 1], no?. 63)

Oea?eiaue ia ?acaeaeyea ioe?uoie a?aaeaeaaiinoe e e?anoueyiai. Aa
caaea/a ninoiyea a oii, /oiau ii aiciiaeiinoe naeaaeeaaoue nioeeaeueiua
eiioeeeou e aioaaiieciu. Ia?auaynue e neeueiui ie?a naai, iia acuaaea e
ieeina?aeeth ii ioiioaieth e oaiaoaiiui e iaacaeieaiiui.

Yoi ni/oanoaea i?ienoaeaei a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ec nioeeaeueiiai o/aiey
oea?eae, eioi?ay i?aaiciineei aaaeiinoue, n/eoay aa, eaeaaeueiui
ninoiyieai.

I?aaaea, inoaeaeaiea aiaaonoaa, noieue ?aoeoaeueiia a i?iecaaaeaieyo
oea?eae III-V aaeia, auei ianeieueei i?eaeooaii a eeoa?aoo?a aieaa
iicaeiaai a?aiaie, eiaaea oea?eiaue noaea e?oiiaeoei nianoaaiieeii.
I?ineaaeaiea aea aaaeiinoe i?ioiaeeo eaeoiioeaii /a?ac ana eeoa?aoo?iua
iaiyoieee ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aaaeioth /a?oo n?aaeiaaaeiaie neiaaniinoe – a
iauanoaa, iiaeaaeythuay /anoue eioi?iai auea iaa?aiioia, ienueiaiiinoue
ia

neoaeeea ii?aaeaeythuei n?aaenoaii /aeiaa/aneeo eiiioieeaoeee.
N?aaeiaaaeiaia iauanoai a naiae oieua auei iauanoaii aanienueiaiiui.
([2], no?. 19)

Ia i?ioyaeaiee aieueoiai enoi?e/aneiai ia?eiaea ia?iaeiua aeeaeaeou e
ycuee Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, aoaeo/e n?aaenoaaie onoiiai iauaiey ethaeae, ia
iiaee iaeaaeaoue noa?ie ienueiaiiinoe – iia inoaaaeanue anaoeaei iiae
aeanoueth eaouie – ycuea, eioi?ue aue oianeaaeiaai io i?aaeoanoaiaaaoae
yiioe aa?iiaeneie enoi?ee e yaeyaoaainy ioeoeeaeueiui e
i?ioanneiiaeueiui ycueii aaeeinoaaiii ia?aciaaiiiai e
iiiiiieece?iaaaoaai ia?aciaaiea neiy iauanoaa – aeooiaainoaa. Auoue
a?aiioiui icia/aei ciaoue eaouiue. Niioaaonoaaiii, nio?aiyeinue, eae
nouanoaaiiia e cia/eiia, ooaa?aeeaoaany a iicaeiae aioe/iinoe aeaeaiea
ethaeae ia litterati e illiterati, o.a. ia ia?aciaaiiuo, ciathueo
eaouiue, e ia «eaeeioia» – iaa?aiioiuo, aeiaieuenoaothueony aeaiiui ei
io ?iaeaeaiey a?oaui ia?iaeiui ycueii. ([2], no?. 16)

A V-IX a.a. ana oeieu a no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu iaoiaeeeenue a ?oeao
oea?eae. Oea?eiaue ninoaaeyea i?ia?aiio iao/aiey, iiaeae?aea o/aueony.
Aeaaiay caaea/a auea ii?aaeaeaia eae ainieoaiea neoaeeoaeae oea?eae. A
oea?eiaiuo oeieao i?aiiaeaaaeenue «oianeaaeiaaiiua» io aioe/iinoe, oae
iacuaaaiua «naiue naiaiaeiuo eneonnoa»: a?aiiaoeea, ?eoi?eea,
aeeaeaeoeea n yeaiaioaie eiaeee, a?eoiaoeea, aaiiao?ey, ano?iiiiey e
iocuea.

E?iia iiiaoaneeo oeie nouanoaiaaei oaeaea iacia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai oae
iacuaaaiuo «aiaoieo» oeie, aaea iao/aeenue thiioe, ia i?aaeiacia/aiiua
aeey oea?eiaiie ea?uea?u. Iaeiaei yoi auee, a iniiaiii, aeaoe ec ciaoiuo
naiae.

O?iaaiue i?aiiaeaaaiey a ?aciuo oeieao aue iaiaeeiaeia, niioaaonoaaiii,
iaiyeny e o?iaaiue ia?aciaaiey ethaeae. Iinea ii?aaeaeaiiiai iiaeuaia
VIII-IX a.a. ?acaeoea oinoaaiiie aeecie a X-ia/aea XI a.a. caiaoii
caoi?iiceeanue. Aeooiaainoai, a iniiaiii, auei iaa?aiioii,
?ani?ino?aiyeinue iaaaaeanoai. I?eoee a oiaaeie ne?eioi?ee –
ianoa?neea, nouanoaiaaaoea i?e oea?eayo, a eioi?uo ia?aienuaaeenue
?oeiiene, a oaeaea oea?eiaiua e iiianou?neea aeaeeioaee. Eiea auei iaei
e noieee iie aaniineiaii aei?iai, /oi cae?uei iooue e ia?aciaaieth
aeaaea aeaoyi ec ioiineoaeueii iaania/aiiuo naiae.

A ia?eiae ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey aeoeaii ?acaeaaeanue onoiay iiycey,
iniaaiii aa?ie/aneee yiin, /oi auei oa?aeoa?ii, i?aaeaea anaai, aeey
Aiaeee e no?ai Neaiaeeiaaee.

Iaeiaei, neaaeoao aua ?ac iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ana aea n?aaeiaaaeiaue
aa?iiaaoe, aeeth/ay e aunoea neie iauanoaa, aue i?aeiouanoaaiii
iaa?aiioai. Oaeanathua ieceei aue o?iaaiue a?aiioiinoe aeaaea
nayuaiieeia a i?eoiaeao.

O?iaaiue aea ia?aciaaiiinoe ie?yi aue aiiaua ieieiaeueiui. Ianna
i?eoiaeai neooaea iaa?aiioiuo nayuaiieeia. I?e yoii naia Aeaeey auea
aeey ?yaeiauo ie?yi cai?aoia, aa oaenou n/eoaeenue neeoeii neiaeiuie e
iaaeinooiiuie aeey iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai aini?eyoey i?inouo i?eoiaeai.
Oieeiaaoue aa aeicaieyeinue oieueei nayuaiiineoaeeoaeyi. Ianniaay
n?aaeiaaaeiaay eoeueoo?a – yoi eoeueoo?a aaneieaeiay, «aeiaooaiaa?aiaa».
Iia iie?aeanue ia ia ia/aoiia neiai, a ia econoiua i?iiiaaaee e
oaauaaaiey. Iia nouanoaiaaea /a?ac niciaiea aaca?aiioiiai /aeiaaea. Yoi
auea eoeueoo?a iieeoa, neacie, ieoia e aieoaaiuo caeeyoee. ([3], no?.31)

Aianoa n oai, cia/aiea neiaa, iaienaiiiai e iniaaiii – cao/auaai, a
n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?a auei /?acau/aeii aaeeei. Iieeoau
aini?eieiaeenue ooieoeeiiaeueii eae caeeeiaiey, i?iiiaaaee ia aeaeaeneea
nthaeaou – eae ?oeiaiaenoai e iauaeaiiie aeecie, iaae/aneea oi?ioeu –
eae niinia ?aoeoue i?iaeaiu. Ana yoi oaeaea oi?ie?iaaei n?aaeiaaaeiaue
iaioaeeoao. Ethaee i?eaueee iai?yaeaiii aaeyaeuaaoueny a ie?oaeathuoth
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, aini?eieiay aa eae iaeee oaeno, nenoaio neiaieia,
niaea?aeauee iaeee aunoee niune. Yoe neiaa-neiaieu iaaei auei oiaoue
?aniiciaaaoue e ecaeaeaoue ec ieo aiaeanoaaiiue niune. Yoei, a
/anoiinoe, iauyniythony e iiiaea iniaaiiinoe n?aaeiaaaeiaie
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u, ?ann/eoaiiie ia aini?eyoea eiaiii oaeiai,
aeoaiei ?aeeaeiciiai e neiaiee/aneiai niciaiey. Iiyoiio aeey
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai niciaiey, n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iaioaeeoaoa eoeueoo?a,
i?aaeaea anaai, au?aaeaea niune, aeooo /aeiaaea, i?eaeeaeaea /aeiaaea e
Aiao, eae au ia?aiineea a eiie ie?, a ioee/iia io caiiiai auoey
i?ino?ainoai. E i?ino?ainoai yoi auaeyaeaei oae, eae iienuaaeinue a
Aeaeee, a aeeoeyo nayouo. Niioaaonoaaiii yoiio ii?aaeaeyeinue e
iiaaaeaiea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai aa?iiaeoea, any aai aeayoaeueiinoue.

1.2 ?ieue oea?eae a ia?eiae ?aiiaai N?aaeiaaaeiauey.

Aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony iniaay
?ieue o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey e o?enoeaineie oea?eae. A oneiaeyo
anaiauaai oiaaeea eoeueoo?u n?aco iinea ?aniaaea ?eineie eiia?ee,
oieueei oea?eiaue a oa/aiea iiiaeo aaeia inoaaaeanue aaeeinoaaiiui
nioeeaeueiui einoeoooii, iauei aeey anao no?ai, ieaiai e ainoaea?noa
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. Oea?eiaue auea ia oieueei aeaaainoaothuei iieeoe/aneei
einoeoooii, ii e eiaea aeiieie?othuaa aeeyiea iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia
niciaiea ianaeaiey. A oneiaeyo oyaeaeie e neoaeiie aeecie, ia oiia
e?aeia ia?aie/aiiuo e iaeiaeinoiaa?iuo ciaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a,
oea?eiaue i?aaeeaaaea ethaeyi no?ieioth nenoaio ciaiee i ie?a, aai
ono?ienoaa, aeaenoaothueo a iai neeao. Yoa ea?oeia ie?a oeaeeeii
ii?aaeaeyea iaioaeeoao aa?othueo naeyi e ai?iaeai e iniiauaaeanue ia
ia?acao e oieeiaaieyo Aeaeee.

Any eoeueoo?iay aeeciue aa?iiaeneiai iauanoaa yoiai ia?eiaea a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyeanue o?enoeainoaii.

Ia?iiioth ?ieue a aeecie iauanoaa oiai a?aiaie ea?aei iiiaoanoai:
iiiaoe a?aee ia naay iaycaoaeuenoaa «ooiaea ec ie?a», aaca?a/ey, ioeaca
io eiouanoaa. Iaeiaei oaea a VI aaea iiianou?e i?aa?aoeeenue a neeueiua,
ia?aaeei – i/aiue aiaaoua oeaio?u, aeaaeathuea aeaeaeeiui e iaaeaeaeeiui
eiouanoaii. Iiiaea iiianou?e auee oeaio?aie ia?aciaaiey e eoeueoo?u.

Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao aeoiaoue, /oi noaiiaeaiea o?enoeaineie ?aeeaee a
no?aiao Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu i?ioiaeeei aeaaeei, aac o?oaeiinoae e
i?ioeaiai?noaa a niciaiee ethaeae ni noa?uie ycu/aneeie aa?iaaieyie

Ianaeaiea auei o?aaeeoeeiiii i?eaa?aeaii e ycu/aneei eoeueoai e
i?iiiaaaeae e iienaiey aeeoey nayouo auei iaaeinoaoi/ii aeey ia?auaiey
aai a enoeiioth aa?o. A iiaoth ?aeeaeth ia?auaee n iiiiuueth
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe. Iaeiaei e aeieaia a?aiy nionoy iinea
ioeoeeaeueiiai i?eciaiey aaeeiie ?aeeaee, aeooiaainoao i?eoiaeeeinue
ai?ioueny n onoie/eauie ia?aaeeoeaie ycu/anoaa a n?aaea e?anoueyinoaa.

Oea?eiaue oie/oiaeaea eaieua e eaeieia, cai?auaea iieeiiyony aiaeeai e
niaa?oaoue aea?oaii?eiioaiey, ono?aeaaoue ycu/aneea i?acaeieee e
?eooaeu. No?iaua iaeacaiey oa?iaeaee oai, eoi caieiaeny aaaeaieyie,
i?i?eoeaieyie, caeeeiaieyie eee i?inoi aa?ee a ieo.

Iiiaea ycu/aneea iau/ae, i?ioea eioi?uo ai?ieanue oea?eiaue, auee yaii
aa?a?iiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey. Oae, a «Ia?a/ia noaaa?ee e ycu/aneeo
iau/aaa», ninoaaeaiiiai ai O?aioeee a VIII aaea, oiiieiathony «ai?icaeu
aie?oa aea?aaaiue» e ia «eaeiea, ii iieyi iineiii». I?aiaeieaoue
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue, e oaeiai ?iaea ?eooaeai, auei iaeaaei, iiyoiio
oea?eiaue iioea ia nio?aiaiea iaeioi?uo ycu/aneeo ia?yaeia, i?eaeaa yoei
aeaenoaeyi ie?aneo ioeoeeaeueiuo oea?eiaiuo ?eooaeia. Oae, aaeaaiaeii
ia O?ieoeo ono?aeaaeenue i?ioeannee «e?anoiiai oiaea» ii iieyi n
iieaieai ia o?iaeaa acaiai ycu/aneiai «iioaiey eaeiea». ( [1], no?. 65)

Oi?ie?iaaiea i?ioeanna o?enoeaiecaoeee auei iaeiei ec enoi/ieeia ino?uo
noieeiiaaiee, o.e. ni noa?ie aa?ie o ia?iaea ia?aaeei naycuaaeenue
iiiyoey ia?iaeiie naiaiaeu, iaaeaeo oai, eae naycue o?enoeaineie oea?eae
n ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoueth e oaiaoaieai i?inooiaei aeinoaoi/ii
io/aoeeai.

«Ai?ueaa i?ioea ycu/anoaa, oaeei ia?acii, auea ninoaaiie /anoueth
i?ioeanna oaiaeaeueiiai iiae/eiaiey e?anoueyinoaa». ([1], no?. 69)

A niciaiee iann naeueneiai ianaeaiey, iacaaeneii io aa?u a oao eee eiuo
aiaia, nio?aiyeenue onoaiiaee iiaaaeaiey, i?e eioi?uo ethaee /oanoaiaaee
naay iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeeth/aiiuie a e?oaiai?io i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee.

Yoi iinoiyiiia aicaeaenoaea i?e?iaeu ia /aeiaaea e aa?a a aicaeaenoaea
/aeiaaea ia oiae i?e?iaeiuo yaeaiee i?e iiiiue oeaeie nenoaiu
naa?ouanoanoaaiiuo n?aaenoa auei i?iyaeaieai iaae/aneiai niciaiey
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai niiauanoaa, aaaeiie /a?oie aai ie?iaicc?aiey. A niciaiee
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai aa?iiaeoea ie? aeaeaeny eae naiaia?aciay a?aia
i?ioeaiai?noaa nee iaaaniuo e aaeneeo, aeia?a e cea. I?e yoii niciaiea
ethaeae auei aeoaiei iaae/aneei, ana auee aaniethoii oaa?aiu a
aiciiaeiinoe /oaean e aini?eieiaee ana, i /ai niiauaea Aeaeey, a
aoeaaeueiii niunea.

A naiii iauai ieaia ie? aeaeaeny ethaeyi a niioaaonoaee n iaeiae
ea?a?oe/aneie eanoieoeae, aa?iaa – eae neiiao?e/iay noaia,
iaiiieiathuay niaie aeaa neiaeaiiua naieie iniiaaieyie ie?aieaeu.
Aa?oeia iaeiie ec ieo – Aia. Ieaea eaeoo o?iaie nayuaiiuo ia?niiaaeae –
Aiinoieu, a?oaiaaeu, aiaaeu e o.i. Ia eaeii-oi o?iaia a yoo ea?a?oeth
aeeth/athony ethaee: nia/aea iaia e ea?aeeiaeu, caoai eee?eee aieaa
ieceeo o?iaia, caoai – ie?yia, ia/eiay ni naaoneie aeanoe. Caoai,
aeaeueoa io Aiaa e aeeaea e caiea, ?aniieaaaeenue aeeaioiua e ?anoaiey,
iioii – naia caiey, oaea iieiinoueth iaiaeooaaeaiiay. A aeaeueoa oei
eae au ca?eaeueiia io?aaeaiea aa?oiae, caiiie e iaaaniie, ea?a?oee , ii
a eiii ecia?aiee, eae au ni ciaeii «ieion» , ii ia?anoaieth cea e
aeecinoe e Naoaia, yaeyaoainy aiieiuaieai Cea. ([1], no?. 137)

Oea?eiaue ?ueyii ai?ieanue ni anaie ia?aaeeoeaie ycu/anoaa, aianoa n oai
i?eieiay eo. Oae, iacuaay ycu/anoaii anyeea ia?yaeu, caaiai?u e
caeeeiaiey, oea?eiaue, oai ia iaiaa, aaea ianoiyuoth ioioo ca ethaeueie,
yeiau iaeaaeathueie niiniaiinoueth yoe caaiai?u e caeeeiaiey oai?eoue.
Iniaaiii iianiuie oea?eiaue n/eoaea aeaiuei, caieiathueony ecaioiaeaieai
anyeiai ?iaea niaaeiaee e aioeaoia. A iiniaeyo aeey eniiaaaeieeia
aieueoia aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue «niiniaiinoyi iaeioi?uo aeaiuei eaoaoue ii
ii/ai ia oaaaoe». ([1], no?. 75)

Oaeei ia?acii, i?eciaeaie ?aiian?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u iiaeii n/eoaoue
i?eaa?aeaiiinoue o?aaeeoeee, eiina?aaoeci anae iauanoaaiiie aeecie,
ainiiaenoai noa?aioeia a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii oai?/anoaa, onoie/eainoue
iaae/aneiai iuoeaiey, eioi?ia auei iaaycaii e oea?eae.

2.2 O?oaaaeo?u

N?aaeiaaaeiaua ethaee ioiineeenue e a?oenoai ni niaoaiiui /oanoaii
ainoeuaiey e iaaeiaa?ey. Iaeioi?ay iiaeic?eoaeueiinoue aucuaaeanue oai,
/oi e iaaaoe, e neaceoaeue, e ieiuaaeiie caaaaiee — ana iie auee
«eeoeaaeayie», o.a. i?aaenoaaeyee a eeoeao ae?oaeo ethaeae; iie eae au
caiaiyee naieo ia?niiaaeae niaith, ioeacuaaynue io naiaai nianoaaiiiai
eeoea e iaaeaaae /oaeea ianee. Ii n?aaeiaaaeiaui i?aaenoaaeaieyi,
i?ioanney a?oenoa auea n?iaeie aeueyaieo — i?eoai?ueeo e iaiaiueeo.
Iiyoiio oea?eiaue niaaoiaaea aa?othuei aea?aeaoueny iiaeaeueoa io
a?oenoia e iocueaioia: nayuaiieeai cai?auaeinue ?acaeaeyoue n ieie
o?aiaco, a i?inoui o?enoeaiai eo/oa auei niio?aoue oieueei oa
oaao?aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey, a eioi?uo ecia?aaeaeenue niauoey ec aeecie
Eenona O?enoa, aiaiiaoa?e eee aiinoieia. Oee/iuo iaaoeia oea?eiaue
n/eoaea ethaeueie, naeaoeieny n iooe, e iaauaea ei aa/iua ioee ia oii
naaoa. Ii ?acaea/aiee o ai?iaeaieia, e?anoueyieia e
?uoea?y auei ia oae oae iiiai, iiyoiio iiyaeaiea oieonieea ia ai?iaeneie
ieiuaaee, iaaoea e iiyoa — a ?uoea?neii caiea anaaaea noaiiaeeinue
i?acaeieeii. AEeciue n?aaeiaaaeiaiai /aeiaaea oea a iniiaiii
iaeiiia?aciui ioo?i, i?ieiaeaiiui iooeaie e aeaaeaie; eaaeaeia iiaia
eeoei auei a aeeeiaeieo, iii noaiiaeeinue ieiii, ioe?uoui a oe?ieee ie?.
A oae anee i?eoaeaoe ciae neacaiey i ei?iea A?oo?a e aai ?uoea?yo, i
aeiaeanoiii ?ieaiaea e aa?iyo e?anoiauo iioiaeia — ai?iaeneay ieiuaaeue
uaae?i nuiaea aio a oaieo na?aa?yiua e iaaeiua iiiaou, a ?uoea?ue aeaaae
i?etho o naiaai i/aaa ia ianeieueei aa/a?ia.

Iniaaiiie neaaie iieueciaaeenue o?oaaaeo?u — iiyou, eniieiyaoea naie
noeoe iiae iocueaeueiue aeeiiiaiaiaio. A iniiaiii iie aaee a?iaey/oth
aeeciue, ia?aacaeae io aeai?a iaeiiai ciaoiiai naiuei?a e ae?oaiio.
?anoeaao eneonnoaa o?oaaaeo?ia ianooiee a THaeiie O?aioeee a 12-15 aa.
I?ienoiaeaeaiea neiaa o?oaaaeo? naycaii aiana ia n o?oaie, eae iiaeii
iiaeoiaoue, a ni noa?ui o?aioeocneei neiaii o?ia, icia/aaoei «eneoniue
i?e?i» iniaia ecyuanoai. aeaenoaeoaeueii, iiiaea o?oaaaeo?u oiaee
ni/eiyoue i?ae?aniua ianie, ecyuiua, ni neiaeiuie ?eoiaie e aiaaoie
ea?ie neia. N?aaee o?oaaaeo?ia auei iaiaei ?uoea?ae, ethaeae ciaoiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey; iaeiei ec eo/oeo iiyoia-?uoea?ae aue aa?oeia Aeeii
Aeaeoaineee. Noeoe o?oaaaeo?ia, ainiaaaaoeo aaccaaaoiia neoaeaiea
?uoea?y eca?aiiie ei aeaia na?aeoea, auno?i aioee a iiaeo.
Iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi iie i/aiue i?aaeeenue aeaiueiai; ciaoiua aeaiu
noaee o?aaiaaoue io naieo iieeiiieeia iiaaaeaiey, iienaiiiai a noeoao.
?uoea?ue, oiaaoee eeoue ?aciaoeaaoue ia/ii, noae oaia?ue i?aaeiaoii
ianiaoae; aeaiai auee ieeu eaaaea?u, oiaaoea au?aceoue naie /oanoaa
neiaaie e oaeiuie ciaeaie, niiniaiua ?acia?aoueny a oaeiao aeaineiai
na?aeoea. Iiycey o?oaaaeo?ia ieacaea eneeth/eoaeueii aieueoia aeeyiea ia
oi?ie?iaaiea iniaie ?uoea?neie eoeueoo?u, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieaoaeny a
Aa?iia iaeiei- aeaoiy aaeaie iicaea. Iiyoe/aneea iaoiaeee
o?oaaaeo?ia oe?iei ia?aieiaeenue e eniieueciaaeenue iaaoeaie iii?iua,
eniieiyaoeie ia ai?iaeneeo ieiuaaeyo oae iacuaaaiua «aeanouo»
noeoioai?iua iiaanoe i aa?iyo ieioaoeo a?ai?i). [6 n.323] Eo/oaa a?aiy
o?oaaaeo?ia iineaaeiyy /aoaa?oue OII e ia?aay /aoaa?oue II aaea. Yoi
auea aeaaiaeaoiay ii?a. Iaeei ec iaeaieaa neeueiuo iiyoia Aa?o?ai aea
Aaioaaei?i ainiaaae ethaiaue eae aaee/aeoaa aeaai aeecie, aea?iaaiiia
ethaeyi, ainiaaae aanio, i?e?iaeo, nieioea. Ii i?eciaaaeny a iaeiie ec
naieo eaioeii: «Iiycey eiaao aeey iaiy oeaio eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iia
enoiaeeo ec aeoaeiu na?aeoea, ii yoi aiciiaeii eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea a
na?aeoea oea?eo niaa?oaiiay ethaiaue. Aio ii/aio iie ianie auoa anao
ae?oaeo ianai, eai ethaiaue caiieiyao ana iia nouanoai – ?io, aeaca,
na?aeoea e /oanoaa». Aa?o?ai aea Aaioaaei?i auoae ec iecia, aue ainieoai
i?e aeai?a aeeiioa aea Aaioaaei?ia. Nia/aea ii ainiaaae aeaio naiaai
naiuei?a, iioii aiaeeeneoth ei?ieaao Yeaiii?o, i?e aeai?a eioi?ie ii
iaeii a?aiy aeee. Ae?oaie o?oaaaeo? yoiai ia?eiaea Iae?a Aeaeaeue
ecaanoai eae ino?ioiiaeoee aanaeue/ae, aaoaae, yeno?aaaaaioiue oaanooi.
«ss iaeei acye a ieai noi ?uoea?ae, a o noa ae?oaeo ioiye aeiniaoe; y
canoaaee ieaeaoue noi aeai, a noa ae?oaei inoaaee ?aaeinoue e aanaeuea»,
— ?aniaaae Aeaeaeue. Aai noeoe iiei?ytho eaaeinoueth ycuea, naaaeanoueth
ia?acia, aanaeui ici?noaii e caaei?ii.[7 n. 147]

2. Aunieia (eeanne/aneia) N?aaeiaaaeiauea.

A ia?eiae eeanne/aneiai, eee aunieiai N?aaeiaaaeiauey, Caiaaeiay Aa?iia
ia/aea i?aiaeieaaaoue cao?oaeiaiey e aic?iaeaeaoueny. N X aaea
oe?oiieeenue ainoaea?noaaiiua no?oeoo?u, /oi iicaieeei niae?aoue aieaa
iiiai/eneaiiua a?iee e aei iaeioi?ie noaiaie i?ae?aoeoue iaaaae e
a?aaaaee. Ienneiia?u iiianee o?enoeainoai a no?aiu Neaiaeeiaaee,
Iieueoe, Aiaaiee, Aaia?ee, oae /oi e yoe ainoaea?noaa aioee a i?aeoo
caiaaeiie eoeueoo?u.

Ianooieaoay ioiineoaeueiay noaaeeueiinoue iaania/eea aiciiaeiinoue
auno?iai iiaeuaia ai?iaeia e yeiiiieee. AEeciue noaea iaiyoueny e
eo/oaio, a ai?iaeao ?anoeaaoaea naiy eoeueoo?a e aeooiaiay aeeciue.
Aieueooth ?ieue a yoii ea?aea oa aea oea?eiaue, eioi?ay oiaea
?acaeaaeanue, niaa?oainoaiaaea naia o/aiea e i?aaiecaoeeth.

Ia aaca ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo o?aaeeoeee Ae?aaiaai ?eia e i?aaeieo
aa?aa?neeo ieaiai aicieeei ?iiaineia, a iicaea aeanoyuaa aioe/aneia
eneonnoai, i?e/ai ?acaeaaeanue ia oieueei a?oeoaeoo?a e eeoa?aoo?a, ii e
ae?oaea aeaeu eneonnoaa – aeeaiienue, oaao?, iocuea, neoeueioo?a…
Eiaiii a yoo yiioo auee nicaeaiu oaaeaa?u eeoa?aoo?u, «Ianiue i
?ieaiaea», «?iiai i ?ica».

Aicieeaao e ?acaeaaaony oae iacuaaaiay ?uoea?neay eeoa?aoo?a . Iaeii ec
iaeaieaa ciaiaieouo i?iecaaaeaiee – aaee/aeoee iaiyoiee o?aioeocneiai
ia?iaeiiai aa?ie/aneiai yiina-“Ianiue i ?ieaiaea”. A XII iiyaeythony
?uoea?neea ?iiaiu. A /enea iaeaieaa iiioey?iuo aue noeoioai?iue ?iiai i
a?eoaineii ei?iea A?oo?a.

Aaaeiue iaiyoiee aa?iaineie ia?iaeiie eeoa?aoo?u XII-XIII aa – “Ianiue
i Ieaaeoiaao”, iiaanoaothuay i iaoanoaee aoiiia ia Ao?aoiaeneia
ei?ieaanoai a ia/aea V a . A iniiaa “Ianie i Ieaaeoiaao” eaaeao ae?aaiea
aa?iaineea neacaiey.

Cia/eoaeueiui yaeaieai a eeoa?aoo?a O?aioeee a XII-XIII aa auee aaaaiou
e eo iiycey. Aaaaioaie (io eao . vagantes – a?iaey/ea) iacuaaee
a?iaey/eo iiyoia. Iniaaiiinoueth eo oai?/anoaa auee iinoiyiiay e?eoeea
eaoiee/aneie oea?eae e aeooiaainoaa ca ae/iinoue, eeoeaia?ea e
iaaaaeanoai. Oea?eiaue, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?aneaaeiaaea aaaaioia.

Aaaeiaeoee iaiyoiee aiaeeeneie eeoa?aoo?u XIII a – ciaiaieoua «Aaeeaaeu
i ?iaei Aoaea», eioi?ue e iiiuia inoaaony iaeiei ec naiuo ecaanoiuo
aa?iaa ie?iaie eeoa?aoo?u.

I?acaeie/iay eoeueoo?a n?aaeiaaaeiauey.

N?aaeiaaaeiaua ai?iaeneea i?acaeieee, n eo y?eeie c?aeeuaie,
?acaea/aieyie, ianea?aaeaie ainoiaeeee e ycu/aneei eoeueoai e ia?yaeai.
Oae, iiaiaiaeiee ?eineee ycu/aneee i?acaeiee eaeaiae, eioi?iio oea?eiaue
i?ioeaiiinoaaeea naie ?iaeaeanoaaineee oeeee, a Aecaioee ni?aaeyeny
aieioue aei XIII aaea.

Iiaiaiaeiei eaeaiaeai (1—5 yiaa?y) i?aaeoanoaiaaee a?oiaeee (n 24 iiya?y
ii 17 aeaeaa?y), nii?iaiaeaeaaoeany ea?iaaaeueiuie oanoaeyie ?yaeaiuo e
ieyneaie, eioi?ua ia?aiia/aeueii eieoe?iaaee ?acee/iua aeaenoaey i?e
oai?ea o?iaeay e ecaioiaeaiee aeia. ?yaeaiua eeoi ieynaee e ?aniaaaee
ianie, a eioi?uo auniaeaaeenue aaeueiiaee, oea?eiaiineoaeeoaee e
noaeaeneea /eiiaieee. N 17 ii 23 aeaeaa?y ni?aaeyeenue iaiaocaeaiii
aanaeua naoo?iaeee, n oee?eiauie i?aaenoaaeaieyie, aea?oaii?eiioaieyie
naeiuee.

Ai a?aiy naieo eaeaiae ?yaeaiua, oiiaeiaea eieanieoeo noeaia,
nicuaaee oieio caaae e iniaeaaee aunooth aeanoue. Ii neoaeeoaee
o?enoeaineie oea?eae, a?aaeaeaaiie aeooiaiie naiaiaea ia?iaea, iauaaeii
i?aneaaeiaaee aieueiua ea?u ii?aaiuaiiuo o?oaeaieeia, iauyaeyy yoe ea?u
«ii?iaeaeaieai aeueyaiea». Oea?eiaieeai oaeaeinue aini?aiyonoaiaaoue
naiaiaeiiio ?acaeoeth ianniaiai ia?iaeii-i?acaeie/iiai oai?/anoaa,
iniaaiii — aai naoe?e/aneiio ia/aeo. Ia iaiaauaaiia a?aaeaeaineeie
eaeayie, yoi oai?/anoai auei i?eaeooaii.

E ana-oaee ioaeaeueiua aeaeu oaanaeaiee i?iaeieaeaee aeeoue,
ii?iaeea iiaue aeae ia?iaeiiai c?aeeua — i?aaenoaaeaiey aeno?eiiia,
eioi?ua aianee aieueoie aeeaae a noaiiaeaiea eoeueoo?u Caiaaeiie
oeeaeeecaoeee iie iacuaaeenue neiii?ioaie.

?anoeaao aeayoaeueiinoe aeno?eiiia a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia eae
ianniaiai e iiioey?iiai eneonnoaa i?ienoiaeeo n XI ii XIII aae, o. a.
iaaeaao ia a?aiy aicieeiiaaiey n?aaeiaaaeiauo ai?iaeia. Aeno?eiiu auee
y?/aeoeie au?aceoaeyie ie?neiai, aeeciaethaeaiai aeooa a n?aaeiaaaeiaii
ai?iaea. A eo aanaeuo, aea?ceeo ianiyo, a eo ia?iaeeeiuo noeaieao,
caoayo e ianea?aaeiuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo i?iyaeeinue noeoeeiia aoioa?noai
ia?iaeiuo iann. Iniaaiii y?ei yoi au?aceeinue a aeayoaeueiinoe aaaaioia.

Aaaaiou (derlei vagantes — eao. – «no?ainoaothuea eee?eee») auee
eeai iaaeio/eaoeieny naieia?enoaie, eeai ici?iuie oeiey?aie, eeai
?acaeaeiaaiiuie nayuaiieeaie. Iie aunooiaee n ici?iuie eaoeineeie
ianiyie, ia?iaee?othueie oea?eiaiua aeiiu. Oae, aianoi ia?auaiey e «Aiao
anaiiaouaio» neaaeiaaei ia?auaiea e «Aaoono anaiuethuaio».
Ia?iaee?iaaeanue aeaaea iieeoaa «Io/a iao».

Aeno?eiiu ono?aeaaee e i?aaenoaaeaiey eoeieueiiai oaao?a, ia?aua
oiiieiaiey i eioi?uo ioiinyony e eiioeo XII aaea.

A ia?eiae ?aiiaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey oieueei /oi ia/aaoay ?acaeaaoueny
oi?aiaey iaoiaeeeanue a oaniie nayce n aiaineoaeaieai. Neiaii «ianna»
ia?aiia/aeueii iaicia/atho, e iaaaeith, e y?ia?eo, oae eae oi?aiaey
niaaeeiyeanue n oea?eiaiuie i?acaeianoaaie e i?ioeanneyie. A oa/aiea
anaai n?aaeiaaaeiauey ia yoeo ieiuaaeyo iaoiaeeeenue ?uiee, oi?aiaua
?yaeu, ea?ueee e aoaeee. Caeanue ono?aeaaeanue y?ia?ea.

Ia/eiay n IX aaea, eaoiee/aneay oea?eiaue, ai?ynue n ia?iaeiuie
i?acaeianoaaie e ia?yaeiauie i?aaenoaaeaieyie, a eioi?uo i?iyaeyeenue
naiaiaeiiuneea e aoioa?noai cae?aiiuaaiuo e?anoueyi, auea auioaeaeaia
eneaoue iaeaieaa au?aceoaeueiua e aeioiae/eaua n?aaenoaa a oeaeyo
aicaeaenoaey naieo aeiaiaoia ia aa?othueo. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio ia/eiaaony
aeoeaiue i?ioeann oaao?aeecaoeee iannu. I?e yoii iiiaea o?aaiaiou
?einei-eaoiee/aneiai ?eooaea oaea caeeth/aee a naaa iioaioeeaeueiua
aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey ae?aiaoe/aneiai aeaenoaey (inaauaiey oea?eae,
e?anoiue oiae, ?yae «i?i?i/aneeo» oaenoia e o. ae.).

2.1 Ca?iaeaeaiea “ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u”.

A yoio ia?eiae auno?i ?acaeaaaony oae iacuaaaiay «ai?iaeneay
eeoa?aoo?a», aeey eioi?ie auei oa?aeoa?ii ?aaeenoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea
ai?iaeneiai iianaaeiaaiiai auoa ?acee/iuo neiaa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, a
oaeaea iiyaeaiea naoe?e/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee. I?aaenoaaeoaeyie ai?iaeneie
eeoa?aoo?u a Eoaeee auee *aeei Aiaeaeieuea?e, Aaeaei I?eaiaee ( eiiaoe
XIII aaea). [4]

?acaeoea ai?iaeneie eeoa?aoo?u naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i iiaii yaeaiee a
eoeueoo?iie aeecie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai iauanoaa – ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?a,
nua?aaoae i/aiue aieueooth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee a
oeaeii. Nooue ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u naiaeeeanue e iinoiyiiiio oneeaieth
naaoneeo yeaiaioia ai anao noa?ao /aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Ai?iaeneay eoeueoo?a ca?iaeeeanue ai O?aioeee a XI-XII aa. A yoio
ia?eiae iia auea i?aaenoaaeaia, a /anoiinoe, oai?/anoaii «aeiiaea?ia»,
eioi?ua aunooiaee ia ai?iaeneeo ieiuaaeyo eae aeoa?u, ae?iaaou,
ae?anne?iaueee, iocueaiou e iaaoeu. Iie aunooiaee ia y?ia?eao, ia?iaeiuo
i?acaeieeao, naaaeueaao, e?anoeiao e o.i. e iieueciaaeenue aieueoie
iiioey?iinoueth a ia?iaea.

I?eia?ii n na?aaeeiu XII aaea oaao?aeueiua aeaenoaey ia?aiauathony
ec-iiae oea?eiaiuo naiaeia ia ieiuaaee e aeaenoaey ?acua?uaathony oaea
ia ia eaouie, a ia o?aioeocneii ycuea. A ?iee aea aeoa?ia aunooiatho
oaea ia nayuaiiineoaeeoaey, a ai?iaeaia, nthaeaou iuean noaiiayony ana
aieaa naaoneeie, iiea ia i?aa?auathony a noeaiee ec iauaeaiiie
ai?iaeneie aeecie, /anoi naeia?aiiuie aeia?ie ii?oeeae naoe?u. A yoi aea
a?aiy ?acaeaaaony oaao?aeueiia eneonnoai e a Aiaeee.

Iiaui e /?acau/aeii aaaeiui yaeaieai, naeaeaoaeuenoaothuei ia oaeoaeaiee
i?ioeanna ?acaeoey ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u, auei nicaeaiea a ai?iaeao ia
oea?eiaiuo oeie – yoi auee /anoiua oeieu, iaoa?eaeueii io oea?eae ia
caaenyuea. I?aiiaeaaaoaee yoeo oeie aeeee ca naao ieaou, aceiaaiie n
o/aueony e iao/aoue a ieo naieo aeaoae iiaee ana, eoi iia iicaieeoue
naaa caieaoeoue ca iao/aiea. N yoiai a?aiaie eaeao auno?ia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a?aiioiinoe a n?aaea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey.

3. Iicaeiaa n?aaeiaaaeiauea.

Iicaeiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea i?iaeieaeeei i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey aa?iiaeneie
eoeueoo?u, ia/aaoeany a ia?eiae eeanneee. Iaeiaei oiae eo aue aeaeaei ia
aeaaeeei. A XIV-XV aaeao Caiaaeiay Aa?iia iaiaeiie?aoii ia?aaeeaaea
aaeeeee aieiae. Iiiai/eneaiiua yieaeaiee, iniaaiii /oiu, i?eianee
iaen/eneeiua /aeiaa/aneea aea?oau. I/aiue neeueii caiaaeeeea ?acaeoea
eoeueoo?u Noieaoiyy aieia.

A yoe ia?eiaeu iaoaa?aiiinoue e no?ao aeaaeaee iannaie. Oicyenoaaiiue
iiaeuai niaiyaony aeeeoaeueiuie ia?eiaeaie niaaea e canoiy. A ia?iaeiuo
iannao oneeeaaeenue eiiieaenu no?aoa ia?aae nia?oueth e caa?iaiui
nouanoaiaaieai, oneeeaathony no?aoe ia?aae ia/enoie neeie.

A eiioea N?aaeiaaaeiauey a niciaiee i?inoiia?iaeuey Naoaia
o?ainoi?ie?oaony ec, a iauai-oi, ia no?aoiiai e eiiaaea niaoiiai /a?oa
ai anaiiaouanoaaiiiai iiaaeeoaey oaiiuo nee, eioi?ue a caaa?oaiea caiiie
enoi?ee aunooieo a ?iee Aioeo?enoa.

Ae?oaay i?e/eia no?aoia – aieiae, eae neaaenoaea ieceie o?iaeaeiinoe e
ianeieueeeo eao canoo.

Enoi/ieee no?aoia eo/oa anaai aunaa/eaathony a iieeoaa e?anoueyieia
oiai a?aiaie: «Ecaaae ian, Ainiiaee, io /oiu, aieiaea e aieiu». ([1],
no?. 330)

Ainiiaenoai onoiie eoeueoo?u iiuii niinianoaiaaei oiiiaeaieth noaaa?ee,
no?aoia e eieeaeoeaiuo iaiee.

Iaeiaei, a eiioea eiioeia, ai?iaea aic?iaeaeaeenue, ethaee, ooeaeaaoea
io ii?a e aieiu, iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue ono?aeaaoue naith aeeciue
eo/oa, /ai a i?aaeuaeouea yiioe. Aicieeee oneiaey aeey iiaiai iiaeuaia
aeooiaiie aeecie, iaoee, oeeinioee, eneonnoaa. Yoio iiaeuai n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth aae e oae iacuaaaiiio Aic?iaeaeaieth eee ?aiannaino.

Caeeth/aiea.

A N?aaeiea aaea eiiieaen i?aaenoaaeaiee i ie?a, aa?iaaiee, oinoaaiiuo
onoaiiaie e nenoaiu iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ue oneiaii iiaeii auei au iacaaoue
«ia?iaeiie eoeueoo?ie» eee «ia?iaeiie ?aeeaeiciinoueth» oae eee eia/a
aue aeinoiyieai anao /eaiia iauanoaa ([1], no?. 356).

Iuoeaiea n?aaeieo aaeia auei i?aeiouanoaaiii oaieiae/aneei.

N?aaeiaaaeiaay oea?eiaue , n iianeie e iiaeic?aieai ioiineaoayny e
iau/ayi, aa?a e ?aeeaeiciie i?aeoeea i?inoiia?iaeuey, eniuouaaea ia naaa
eo aeeyiey. Eae i?eia?, iiaeii i?eaanoe naieoeeiie?iaaiea oea?eiaueth
eoeueoa nayouo a aai ia?iaeiie eioa?i?aoaoeee.

Iaae/aneee iiaeoiae e i?e?iaea ?ani?ino?aiyeny ia o?enoeaineea ia?yaeu,
aa?a a /oaeana auea iianaianoiie.

Any eoeueoo?iay aeeciue aa?iiaeneiai iauanoaa yoiai ia?eiaea a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ii?aaeaeyeanue o?enoeainoaii.

Aa?iiaeneia n?aaeiaaaeiaie iauanoai auei i/aiue ?aeeaeicii e aeanoue
aeooiaainoaa iaae oiaie auea /?acau/aeii aaeeea. O/aiea oea?eae auei
enoiaeiui iiiaioii anyeiai iuoeaiey, ana iaoee – th?eni?oaeaioeey,
anoanoaiciaiea, oeeinioey, eiaeea- ana i?eaiaeeeinue a niioaaonoaea n
o?enoeainoaii. Aunoaa aeooiaainoai auei aaeeinoaaiii ia?aciaaiiui
eeannii, iaeiaei n?aaeiaaaeiaue aa?iiaaoe, aeeth/ay e aunoea neie
iauanoaa, aue iaa?aiioai. Oaeanathua ieceei aue o?iaaiue a?aiioiinoe
aeaaea nayuaiieeia a i?eoiaeao. Eeoue e eiioeo XV aaea oea?eiaue
iniciaea iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiaoue ia?aciaaiiua eaae?u e ia/aea ioe?uaaoue
aeooiaiua naieia?ee.

Ianniaay n?aaeiaaaeiaay eoeueoo?a – yoi eoeueoo?a
aaneieaeiay, “aeiaooaiaa?aiaa”. Iia iie?aeanue ia ia ia/aoiia neiai, a
ia econoiua i?iiiaaaee e oaauaaaiey. Iia nouanoaiaaea /a?ac niciaiea
aaca?aiioiiai /aeiaaea. Yoi auea eoeueoo?a iieeoa, neacie, ieoia e
aieoaaiuo caeeyoee.

«Ia?aaiaeii» iuneae nioeeaeueiie e aeooiaiie yeeou ia aeinooiiue aeey
iiieiaiey anao ethaeae ycue noaee i?iiiaaaee, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie
cia/eoaeueiue ieano n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u. I?eoiaeneea nayuaiieee,
iiiaoe, ienneiia?u aeieaeiu auee ?anoieeiauaaoue ia?iaeo iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey aiaineiaey, aiooaoue i?eioeeiu o?enoeaineiai iiaaaeaiey e
enei?aiyoue iai?aaeeueiue ia?ac iuneae. Nicaeaaaeanue niaoeeaeueiay
eeoa?aoo?a, eioi?ay iiioey?ii eceaaaea iniiau o?enoeaineiai o/aiey,
aeaaay ianoaa ia?acoeu aeey iiae?aaeaiey. Yoa eeoa?aoo?a, a iniiaiii,
i?aaeiacia/aeanue nayuaiieeai, /oiau iie eniieueciaaee aa a naiae
iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Ai a?aiaia eeanne/aneiai N?aaeiaaaeiauey aicieeaao ai?iaeneay
eoeueoo?a eae iiaia yaeaiea eoeueoo?iie ia?iaeiie aeecie, nua?aaoay
i/aiue aieueooth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee caiaaeiie oeeaeeecaoeee a oeaeii.
Nooue ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u naiaeeeanue e iinoiyiiiio oneeaieth naaoneeo
yeaiaioia ai anao noa?ao /aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Iicaeiaa N?aaeiaaaeiauea i?iaeieaeeei i?ioeannu oi?ie?iaaiey
aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u, ia/aaoeany a ia?eiae eeanneee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1. Ao?aae/ A.ss. “N?aaeiaaaeiaue ie?: eoeueoo?a aaciieanoaothuaai
aieueoeinoaa”. I., 1990 a

2. Ao?aae/ A.ss. “ I?iaeaiu n?aaeiaaaeiaie ia?iaeiie eoeueoo?u”. I.,
1981 a.

3. Ao?aae/ A.ss. “ Eaoaai?ee n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u” I., 1984 a

4. Iiae ?aae. Ia?eiaie A.I. ”Eoeueoo?ieiaey”, I., 1995 a.

5. Iiae ?aae. ?aaeoaeiie A.A. “Eoeueoo?ieiaey”. I., 1997 a

6 Anaie?iay enoi?ey. Yioeeeeiiaaeey oii-1 Iineaa «Aaaioa+»,1993a. 685n.

7 A?oaiiiia N.Ae. Eeoa?aoo?a n?aaeieo aaeia: ei. aeey o/aueony no.
ee.-I, «I?inaauaiea», 1992a., 240n.

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