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Культура России во второй половине XIX века

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Eoeueoo?a ?innee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea

Ieai

1.?acaeoea i?inaauaiey e iaoee

2. Aeeaae ?onneie eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa a ie?iaoth eoeueoo?o

1. ?acaeoea i?inaauaiey e iaoee

Ioiaia e?aiinoiiai i?aaa e ?ino iaauaaeuie oaiiaie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo
nee naiui iaiin?aaenoaaiiii ia?acii neacaeenue ia ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea. ?ino i?iiuoeaiiinoe, niaa?oaiinoaiiea oaoieee
i?iecaiaenoaa ianoiyoaeueii o?aaiaaee a?aiioiuo ?aai/eo, aieueoiai /enea
niaoeeaeenoia, /oi aucaaei ?acaeoea i?inaauaiey e iaoee. I?eiauaiea
ao?aeoacee e eoeueoo?a naeaeaei i?ioeann aa ?acaeoey aieaa oe?ieei, /ai
?aiueoa.

A ii?aoi?iaiiia a?aiy a ?innee Neiaeeeny iniaue neie ia?aciaaiiuo
ethaeae, eio?ue iieo/ee iacaaiea “eioaeeeaaioeey”. Iiae eioaeeeaaioeeae
noaee iiieiaoue eeoe oinoaaiiiai o?oaea, iio?aaiinoue a eioi?ii
aic?anoaea ii ia?a iiaea?iecaoeee ?innee. E eioaeeeaaioeea ioiineeenue
caineea, oaoie/aneea, oai?/aeea, iao/iua ?aaioieee, iaaeaaiae, a?a/e,
aaeaieaou e aeo?iaeenou. I?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiie?aoe/aneie eioaeeeaaioeee
i?aoaiaeiaaee ia ?ieue au?ceoaeae eioa?ania ia?iaea. Iie aeoeaii
o/anoaiaaee a inaiaiaeeoaeueiii aeaeaeaiee, aaea eo aeaiie?aoeci /anoi
i?eieia ?ieue e?aiea oi?iu ?aaiethoeeiiiie aea?oaaiiinoe. A ?aciua aiae
a yoie ?iee auoiaee I.A *a?iuoaaneee, Ae.E Iena?aa, I.E Eaa?ia, E.I.
Oienoie, I.E Ieoaeeianeee.

Iaia ianoi caieiaea ia?iaeay eioaeeeaaioeey, eoaea aoiaeee a?aiioiua,
oyioaoeany e ciaieyi e eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeoaee e?anyinoaa e
oaa?e/ii-caaiaeneeo ?aai/o.

Ianeaaeeai e?aiinoiie yiioe aue e?aeia ieceee o?iaaiue a?aiioiinoe
ia?iaea. Aeaaea a Iaoa?ao?aa a eiioea 60-o aa. aeiey iaa?aiioiuo (ca
eneeth/aiea aeaoae aei 7 eao) ninoaaeyea 44%. A Iineaa iaa?aiioiuo
ieacaeinue 55%. A aoaa?ineeo ai?iaeao yoio i?ioeaio iiauoaeny aei 60-70
%, a oacaeiuo – aei 70-80 %, a aea?aaie a?aiioiinoue auea ?aaeeei
yaeaieai.

Iieiaeaiea oeo/oaeinue ii ia?a ?acaeoey caineie oeieu. Oaaee/eeinue
eiee/anoai e ai?iaeneeo oeie. Ianeieueei iicaeiaa n 80-o aiaeia noaea
?anoe?youeny naoue oea?eiaii-i?eoiaeneeo oeie. Ai iiiaeo ai?iaeao
aeaenoaiaaee aine?aniua oeieu aeey ac?ineuo. Auea i?iaaaeaia ?aoi?ia
oeieueiiai aeaea, oniaa?oainoaiaaia nenoaia iiaeaioiaee o/eoaeae aeey
ia?iaeiuo oeie. Oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaee o?oaeu
ciaiaieoiai iaaeaaiaa E.Ae. Ooeineiai. E eiioeo aaea oniaoe a aeaea
ia?iaeiiai iao/aiey auee i/aaeaeiu. A?aiioiinoue a n?aaeiai ii ?innee
i?aauneea 21%.

Iauay aeeiaieea i?aiaeieaiey iaa?aiioiinoe, aieiaiea, eio?ia oaeaeyeinue
ia?iaeiie oeiea, n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua auaeaeyeenue ia ?acaeoea oeieueiiai
aeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaii, aeaaaee iniiaaiea aiai?eoue i oii, /oi a iaeanoe
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey i?ienoiaeeee ea?aeeiaeueiua

ia?aiaiu.

Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?ani?ino?aiaiee ia?aciaaiey eiaee ?acee/iua
iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, ioaee/iua aeaeeioaee e /eoaeueiu, ae?oaea
iauaaeinooiiua n?aaenoaa i?inaauaiey e naiiia?aciaaiey. *enei ioaee/iuo
aeaeeioae au?inei n 280 a 60-o aa. aei 862 a 1894a. E eiioeo aaea a
?innee auea oe?ieay aeaeeioa/iay naoue. Anaai ian/eouaaeinue aei 500
e?oiiuo ioaee/iuo aeaeeioae e ieiei 3000 caineeo ia?iaeiuo aeaeeioae.
Iieueciaaiea eie auei ii aieueoie /anoe aanieaoiui.

Ii-iiaio iiaieth aaaeiaeoei niauoeai a ?acaeoea i?inaauaiey A ?innee
noaei ioe?uoea a Iineaa a 1862a. Iineianeiai Ioaee/iiai e ?oiyioeaaneiai
Iocaoia, a eioi?ii auee nia?aiu iaoe?iay aeaeeioaea, ?onneay e
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay aeeaiienue, eieeaeoeey iiiao, iaaeaeae, i?oaeey
e.o.ae. A 70-a aa. 19 a. a Iineaa ioe?uaathony aeaa iocay, ?aoathueo
i?inaaoeoaeueneea caaea/e, – Enoi?e/aneea e Iieeoaoie/aneea.

Aua a ia/aea aaea aicieeea eaeay o/?aaeaeaiey iocay ioa/anoaaiiiai
eneonnoaa. Caoai yoa eaeay Ia?aea eiie?aoiia aiieiuaiea a ?acee/iuo
/anoiuo aaeea?ayo. Iauanoaaiiia i?eciaiea e e ieai/aoaeueiia ?acaeoea
oi?ie?iaaiey ?onneie oeieu ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa iiaeaaee e
iaiaoiaeeiinoe nicaeaiy iaoeeiiaeueiiai iauaaeinooiiiai iocay.

1865 a. noae ia/aeii e?oiiaeoaai nia?aiey I.I. O?aoueyeiaa. Aai
eieeaeoeey yaeyea niaie i?aaie/aneia aiieiuaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iniia
?onneiai eneonnoaa. A 1892 a. I.I. O?aoueyeia i?eiye ?aoaiea ia?aaeaoue
a aea? Iineaa naith ooaeiaeanoaaiioth eieeaeoeeth. Yoio oaa
niinianoaiaae i?eiyoeth ?aoaiey i nicaeaiee iocay ?onneiai eneonnoaa e a
Iaoa?ao?aa. 13 ai?aey 1895 a. Aeaenaiae? 3 iiaeienae oeac “Ia
o/?aaeaeaiee iniaiai onoaiiaeaiey iiae iacaaieai “?onneiai Iocay
Eiia?aoi?a Aeaenaiae?a 3″ e i i?aaenoaaeaiee aeey nae oeaee
i?eia?aoaiiiai a eacio Ieoaeeianeiai Aeai?oea ni anaie i?eiaaeeaaeaueie
aio oeeaaeyie, neoaeaaie e naaeii”. Ioe?uoea iocay ninoiyeinue 17 ia?oa
1898 a.

ss n/eoath, /oi ?acaeoea ia?aciaaiey iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeo naaa aac
eiea, aeo?iaeia, aacao. Ii /eneo iacaaiee a 1861 a. a ?innee auei
ecaeaii 1773 eieae, a a 1895 a.-8699. Ecaeaoaeuenoai I.Iiiiaie, E.Ae.
Nuoeia, A. N. Noai?iaa, O.O. Iaaeaieiaa, oiaa?euanoaa “Iin?aaeiee”
ecaeaaaee iiiai eiea aeey ia?iaea “aiciiaeii eo/oaai niaea?aeaiey ii
oaeaoaaeaiiui oeaiai”. Aeaiie?aoe/aneee eieaiecaeaoaeue Iaaeaieia ecaeae
na?ee “AEeciue caia/aoaeueiuo ethaeae” (180 eiea), “Iooeeineay
aeaeeioaea”, “Iiaay aeaeeioaea”.

Aieueoie iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeenue aeo?iaeu “Nia?aiaiiee”,
“Ioa/anoaaiiua caienee”, “?onneia neiai”, “Aeaei” aeaiie?aoe/aneiai
iai?aaeaiey, enoi?e/aneea aeo?iaeu “?onneay noa?eia”, “?onneee a?oea”,
“Enoi?e/aneee aanoiee”, iao/ii-iiioey?iua “Aie?oa naaoa” e ae?oaeath

E eiioeo 19 aaea a ?innee ecaeaaaeinue 105 aaeaaeiaaiuo aacao, ?yae ec
ieo eiae aaeaiany/iua i?eeiaeaiey. A oneiaeyo i?iaeieaeaaoaainy
oeaico?iiai aiaoa ia/aoue ionoiyea naia i?aai ia au?aaeaiea
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey. Caeiaii aa iacaaeneiinoe auea oeiainiaay
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Iieo/aoue eacaiiua iiaea/ee n/eoaeinue iinouaeiui
aeaeii. Ia/aoue i?eieiaea ana aieaa ianniaue oa?aeoa?, aeioiaey aei
oe?ieeo neiaa ianaeaiey. Ana yoi ii-iiaio iiaieth noaei iaiouaieaiie
/anoueth ?onneie eoeueoo?u.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea o/aiua ?innee aeiaeaaeenue e?oiiuo oniaoia
ii/oe ai anao iaeanoyo ciaiey, aienaee neaaiua no?aieoeu a eaoiienue
aeinoeaeaiee ie?iaie iaoee.

60-a aa. iieiaeeee ia/aei iiaie yiioa a ?acaeoee anoanoaaiiuo iaoe.
Ia?yaeo n ?aaioaie *a?eca Aea?aeia anaie?iia cia/aiea eiaee ioe?uoey
E.I. Na/aiiaa, E.E Ia/ieeiaa, E.A. Oeie?ycaaa.

Eaai Ieoaeeiaey Na/aiia aue e?oiiaeoei o/aiui. Aai iaiaathuea o?oaeu
“?aoeaenu aieiaiiai iicaa”, “Oeceieiaey ia?aii nenoaiu” auee iaienaiu ia
iniiaa iiiai/eneaiiuo iiuoia . A eieaao ii iiaiio auea inayuaia
aeayoaeueiinoue aieiaiiai iicaa e oeaio?aeueii ia?aiie nenoaiu. Iie
iieiaeeee ia/aei e?oiiaeoei ioe?uoeyi a aeieiee e iaaeeoeeia. E.I.
Na/aiia ae oaeaea auaeathueiny iaaeaaiaii, ainieoaaei ieayaeo
oaeaioeoeauo o/aiuo.

Eeuey Euee/ Ia/ieeia ?aaioae a iaeanoe aeieiaee e iaaeeoeeiu. Ca
?ac?iaioeo oai?ee eiioieoaoa, iniiaiu iieiaeaiey eioie iceiaeaiu a
?aaioa ” I oeaeaaiuo neeao i?aaiecia”, ii iieo/ee Iiaaeaaneoth i?aieth.
Iniiaiiieiaeiee yaiethoeeiiiie yia?eieiaee, nicaeaoaeue ia?aie a ?innee
oeieu iee?iaeieiaee e eiioiieiaee.

Iniiaiiieiaeiee ?onneie oeieu oeceieiaee ?anoaiee Eeeiaio A?eaaeueaae/
Oeie?yca enneaaeiaae i?iann oioineioaca. Auea ecaeaia eieaa Oeie?ycaaa
“AEeciue ?anoaiee” auaea?aeaeeaoay aeanyoee ecaeaiee ia iiiaeo ycueao
ie?a.

Aunieoth ioeaieo a ie?iaie iaoee iieo/eee o?oaeu o/aiuo-oeieeia Ae.E
Iaiaeaeaaaa, A.I Aooea?iaa, I.I Ceieia e ae?.

Aeieo?ee Eaaiiae/ Iaaeaeaaa ioe?ue ia?eiaee/aneee caeii oeie/aneeo
yeaiaioia, eioi?ue eaaeeo a iniiaa nia?aiaiiie oeiee. A 1869 a., eiaaea
Ae.E Iaiaeaeaaa aia?aua ninoaaee naith oaaeeoeo, auei ecaanoii 63
yeaiaioa. Ioe?uoea Iaiaeaeaaaa auei iacaaii “iao/iui iiaeaeaii”.

Ii noae iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae aa?ioeiee. Iaiaeaeaaaui aue ecia?aoai
no?aoinoao.

Aeaaeaiee Aeaenaiae? Ieoaeeiae/ Aooea?ia nicaeae oai?eth oeie/aneiai
no?iaieyaauanoa, yaeaoothny ooiaeaiaioii nia?aiaiiie i?aaie/aneie oeiee.

Aicieeiiaaiea aaeeiie iaoaiaoe/aneie oeieu a ?innee, eioi?ay anei?a
noaiiaeony a ?yae aaaeoueo a ie?a, naycaii n eiaiai Iaoiooey Eueaiae/a
*aauoaaa. Yoio e?oiiaeoee iaoaiaoee aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 aaea ieiaeioai?ii
?aaioae a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo. Aai ioe?uoey ii oai?ee iaoei e iaoaieciia,
ii-iiaio iiaieth eiaee ia?iiiia i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea. *aauoaa noae
iniiaaoaeai iaoa?ao?aneie iaoaiaoe/aneie oeieu, ec eioi?uo auoea oeaeay
ieayaea aeanoyueo o/aiuo. Ii i?aaenoaaeaieth *aauoaaa a Iaoa?ao?aneoth
Aeaaeaieth iaoe auea eca?aia a 1889 a. /eaiii-ei??aniiiaeaioii ia?aay
aeaiueia Niouey Aaneeueaaia Eiaaeaaneay. Ca iaoaiaoe/aneea ?aaiou
Eiaaeaaneie auee i?enoaeaeaiu i?aiee Ia?eaeneie e Oaaaeneie Aeaaeaiee
iaoe. Iia ?aaioaea i?ioanni?ii iaoaiaoeee a Noieaieueneii oieaa?neoaoa.
Ecaanoia N.A. Eiaaeaaneay e eae ienaoaeueieoea e aeo?iaeenoea.

Anaie?ii ecaanoiui oeaio?ii iaoaiaoe/aneie iaoee auei oaeaea Iineianeia
iaoaiaoe/aneia iauanoai, nicaeaiiia i?ioanno?ie Iineianeiai
oieaa?neoaoa. Ecaeaaaaoeeny iauanoaii “Iaoaiaoe/aneee nai?iee” aue
iaeiei ec aaoi?eooaoiaeoeo aeo?iaeia a ?innee e a ae?oaeo no?aiao e
ecaeaaony aei neo ii?.

Cia/eoaeueiuie aeinoeaeaieyie ioia/aii e ?acaeoea oaoieee a ?innee.
Oaeaioeeaui aiaiiui eiaeaia?ii Iaaeii Ieeieaaae/ai ssaei/eiaui auea
ecia?aoaia yeaeo?e/aneay naa/a (aeoaiaay eaiia). Aiineaaenoaea
ssaei/eiaui auei naeaeaii e aiaae?aii ianeieueei e?oiiuo ecia?aoaiee a
Iaoa?ao?aa a iaeanoe aaia?e?iaaiey yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aee.

?onneee yeaeo?ioaoiee Aeaenaiae? Ieeieaaae/ Eiaeuaei ecia?ae
yeaeo?e/aneoth eaiio iaeaeeaaiey nia/aea n oaieueiui noa?aeiai, a caoai
n iaoaeee/aneeie ieoyie.

?onneee yeaeo?ioaoiee Ieoaee Ineiiae/ Aeieeai-Aeia?iaieueneee ?aoee
i?iaeaio, iaae eioi?ie aeeenue yeaeo?ioaoieee iiiaeo no?ai,-i?iaeaio
ia?aaea/e yeaeo?iyia?aee ii i?iaiaeai ia cia/eoaeueiia ?annoiyiea,
?ac?iaioaa naith ciaiaieooth nenoaio o?aooaciiai oiea. A 1891 a. ia
Anaie?iie yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie aunoaaea ii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaae aia?aua a
ie?a ia?aaea/o yeaeo?iyia?aee ia 170 ei.

Iniiaiiieiaeieeii ?aaeeinayce aue i?ioanni? Iaoa?ao?neiai
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneiai einoeoooa Aeaenaiae? Noaiaiiae/ Iiiia. Aia?aua a
ie?a ii aeaiiino?e?iaae ?aaioo nicaeaiiie ei ?aaeeinoaioeee e
?aaeeii?eaiieea a 1895 a. 7 iay. A 1897 a. ii aeinoea aeaeueiinoe
?aaeeinayce ia ei?aaeyo a E?iiaeooaoa a 5 ei.

A 1881 a. Aeaenaiae?ii Oaaei?iae/ai Iiaeaeneei ioeoea?ii ?onneiai
aiaiii-ii?neiai oeioa, aue caiaoaioiaai ia?aue a ie?a naiieao aai
eiino?oeoeee. Aeaaiue auaiae aai o?oaeia-eaeay i iaiiaeaeaeiinoe
e?ueueaa ioiineoaeueii ei?iona. Iiiaea eaeae A.O. Iiaeaeneiai eaaee a
iniiao naiieaoino?iaiey.

O/eoaeue oeceee A Eaeoaeneie aeiiacee Eiinoaioei Yaeoa?aeiae/
Oeeieeianeee iioaeeeiaae ia?aoth ia/aoioth ?aaioo i aee?eaeaaea. N 1896
aiaea ii oii?ii caieiaeny oai?eae aeaeaeaiey ?aaeoeaiuo aiia?aoia e
i?aaeeiaeee ?yae noai ?aeao aeaeueiaai aeaenoaey e ?aeao aeey
iaaeieaiaoiuo iooaoanoaee. Ii ii i?aao n/eoaaony iooeii inaiaiey
einiina.

Aaieaeueiue ?onneee o/aiue Aaneeee Aaneeueaae/ Aeieo/aaa nicaeae iiaoth
iaoeo – ii/aiaaaeaiea. O/aiue iao/ii eeanneoeoee?iaae ii/au. aai o?oae
“?onneee /a?iicai” aei neo ii? inoaaony eeanne/aneei a ie?iaie iaoea
eco/aiey ii/a.

A iaeanoe iauanoaaiiuo iaoe iaoea io?aaeaiea ino?ay ai?ueaa ?acee/iuo
oa/aiee. ?aaiethoeeiiiua aeaiie?aou I.A.*a?iuoaaneee, A.I. Uaiia, A.A.
Eiiaoei, I.E. Eaa?ia e?eoeeiaaee iiiuoee ii?aaaeaoue nouanoaiaaiey
naiiaea?aeaaey, oaiaoaiey ia?iaea.

Na?aae Ieoaeeiae/ Nieiaueaa nicaeae eaieoaeueiue iiiaioiiiue o?oae
“Enoi?ey ?innee n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai”, aaea ii-iiaiio iniuneee enoi?eth
Ioa/anoaa.

Ieeieae Eaaiiae/ Ea?aaa ?onneee enoi?ee, eco/aaoee i?iaeaiu anaie?iie
enoi?ee. Iniaoth ecaanoiinoue aio i?eianee ?aaiou ii aa?a?iie enoi?ee
O?aioeee aoi?ie iieiaeiu 16 aaea., e ii enoi?ee Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee.

A 60-a aiaeu 19 aaea neiaeeeanue eeoa?aoo?ii – oeeinioneia oa/aiea,
eioi?ia iieo/eei iacaaiea “ii/aaiie/anoai”. Aai aeaaiuie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie, i?iiiaaaeiaaaoeie i?aaineaaiia ie?inica?oeaiea e
eaeath naiiauoiinoe e iniaie enoi?e/aneie iennee ?innee, noaee A.A.
A?eai?ueaa, I.I.No?aoia, O.I. Aeinoiaaneee.

Iaeiei ec aeaeiuo /eaiia e?oaeea “ii/aaiieeia” aue Ieeieae Ieeieaaae/
No?aoia. Acaeyaeu aeo?iaeenoa e oeeinioa io?aceeenue a aai eieaao “Ie?
eae oeaeia”, “Ai?ueaa n Caiaaeii a ?onneie eeoa?aoo?a”, “Ec enoi?ee
?onneiai ieaeeecia”. Iinea nia?oe A.A. A?eai?ueaaa e O.I. Aeinoiaaneiai,
ii iiaeiae iiae aeeyiea E.I. Oienoiai.

ss aeoiath iaeaieaa aeaeiie oeao?ie “ii/aaiie/aneii” e?oaeea, aai
i?aaiecothuei oeaio?ii aue ienaoaeue Oaaei? Ieoaeeiae/ Aeinoiaaneee. Ii
aian iaiaeue aeeaae a enoi?eth ?onneie oeeinioneie iunee. Naie
oeeinionei-ie?iaic?ai/eneea iiceoeee ii au?acee ia oieei a “Aeiaaieea
ienaoaey” (na?ee i?eaeiaeueiuo oeeinioneeo ynna), ii e a eeoa?aoo?iuo
i?iecaaaeaieyo, oaeeo ea “A?aouey Ea?aiaciau”, “Aanu”, “Eaeeio” e
ae?oaea.

Iniiaiua eaeae “ii/aaiieeia” auee au?aaeaiu ia no?aieoeao aeo?iaeia
“A?aiy” e “Yiioa” ecaeaaaaiuo a?aoueyie Aeinoiaaneeie. A yoeo aeo?iaeao
nio?oaeie/eee ana i?aaenoaaeoaee yoiai oa/aiey.

Ioeaieaay ?ieue e cia/aiea “ii/aaiie/anoaa” a enoi?ee ?onneie eoeueoo?u,
?aeeaeiciue oeeinio A.A. Caiueeianeee caiaoee, /oi iii noaei ia/aeii
“iiaiai ia?eiaea a enoi?ee ?onneie iuneeo” – ia?eiaea ?anoeaaoa
i?aaaneaaiiai ie?inica?oeaiey.

2. Aeeaae ?onneie eeoa?aoo?u e enneonoaa a ie?iaoth eoeueoo?o

Ainiiaenoaothuei iai?aaeaieai a ?onneie eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoaa aue
e?eoe/aneee ?aaeeci. Iaee/aiea e?aiinoie/anoaa, aai ia?aaeeoeia a aeecie
e a niciaiee, iieac ii?ieia iiaiai ao?aeoaciiai iauanoaa auee aaaeouae
eeieae i?ia?anneaiie eeoa?aoo?u e aeaiie?aoe/aneiai eneonnoaa. Eaaeaeue
e?oiiue ienaoaeue e i?aaeaea anaai oaeea aeaaiou, eae E.I Oienoie, O.I.
Aeinoiaaneee, E.N. Oo?aaiaa, I.A. Uaae?ei, A.I. *aoia, ecia?aceee oeaeua
ieanou aeecie ni anaie aa ?aaeinoyie e ia/aeyie, ii eaaeaeue ii-naiaio,
/a?ac i?ecio naiaai aini?eyoey.

A oaiaoe/aneii iiiaiia?acee ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u ?innee yoiai
ia?eiaea auaeaeythony i?iecaaaeaiey i ia?iaea, i?aaeaea anaai i
e?anoueyinoaa. “Ii?a i?ae?aoeoue ethaacie/aiuea n ia?iaeii”,-
i?iaicaeanee a 1860 a. I.A. Aeia?iethaia. A i?iecaaaeaieyo ienaoaeae
ia?iaeie/aneiai iai?aaeaiey, iaoeii enoiaeeaoeo oeaeua aoaa?iee, – A.A.
Neaioeia, I.I. Ceaoia?aoneiai, Ieeieay e Aeaaa Oniaineeo i?aaenoatho
aeeaua ethaee, ?aciua oeiu e?anoueyi aac anyeie eaeaaeecaoeee.

Aua aieaa ?acaai/aiea i?inoiai oicyenoaaiiiai ioaeeea, i?aa?auathuaainy
ii i?eia?o ?acoaaaauo e Aea?oiiauo a oeuieea, aeaao naoe?a
Naeoueiaa-Uaae?eia. Ii iieacae, /oi oicyenoaaiiiai ioaeeea aei ie?iaaea
“iaeei oieueei oaa”. Ianoiyuaai ioaeeea, iiaeeeiiue oei ?onneiai
e?anoueyieia aeae E.I. Oienoie. Ia/eiay io “Eacaeia” e Ieaoiia Ea?aoaaaa
a “Aieia e ie?a” aei iineaaeieo i?iecaaaeaiee, E.I Oienoie aieueoa
ia?auae aieiaiea ia ia auo,a ia niciaiea, ineoieiaeth e?anoueyiea, ia
aai aeooiaiia ninoiyiea.

Eoiiua ienaoaee iinoiyiii cao?aaeaaee naiua aeeio?aiauouea, naiua
aeoaiua oaiu, ii ino?ea iai?aaeyeinue ia e?eoeeo oa oneiaee aeecie,
eioi?ua ia?aeaee ia?i ia iaee/aiea, ieuaoo, aaca?aiioiinoue, o eo/oeo
i?aaenoaaeoaeae eioaeeeaaioeee canoaaeyee io/eoaeueii caaeoiuaaoueny i
oii, eae ec yoiai iieiaeaiey. Yoe eneaiey aaieaeueii ia?aaeae O.I.
Aeinoiaaneee a ?iiaiao “A?aouey Ea?aiaciau”, “Aaaeiua ethaee”, “Eaeeio”
e ae?oaea.

Ii-iiaio iiaieth ?onneay eeoa?aoo?a aeaaaea ioaaou ia naiua aeao/ea
aii?inu aeecie, a eiiaaea naiie iinoaiiaeie aii?inia (“Eoi aeiiaao?”,
“*oi aeaeaoue?”, “Iiiai ee /aeiaaeo caiee ioaeii?”) canoaaeyea
caaeoiuaaoueny i aeecie, i ethaeyo, i naaa. Ia?iiiia aeaei aeaeaea any
?inneeneay eeoa?aoo?a, iiaeieiay eoeueoo?o ia?iaea, i?aoaeaeay eo/oea
/oanoaa, neaay naiaiaeo, i?ecuaay e aeia?o e ieeina?aeeth.

A ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeecie ?innee ii?aoi?iaiiiai ia?eiaea y?ei
auaeaeythony aeaa e?oiiuo nicaacaeey oaeaioia, oeaio?aie eioi?uo auee
Oiaa?euanoai ooaeiaeieeia-ia?aaeaeaeieeia e “Iiao/ay eo/ea”
eiiiiceoi?ia. Iiaua aayiey a eneonnoaa auee noeoeeiuie.

Ia?aui noi?ioee?iaae iniiaiua caaea/e ia?aaeiaiai eneonnoaa I.A.
*a?iuoaaneee a 1855 a. a naiae iaaenoa?neie aeenna?oaoeee “Ynoaoe/aneea
ioiioaiey eneonnoaa e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”, yaeaoaeny ianoiyuei niauoeai
a ?acaeoee ynoaoe/aneie iaoee.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia 19 a. noaea auaeiui yoaiii a ?acaeoee ?onneiai
ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. Yoio ia?eiae /anoi oa?aeoa?ecotho eae
“?anoeaao ?onneiai eneonnoaa”. Iii noaei iiaeeeiii aaeeeei, aeoeaii
aoi?aaynue a aeeciue e io?aaeay aa, eee ?aoay i?iaeaiu, iinoaaeaiiua
a?aiaiai. A ?onneie aeeaiiene nouanoaiaaei aeaa iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiey,
eioi?ua i?eiyoi iacuaaoue “aeaaeaie/aneia”, au?aaeaaoaa
aeai?yinei-ao?aeoaciua acaeyaeu, e “ia?aaeaeaeie/aneia”, o.a.
aeaiie?aoe/aneia.

Aeaaeaiey ooaeiaeanoa, a noaiao eioi?ie e ?acai?aeny nii?, auea nicaeaia
a na?aaeeia 18 aaea. Ca iiiaea aiaeu naiaai nouanoaiaaiey iia ainieoaea
aieueoia /enei ciaiaieouo ?onneeo ooaeiaeieeia, n?aaee eioi?uo I.A.
Eei?aineee, E.I. A?theeia, A.A. Eaaiia, I.A. Aanei e iiiaea ae?oaea.
ss?eeie i?aaenoaaeoaeai aeaaeaie/aneie oeieu aeeaiiene ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia 19 aaea noae enoi?e/aneee aeeaiienaoe A.E. Naie?aaeneee,
i?eieiaaoee o/anoea a ?iniena o?aia O?enoa Nianeoaey.

Ia/aeii ia?aeiia a aeeaiiene iineoaeeee aunoaaee a Aeaaeaiee ooaeiaeanoa
a 1860 e 1861 aa., e i?aaeaea anaai ea?oeiu A.A. Ia?iaa “I?eacae
noaiiaiai ia neaaenoaea”, “Naeueneee e?anoiue oiae ia Ianoa” e ae?oaea.
Ii iiaiaeo aunoaaee 1861 a. e?oiiue ooaeiaeanoaaiiue e?eoee A.A. Noania
ienae: “Iaoa eneonnoai iaeiiaoe i?eiyeinue ca naie nthaeaou, ca naia
niaea?aeaiea, ca naie caaea/e… ia?aiaia i/aiue /oanoaeoaeueia: a iae
iaeuecy niiiaaaoueny, ath oaia?ue iiaayei neeueii”.

A 1863 a. a noaiao Aeaaeaiee ooaeiaeanoa i?iecioae ciaiaieoue “aoio
/aou?iaaeoeaoe”. Eo/oea auionieee ?aoeoaeueii ioeacaeenue io eiieo?na ia
cieiooth iaaeaeue, ii?aaee n aeaaeaieae e nicaeaee ooaeiaeanoaaiioth
a?oaeue. Noa?oeiie e eaeaeiui ?oeiaiaeeoaeai a?oaee aue E.I. E?aineie.
Oiaa?eue n/eoaee aai e I.I O?aoueyeiaa naiuie eiiiaoaioiuie
ooaeiaeieeaie.

E eiioeo 60-o aa. iiaua ynoaoe/aneea eaeae oae caaeaaeaee oiaie ?onneeo
ooaeiaeieeia, /oi iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a nicaeaiee iiaie, aieaa
oe?ieie, /ai Iaoa?ao?aneay a?oaeue ooaeiaeieeia, i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ay
au Iauaaeeieea ooaeiaeieeia ?aaeenoia anae ?innee, Oae aicieeea eaeay
o/?aaeaeaiey Oiaa?euanoaa ia?aaeaeaeiuo aunoaaie, i?aaeeiaeaiiay
A?eai?eai A?eai?ueaae/ai Iyniaaeiaui.

A 1870 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa auei nicaeaii Oiaa?euanoai ia?aaeaeaeiuo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aunoaaie ia eiiia?aoeaiuo ia/aeao. Oiaa?euanoai
i?aaiecaaaei aunoaaee a Iaoa?ao?aa e a Iineaa, iinea /aai iie
iieacuaaeenue a Eeaaa, Iaeanna, ?eaa, Eacaie, Eeoaiaaa e ae?oaeo
ai?iaeao. Oiaa?euanoai i?eaa?aoeeinue a oeaio? ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeecie
?innee, cia/eoaeueii iioaniea Aeaaeaieth ooaeiaeanoa. Oiaa?euanoai
iiiaei auei iaycaii e?eoeeo A.A. Noaniao e I.I. O?aoueyeiao. Aieueoia
cia/aiea aeey Oiaa?euanoaa e aeey ?acaeoey ?onneiai eneonnoaa eiaea
niae?aoaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue I.I. O?aoueyeiaa, nicaeaaoaai iaeio ec
eo/oeo a ie?a ii naiaio aiaaonoao e cia/aieth iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaea?ae.
O?aoueyeia naeaeae naith aaea?ath ea?oei ioaee/iie. A 1892 a. iia auea
ia?aaeaia a aea? Iineaa. E yoiio a?aiaie aaea?ay Iaaea Ieoaeeiae/a
O?aoueyeiaa ian/eouaaea ieiei 2 oun. ea?oei. Oi?aeanoaaiiia ioe?uoea
aaea?ae ninoiyeinue 16 iay 1893 aiaea.

?anoeaao ia?aaeaeaeiuo aunoaaie i?eoiaeeeny ia 70-80-a aa. 19 aaea.
Anaai auei ono?iaii 48 auoaaie. Enneonoai ia?aaeaeaeieeia ?acaeaaei
e?eoe/aneee ?aaeeci. N aeaiie?aoe/aneeo iiceoeee iii i?aaaeeai
ecia?aaeaei aeeciue, i?ineaaeyei aaee/ea ia?iaea.

Auaeathueiny ?onneei ooaeiaeieeii, aeinoeaoei a naiai oai?/anoaa
auni/aeoeo aa?oei, aae E.A. ?aiei. A 1871 a. ia?iiiue oniao auiae ia
aeieth aai ea?oeiu “Ao?eaee ia Aieaa”, i eioi?ie Noania ienae:
“Ooaeiaeiee ni niaeinoueth, o ian aani?eia?iie, ieoioeny n aieiaie ai
anth aeoaeio ia?iaeiie aeecie, ia?iaeiuo eioa?ania, ia?iaeiie, uaiyuae
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe”.

ss n/eoath a enoi?e/aneie aeeaiiene aaaeouaa ianoi caieiaee ea?oeiu
iaeiiai ec naiuo e?oiiuo ooaeiaeieeia 19 a. A.E. No?eeiaa, eioi?ue aian
ia?iiiue aeeaae a aa ?acaeoea. Ii aeoaiei eco/ae enoi?eth, aeeciue e auo
?onneiai ia?iaea. A aai ea?oeiao ecia?aaeaiu aaaeiaeoea enoi?e/aneea
niauoey. A aai ea?oeia “Aiaaou?e” neiaiee/aneeiieacaiu neea e iiuue
?onneiai ia?iaea, aai ioaeanoai e aioiaiinoue aeaoue ioii?.

A aeai?a auoiaie (aeai?iaie) aeeaiiene ia?aaeaeaeieee cao?iioee naiua
ino?ua oaiu aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Oaeaioeeaue ooaeiaeiee Aeaaeeie?
Aai?iae/ Iaeianeee a ea?oeiao “E?ao aaiea”, “Ia aoeueaa?a”, ” Ia iouo!”
e ae?oaeo io?acee auo iiaie, eaieoaeenoe/aneie ?innee. Nioeeaeueiua
iioeau iaoee io?aaeaiey a ea?oeiao A.A. Ia?iaa “I?iaiaeu iieieieea”,
“O?ieea”, “*aaieoea a Iuoeuao”, I.A. ss?ioaiei “Ei/aaa?”, “Anthaeo
aeeciue”, A.I. Iaeneiiaa “Naiaeiue ?acaeae”, A.A. Iyniaaeiaa “Cainoai
iaaaeaao”.

Iieo/ee aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aeai? ineoieiae/aneiai ii?o?aoa. Aeoaieee
ineoieiaeci, oaeeaeoaeueiia oiaiea ia?aaeaoue oa?aeoa?, aioo?aiiee ie?,
aunieay oaoieea ioee/aee ii?o?aou ?aaiou E.I. E?aineiai (Oienoiai,
O?aoueyeiaa, Naeoueiaa-Uaae?eia). Aeaiie?aoe/aneea acaeyaeu E?aineiai
iaoee io?aaeaiea a ii?o?aoao e?anoueyi, iieacuaaaoeo eo aeooaaiia
aiaaonoai, nioeiaeueiue i?ioano (“Iieaniauee”, “Ieea Iienaaa”,
“E?anoueyiei n ocaea/eie”). I?ae?aniua ii?o?aou ienaee oaeaea E.A. ?aiei
(Ioni?aneiai, Oienoiai), A.A. Ia?ia (Ino?ianeiai, Aeaey, Aeinoiaaneiai,
“No?aiiee”). Aeoaieee ineoieiaeci, o.a. oiaiea iieacaoue oa?aeoa?
/aeiaaea ai anae aai neiaeiinoe e iiiaieaiiainoe e iaeiia?aiaiii no?iaay
i?inoioa, ii/oe aneaoeci n?aaenoa au?aaeaiey ioee/aee ii?o?aoiia
ecia?aaeaiea o ia?aaeaeaeieeia. ss aeoia, /oi ii?o?aoenou eneaee e
iaoiaeeee iiaeeeiii ia?iaeiua oa?aeoa?u a ia?acao eo/oeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae
?onneiai ia?iaea-ienaoaeae, ooaeiaeieeia, iocueaioia, iauanoaaiiuo
aeayoaeae.

Ei aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea ioiineony ?anoeaao iaecaaeiie aeeaiiene,
Ea?oeiu Oeoeeia, Eaaeoaia, Eoeiaeaee, Naa?aniaa, Iieaiiaa ioiinyony e
/eneo uaaeaa?ia ie?iaie aeeaiiene. Aeaenae Eiiae?aoueaae/ Naa?ania
ethaee a i?e?iaea i?inoia e ne?iiiia, ii ioia/aiiia ia/aoueth ee?e/aneie
caaeooaaiinoe. Aai ciaiaieoay ea?oeia “A?a/e i?eeaoaee ” ii?aaeaao
oaeiai ?iaea niaaeeiaieai “iaueiiaaiiinoe” iioeaa n ?aaeeinoiie
iiyoi/iinoueth aai enoieeiaaiey.

A ea?oeiao Eaaia Eaaiiae/a Oeoeeia “Eaniua aeaee”, “Ei?aaaeueiay ?iua”,
“?iaeue” caia/aoeaiu e?anioa e iiuue ?onneiai eana, caoaaouathuee ?aciao
iaiaic?eiuo ?inneeneeo i?inoi?ia. Aai ea?oeiu ooaa?aeaeatho aaee/ea e
iaiiaoi?eioth i?aeanoue ?onneie i?e?iaeu.

Eo/oea o?aaeeoeee iaecaaeiie aeeaiiene ia?aaeaeaeieeia auee iaiauaiu e
?acaeou a oai?/anoaa auaeathuaainy ooaeiaeieea Enaaea Eeuee/a Eaaeoaia.
A aai iieioiao “Aa/a?. Cieioie ean”, “Aa/a?iee caii”, “Ia?o” e iiiaeo
ae?oaeo ia?aaeaaony ana e?ani/iia aiaaonoai ?onneiai iaecaaea.

Iniaia ianoi a ?onneii eneonnoaa aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 aaea, caieiatho
?aaiou ooaeiaeieea-ia?eienoa E.E. Aeaacianeiai e ooaeiaeieea-aaoaeenoa
A.A. Aa?auaaeia. Yoe ooaeiaeieee ia aoiaeeee a ninoaa Oiaa?euanoaa
ia?aaeaeaeiuo aunoaaie, ii auee aeecee ei ii naiaio aeooo

Ecethaeaiiie oaiie Eaaia Eiinoaioeiiae/a Aeaacianeiai auei ii?a. Ii
ecia?aaeae ii?a anth naith aeeciue a ?acee/iuo aai ninoiyieyo, i?e
?aciii inaauaiee. Aai ea?oeiu “Aeaaaoue aae”, “*a?iia ii?a” e iiiaea
ae?oaea oe?iei ecaanoiu a ie?a.

Aaneee Aaneeueaae/ Aa?auaaei aioae a /enei e?oiiaeoeo ianoa?ia, iiaeiya
ia iaauaaeoth aunioo aaoaeueii-enoi?e/aneee aeai?, inoaeea aeanoeieinoue
e aan/aeiaa/iinoue aiei. Oeeeeu ea?oei iinayuaiu aiaiiui aeaenoaeyi a
N?aaeiae Acee, ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia, Ioa/anoaaiiie aieia 1812 a.
Aunoaaee aai ?aaio a Aa?iia e Aia?eea iieueciaaeenue aieueoei oniaoii.

?acaeoea ?onneie neoeueioo?u aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 aaea i?ioaeaei a aieaa
neiaeiuo e iaiaa aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaeyo, /ai ?acaeoea aeeaiiene.
Iio?aaiinoue a iiioiaioaeueii-aeaei?aoeaiie neoeueioo?a oiaioeeanue,
iineieueei a iniiaiii aaeinue no?ieoaeuenoai aeioiaeiuo aeeeuo aeiiia
aianoi iuoiuo aeai?oeia. A yoi a?aiy auei aicaeaeaiooi eeoue iaaieueoia
eiee/anoai aeinoieiuo iaiyoieeia. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaiaoiaeeii
ioiaoeoue ?aaioo Aeaenaiae?a Ieoaeeiae/a Iiaeooeia, aaoi?a iaiyoieea
A.N. Iooeeio a Iineaa, yaeythuaainy iaiouaieaiie /anoueth a?oeoaeoo?iiai
ainaiaey ai?iaea.

Iaeaieaa oaeaioeeaui neoeueioi?ii aoi?ie iieiaeiu 19 aaea aue Ia?e
Iaoaaaae/ Aioieieueneee. Neoeueioi?a iniaaiii aieiiaaee
nioeeaeueii-yoe/aneea i?iaeaiu. Aai eiie?aoii-enoi?e/aneea ia?acu: Eaai
A?iciue, A?iae, Iao? I e ieoieiae/aneee Iaoenoioaeue ieeoeaoai?ytho
eaeae ai?ueau aeaoo ia/ae a /aeiaaea – aeia?a e cea.

Cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaaaao a yoio ia?eiae a?oeoaeoo?a.
Ieeiaaea i?aaeaea no?aia ia ciaea oaeiai ?aciaoa no?ieoaeuenoaa aeiiia
?acee/iiai oeia: caeaiee e?oiiuo oe?i, aaieia, ainoeieoe, aiecaeia,
iaaaceiia, oaa?ee e caaiaeia. Oeaio?u e?oiiuo ai?iaeia auno?i
cano?aeaathony. ?ino oeai ia caieth i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi caeaiey
aicaiaeyony a 4-7 yoaaeae, aieioioth e ae?oa ae?oao, oeeoeu
i?aa?auathony a ei?eaei?u. Eaeao ianooieaiea ia ieiuaaee e ia?ee. A
Iineaa oie/oiaeeee ainaiaeue Oaao?aeueiie ieiuaaee, a Iaoa?ao?aa a
70-80-a aa. aicaaee caeaiea ia oa??eoi?ee Aaeie?aeoaenoaa, cae?ua aeae
ia iaai ni noi?iiu Iaau, cano?ieee i?ae?anioth ieiuaaeue iaaeaeo
caeaieyie oieaa?neoaoa e Ae?aee.

Iiaua caeac/eee o?aaiaaee aiaoiaai oe?aoaoaeuenoaa, e iiyoiio
i?aiaeaaeathuei a a?oeoaeoo?a noaei niaoaiea ?aciuo noeeae i?ioeiai.
Eniieueciaaiea ?aciuo noeeae oa?aeoa?ii aeey auaeathueony a?oeoaeoi?ia
A.E. ?acaiiaa e A.A. O?aoa?a. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiie iino?ieeie ?acaiiaa
aue aeai?aoe aaeeeiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a Aeaenaiae?iae/a ia Aeai?oeiaie
iaaa?aaeiie a Iaoa?ao?aa. Oanaae aeiia ioi?ieai a noeea
aeai?oeia-iaeeaoei oei?aioeeneiai ?aiannaina. O?aoa? i?iecaae i?eno?ieeo
e caeaieth Ia?eeineiai oaao?a, ia?ai?iaeoe?iaaa aeaaiue oanaae aai, aue
aaoi?ii i?iaeoa aiecaea a Iaeanna, oaao?ia a Oeeena, Ieaeiai Iiaai?iaea,
E?eoonea.

N 40-o aa. iiae aeyeieai neaayiioeeia ?ani?ino?aieeanue eaeay
eniieueciaaiey a a?oeoaeoo?a eneonnoaa Ae?aaiae ?onne. A oea?eiaiii
no?ieoaeuenoaa aiciee ?onnei-aecaioeeneee noeeue, iiaeaea?aeaiue a
aunoeo noa?ao, iineieueeo ii i?iiaaaiaee?iaae eaeath i?aainoaaiiinoe
?innee io Aecaioee. Iniaaaoaeue noeey, e?oiiue a?oeoaeoi? E.A. Oii aue
aaoi?ii i?ieoa o?aia O?enoa Nianeoaey, no?ieaoaainy n 1837 ii 1883 a.
E.A. Oii ia?aui i?eiaiee iiiaea ia?aaeiaua eiino?oeoeaiua ?aoaiey,
eioi?ia iaoee oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea. A 60-70-o aa. oee iienee ?onneiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai noeey, iniiaaiiua ia eco/aiee iiaeeeiiuo iaiyoieeia
ae?aaia?onneiai ciae/anoaa, aea?aayiiie a?oeoaeoo?u Naaa?a. Iaeaieaa
e?oiiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai yoiai iai?aaeaiey aue a?oeoaeoi? E.I. ?iiao,
iiyoiio ana iai?aaeaiea eiiaaea iacuaaee “?aiioiaueia”. Yoio iiaue,
aieaa aeaiie?aoe/aneee aa?eaio “?onneiai” noeey, ioee/aeny iaeeueiui
aeaei?e?iaaieai caeaiee oci?aie ?acueau ii aea?aao, ?onneeo ia?iaeiuo
auoeaie. ?iiao aicaiaeee aea?aayiiia caeaiea ?onneiai ioaeaea ia
Anaie?iie Ia?eaeneie aunoaaea 1878 a. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuie
iino?ieeaie yoiai noeey auee caeaiey Enoi?e/aneiai iocay a Iineaa,
Aa?oiea oi?aiaua ?yaeu – iuia caeaieea AOIa, caeaiea Ai?iaeneie aeoiu.

A oea?eiaiii no?ieoaeuenoaa 80-90-o aa. yoi iai?aaeaiea iaoei io?aaeaiea
a iiae?aaeaiee noeeth oea?eaae 17 a., auoaniea ?onnei-aecaioeeneee
noeeue. Iaeaieaa oeie/iie iino?ieeie yoiai iai?aaeaiey yaeyaony o?ai
Niana ia e?iae a Iaoa?ao?aa (iino?iaiiue a?oeoaeoi?ii A.A. Ia?eaiaeii ia
ianoa oaeenoaa Aeaenaiae?a II). A iino?ieea aeeeuo aeiiia Iaoa?ao?aa,
Iineau, ae?oaeo e?oiiuo ai?iaeia a yoi a?aiy ainiiaenoaoao yeeaeoe/aneee
?aiannaini-aa?i/iue noeeue, eioi?ue eiiiie?iaae caeac/eeai
iiiiaciinoueth, ?aciiia?aceai ioaeaeee, aiaaonoaii oi?i. Aeinoieinoaii
yoiai iai?aaeaiey canouaoeo noeeaia?acothueo nenoai, /oi aeaaaei
aiciiaeiinoue eaaei i?eniiiniaeyoueny e aici?inoei ?acia?ai aeiiia, e
aieueoei e ?aciui ii eiioeao?aoeee ieiiiui i?aiai. Iaeiei ec ia?acoeia
oaeiai noeey aue aieueoie aeeeie aeii No?aoiaiai iauanoaa a Iaoa?ao?aa
a?oeoaeoi?a E.I. Aaioa.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoueny ?onneay
iaoeeiiaeueiay iocueaeueiay oeiea, iniaaaoaeai eioi?ue aue I.E. Aeeiea.
Eiaiii ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea ?onneay iocuea caaiaaaea oe?ieia
i?eciaiea e i?eia?aea ie?iaoth ecaanoiinoue.

I?iaeieaeay o?aaeeoeee I.E. Aeeiee, ?onneea eiiiiceoi?u ooaa?aeeee,
iaiaaoeee e oai?/anee ?acaeee ia?iaeiua ianaiiua iniiau a ?onneie
iocuea.

I?aaeaea anaai yoe o?aaeeoeee ?acaeaaee eiiiiceoi?u “Iiao/ae eo/ee”:
I.A. Aaeaee?aa, Oe.A. Ethe, I.I. Ioni?aneee, A.I. Ai?iaeei,
iauaaeeiaiiie a ia/aea 60-o aa. a e?oaeea eiiiiceoi?a I.A. Aaeaee?aaa.
Ana oai?/anoai “Iiao/ae eo/ee” i?iiecaii ai?y/ae ethaiaueth e ia?iaeo,
aa?ie a aai neeu. Iie niae?aee e ia?aaaouaaee ?onneea ia?iaeiua ianie.
Eiaaea ia?aua i?iecaaaeaiey yoie a?oiiu eiiiiceoi?ia cacao/aee a
eiioea?oiuo caeao, ciaiaieoue ?onneee e?eoee A.A. Noania iaienae:
“neieueei iiycee, /oanoaa, oaeaioa e oiaiey anoue o iaeaiueeie, ii oaea
iiao/ae eo/ee ?onneeo iocueaioia”. N oao ii? e?oaeie noaee iacuaaoue
“Iiao/ae eo/eie”.

Ii i?eia?o Aeeiee eiiiiceoi?u eniieueciaaee ia?iaeioth ianith e a
neioiie/aneeo, e a iia?iuo i?iecaaaeaieyo. Iie oaeaea a?aee nthaeaou a
?onneie eeoa?aoo?a. Ae?aia Iooeeia “Ai?en Aiaeoiia” eaaea a iniiao iia?u
Ioni?neiai, Ai?iaeei nicaeae iia?o “Eiycue Eai?ue” ii iioeaai “Neiaa i
iieeo Eai?aaa”, ?eineee-Ei?naeia nicaeae iia?u “Iaeneay ii/ue” e “Ii/ue
ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii” ii Aiaieth, a Ioni?aneee ii iiaanoe Aiaiey iaienae
eiie/aneoth iia?o “Ni?i/eineay y?ia?ea”.

A 60-70-a aa. iocuea ia oieueei aeinoeaea ?anoeaaoa, ii e auoea ca
i?aaeaeu naeiiia ia ioaee/ioth noeaio. Aianoa n eiiiiceoi?aie “Iiao/ae
eo/ee” yoiio niinianoaiaaee aeecei i?eiueaaoee e iei iei E.I.
*aeeianeee, a?aouey ?oaeiooaeiu, A.I. Na?ia, A.A. Noania. I?aaiecoaony
?onneia iocueaeueiia iauanoai (?II) nia/aea a Iaoa?ao?aa e a Iineaa. A
1862 a. eiiiiceoi?u “Iiao/ae eo/ee” nicaeaee Aanieaoioth iocueaeueioth
oeieo, i?e eioi?ie i?aaieciaaee oi? e neioiie/aneee i?eano? ec
ethaeoaeae.

I.E *aeeianeee ioiineeny e “eo/eenoai” n aieueoie oaieioie,
iiaeaea?aeeaae eo a ia/aoe, auniei oeaiee I,Aaeaee?aaa. *aeeianeee ieoao
iia?u ii i?iecaaaeaieyi Iooeeia “Aaaaiee Iiaaei” e “Ieeiaay aeaia”,
iia?o “*a?aae/ee” (ii Aiaieth), “*a?iaeaeea”. A 1876 a. ii nicaeae aaeao
“Eaaaaeeiia ica?i”, a 1889a.-“Niyuoth e?anaaeoeo”, a
1892a.-“Uaeeoi/eea”. Eiiiiceoi?u “Iiao/ae eo/ee” e I.E. *aeeianeee
nicaeaee uaaeaa?u neioiie/aneie iocuee, iaienaee iiiai ?iiainia, ae?oaeo
iocueaeueiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. Iie aioee a ieayaeo ?onneie e ie?iaie
iocueaeueiie eeanneee.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia 19 aaea noaea ia?aeiiiie e aeey ?onneiai oaao?a. Aia?aua
aieueoia ianoi a aai ?aia?ooa?a caiyee iueanu ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia, e a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aaeeeiai ?onneiai ae?aiaoo?aa A.I. Ino?ianeiai. Yoi
auea yiioa Ino?ianeiai: ii/oe o?e aeanyoeeaoey aaeaaiaeii noaaeeenue aai
iiaua iueanu. A ieo Ino?ianeee, ii aai nianoaaiiui neiaai,
i?eaea?aeeaaeny iaee/eoaeueiiai “i?aanoaaiii-iauanoaaiiiai iai?aaeaiey”.
A oeeeea naoe?e/aneie eiiaaeee “aaoaiua aeaiueae, “Ean”, “Aieee e iaoeu”
e ae?oaea oi/ii e y?ei iieacaiu oeiu e noa?uo eoioeia-oienoinoiia, e
iiauo aeaeueoeia-oaioa. A ae?aia “A?ica” ia?aaeaia oyainoiay, aeaayuay
aoiinoa?a “oaiiiai oea?noaa”. Ae?oaie oeeee ninoaaeytho ae?aiu e
eiiaaeee i o?aae/aneeo noaeueaao iaea?aiiuo, /anoiuo, yiioeeiiaeueiuo
ethaeae a ie? oi?aaoanoaa, iaiaia, eeoeeia?y (“Aani?aeaiieoea”,
“Iineaaeiyy aea?oaa”, “Oaeaiou e iieeiieee”). N?aaee i?ieaaaeaiee
Ino?ianeiai auee enoi?e/aneea ae?aiu, ecoieoaeueiay ii-iaio iiaieth
iueana-neacea “Niaao?i/ea”. Ino?ianeee ninianoaiaae nicaeaieth iiaie
oeieu a ae?aoo?aee n?aaee aeoa?ia.

E?oiui ae?aiaoo?aii yoiai ia?eiaea aue A.A. Nooiai-Eiauei. A o?eeiaee
“Naaaeueau E?a/eineiai”, “Aeaei”, “Nia?oue Oa?aeeeia” niaea?aeeony
iaee/aiea anae ath?ie?aoe/anee nenoaiu naiiaea?aeaaey io iena?y aei
ieieno?a, i?iaeaaeiinoe noaea, i?iecaiea iieeoeee e iieiia aani?aaea
/anoiuo a?aaeaeai.

Aeaaiuie ae?aiaoe/aneeie oaao?aie inoaaaeenue Iaeue oaao? a Iineaa e
Aeaenaiae?eeneee a Iaoa?ao?aa, ii aicieeei oaea aieueoia /enei
i?iaeioeeaeueiuo oaao?ia. ?aceia oaaee/aiea /enea c?eoaeae i?eaaei e
aeaiie?aoecaoeee oaao?ia e e nicaeaieth iiauo “eeoaiuo oaao?ia”, aaea
o?iaaiue iinoaiiaie e i?ioanneiiaeecia aeoa?ia aue ai?acaei ieaea, ii
ea?aee iie n aieueoie ioioie e iaoee naiaai c?eoaey a aeaiie?aoe/aneie
eioaeaaaioeee. Ino?ianeee iiaeaaae ianeieueei caienie i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
nicaeaiey ?onneiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oaao?a a Iineaa, iioiio /oi “aeey
?onneiai eneonnoaa iao iiey, i?inoi?a, aaea au iii iiaei ?acaeoueny”.

Ethaei oaao?ii inoaaaeny Iaeue oaao? a Iineaa. Ia aai noeaia aunooiaee
auaeathueany aeoa?u: I.I. Naaeianeee, I.I. A?iieiaa, A.I. Eaineee, I.I.
Naaeianeay, A.I. Oaaeioiaa, N.A. Ooineee, E.A. Naia?ei e ae?oaea. Eo
ea?a ioee/aeanue aunieei ianoa?noaii, ene?aiiei au?aaeaieai /oanoa, anai
oai, /oi Ino?ianeee iacuaae oeieie “anoanoaaiiie e au?aceoaeueiie ea?a
ia noeaia”. A Iaoa?ao?aa, ianiio?y ia aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu aee?aeoeee
eiia?aoi?neeo oaao?ia e neainena ioaeeee “aunoaai naaoa”, oaeaea
i?ienoiaeeea aeaiie?aoecaoeey Aeaenaiae?eineiai oaao?a, aaea ea?aee
aeanoyuea aeoa?u I.A. Naaeia, I.A. No?aiaoiaa, E.A. Aa?eaiia e ae?.

Aoi?ay iieiaeia aaea auea a?aiaiai oe?ieiai ?ani?ino?aiaiey
oaao?aeueiiai eneonnoaa ia i?iaeioeeaeueiie noeaia. Iiioey?iuie o?oiiaie
neaaeeenue oaao?u a Eeaaa, Iaeanna, ?eaa, ?inoiaa ia-Aeiio, Oa?ueeiaa,
Na?aoiaa, Naia?a, Eacaie, Aeaoa?eiao?aa, E?eoonea e ae?oaeo ai?iaeao.

A oaao?ao noaaeeenue ia oieueei iueanu Ino?ianeiai, Nooiai-Eiaueeia,
Oo?aaiaaa, A?eaiaaeiaa, Oaenie?a, Oeeea?a, Aiia?oa, ii e iaeiae?aiu,
aiaeaaeee, ?aianeaiiua iueanu, eiino?aiiuo e ioa/anoaaiiuo aaoi?ia.

A Aieueoii oaao?a a Iineaa e a Ia?eeineii a Iaoa?ao?aa n?aaee
caiieiieaoeo noeaio eiino?aiiuo, i?aeiouanoaaiii eoaeueyineeo, iia? ana
aieueoaa ianoi caieiaoue iia?u *aeeianeiai, Ioni?aneiai,
?einei-Ei?naeiaa, Ai?iaeeia, Na?iaa e ae?oaeo ?onneeo eiiiiceoi?ia.

A ?innee i?iaeeaaei aieaa 200 iaoeeiiaeueiinoae. Yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea
iaoeeiiaeueiinoae auei ?aciui, iie ia?aaeeaaee ?aciua nooiaie
iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey.

Auno?ia ?acaeoea eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee oei ia Oe?aeia. Caeanue
?acaeoea eoeueoo?u eiaei i?i/iua ei?ie e aaeiaua o?aaeeoeee. A eiioea
50-o – ia/aea 60-o aa. ia Oe?aeia noaee ioe?uaaoueny aine?aniua oeieu,
eioi?ua yia?ae/ii i?aaieciauaae i?ioanni? Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa I.A.
Iaaeia. A 1862 a. ia Oe?aeia aeaenoaiaaee oaea 67 aine?aniuo oeie. Aeey
yoeo oeie O.A. Oaa/aiei iaienae e ecaeae “Aoeaa?ue thaeii?onneee”.

Cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u e iaoee ia Oe?aeia aianee
Eeaaneee, Oa?ueeianeee e Iiai?inneeneee oieaa?neoaou, a eioi?uo ?aaioaee
e?oiiua ?onneea e oe?aeineea o/aiua (Ia/ieeia, Na/aiia, Iaeneiiae/,
Iioaaey e ae?.). Aaaeiui yoaiii a ?acaeoee ia?aciaaiey ia Oe?aeia noaei
i?aia?aciaaiea a 1875a. Iaaeeineiai th?eaee/aneiai eeoeay a
Enoi?eei-oeeieiae/aneee einoeooo eiycy Aacai?iaeei. A einoeoooa eiycy
Aac?iaioei i?aiiaeaaaee e?oiiaeoea ?onneea o/aiua-oeeieiae: A.N.
Aoaeeeiae/, ?. O. A?aiaeo, I.I. Nia?aineee e ae?oaea.

I?iaeieaeaoaeyie oai?/anoaa O.A. Oaa/aiei yaeeenue oaeaioeeaua ienaoaee,
eeanneee oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?u Ia?ei Aia/ie, Iaian Ie?iue, E.ss. O?aiei,
Eany Oe?aeiea. Ia?ei-Aia/ie – yoi inaaaeiiei Ia?ee Aeaenaiae?iaiu
Aeeeineie-Ia?eiae/. I?ae?aniia ciaiea auoa e i?aaia oe?aeineeo
e?anoueyi, eo onoiiai oai?/anoaa, oiieia /oanoai ycuea naeaeaee aa
aeanoyuae ienaoaeueieoeae, aa ?anneacu ec ia?iaeiiai auoa noaee oe?iei
ecaanoiu. “Oe?aeineea ia?iaeiua ?anneacu” Aia/ie E.N. Oo?aaiaa ia?aaae
ia ?onneee ycue.

?aciinoi?iiiei auei oai?/anoai Eaaia sseiaeaae/a O?aiei. Yoi aue e?oiiue
iiyo, ?iiaieno e ae?aiaoo?a, eeoa?aoo?iue e?eoee. Aai i?iecaaaeaiey
(iai?eia?, “Oe?aaeaiiia n/anouea”) i?iiecaiu ethaiaueth e ia?iaeo,
aeoaieei iiieiaieai aai eioa?ania. A naieo eieaao ienaoaeue auaeaeaae
eaeae naeeaeaiey anao neaayineeo ia?iaeia. Ienaoaeai
?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey aue Iaian Ie?iue.
?iiaioe/aneay, iiyoe/aneay nouiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiiai eneonnoaa e
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneea i?iaeaiu naiaai a?aiaie au?aaeaiu a
i?iecaaaeaieyo oe?aeineie iiyoannu Eane Oe?aeiee.

?acaeaaeny oe?aeineee iaoeeiiaeueiue oaao?, aeey eioi?iai ienaee iueanu
ae?aiaoo?ae E.E. Ea?iaiei-Ea?ue, I.E. E?iieaieoeeee, I.I. Noa?eoeeee.

Auee caeiaeaiu iniiau oe?aeineie iaoeeiiaeueiie iocuee. Auaeathueeny
aeeaae a ?acaeoea oe?aeineie e ?onneie iocuee aian oe?aeineee
eiiiiceoi?, o/aiee ?eineiai-Ei?naeiaa, Ieeieae Aeoaeueaae/ Eunaiei. Aai
iia?u “Oa?an Aoeueaa”, “Iaoaeea Iieoaaea” eiaee ia?iiiue oniao e ia
noiaeyo ni noeaiu aei iaoeo aeiae. A 1863 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa ia noeaia
Ia?eeineiai oaao?a auea iinoaaeaia iia?a o/aieea I.E. Aeeiee,
ciaiaieoiai oe?aeineiai iaaoea e eiiiiceoi?a Naiaia Noaiaiiae/a
Aoeae-A?oaiianeiai “Caii?iaeaoe ca Aeoiaai”, a iniiao eioi?ie eaaee
iaeiaeee oe?aeineeo ia?iaeiuo ianai.

ss aeoiath, oe?aeineay eeoa?aoo?a, ae?aiaoo?aey, eneonnoai ?acaeaaeenue
a oaniii acaeiiaeaenoaee n ?onneie eoeueoo?ie. Iiiaea i?iecaaaeaiey
oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue O.A. Oaa/aiei, I.Aia/ie, E.
O?aiei e ae?oaeo ia?aaiaeeeenue ia ?onneee ycue, ecaeaaaeenue a Iineaa e
Iaoa?ao?aa, oe?aieyee iauoth eoeueoo?o ?innee.

A oi aea a?aiy ia oe?aeia ca?iaeeeinue e ?acaeaaeinue
ao?aeoacii-iaoeeiiaeenoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, eioi?ia noa?aeinue ?aci?aaoue
nayce oe?aeineiai e ?onneiai ia?iaeia. Iaoeeiiaeenou aunooiaee n eaeaae
i “aacao?aeoaciinoe” oe?aeineie iaoeee. Yoe acaeyaeu iiaeaa?aaeenue
e?eoeea ni noi?iiu aeaiie?aoe/aneeo oe?aeineeo ienaoaeae.

A Aaei?onnee ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u oei oaeaea iiae aeeyieai ia?aaeiaie
?onneie eoeueoo?u. Caeanue noi?ie?iaaeanue iaoeeiiaeueiay eioaeeeaaioeey
ec eeoe, ieii/eaoeo Iaoa?ao?aneee, Iineianeee, Eeaaneee oieaa?neoaou.
?aaiethoeeiiii-aeaiie?aoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea aicaeaaeee auaeathueeny
aeayoaeue aaei?onneiai ?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey, ioaeeoeeno,
ainieoaiee Iaoa?ao?aneiai oieaa?neoaoa E.N. Eaeeiianeee e
ienaoaeue-aeaiie?ao O.E. Aiaooaae/. Ia oi?ie?iaaiey acaeyaeia Aiaooaae/a
ieacaee aeeyiea o/aiea *a?iuoaaneiai, iiycey Iae?aniaa e Oaa/aiei.
Oe?iei ecaanoiuie noaee nai?ieee aai noeoia “Aeoaeea aaei?onneay” e
“Niu/ie aaei?onneee”. E?oiiuiee aaei?onneeie ienaoaeyie auee ssiea
Eo/eia e A.E. Aeoiei-Ia?oeeieiae/. ssiei Eo/eia, eiaeaia? ii
ia?aciaaieth, aeieai ?aaioae a aeaeaciiaei?iaeiuo ianoa?neeo. A naieo
noeoao ainiaaae o?oae.

Aieueooth i?inaaoeoaeueioth, iao/ioth e i?aeoe/aneoth ?aaioo i?iaiaeee a
Aaei?onnee Caieaaeaeue/aneee einoeooo – ia?aia a ?innee aunoaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiia o/aaiia caaaaeaiea.

A I?eaaeoeea ?acaeoea oeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey oei cia/eoaeueii auno?aa,
/ai a oeaio?aeueiuo aoaa?ieyo: ii ia?aiene 1897a. a?aiioiinoue ianaeaiea
noa?oa 8 eao ninoaaeyea a Ynoiiee – 90%, a Eaoaee-80% e a Eeoaa-54%. A
80-o aa. auee i?iaaaeaiu ?aoi?iu, ii eioi?ii o/aaiua caaaaeaiey
inocaeneeo aeai?yi e ethoa?aineeo ianoi?ia auee ia?aaeaiu a Ieienoa?noai
ia?iaeiiai ia?aciaaiey. I?aiiaaaiea ia?aaiaeeeinue n iaiaoeeiai ycuea ia
?onneee, e?iia ia/aeueiuo oeie. A ?yaea ia/aeueiuo oeie iao/aiea aaeinue
ia eaouaeneii e ynoiineii ycueao. Oaaee/aeinue /enei aeiiacee,
o/eoaueneeo naieia?ee, ae?oaeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue
a ?acaeoee i?inaauaiey e eoeueoo?u ?inne, nua?ei iaiaoeeia ianaeaiea
I?eaaeoeee. Iiiai eaouoae, yoiioeaa e eeoiaoeaa o/eeenue a Aea?ioneii,
Iaoa?ao?anei, Aa?oaaneii e aeoaeo oieaa?neoaoao, a ?eaeneii
iieeoaoie/aneii einoeoooa. Iaoa?ao?aneee oieaa?neoao ieii/ee aaeeeee
eaouoneee iiyo ss.?aeien. E?oiiui aeayoaeaie ynoiineie eoeueoo?uauee
auaeathueeny iiyo e o/aiue O.E?aeoeaaeueae, o/aiue-ycueiaaae I.
Aanea.E?aeoeaaeueae ninoaaee ciaiaeooth eieao ynoiineiai iaoeeiieueiiai
yiina “Eaeaaeiiya”, a Aanea ?aaioay a Eaineii oieaa?neoaoa, iaienae
iao/iue o?oae “Neaayii-oeineea eoeueoo?iua ioiioaiey ii aeaiiui yuea”.

Ecaeaaaeny ?yae aacao e aeo?iaeia ia euouoneii e ynoiineii ycueao,
cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea iieo/eee iaoeeiiaeueiua eeoa?aoo?u ia?iaeia
I?eaaeoeee. A eiioea 19 a. ia/eiaee naith oai?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue
ynoiineee ienaoaeue Y.Aeeueaea e eaouoneee iiyo ssi ?aeien. A iieiaeinoe
?aeien o/eeny a Iaoa?ao?aneii oieaa?neoaoa e ia anth aeeciue nio?aiee
ethaiaue e ?onneie eeoa?aoo?a. Ia eaouoneee ycue ii ia?aaae “Ai?ena
Aiaeoiiaa” A.N. Iooeeia e “Aeaiiia” I.TH. Ea?iiioiaa, naeaeaa yoe
aaeeeea i?iecaaaeaiey ?onneie eeoa?aoo?u aeinooiiuie aeey eaouoneiai
ia?iaea.

Iniai a eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?eaaeoeee auaeaeyaony eiy eeoianeiai
eiiiiceoi?a e ooaeiaeieea Ieeaeithna Eiinoaioeiina *th?eaiena. Iie?aynue
ia ia?iaeioth iocueo, eiiiiceoi? e?ani/iinoueth ycuea eae au naeeaeaao
iocueo e aeeaiienue a naieo neioiie/aneeo i?iecaaaeaieyo, a a ea?oeiao
no?aieony e ieanoe/aneie ia?aaea/e iocueaeueiinoe.

“Iooeii eaouoneiai oaao?a” iacuaatho Aaeieueoa Aeoiaia.

Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia Eaaeaca ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea oiaea eniuoaea
aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea iauanoaaiiiai iiaeuaia a no?aia. A a?oceineie
eeoa?aoo?a auaeathuothny ?ieue nua?ae Eeuey A?eai?ueaae/
*aa/aaaaeca-e?oiiaeoee iiyo, aaeeao?eno, ae?aiaoo?a, ia?aaiae/ee. Aianoa
n ienaoaeyie-ni?aoieeaie Aeaeeai ?inoiiiae/ai Oea?aoaee e Aai?aeai
Oea?aoaee *aa/aaaaeca i?eiaaeeaaeae e iai?aaeaieth ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
aeaiie?aoia, auniei oeaiee i?iecaaaeaiey Aaeeineiai e *a?iuoaaneiai,
Iooeeia e Oienoiai. ss n/eoath, /oi ?onneay eoeueoo?a ieacaea aieueoia,
?oeiaiaeyuaa aeeyiea ia iooue A?oceineiai ?acaeoey, ieacaei aicaeaenoaea
ia oi, /oi nioiaeyei aeooiaioth neeo, niciaiea, iuneue a?oceineie
eoeueoo?u. A eiioea aaea ia eeoa?aoo?iia iii?eua anooiee aua iaeei
caia/aoaeueiue a?oceineee iiyo e ienaoaeue Aaaea Ioaaaea, aaoi? aieaa 30
iiyi, iiiaeo noeoia.

Aua 1851 a. a Oeoeena aue ioe?uo iia?iue oaao? n ?onneie o?oiiie. N 80-o
aa. a iai noaaeeenue iia?u Aeeiee, *aeeianeiai, ?eineiai_ei?naeiaa e
ae?oaec eiiiiceoi?ia. Auei nicaeaii ioaeaeaiea ?onneiai iocueaeueiiai
iauanoaa e ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeeeenue eiioea?ou neioiie/aneie iocuee. A yoe
aea aiaeu eiiiiceoi? Iaeeoii Aioiiiae/ Aaeai/eaaaeca nicaeae ia?aoth
a?oceineoth iia?o “Eiaa?iay Oaia?a”. I.A. Aaeai/eaaaeca aianoa n Ae.E.
A?aeeoaeee noaee iniiaiiieiaeieeaie a?oceineiai ?iiaina. Iaeiie ec
ecaanoiuo a?oceineeo iia? yaeyaony “Aaanaeii e Yoa?e”, iaienaiiay
Caoa?eai Iao?iae/ai Iaeeaoaeee.

Ia iniiaa iiyoe/aneie eaaaiaeu i ethaae oea?aae/a Aaanaeiia e
e?anoueyineie aeaaooee Yoa?e.

A Oeoeena aiciee iaoeeiiaeueiue a?oceineee i?ioanneiiaeueiue oaao?. Ia
aai noeaia oee iueanu E. *aa/aaaaeca, A. Oea?aoaee, ?onneeo e
ca?oaaaeiuo eeanneeia.

A a?iyineie eeoa?aoo?a ?ieue aaeeeiai i?inaaoeoaey naiaai ia?iaea nua?ae
Ieeaye Iaaeaiaeyi-oeeinio-iaoa?eaeeno, iiyo e e?eoee. Ii iiiaia naeaeae
aeey ?acaeoey a?iyineie eeoa?aoo?u e eneonnoaa.

Iniiaie aeey ?acaeoey a?iyineiai oaao?a noaea ae?aiaoo?aey A.
Noiaeoeyia. A naieo eiiaaeeyo e ae?aiao Noiaeoeyi iieacuaae oeuie/anoai
ia?iaeaeaaoaeny ao?aeoacee, aeanoue aeaiaa, ii?iaeaeaaooth eiaeue e
iaiai. Ia?aue a?iyineee oaao? aiciee a Oeoeena, eioi?ue aue
iuaaeoeueoo?iui oeaio?ii Eaaeaca. Oaao? aue nicaeai a?iyineei eeanneeii
ae?aiaoo?aii Noiaeoeyiii. Aiineaaenoaee a?iyineee oaao? noaaee niaeoaeee
a Y?eaaia (A?aaaia). Iiaue yoai a ?acaeoee a?iyineiai oaao?a
ii?aaeaaeeea ae?aeaoo?aey auaeathuaainy i?icaeea A.I. Oe?aaicaaea. Ia
oaao?aeueiie noeaia o?aaeeoeee ?aaeecia e aeeciaiiie i?aaaeu ooaa?aeaeae
aeoa? e ?aaeana? A.A. *iuoeyi. Iiiai aeey ?acaeoey iocueaeueiiai e
iia?iiai eneonnoaa naeaeae A?iai Oea?aiiae/ Oea?aiyi, nicaeaaoee
eeanne/aneoth a?iyineoth iia?o “Aioo”. Iniiaiiieiaeieeii a?iyineie
neioiie/aneie iocuee iacuaatho Aeaenaiae?a Aoaianueaae/a Niaiaeea?iaa.
Eae o/aiue, iocueaeueiue aeayoaeue e niae?aoaeue ia?iaeiuo ianai
ecaanoai Eiienoan (N.A. Niaiiyi)

A Aca?aaeaeaeaia iniiau iiaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u e ae?aiaoo?aee
caeiaeee e?oiiaeoee aeayoaeue eoeueoo?u Ie?ca Oaoaee Aooiaeia. Aooiaeia
nioaaee a 70-o aa. iiaue aca?aaeaeaeaineee aeoaaeo. Aianoa n iei aae
aieueooth i?inaaoeoaeueioth ?aaioo ioaeeoeeno e e?eoee, iaaeaaia A.
Ca?aeaae, eioi?ue iniiaae aca?aaeaeaeaineee oaao? nia/aea ia
ethaeoaeueneeo ia/aeao, a caoai a 90-o aa. iaa?ae i?ioanneiiaeueioth
o?oiio. Oaao? noaaee iueanu Aooiaeiaa e ia/eiaaoaai naith
aeayoaeueiinoue e?oiiiai ienaoaey, ae?aiaoo?aa e ?aaiethoeeiiiai
aeayoaey Ia?eiaia Ia?eiaiiaa.

Aeaaiui eoiaii eoeueoo?iiai iiaeuaia a Caeaaeacuea auei nicaeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie eoaeaaaioeee o anao ia?iaeia. Aicieeatho ?acee/iua
i?inaaoeoaeueiua e iao/iua iauanoaa, ioaeaeaiey iaua?ineeneeo iauanoa,
iocae, iiaua o/eeeua, aeiiacee. Ecaeaaaeenue aacaou e aeo?iaeu ia
?iaeiuo ycueao ia oieueei a Caeaaeacuea, ii e A Iaoa?ao?aa, e a Iineaa.
Aaeaea ?acaeoey i?inaauaiey n?aaee a?iyi cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue nua?aee
Eaca?aaneee einoeooo ainoi/iuo ycueia a Iineaa (ioe?uoue a 1815 a.) e
Ia?nayineia o/eeeua a Oeoeana. E?oiiuie eoeueoo?iuie oeaio?aie a yoio
ia?eiae, e?iia Oeoeena, noaiiayony Aaeo e Y?eaai.

Aieueoia aeeyiea ia aeayoaeueiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiuo
ienaoaeae-i?inaaoeoaeae ieacuaaea ?onneay eoeueoo?a. Iiiaea aeayoaee
i?inaauaiey ieii/eee Iaoa?ao?aneee oieaa?neoao e ae?oaea o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey a oeaio?a no?aiu, auee ciaeiiu n ?onneeie ienaoaeyie, iiiaea
aeayoaee ?onneie eoeueoo?u auaaee ia Eaaeaca, ia/eiay n Iooeeia,
Aeaiaaeiaa. E?oiiue aeayoaeue a?oceineie eoeueoo?u A. Oea?aoaee ienae:
“Anoue iieiaeay ?inney, n eioi?ie iu aeaeaai eaeoe ?oea ia ?oeo ia
oieueei aeey inouanoaeaieyiaoeeiiaeueiuo, ii e iaua/aeiaa/aneeo
eaeaaeia, eioi?ua iacuaathony a?aonoaii, aaeeiaieai, ?aaiii?aaeai”.

Eoeueoo?a Iieaeaaee eniuoaea aeaaioai?iia aeeyiea ?onneeo ienaoaeae,
i?aauaaiea eioi?uo a Eeoaiaaa inoaaeei caiaoiue neaae e aeaei oie/ie
?acaeoeth aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiey. Iieaeaaneay eeoa?aoo?a
eniuoaaaea oaeaea aeeyiea oe?aeineie e ?oiuineie eeoa?aoo?. Eaeae
ao?aeoaciiai i?inaaoeoaeuenoaa oe?iei i?iiaaaiaee?iaaee e i?iaiaeeee a
aeeciue Aaneea Aeaenaiae?e e Ieoaee Yieianeo, ienaoaee-aeaiie?aou.
AEeciue iieaeaaneiai naea oaeaioeeai iienae a naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo
ienaoaeue-?aaeeno Eii E?yiaa.

Eeoaiaa eae oeaio? eoeueoo?u oi?ie?oaony a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ai
aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea. Caeanue oaeaea ioe?uaaaony oaao?, o/aaiua
caaaaeaiey, aicieeatho ?acee/iua iauanoaa.

?acaeoea i?inaauaiey a N?aaeiae Acee aeaeaei oieueei ia?aua oaae. Oioy
ia ?yaeo n oea?eiaiuie oeieaie a 70-80-a aa. aicieeatho naaoneea,
a?aiioiuie a eiioea aaea auee oieueei ieiei 3 % aeeoaeae. A ai?iaeao
Aa?iii, Naieiaeaoeinea, Oaoeaioa, Aooaaaaea, Ea?aeiea auee ioe?uou
?onnei-eaocaoneea, ?onnei-oo?eiaineea e eiua oeieu, ii eo auei iaei.

?acaeoea eoeueoo? yoeo ia?iaeia oei iiae aeeyieai, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
ionoeueiaineie ?aeeaee, n ae?oaie- ?onneie eoeueoo?u. Aieueoia cia/aiea
eiaei eniieueciaaiea aiaaoiai ianeaaeey, io?aceaoaainy a ia?iaeiii
oieueeei?a, iaoeeiiaeueiii ianaiiii oai?/anoaa ia?iaeiuo iiyoia-aeuiia,
iiiaea ec eioi?uo auee oaea i?ioanneiiaeueiuie iaaoeaie e neacaoaeyie,
naie ni/eiyee ianie e neacu. Oaiaeaioeee ?anoe?aiey i?inaauaiey i?eianee
i?ia?anneaiua iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea naeaeae a no?aia.

Aieueooth ?ieue a ?acaeoee eacaoneie eoeueoo?u nua?aee i?inaaoeoaeue,
ainoieiaaae, yoiia?ao e enoi?ee *ieai Aaeeoaiia e iniiaiiieiaeiee
iaoeeiiaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u Eacaonoaia Aaae Eoiaiaaaa. Aaeeoaiia caienae e
ia?aaae ia ?onneee ycue /anoue ia?iaeiiai yiina “Iaian”, o/anoaiaae a
yeniaaeeoeeyo, nio?oaeie/ae n e?oiiuie o/aiaie-iooaoanoaaiieeaie
Naiaiiaui-Oyi-Oaineei e Iioaieiui. Ii iacuaae eacaoia “a?aoueyie ?onneeo
ii ioa/anoao”, aeaeae caeia oniaoiiai ?acaeoey eacaoneie eoeueoo?u a
oaniii aaeeiaiee aa n ia?aaeiaui eaaa?ai ?onneie aeaiie?aoee. E?oiiaeoee
eacaoneee iiyo e ienaoaeue Aaae Eoiaiaaaa nicaeae ?yae iiyi, iaienae
i?iecaaaeaiea “Iaceaeaiea”. Ii noae iniiaiiieiaeieeii eeoa?aoo?iiai
ycuea e ienueiaiiie eeoa?aoo?u a Eacaonoaia. Aai oai?/anoai-yoi
yioeeeeiiaaeey aeecie eacaoia eiioea 19 aaea. I?ecua Eoiaiaaaaa e
naeeaeaieth n ?onneei ia?iaeii eiae ia?iiiia cia/aiea aeey ?acaeoey
eoeueoo?u ia?iaeia Ainoiea. “Aeey oiai /oiau ecaaaeaoue ii?ieia e
aeinoe/ue aeia?a, – ienae ii, – iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue ?onneee ycue e
?onneoth eoeueoo?o. ?onneea aeaeyo ie?. Anee ou aoaeaoue ciaoue eo ycue,
oi ia ie? ioe?ithony e oaie aeaca.”

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 19 aaea iiyaeeenue ia?aua nai?ieee eacaoneiai
oieueeei?a, caienaiiua i?e o/anoee ?onneeo o/aiuo ia ninoycaieyo
iiyoia-aeuiia.

Aoiaeaeaiea N?aaeiae Acee a ninoaa ?innee niinianoaiaaei auno?iio
iiaeuaio eoeueoo?u ocaaeneiai, oaaeaeeeneiai e oo?eiaineiai ia?iaeia.
Oei aeoeaiia i?eiauaiea ia?iaeia N?aaeiae Acee e ?onneie e aa?iiaeneie
eoeueoo?a. I?ia?anneaiay aeaiie?aoe/aneay eeoa?aoo?a nicaeaaony a
Ocaaeenoaia. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiuie auee iiyou-aeaiie?aou Oo?eao, I. Ioeeie
e ae?. Oo?eao i?ecuaae e naeeaeaieth n ?onneei ia?iaeii, e inaiaieth aai
eoeueoo?u eae n?aaenoao ?acaeoey naiae iaoeeiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Noaee
ecaeaaaoueny “Oo?eanoaineay aacaoa”, eieae ia ocaaeneii, eacaoneii
ycuea. Ia?aaiaeyony iiiaea eieae ?onneeo ienaoaeae, ecaeaaaeanue
eeoa?aoo?a Ainoiea.

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