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«E???a I?????»

I. ???ey e ???aey

O??u ?? ???? a ?i, ?i ?e ???u ??? ??? ?y ??, ??u ? ????e ? ??? e ???? ?
?o. A?e ???a ????? ??? ???i ????, ???? ???ny ??? ??i ???y?ny ??, ??i??i
???ay ?a, ?i ????i ?o ???e. O???? ???? ? ??e ??e ?cy??i, ?y?? ?e e ????e
??? eth?e.

N????o ?a ???? ???? ????ai ?? i ????? ????. N???i ??i?, ?a Y?e e ??iy
I??o ???? ??? eth?e ? ??u ????? ???? ???, c????e ? ??e ???-? ???i ?e
?aa. C?? Y?e e I??o ????? ??? ???i ???? e ???? ? y?? ??? ??. I???, ?e
??a ??? ??? eth?e, ? ??? o ?o ??e ?o??ue ??u. Ai ??? ???? ?????a?y, ?i
??? eth? ??e ?ae ???, ?e ??a. A? Y??ue ??? ???e ?? a ??a, ??? ???th eth?
??e ? ?????ue.

Y?e ??? Y?? e ??ye ?i ? ?a ???i?i ?a?a ? ?????ue. I???ay? e ????yi O?? e
Aa??a, ?a Y?e ???o ??, ???, ???o ????a?th ????, ???ey? ??? ???a e ??i,
??a?y ? ??a-i?????e. Y?o ?a y?y?ny ?????i ???? ??y?a ? ??a.

A??i ? ?y??e ?y ???a ?e ??ae I??? — ????e ??? ?? ????ey e ?c??? ?e
Y?eey. Y??ue — ?? ? ??? i???a ??ath?? e ?n??ath?? ??, ??????y i ???i
?y?? ? ?a?? ??? ?? e ???e ??e ???u.

C???e ??? ??o ??????? ????o ??a A? — ?a ??, ??? ??? ???. A??? ?i?? ???e
????? ???? ?? E??a — «??? ????i ????.

I???? ?? ? ????? ????? ??? ?ae ????i, ?i ??ue ??????nue ? ???i ??????
?????y?, ???i y??????e e ??????e ??ey?. O??? ???o ???e ??? a ?????e ??e
????ue e ??th??th ? ????? ????iu? e ????e ????y?, ???a ????? ??u.

N??ue ??????? ?e ??i ???a e a?????a. I?? ??? ??? O??a e Ae?? ???? a ???a
????a ???i, ?a ??a ?e ??a ???a n????a?a ??o ??? ?? ?o, ? ?i ?e ????
????ue?e ??yae e ????u ae??u, a ??a ??? a ?th e ?????o ????e. A? ????a
???e ???? ??? ??????a ??e ???a ?? a ????e ???a, ??y? ????e e ??yy ??o
???e ??e.

A A???a ???i ???o ???a ?e ?????i ???? e ????. I? y?i ???i ???y?y ? ??
??? (???i-???uo) ??a ???o ???a. Ia ???o ?????ue ??? ?????e ??e e ?
????i?o.

I?ay ????a ?????o ??a ?? ??oth?e: ? ??a ????y ?a Y??ue ?? I??e (??? ?e
?e??? a ??c «A???» — A?a). I??i ????e ?a ?e ??? ?a?i ??i ??a ???i ? ??a
7 ???? a???. I?? ? ?-???? ???a ??? ???a — A?, Y??ue e Y??ue. E??i ? ???e
??o ??a, ?ae?e ? ???o ???e ?? ???. A? ??ee ? ??, a ???i ??? — Y??ue, a
?o ?y eth?e ??i ??e?i, ??????i, ?e Y??ue, ???? ?? ????? ?a ??o ??i e
??ath?i ??th ???i.

N???i ???u, ??ath?e e ??ath?e, y?y?y ?a O??c — ??th???e ??? E?a? (????y
E??a). I? i O??? e E?? y?y?ny ?a ??i ???? ???u ? ??athu? e ????th?i ??.
O??c ? ???e ??? ?? ??e ???a, ???i ???y?? ???iy?. Ii ?y ?o ?e ??i ????ey
e ??i ???????. I?i??a ??????e ??atho, ?i ?a-???, ??th???e e ??? ??? E??,
?e ??i ath a ????a ???i ??? ?a. Ii ??? ???, a ????ithth ????ny ????ny
E??, ?i? ???? ????e ???e.

A??? ???y ???. O??th?e e ???nath?e ?a Ae??e (????a ?y O???) ???? ?ae ???
??? ???a. E?? Ae??e-O???, ??y?i, ????? ?????? ??????? ?ey?y, i???
???????a e a ??-?????ii ???a, ?a ? ???y?y ???? ??i.

N???i A??e, o ???? ??o E??????i ??a ss?a ???u ????? O???. Ii-????, y?o
??o ???ey? e ??-????? ????a N?? e I????? a I ?ny???e ? i. y. Ii ??????o
????i ??? X ?? i. y. ?-I??a, ??yae, ?????e ????? a A??e, n????? o ??? a
O??? (N???y I?i???y). AE??? ????? O???, ???? ?i ???a ??, ???? ?i ??e e
??? ? ? ??o. Ai ??y ????e ?e ??a ??i, ??? e ??e.

II. I?????ue, ?o???a e ??a

N?a ?ay ??????ue e ???? ??e ?e ??? ???? e ?iy?? ???? ??e? ??? a ???
ethaeyi ??? ?????e? ???. O? ?y??? ????? — ??e, ?????? ?iy?y, ?e ???i,
?????i (?y???i) ????a. I??i ?i, ?a y???? ?????ue ????? ??i, ??ue ??i
??a???? ??e ?? ????e. O eth?e ???? ?????ue a ????? ???e ??a? ???, ???a
??e ????? ?????oth ?? e ???? ????? ???a ?iy?y.

I??a ????a ????u, ?y???ny a I??????? ???, ?? ???a ??? ??? ?? ???c??, ??i
????, ?e ??? ???? ??i ?? ????ue ??e????? ????a. *?? ???? ??th-?? ???th
????eth, ????? • ???i ?e???? ???ey? ??iy?a ???. N??? y?? a??a ???i, ??u
??e ???a ?cy??a?? ???u. Ii n ????i ????? ????, ??a ?????? ??a ?e ??a ?/?
???? ? ??? ?????oth ??, ?i?y ???a ?????ue e ????? ??i ???? ???i. I??
2500 ?? ? i. y. ????a ??? ????ue ? ??e ???e, ?i ??i ????i ????oue ???a
??? ?????? ????a e ae?a ?y?.

O??u ??? ? ??i ????i e ???i i??e?a — ? ???o ? ??? ??u, ??a??y ??e ?i?e
?????? ????. C?? ????oth ???? ???? a ??, ?i ??? ?????ue ???ue ? ?????e
??i. I?????? ???????a ??e ????? ??? ?? ????e e ????? ????. Ii ?i ???a
?????ue ?? ?????oue, ?i ??a ?????ue ? ??e — ?e ?????? a ??? ?y?o ????,
???a ???? ???i ??a ?y?o???? ??a ???e. Y?o ??i ???y ?ae ??i, a ????? ??
???? ?? ??? ? ??a ? ????e ??u?e — ?y?? ??????a ??? e ?? ???i ?e???th.

A????ay ????ue ?? ?????? ? ???a e e II ?ny???th ? i. y. ??a ???? ????? e
??????. N???? ???? ???, ?i a ?????? ????ue ????ue ??? ??? ????? ??? aeey
???e ?? ? ????-????i y??. I?i??y ? ????ue ????e, ??? ?a ?? a ? ??
???e???i y??i ?????a??i ???y. N????? ???a ????? ?????, ?????o ???a,
????e, ????? a ????o ???? Ae???i A??? ????ueth ? ??ae?? y??. A????oth
????ue ???e ae?a a ???? ??? ???? A??a. I? ???ey, ?i a y?o ???? c?? i
??????e ???e ????? ? ????i y??, ?????, ????e ??? ?????? ???ey.

I??? ???a ?????e ????? ? n???th e ????th a ???e ???e ??n???i, ?i ?ey?a
?????o ????e ??e? ?????y ?????e a ??? ???a??e. I??e ???e ?????? ?iy???
???e A???? ??o?, ??? y??, ???? ? ??? ????e ??i (y? ?y?? n ???????th ??a?
??y?o ????), ??????i? ?????oth ??o e ????? ?????a ??a?a e ???? ??e e
???.

N????? ????o ?????? ??? ??? ?uy??ue ?c ??a ?a ??e ?????e ?????e ?????:
?a ????a? ??? ? ?y «???????i ?????y». N??a ??i, ????? ? ????o ??? ? ????
«?i ?ay», a ?????a. *??a ?????u a ???i A???a ???? ? ??a ??e??? ???i:
?????-???? ???ii ????? ???a ??? ?????y ????yi, ???a ?????ay?, ?? ???ue
????e ??, ?a ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?????y, ?????y ?????i ??? a
??????th ? ???? ??o ?????ey.

*?a ??? ?????u ???y? ????a ??? «N???y i A?????. Aei ??o ?? ??e ?e ????
y?? ???? ??????i ???a. A ???? ?y?? ? ??oi ???y?? ????a ???, ??? i ???i
??a. A???? — ????a ?y; ????e ???o, ?-????, ????i ? ??u «A????», ?i,
????, ???? «??? ??y». A??a ??y?i, ?i A???? ?e ???? ?????? ????th — iy?i
????? I ???? ??? O?? a O??a (??oe XVII — ??? XVI ?? ? i. y.). A??a ??a
??? ? ?e ?????i, e a «???i ???» III ???? O? A???? ??o?? ?a ?e ????ay
????.

O??u ???? ????? ??oth ???o o???? ?????y, ???y ????ue ?i????? yo????e, ?i
????i ? ? ?ny???y ???? ??o ?????. I?/?? ?? ???i ? ????i y??a.

E ??o III ?ny???y ? i. y. ?? ???a ????? ???e A????. A ??? ??? ????? ??a
???? ???o ?????y?o??? ????. En?????? ?????y ????y???ay ???a ??a. I?a e ?
? ??a a ?????e ? ??a ?????a ????a ????. Y? ???? ????? ???? e y???? ????
????. O???ny???ay ?n??’ ?a????i ????ey ??????? ???a ?? ? 60 ??o e 3600
???, ?a ????? a ????i ???e ????? ? 360 ????.

I????e a A???? ??e ??? ????? ????y, ??e ???o I???a i ????o ?y?????
??????a, ??e ??? ????? ???a ??? ?????? (????, ???y? ??? ?c?/?o ?e, a ?i
??a ????e ????).

N??a ??i ??i ?????i ???i ???a ?e ??? ?? ????y n ??y ??????, ??e ????ue
????? e (a ????o ??ayo) ????? ??e. *?? y, ????a ??u ????? e ? ????,
???iy? a?? ????e ??? ??.

I?y? n ?????e a I????a ?y??? e ????ey. N?? ???a ???? e ????i?? ??th??e ?
???? ??i ??i ?uy?y?ny ?????y? ????ey, ? ? ??? y?i. AE??? ????a? ???????e
??? ??e ??ae. A I????a ?? a ???? ??? ????? e??? ????? ?y ?o??y ?????i?
??? ????i ??. Y? ???? ??ao ???????o ????? ????e e ??? ?????o ?????e
N??????uey.

A??????? ??? ??th??e ? ??ae?e ???ny a ??????? ??y?? a Ia???? ????y.

I?? ????ey A???a ? ?? ??? (? y?? a ??? ??? ?? ?? ????ue), ? ?ae ??u
??a??y ??y?y ???a ???a ???e ?? ? ??????a. A ???a?a e ????? 29- e 30-???i
?ny?i ???e?? ???ue «?????» ?ny?.

E??ey a I????a ?????? n ??e c??y ?????. I?? ????y ?? e ?o????o ??? ???e
?ey?a ????a?y ??? ? ???y ??? ??e.

E???u ??? ?????o e ????? ???? ? ????i y??. I? ?y???? ??i??ath?y ????i
????? ????, ?????o ?y ????y «?????? ????. N XII ?? ? i. y. a A???a ?????
??????i ??ey?? ???e.

A?e ???i ???u ???ey ???? e ?????e ? ????y, ?i ?uy?y?ny ?????y? ???e e
??????.

A???u A???? ????e ??o ??, ?a ??y ?????? ??ath?i a ??? ?o??i, ???? ?? ???
I????y. Ii ???? ??????? ???ey ???a ?? ???i ??. E??, ?????, ??e ???? ?? a
E?eth (??a ??? ?? ?? ???) e i ??????e ??? Eoo (Y??ey), ???e i O???a
(E??ey).

III. A????? e ?e???

A??? ??????e ??? ????? ????a ?e ??. ???? ????????aa ????ny ?a ? I???????
???, ??a ???a ??? ??? ????ue ?yo??a ? ?????? ???a n ??ay??e ????ey?,
???a ?????ue ? ???i ???? ?????. E? ???i, ?y ??????a ???? ?c?????, ?? ?
??y ???a ? ????? ??. N? ?? ??iye ? ?? ???? ???: ????? ?y??? — ???e ???
(??a), ?a ???? ??oth ??, e ?a ???o ???iey, ?????a ? ??? ???a. A ??i ?i?
??u ???? ???, a ? ??? — ?? ?y ????????. I???y ??a ??a ????ey? ??e ?????
?????a ?o e ????. I???/?ue? ??a ?? ??? ???? ????? ???, ? ??i ?????? a
???? ?i???. I??e ???ue ??u ? ?????noyo e ???a ? ????? ?i ? ??a ??i ???i
e ??, ?i ?e ?????? ????a-????o ?a ??y ?a?????, ?i ???i e ??????th ?????
?????? ??u ?????u I????? — ????a. C???o ????ey? ??e ?y????? ??e? ?????e
??, ? ???a ???? ?ei ?????i ?y???, ???ue a ???a ??i ?? ? ???e ???? ????.
O? a ?????????e ??? ????eth ??a ??? ???? ???e ???.

Aei ??o ?? a ???? ????i ?? ??e ???? ??y O?-I?? a ??? O?. A??a??a ???e
???a?? ? ???e, e ???y ?? ????ey? ??e ???? ?? ???e ??i 20 i, ???ath?eny
?ae ?????y?. I?????? ???a y?? ????a ????ue ? ????th ????th ????. I??e
y?n ??a ?e ???? a ??? ??, ???e — a ???e, a ???e — a ??e. I???, ??a ???
???ue ??y??? ????u, ????? ??? e ???e ??a.

O???? ????e ????e ?? ???; I???i y?? ??? ?????a a E?a ??? ?????a ???,
???a y?y?? n????? ??? e ??a. Ne??a ??? ??????? ?? ???? ????e ???? ? ???
? ???? ??a, ? e ? ??? ???. Ai ??? ?? ????i ??o ???, ???ue ???ay ????,
???y ? ?? ????, o ???u ???e y?e ???? ??ae ???i. O?? ? ??? ????? ???y n
????e, ??u ???e ?? ???iu ???? n ????? ???e.

O???? ??? ??????ue ????, ?c ??e-?? ??? ?????. I?? ???e ???e, ?????e
?????a ?y????? ?? ?c ??, ?i??? ??? e ??a ? ???a ??u. A ??? ????? ??
?y???? ?e ????ee ???, ??? ??e ?????th. N?e ??? ????? ???? e ???? ???e.

A O??a ?????? ????? ????c??y ????. N????u ??????e ? ????a ?e iy??i ??y —
????a ?e ?a??y?. Y? ???o? ?? ??? ??? ? ??????i. I??? ? ?a?? ??ae ??e ???
????i ???? ????e ?? ???? ?e ??u ??. O???? ????? ????, ??eth??u, ?e ???y
???i ????? e oy???. A??i ?oe — ????a ??e n ????i ???? ???e e ???????ue?
????e, ??? ????? ???e. *?? ??? ?? e ??? ???y?? ?????a ??e, ????? ?????
???uey?, ???? e ?????, a ???o th??? ??ae??e ?e ???? ??a: ??e (???o),
???e (????) e ??? (???).

O??i ???????? ???u ????ee ??u ??u ?e ??????? nth??. E????? ?? ???? ?
????i ???a??o ?? ??o ???, ???a ????i «???» ??o ??o. I???i ???i ?? a????
??????? ??????? ???. ???? ????? eth?e a ??? ?????? ??o: ??? ???o ??,
????? ?????a ?a e ??, ??a — a ?n. AE???a e ??u ??a ?????? a ???ue, ???
????a ??? (??, ??a, ?u?y) — a ?n. N????i, ? ????i ???a e ???? ?????,
?y??? ???e ???o i ??? ?i??????-???????i ???ey. N? ????e ??? ????eye ??e
????th ??? ? iy??i ??y, ????th a ??ue ???-?? ??????i ???y. E?n???? ????
y?? y?y?ny ?e ????ay «??a ????» y?e E??a Y???a, ?????y ??i 2500 ?? ? i.
y.

E???? ???? ????? ???i ???i ????i. A??? ????? ??e ?a??? ????? ?i???
??????i ??, ?e ???? ?? ? ???ny ?????i ????, ? ????? ??? ?i ???????i
?????y ??????i ??. A? y? ??a?????? i ?y??? o ????a ???? e ????e ??????
????. ???u, ?????a a «????? ???, ???tho: ????ay ????? ????? ???e ???,
????, ????ay ???? ?????u e ???ey ?????? ?e. I????e ????e ?e??? ????
y?yth?y: ??a ??y I???? e ??ay ??? ??y N??? Ae???i.

A ??a II ?ny???y ? i. y. ???y ????? ???o ?????e ????, ????e a ?ay /??
????e, ????e, ????, ???n?e e ????? ????. ????e, ????y ???i ?? -?????
I??ey, A?? e ???a ?????, y?? ?? ???th ? ??y??e oyny???e ?ae ??i ??e
???th ???? ?????e A????? ???e.

I????? ?a ??? A??? y?y?? ?u? ?????? ???oy? n ???? ??a? e ????e ??e. A
???? ??????a ?-???? ??????e ????, ???e, ???, ??? ? ??i???? ?ae ???i,
???a ???a ??i ???. C???? ??? ??u ??? ?????, ?i ???? ???i a ???o ???i?yo.
E??e ?????e ?? ??? ?y ?ay ??th ????eth, y?y?othny ? ?? ?? ???i. I???a
????e ?????e y?y?ny Ae?-O???i, ?????y N???i II.

Ae??oe-???? a Ae?-O???i ????eye ??e ??e ????, ?????e ? ????? 14-????
????a ???ueth a 10 ?. E yo? ????a ?? ?a ???o ???a, ? ???i ??i ?? ????ue
e ???, ??iy??o ??a ?i ? 200 ????e. O ??a a ??? ?iy? ???? 5-???? ???? ???
???? ??a n ??????e ??? — ??? ??a-???a?e ??.

E??? e ???e ??? ?? ???u ??eny? ?e ????? ??????? ???ie ????e, a ??a ????
????? ???ia e ???. A????ay ????? ?? ???? ??? ?y?? n ??????. N?e ???
??????i y?y?? ?????i ?????? ????. Aeey ?????o ???? ?? ????? ????iay
????? ????? ???e ??? e c???a ????, ???? ????o ???????i–? ?????o ??.

I??????a ????a ?????a ???u ???? ??aeyo ? ??ue i ??o ??yo ?????, ???a
????ue ?ae ? ????i. A???e ? ??? ?? ??u ??u e ??u. O???? ????i? ???u ??
??y? ??????, ?i ?a ??? ????a? ?????a ?????e e ??oy?e ???e ???e. N????u
?????? ????? ?/??a ???? — oy??a ??, ????a ??, ???a ???u, ???ay, ?? a
???? ????y ?? — ?a y? ????i ??c ???o, ???? e ???? i????e-???.

Ia ??? A??? ????i ???? I??????? Oe???, ???? ?iy???e ???? y?yth?y ???e?
A???a. N?? ???e ??ae ? Ae??? A??? ????eye ??e ?y????? ?i??th ??a 10 ?2.
Ii ?e ???? A???i ia ????th (??oth) e ???oth (??th) ??e. I? ???? ???
???y?? ??ayi?i ??? ? ???? ???. A??? ?e ???i ?? e ??y ?y?? ???o ?? n 360
??y?. I??y ??a ?? ???? 7 i, ?i?y — 8 i, a ??uey — 3,5 i. A? ?e ?? ?????
??????? ????e, ????a ? ?o ???ey? ???u, ??????a ???? e ???. E?? ??, ?????
????? ????ey ???y? a ??? ??? ???? ??e ?th ?????thny ??ae A???? ???th, ?e
??, ???o.

A?? ?? ??oth ?????, ?iy??othny a ???a ????th??y ?y?o ??, ?e ????? «??a
?????. I??i ???? ??o y?? ???e ?? ?n???, ?e ???i, ???y??i. *?? ?? ??ae n
???-??? ? th?-??? ????a ???y ??a, ei??y ???y? ?? ?? I??? n ???? ????
???, ??y???e E??. N?/? y? ???, ?????? ??? ????a??e ????e, ??aey?y a
I???i-??a a A???.

A I?? A???a ?? ??a 50 ???o e ??i?? ???. N?? ?o ??ey?y ??y??ue ????
Y????e — ????ay ???i?ay ??y, «Ae? ????y ?? e ???. A??a y?? ??a, a ????e
?? ???????? ?e I?????a e I?o????? II, ????a 90 i. A?? ?????th ??th
?????e ?i?i ? ??a 5 ?c. Aei ??o ?? ? y?? ????ey ????ny ??? ?i???.

Ae??i ? ??a ????? ?????i ?a?? ?? A?y?a ?? N????u, ???a ae??? ??e ???e
??? ? ?? ??n ??a. I???a ???, ?i y? ??a?a ?? ????i ? ???o I??????a II ?y
?i eth??e ??-?aey?e, ????e a ?????e ?y ?a ????e ???a, ????? A???. A ???
XX ?? ???ay ???????y y????y ????a ??? ????o A?y?o ??a. Ii-????, ???ay
??ue y?? ????ey ????ey? ??e ???th ?????th ? ?? ?e ???a a i???? y??e, ?
???o ?? ?????u ???u n ????y?, ?? ?e ??? ?????o ????a ????? ?? ? A???.

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