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Культура конца XIX века

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EAOO eiaie A.I.Ooiieaaa

?aoa?ao

ii eoeueoo?ieiaee

ia oaio:

«Eoeueoo?a eiioea XIX aaea»

Ninoaaeea: Eaaeia Aa?a

a?. 4152

I?iaa?ee: ?aciiai?neee ss.ss.

Iauee oa?aeoa? iiiai/eneaiiuo yaeaiee, ?aaii eae e au?aaeathuaany a ieo
iniiaiia iano?iaiea, i?eiyoi auei iacuaaoue iano?iaieai “eiioea aaea”
(fin de siecle). O?aioeocu ia?aua ia?aiyee oi aeooaaiia ianoi?aiea,
eioi?ia iaicia/aaony yoei iacaaieai. I?aiaeaaeathuae aai /a?oie auei
/oanoai aeaaee, auie?aiey, ia?a/aiiinoe. ?acaeoua oiu oiai a?aiaie
/oanoaiaaee iaii?aaeaeaiiia iianaiea iaaeaeaathueony noia?ie e “aeaaee
ia?iaeia” ni anae eo oeeaeeecaoeeae e yoi io?aceeinue ia eneonnoaa oiai
a?aiaie.

Oeaeue ia?eiae enoi?ee i?eoiaeeo e eiioeo e ia/eiaaony iiaue. Ia niaio
oieiaeiinoe e no?iainoe aeeoi?eaineie yiioe i?eoiaeeo iiaay. O?aaeeoeee
iiaei?aaiu, e iaaeaeo a/a?aoiei e caao?aoiei aeiai ia aeaeii naycothuaai
caaia. Nouanoaothuea ii?yaeee iieieaaeaiu e ?ooaony; ana niio?yo ia yoi
aaco/anoii, iioiio /oi iie iaaeiaee, e ieeoi ia aa?eo, /oi eo noieo
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue. Ainiiaenoaiaaaoea aei neo ii? aicc?aiey en/acee eee
ecaiaiu. Ana aeaeoo ia aeiaeaeoony iiaie y?u, ia eiay iaeaeoaai iiiyoey,
ioeoaea iia i?eaeao e eaeiaa aoaeao. I?e oaina, ainiiaenoaothuai a oiao,
io eneonnoaa iaeeaeatho oeacaiee ioiineoaeueii ii?yaeea, eioi?ue caiaieo
niaith iauoth noiyoeoeo. Aai cia/eiinoue iaiiiai aic?inea, aaaeue
aic?inee e eoeueoo?iua cai?inu. AEeoaeue eaeie-ieaoaeue caoieonoiie
aea?aaie eiae oaia?ue aieaa oe?ieee e?oaici?, aieaa neiaeiua e
iiiai/eneaiiua aeooiaiua eioa?anu, /ai noi eao oiio iacaae — ia?aue
ieieno? o?aoueanoaiaiiiai eee aeaaea aoi?inoaiaiiiai ainoaea?noaa. Iiyo,
iocueaio aeieaeai aue aicaanoeoue, oaaaeaoue, eee ii e?aeiae ia?a
i?aae/oanoaiaaoue, a eaeie oi?ia au?aceony aeaeueiaeoee i?ia?ann. *oi
aoaeao caao?a i?eciaaaoueny i?aanoaaiiui eee i?ae?aniui, /oi aoaeai
ciaoue, ai /oi aa?eoue, /ai aiiaeooaaeyoueny, /ai ianeaaeaeaoueny? — oio
aii?in, ?acaeathueeny ec oieiu.

Ao?aeoa eee i?ieaoa?ee ana aua ianeaaeaeathony noa?uie oi?iaie eneonnoaa
e iiycee. Iie i?aaeii/eoatho ?iiaiu Iiy anai neiaieenoai, e
«E?anoueyineoth /anoue» Ianeaiuee anai aaaia?enoai e naiiio Aaaia?o. Iie
io aeooe caaaaeythony aiaeaaeeyie e caaatho, neooay iueanu Eanaia; iie n
oaeiaieuenoaeai niio?yo ia a?oaua ieaia?aoee e ?aaiiaeooii i?ioiaeeee
ieii ea?oei nia?aiaiiuo iiaeiuo ooaeiaeieeia.

Iaeiaei iinauay iiaeiua ianoa aieueoeo aa?iiaeneeo ai?iaeia,
iauanoaaiiua aoeyiuey eo?i?oia, aa/a?iea nia?aiey aiaaouo ethaeae, aaea
niae?aaony aiaaia, nia?aiaiieee aeaeaee nianai ae?oaoth ea?oeio. Aio eae
iaeei ec ienaoaeae oiai a?aiaie iienuaaao naieo nia?aiaiieeia. “O iaeiie
ec aeai aieinu aeaaeei ca/anaiu iacaae, eae o ?aoayeaaie «Madalena
Donio» a «?alazzo degli Uffizi», o ae?oaie aieinu auniei aicauoathony
iaae eaii, eae o THeee, aei/a?e Oeoa, eee o Ieioeiu, noi?oae O?ayia,
athnou eioi?uo iu aeaeei a Eoa?a, o o?aoueae iie ei?ioei iiaeno?eaeaiu
nia?aaee, a ia aeneao e ia caoueea naiaiaeii ?annuiathony aeeeiiuie
caaeouie i?yaeyie ii iiaea iyoiaaeoeaoiai noieaoey, eae o iaaeae e
iieiaeuo ?uoea?ae ia ea?oeiao Aeaeaioeea Aaeeeie, Aiooe/aeee e
Iaioaiuee. O iiiaeo aieinu aue?aoaiu e i?eoii a oaeie oeaao, /oi ii
i?ioeai?a/ee caeiiai i?aaie/aneiai niaeaniaaiey e i?iecaiaeee
aia/aoeaiea aeenniiaina, ?ac?aoathuaainy a aunoae iieeoiiee anaai
ooaeaoa. Aio yoa /a?iiaeacay, nioaeieeoeay aeaiueia eae au iioaoaaony
iaae i?e?iaeie, caeeth/ay naia eeoei a ?aieo iaaeii-e?aniiaaouo eee
cieioenoi-aeaeouo aiein, iaaeaeo oai eae oa aieoaiaeacay e?anaaeoea n
i?aeanoiui ineaieoaeueii-aaeui oeaaoii eeoea e y?eei ?oiyioeai ii?aaeaao
eo eiio?ano n /a?iuie, eae niieue, eieiiaie. Ia iaeiie — a?iiaaeiay,
oyaeaeay aieei/iay oeyia n ioiaiooui ncaaee iieai, aa?ie?iaaiiay
e?oiiuie iethoaauie oa?eeaie e caaiyueie aoaai/eeaie, i/aaeaeii,
naeaeaiiay ii ia?acoeo niia?a?i eniaineeo oi?aaaei?ia, i?eacaeaaoeo a
Ia?eae ai a?aiy Anaie?iie aunoaaee 1889 a. e iineoaeeaoeo iiaeenoeai
iiaeaeueth; ia ae?oaie — ecoi?oaeiiai eee ?oaeiiaiai oeaaoa aa?oaoiue
aa?ao, eae o n?aaeiaaaeiauo nooaeaioia. Einothiu ia iaiaa au/o?iu. Ooo
au aeaeeoa ei?ioaiueeoth iaeeaeeo, aeioiaeyuoth aei iiyna, n ?ac?acii ia
aieo, caae?aie?iaaiioth nia?aaee iaiiaeiaea ii?ouea?u e iaoeooth ii
e?ayi oaeeiaui aa?aiaioii n iiaeaaneaie, eioi?ua aa/ii aieoathony e
i?eaiaeyo ia?aiiai /aeiaaea a aeiiioe/aneia ninoiyiea eee aiooatho aio
aeaeaiea ia?aoeoueny a aaanoai; oai — a?a/aneee iaiein, iacaaiea
eioi?iai iiaeenoea oae aea oi?ioi ecaanoii, eae ethaiio ciaoieo
eeanne/aneie ae?aaiinoe; ia?yaeo n aeeeiiui, /iii?iui ieaoueai ai aeona
Aeaoa?eiu Iaaee/e e aunieei ueoiaeaeiui ai?ioieeii Ia?ee Notha?o —
eaaeea aaeua ieaouey, iaiiieiathuea iaeayiea aiaaeia ia ea?oeiao
Iaieeiaa; eee ea?eeaoo?iia iiae?aaeaiea ioaeneiio einothio: ieioii
iaeaaathuea noai nth?ooee, aeeeaou n oe?ieeie ?ac?acaie ia a?oaee,
iae?aoiaeaiiua iaieoee, iaeaiueeea noiy/ea ai?ioie/ee e ocaiueeea
aaenooee. Aieueoeinoai aea aeaineeo oeao?, ia aeaeay auaeaeyoueny ec
oieiu e ia i?aoaiaeoy ia i?eaeiaeueiinoue, iaiiieiaao niaith auio/aiiue
noeeue ?ieiei n aai ia?aiooaiiuie e?eauie eeieyie, n iaiiiyoiuie
auioeeinoyie, ia?inoaie, oe?aoaieyie e aiaaeeiaie, n aanii?yaei/ii
?aca?inaiiuie neeaaeeaie

Aeaoe ?aciaeaouo oaeei ia?acii iaoa?ae yaeythony ianoiyuei aiieiuaieai
nicaeaiee aieueiiai aiia?aaeaiey aeaeeie noa?ie aeaau, iaauiineiie
aiaee/aiee Eao A?eiaae, eioi?ie, aneaaenoaea aa aaca?a/ey, ia noaeaeaii
auei ecaaaeaoue iaoa?eineeo ?aaeinoae e o eioi?ie iiaeaaeaiiay
iio?aaiinoue i?e?iaeu au?aceeanue a eca?auaiiii aeona e no?aieaiee
ecia?aaeaoue aeaoae a niaoiuo einothiao, i?inoi inei?aeythueo aeaoneoth
iaaeiiinoue. Aio iaeaiueeee ea?aiocee, iaeaoue n aieiau aei iia a
e?aniia, eae a n?aaeiea aaea iaeaaaeenue iaea/e; aio /aou?aoeaoiyy
aeaai/ea a ia?iiiie oeyia, eaeea iineee iaoe i?aaaaooee, e a iaioee ec
y?eiai aa?oaoa; aio aua e?ioa/iia nouanoai, aaeaa oiathuaa oiaeeoue, a
aeeeiiii ieaoueeoea ni nai?/aouie ?oeaaaie e ei?ioeei eeo/eeii n iiyneii
/ooue ee ia iiae naiuie iuoeaie — iiae?aaeaiea iiaea eiia?ee.

Ioae/eiu iiiieiytho ea?oeio.”

O anao yoeo ethaeae auea iaeia iauay oa?aeoa?enoe/aneay /a?oa — iie ia
oioaee auoue naieie niaith, ia aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue oai, /oi aeaea ei
i?e?iaea, a noa?aeenue aiieioeoue a naaa eaeie-ieaoaeue ia?acaoe
eneonnoaa, ia eiathuee ie/aai iauaai n eo nianoaaiiui iaeeeii eee /anoi
niaa?oaiii i?ioeaiiieiaeiue aio; iie aeaaea noa?aeenue aiieioeoue a naaa
ia iaeei ia?acaoe, a ianeieueei ca?ac, oioy yoe ia?acoeu i?ioeai?a/ao
ae?oa ae?oao; AEaiueia naiei ia?yaeii aeieaeia auea iaiiieiaoue ?onaeeo
eee ooiieaiieoeo. E e?ath iiaeiea aeaaea i?eoeaaeenue iaeaiueeea
a?oceee. Eiaaea ieii oaeie aeaiueiu i?ioiaeee ioae/eia, aieiaiea
eioi?iai iia oioaea i?eaea/ue, iia niaa?oaea ?aceee iiai?io ia 90
a?aaeonia e a?oceee cae?o/eaaee iiaeie aa ieaouey, eieoe?oy oaino
?onaeee. Iaeiia?aiaiii n yoei iaciaeiiea aeieaeia auea a?ineoue ioae/eia
oiiiue acaeyae aieoauo aeac. Auee e ia?yaeu aieaa i?e/oaeeeaua, oaeei
ia?acii, i/ooeaoenue n?aaee ethaeae oiai a?aiaie, au au oaeaeaee aieiau,
iinaaeaiiua ia /oaeaeua ei oi?nu, oaioanoe/aneea einothiu n
i?ioeai?a/eauie aeaoaeyie, ni/aoaieyie oeaaoia. “…Auaatho aeie, eae,
iai?eia?, ai a?aiy ioe?uoey ia?eaeneiai naeiia ia Ia?niaii iiea,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aunoaaee eiiaeiineie Ei?ieaaneie aeaaeaiee, eiaaea aai
eaaeaony, aoaeoi au au oiaeeoa n?aaee ia?oaaoeia, ninoaaeaiiuo a
eaeie-oi neaci/iie ia?oaaoeeie ia nei?oth ?oeo ec ?ac?iciaiiuo /anoae
?aciuo o?oiia, i?e/ai acyou ia?aua iiiaaoeany aieiaa, ?oee, iiae e ana
yoi iaea/aii oaeaea a ia?aua iiiaaoeany einothiu ?aciuo yiio e no?ai.
Eaaeaeay ioaeaeueiay oeao?a, aeaeeii, noa?aaony ii?aceoue e i?eeiaaoue e
naaa aieiaiea eaeith-ieaoaeue iniaaiiinoueth a iaia?a aea?aeaoue naay, a
iie?ia ieaouey, a oeaaoa. Ae oi/aony iiaeaenoaiaaoue ia ia?au a
aeaaii?eyoiii eee iaaeaaii?eyoiii niunea. O iaa naiaai ?iaea iaiey ?acei
auaeaeyoueny ec oieiu”.

Oaia?ue caaeyiai a eo aeiia. Yoi auee nei?aa eaeea-oi oaao?aeueiua
aeaei?aoeee, nei?aa neeaaeu, iaaaceiu, iocae, /ai aeeeua iiiauaiey.
Eaaeiao oicyeia — ?uoea?neay caea a aioe/aneii aeona n eaoaie, ueoaie,
e?anoiia?aciuie ciaiaiaie ii noaiai eee eaaea ainoi/iuo oiaa?ia n
eo?aeneeie eia?aie, aaaeoeineeie ea?/eeaie, /a?eanneeie eaeueyiaie e
eiaeeeneeie eaee?iaaiiuie yue/eaie. Aicea eaieiiiai ca?eaea yiiineea
ianee ei?/ao aeeeea eee niaoioai?iua a?eianu. Iaaeaeo ieiaie e?anothony
ia/e, eeiaeaeu, iaeeoeu e noa?eiiua ienoieaou. Naao i?iieeaao neaicue
ieiiioth aeeaiienue, ia eioi?ie ecia?aaeaiu enooaeaeua nayoua a
ieaiaiiie iieeoaa. A ainoeiie noaiu iaeou aaooeie aiaaeaiaie eee ieeaaiu
iaiyie, ia eioi?uo ecia?aaeaiu /oaeacaiiua ioeoeu, ii?oathuea a
i?e/oaeeeai ia?aieaoathueony aaoayo, e ia?iiiua oeaaou, n eioi?uie
eieaoie/atho y?eea aaai/ee. Iaaeaeo iyaeeie e?aneaie e oaao?aoaie,
oaeiaeaoai?ythueie eciaaeaiiiio aeono oiai a?aiaie, ?aca?inaiu
aea?aayiiua nooeuey a noeea ?aiannaina n ?aeiaeiaie eee na?aeoeaie
aianoi neaeaiee . Ia anao noieeeao e ai anao oeai/eeao ?annoaaeaiu
noa?eiiua aaueoeu eee i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa, ii aieueoae /anoe
caaaaeiii iiaeaeaeueiua: aicea eeiiaeneiai aethaea ia?neaeneee iaaeiue
eoaoei n aeeeiiui ai?euoeii, iaaeaeo iieeoaaiieeii a ia?aieaoa ec ?aciie
neiiiaie einoe e ueioeaie ec /aeaiiie iaaee-aiiaiiuea?ea. Ia
iieueaa?oao, caae?aie?iaaiiuo aa?oaoii, noiyo ea?oeiu a ?aieao,
i?eeiauaathuea e naaa aieiaiea eaeith-ieaoaeue iniaaiiinoueth: iaoeii,
neaeyuei a iaooeia, aoeaoii ?aiaeieea ec iaoaeea e o. i. A iaeiii oaeo
ono?iaii ia/oi a?iaea o?aia neaeyuaio ia ei?oi/eao eee noiyuaio Aoaeaea.
Aoaeoa? oicyeee iaiiieiaao niaie io/anoe /aniaith, io/anoe aa?ai.
Ooaeaoiue noieee iioiaeeo ii naiae oi?ia e oa?ainoao ia aeoa?ue,
neaiaa/ea aeey eieaiii?aeeiiaiey oeacuaaao ia iaaiaeiinoue oicyeee; ii
oe?ieay iooiiaiea n aanii?yaei/ii ?aca?inaiiuie ia iae iiaeooeaie
niya/aao yoi aia/aoeaiea. A noieiaie noaiu oaaoaiu aaneiia/iith
eieeaeoeeae oa?oi?iauo ecaeaeee; a noa?eiiii aooaoa a aea?aaaineii aeona
aunoaaeaii iaiieac aei?iaia na?aa?i, a ia noiea oeaaooo
aunieia?enoie?aoe/aneea i?oeaeae e ai?aei aunyony na?aa?yiua noieiaua
oe?aoaiey n?aaee aea?aaaineeo eaiaiiuo oa?aeie e eoaoeiia. Aa/a?ii
eiiiaou inaauaeenue eaiiaie a /aeiaa/aneee ?ino. Naao niya/aeny
e?aniuie, aeaeouie eee caeaiuie aaaaeo?aie, /anoi iaoeouie aua /a?iuie
e?oaeaaaie e eiathueie naioth i?e/oaeeeaoth oi?io, oae /oi ethaee
aeaeaaeenue eae au a iano?ii, i?ic?a/iii ooiaia, a oaeu inoaaaeenue a
eneonnoaaiiii, oaeinoaaiiii iieoi?aea. Any iaaaeue e aacaeaeooee
i?eia?aoaee, oaeei ia?acii, naiaia?acioth ie?aneo, a ethaee neaeaee a
eco/aiiuo iicao, /oiau aucaaoue ia naieo eeoeao naaoiaua yooaeou
?aia?aiaeoa eee Oaeueeaia. Ana a yoeo aeiiao auei ?ann/eoaii ia oi,
/oiau aeaenoaiaaoue aicaoaeaeathuei e iooiaieaathuei ia?acii ia ia?au.
Ianiioaaonoaea e i?ioeai?a/eainoue a aeaoaeyo, i?e/oaeeeaay no?aiiinoue
anao i?aaeiaoia aeieaeiu auee ii?aaeaoue. *oanoaa niieienoaey, eioi?ia
/aeiaae iuouaao i?e aeaea ciaeiiie ianoaiiaee, ana aeaoaee eioi?ie aio
iiiyoiu, ii au caeanue ia iaoae. Ana aeieaeii auei ia iaai aeaenoaiaaoue
aicaoaeaeathuei ia?acii. Ana a oaeeo aeiiao auei ?acii?iaeii, ?aca?inaii
aac anyeie neiiao?ee; ii?aaeaeaiiue, enoi?e/aneee noeeue n/eoaeny
onoa?aeui, aoeueaa?iui, a naiaai nianoaaiiiai noeey oi a?aiy aua aei
eiioea ia au?aaioaei.

Oae aiioiiiia iauanoai aeeei e iaeaaaeinue. Iiniio?ei oaia?ue, eae e /ai
iii ?acaeaeaeinue e caaaaeyeinue. Ia ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aunoaaea c?eoaey
ie?oaeaee e aucuaaee a iai aicaeanu oaeeaeaiey aeaiueiu ooaeiaeieea
Aaia?a n caeaiuie, eae ii?neay o?aaa, aieinaie, n aeaeouie, eae na?a,
eee e?aniuie, eae iueathuaa ieaiy, eeoeaie, n oeieaoiauie eee ?iciauie
?oeaie, iaea/aiiua a naaoyueany aieoaua iaeaea, eioi?ua aeieaeiu
ecia?aaeaoue ia/oi a?iaea eaiioia. Iauanoai ethaeei oieaaoueny y?eeie,
yaeiaeoi-eeneioiuie e?aneaie. A iiaea auee eeeiaua e oeieaoiaua iooaiee
ni neiaii ia?ooaiiie oeaaoiia?aaea/ae. Iaeiaei ianeaaeeaoenue Aaia?ii,
iii i?eoiaeeei a yenoac io aeaaeiuo, neiaii iie?uouo iieoi?ic?a/iui
neiai ecaanoe ea?oei Ithae aea Oaaaiia, io ieooaiiuo caaaaei/iith
aeuieith, neiaii aieiaie eaaeaia, iieioai Ea?uea?a, io ae?iaeaueo a
iyaeii eoiiii neyiee ea?oei ?ieey. O/aieee Iaia iia?oaeaee ana aeaeeiia
aie?oa ieo a neaci/iue oeieaoiaue oeaao, a?oaenou aine?aoaee
auaao?eaoeany iieooiiu eee, oi/iaa aiai?y, “oeaaoiaua i?eaeaeaiey aeaaii
caauoiai ie?a”, iaeeo?o «ia?oaiai eenoa», «noa?ie neiiiaie einoe»,
ooneei-aeaeoiai oeaaoa, iiaeaeoaai io?io?a, aueaiyaoae oeaie
.Eioa?aniaaoueny nthaeaoii ea?oei auei aaiaeueii e iioei ; oieueei oaae
e aea?aaaineea aeeoaee, iaacuneaoaeueiua ethaeoaee ieaia?aoee
ianeaaeaeathony auoiauie noeaieaie. Ii oai ia iaiaa eca?aiiay ioaeeea,
iinauay aunoaaee, iniaaiii ioioii inoaiaaeeaaaony ia?aae ea?oeiith
Ia?oaia «O anyeiai naiy ia/oa», ia eioi?ie ?acaoooea oeao?u niaa?oatho
ia/oi iaiiiyoiia a aeaeoii niona, /oi eiaiii, yoi iu ociaai ec
aeoaieiiuneaiiiai iauyniaiey i?ia?aiiu. Iaaethaeaoaeue eca?aiiiai
iauanoaa, iinauathuaai ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aunoaaee, caiaoeo, /oi yoa
ioaeeea caeaouaaao aeaca e neeaaeuaaao iaaiaeii ?oee ia?aae oaeeie
ea?oeiaie, ia?aae eioi?uie i?inoie nia?oiue ?ac?aaeaaony niaoii eee
au?aaeaao aeinaaeo iaiaiooiai /aeiaaea, e /oi iia iiaeeiaao iea/aie eee
iaiaieaaaony i?ac?eoaeueiuie acaeyaeaie oai, aaea ae?oaea aeaaiaea?yo
ooaeiaeieea e ianeaaeaeathony.

A iia?ao e ia eiioea?oao caeii/aiiua oi?iu i?aaeieo eiiiiceoi?ia oaea ia
i?aayony. ssniay ?aaioa eeanneeia, aeia?iniaanoiia niaethaeaiea caeiiia
eiio?aioieoa i?aaenoaaeythony neo/iuie. Iaeiaee/anee ineaaaaathuay e
cao/ii ?ac?aoathuayny eiaea, aa?iiie/iay oa?iaoa aucuaaao caaioo.

Ooiiuie ?oeiieaneaieyie e aaieaie iaa?aaeaeathony aaaia?ianeea «O?enoai
e Ecieueaea» e a iniaaiiinoe ienoe/aneee «Ia?neoaeue», oea?eiaiay iocuea
«Nia» A?thii, neioiiey Naca?a O?aiea. *oia i?iecaiaeeoue aia/aoeaiea,
iocuea aeieaeia iiaeaeaeuaaoueny iiae ?aeeaeiciia iano?iaiea eee
ii?aaeaoue naiath oi?iie. Iiaeaioiaeaiiue neooaoaeue iaueiiaaiii
niaa?oaiii iai?iecaieueii i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeaaoue iioea aeaiiiai
i?iecaaaeaiey. Ii, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?aaeoaaaeuaaao, e caaea/a
eiiiiceoi?a caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau i?eaeaoue iioeao niaa?oaiii
iaiaeeaeaiiia ?acaeoea. Aaea neooaoaeue iaeeaeaao aeaaicao/iiai
eioa?aaea, aai aeieaeai ii?aceoue aeenniiain; iocueaeueiay o?aca,
anoanoaaiii caeai/eaathuayny yniui aeei?aeii, aeieaeia aiacaiii
iai?aaoueny, ia?aoiae a ?acee/iua oiia e ?aaeno?u aeieaeai
i?ioeai?a/eoue anoanoaaiiui caeiiai aa?iiiee. A i?eano?a aieiaiea
neooaoaey ?annaeaaaony a ?acee/iuo iai?aaeaieyo iaeiia?aiaiiui aaaeaieai
ianeieueeeo aieinia; ioaeaeueiua eino?oiaiou eee a?oiiu eino?oiaioia,
iaoay ae?oa ae?oao, iaeooatho neooaoaey, iiea ii ia i?eoiaeeo a ia?aiia
aicaoaeaeaiea /aeiaaea, ouaoii neeyuaainy ?acia?aoueny a iioiea neia
aeanyoea ethaeae, aiai?yueo iaeiia?aiaiii. Iniiaiie iioea, nia?aa yniue
e ii?aaeaeaiiue, ana aieaa caoaiiyaony, ?acaeeaeaaony e ?acaiaeiyaony,
iiea, iaeiiaoe, aiia?aaeaieth aeaaony iieiue i?inoi? oaaaeuaaoue a iai
ana, /oi oaiaeii. Iocuea aeieaeia iaauaoue, ii ia naea?aeeaaoue neiaa;
iia aeieaeia i?eieiaoue aeae, aoaeoi niiauaao aaeeeoth oaeio, ii
oiieeiooue eee oaea?eoueny a noi?iio, i?aaeaea /ai i?iecianao o?aiaoii
iaeeaeaaioth ?acaaaeeo. Neooaoaeue aeieaeai iieeiooue caeo, eniuoaa ioee
Oaioaea e ia?aii iaanneeaiiue.

Iiaeiay eieaa aeieaeia auea auoue i?aaeaea anaai oaiia. Iiiyoiia
iauaeaiii e aiaeeeinue oieueei aeey /a?ie. Iiaeiay aea eieaa aeieaeia
auea ioee/aoueny ianeieueei aeaeiui, ii iaiaayc/eaui i?iiiaaaeie/aneei
oiiii. Iiioey?iu oae aea auee ycioa?e/aneea ?iiaiu, a eioi?uo iiiaia
auei ec iaeanoe eaaaaeu, oaee?ecia, ano?ieiaee, aaeie e /a?iie iaaee.

Iaeiaei eae ie yenoeaio?e/iu auee ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aunoaaee, eiioea?ou,
oaao?u e eieae, iie ia oaeiaeaoai?yee ynoaoe/aneei iio?aaiinoyi
ooii/aiiiai iauanoaa. Iii eneaei ia ecaaaeaiiuo aua iuouaiee,
iaeooioai?aiey /oanoa. Aaaeiieci noae iiaie oeeinioeae aeecie, ii
aeieaeai aue i?eeoe ia niaio aneaoecio e neiaaiiinoe aeeoi?eaineie
yiioe. Aai oeaeueth aue iiiaiia?aciue iiuo no?anoae, eiaiii iiuo nai ii
naaa, a ia aai ieiaeu. Iauanoai aeaaeaeaei neeueiuo aia/aoeaiee e
?ann/eouaaei iaeoe eo a c?aeeuao, aaea ?acee/iiai ?iaea eneonnoaa a
iiauo ni/aoaieyo aeaenoaiaaee iaeiia?aiaiii ia ana /oanoaa. Iiyou,
ooaeiaeieee neeyony iiaeaeaeaoueny iiae yoi iano?iaiea.

Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie a eeoa?aoo?a e aeeaiiene XIX aaea auee
i?a?aoayeaoeci, neiaieeci, yaioeci, ienoeoeeci, neiaieeci, aeaeaaeaioeey
e ae?oaea.

No?aieaiey i?a?aoayeeoia – aic?iaeaeaiea n?aaeiaaaeiaiai
iano?iaiey..Neoeueioo?a, aeeaiienue aeieaeiu auoue niiaa eae a n?aaeiea
aaea oi?iith aiaineoaeaiey eee aiana ia auoue. I?iecaaaeaiea eneonnoaa
eiaei cia/aiea eeoue ianoieueei, ianeieueei a iae au?aaeaeanue
naa?o/oanoaaiiay iuneue; ia niaa?oainoai oi?iu, a ?aeeaeiciia /oanoa?,
aai aaeioiiaeaoaa ,caneoaeeaaei aieiaiey. Yoe oaaaeaeaiey aioee a
ynoaoeeo ia?auo i?a?aoayeeoia. ?aeeaeiciia iano?iaiea – aaeeinoaaiiia
niaea?aeaiea, aeinoieiia i?iecaaaeaiey eneonnoaa. I?a?aoayeeou ia/eiatho
eco/aoue enoi?eth eneonnoaa n yoie oi/ee c?aiey e iaoiaeyo oi, /oi iie
euoo a ea?oeiao i?aaeoanoaaiieeia ?aoayey – O?a Aiaeaeeei, Aeaeiooi,
Aiooe/aeee, *eiaaoy, Iaeaoiei. Eo ieioi iaienaiiua eee auoeaaooea io
a?aiaie ea?oeiu n eo iaeaiui ecia?aaeaieai aaea e ?ay ianiiiaiii aeuoao
iaaiaeiinoueth; ei eaaei auei iiae?aaeaoue ec ca eo ianiaa?oainoaa, a oi
aea a?aiy iie i?aaenoaaeyee neeueiia i?ioeai?a/ea n oiaaeaoieie
ynoaoe/aneeie aeonaie. ?acieoea iaaeaeo i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie ?aoayey e
i?a?aoayeeoaie auea a oii, /oi ia?aua iouneeaaee i?aaeeueiua niiniau
?eniaaiey e aeeaiiene, a aoi?ua iuoaeenue eo caauoue. I?a?aoayeeou n
aaee/aeoae oi/iinoueth ia?aaeaaaee e eaiaeoaoo e i?aaeiaou, ie?oaeathuea
ecia?aaeaaiuo eie eeoe. Yoa aeia?iniaanoiay io/aoeeainoue aunooiaao o
i?a?aoayeeoia noieue aea ?acei ia ia?aii ieaia, eae e ia caaeiai oiia,
aaea aa auoue oaea ia aeieaeii. Iie iaia?aiii aiineee i?eieoeaeci a naie
?aaiou. Iaeiaei yoio ?iae aeeaiiene eiae aeeyiea ia aieaa iicaeieo
ooaeiaeieeia-?aaeenoia. Aioaie/anee aa?iia ecia?aaeaiea aea?aaa, oeaaoia
e aea?aaueaa, i?aaaeeaua neaeu, ai?iua ia?aciaaiey e ii/au, io/aoeeaua
oci?u ia eia?ao e iaiyo – ana yoi caeinoaiaaiii o i?a?aoayeeoia e eo
oai?aoeea ?aneeia ,/uee oaaaeaeaiey iicaeinoaiaaee iicaea aiaeeeneea
ynoaou, a?iaea Inea?a Oaeueaea. I?a?aoayeeci – ioi?une iaiaoeeiai e
o?aioeocneiai ?iiaioecia. Ii a ioee/ee io iaiaoeeiai, o?aioeocneee ia
eiae ie n?aaeiaaaeiaiai, ie ?aeeaeiciiai iooaiea, ii aieueoa oyaioae e
yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey. Ec anao i?iecaaaeaiee Aeeoi?a Athai oieueei “Niai?
Ia?eaeneie aiaiiaoa?e ” e “Ao?aa?aou” ?acai?a/eaathony aeaenoaeoaeueii a
n?aaeiea aaea. Neeiiiinoue o?aioeocneiai ?iiaioecia e yiioa
Aic?iaeaeaiey aanueia iiiyoia: yoi auei a?aiy neeueiuo no?anoae e
aieueoeo i?anooieaiee, i?aii?iuo aeai?oeia, oeouo cieioii ieaoueaa e
iiueyiythueo ie?ia, – a?aiy, eiaaea i?ae?aniia ainiiaenoaiaaei iaae
iieaciui, a oaioanoe/aneia – iaae ?acoiiui, eiaaea aeaaea ceiaeayiea
eacaeiue i?ae?aniui iioiio /oi iii niaa?oaeinue eeiaeaeaie ec /aeaiiie e
aeaianneie noaee, a yae iiaeiineeny a eoaeao Aaiaaiooi *aeeeie.

Oeiea neiaieenoia iiyaeeinue i?eia?ii oae aea, eae e oeiea
i?a?aoayeeoia. Neiaieenou n/eoaee, /oi iacaaoue i?aaeiao – cia/eo ia o?e
/aoaa?oe ineaaeoue oaeiaieuenoaea, aeinoaaeyaiia iai noeoioai?aieai,
iioiio /oi any i?aeanoue caeeth/aaony a iinoaiaiiii ioaaaeuaaiee. Iaaei
iinoaiaiii aucaaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?aaeiaoa n iiiiuueth neiaiea,
/oiau ecia?aceoue ioaeiia aeooaaiia iano?iaiea .

Neiaieenou o?aaiaaee aieaa naiaiaeiiai ia?auaiey n o?aioeocneei noeoii.
Iie ainnoaaaee i?ioea i?aneiaooiai aeaenaiae?eeneiai noeoa n oeaico?ith
iin?aaeeia e n iaecaaaeiui caeeth/aieai o?acu a eiioea, i?ioea
cai?auaiey oae iacuaaaiiai aaeaiuey, o. a. oiio?aaeaiey aeaoo aeaniuo
iiae?yae, i?ioea caeiia i i?aaeeueiii /a?aaeiaaiee ioaeneie e aeaineie
?eoiu. Iie ai?y/i caueuatho «naiaiaeiue noeo», n i?iecaieueiith aeeeiith
e ?eoiii, ?aaii eae e ia/enooth ?eoio.

Ae?oaia o?aaiaaiea ynoaoeee neiaieenoia caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau noeo
niaa?oaiii iacaaeneii io naiaai niaea?aeaiey aucuaae iaeiei ni/aoaieai
caoeia ii?aaeaeaiiia iano?iaiea. Neiai aeieaeii aeaenoaiaaoue caoeii,
?a/ue aeieaeia i?aa?aoeoueny a iocueo. Aanueia oa?aeoa?ii, /oi iiiaea
neiaieenou aeatho naiei eieaai caaeaaey, eioi?ua aeieaeiu aucuaaoue
iocueaeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey. I?eaaaeai aeey i?eia?a «Aaiiu» Notha?oa
Ia??eeuey, «Eaioeeaiu» AEaia Ii?aana, «Ii/iua eieieiea» Aaeieueoa ?aooa,
«Ianie aac neia» Iiey Aa?eaia e o. i. Yoa iuneue iieueciaaoueny ycueii
eae i?oaeeai aeey aeinoeaeaiey /enoi iocueaeueiuo yooaeoia. Iu oaea
aeaeaee, /oi i?a?aoayeeou o?aaotho, /oiau aeeaiienue e neoeueioo?a
ecia?aaeaee ia eiie?aoiia, a aano?aeoiia, neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?eieiaee au
ia naay ?ieue ienueiaiiiai ycuea. Oi aea niaa?oatho neiaieenou, aiceaaay
ia neiai caaea/o, i?eiaaeeaaeauoth iioai, e yoei ia?ooay a?aieoeu
?aciiai ?iaea eneonnoa.

Aeaeaaeaioeey – iaeaieaa iiioey?iia iai?aaeaiea a eeoa?aoo?a XIX aaea.
Eaeaaeueiue aeaeaaeaio ecia?aaeai a eieaao AE.E.Atheniaina “A rebous”,
“La bas”. Aa?ie – iineaaeiee i?aaenoaaeoaeue noa?eiiiai o?aioeocneiai
aa?oeianeiai ?iaea e ciaaony Aeacanaioii. Ii neaaiai oaeineiaeaiey,
iaeie?iaai, ia?aicai, neiaii, ianeaaeiaae enoiuaiea neaaineeueiiai
?iaea. A iineaaeiea aeaa noieaoey /eaiu yoiai ?iaea aeaieeenue oieueei
iaaeaeo niaie e oaeei ia?acii enoiueee iineaaeiea inoaoee nee. “..A
e?iae o ieo i?aiaeaaeaea eeioa..” Aa?ie ?ano?aoee cia/eoaeueioth /anoue
naiaai ninoiyiey aanniuneaiiuie eooaaeaie, iaaiaeeaoeie ia iaai oieueei
neoeo, e nei?i a?inee iauanoai, oae eae iii noaei aio iaauiineii . Aai
i?ac?aiea e ethaeyi ana aic?anoaei . “Iaeiiaoe ii iiiye, /oi ie?
ninoieo, ii aieueoae /anoe, ec iioaiieeia e aeo?aeia. Ii ia iaaeayeny
ano?aoeoue a ae?oaeo naiaai oiieaiey, naiae iaiaaenoe. Eciiaeaeaiiue,
iaaeiaieueiue, aiciouaiiue ionoioith iuneae, eioi?uie ii iaiaieaaeny n
ae?oaeie, ii noae iinoiyiii aacaea neo/aoue e aeaeae naaa iaae?acu ia
aaiao. Eneonnoaaiiia i?aaenoaaeyeinue Aeacanaioo ioee/eoaeueiui
i?eciaeii /aeiaa/aneiai aeooa. «Ioa?aoeoaeueiui iaeiiia?aceai iaecaaeae
e iaaan i?e?iaea enoiueea ieii/aoaeueii aieiaoaeueiia oa?iaiea
ooii/aiiuo ethaeae. Eaeia aoeueaa?iia c?aeeua i?aaenoaaeytho ethaee.
i?aaeathueany eneeth/eoaeueii naiei i?ioanneyi; eaeoth oaiainoue oia
i?aaenoaaeyao oi?aiaea, oi?aothuay ana iaeiei oiaa?ii, eae iaeiiia?acia
oi?aiaey aea?aaueyie e eoaaie, eae iianaaeiaaai neeaae ai? e ii?ae!”.

Oaeei ia?acii, ii ecaiiyao ec naiae aeecie ana anoanoaaiiia e caiaiyao
eneonnoaaiiui. Ii nieo aeiai e anoaao oieueei aa/a?ii, /oiau ii/ueth , a
y?ei inaauaiiuo eiiiaoao naiaai aeiia neaeaoue, /eoaoue, ia/oaoue. Ii
ieeiaaea ia auoiaeeo ec naiaai aeiia, ieeiai ia aeaeeo; aeaaea noa?ue
neoaa e aai aeaia , aaaeouea aai oicyenoai, ni?aaeytho anth ?aaioo
eiaaea ii nieo, oae /oi ieeoi ia iieacuaaaony aio ia aeaca. Ii ia
iieo/aao ie ienai, ie aacao, ia ociaao ie/aai i aiaoiai ie?a. Aiiaoeoa o
iaai ieeiaaea iao, ii eiaaea ec?aaeea i?iaieiaeaaony, “ii iaeaao eonie
aea?eiai, iaiacaiiue eaeei-oi iniaaiiui ianeii, a /aoeo /ay (eaeay
aaaeinoue!) /enoaeoae niane Ne-a-oathia, Ii-th-oaia e Oaineiai, ?aciuo
ni?oia aeaeoiai /ay, aeinoaaeaiiuo ec Eeoay a ?inneth n
yeno?ai?aeeia?iuie ea?aaaiaie».

Aai noieiaay «iioiaeeea ia eathoo n iaeaiueeei ieiii, a aeaea
neooiaiai». Yoa eathoa iiiauaeanue a ae?oaie eiiiaoa, ieii eioi?ie
iaoiaeeeinue eae ?ac iai?ioea neooiaiai ieia eathou. A i?ino?ainoaa
iaaeaeo noaiie eiiiaou e noaieie eathou aue ono?iai aeaa?eoi, oae /oi
aeiaaiie naao, i?iieeay a eathoo, aeieaeai aue i?ieoe /a?ac noaeei
cae?uoiai ieia e neaicue neie aiaeu. Eiiaaea, eiaaea Aeacanaio neo/aeii
anoaaae oaea iinea iaaaea, ii /a?ac aiaeii?iaiaeiua o?oau auioneae aiaeo
ec aeaa?eoia, iaiieiye aai /enoie aiaeie, eioi?oth ie?aoeaae oeaaoiuie
ynnaioeeyie, /oiau oaeei ia?acii iieo/eoue ii aeaeaieth aia/aoeaiea
caeaiuo, aeaeouo, iaea/iuo e na?aa?enouo oiiia, naienoaaiiuo ?aeai,
niio?y ii ninoiyieth iaaa, aieueoae eee iaiueoae neea nieia/iuo eo/ae,
iaea/iinoe,— neiaii, niio?y ii naciio e iiaiaea. Oiaaea aio eacaeinue,
/oi ii aeaenoaeoaeueii iaoiaeeony a eathoa, e ii n ethaiiuonoaii neaaeee
ca no?aiiuie, niaaaeaiiuie /aniaui iaoaieciii ?uaaie, ieaaaaoeie ieii
noaeea neooiaiai ieia e cano?aaaaoeie a eneonnoaaiiie o?aaa, eee aea ii
aaeuoae caiao aeaaoy, aaeoaaaiue a eiiiaoo, e ?anniao?eaae ?acaaoaiiua
ii noaia ieaia?aoee, eioi?ua, eae a eaaeiaoao Eeieaeia, ecia?aaeaee
ii?neea ia?ioiaeu, niaa?oathuea ?aenu a Aaeueia?aeni e Ea-Ieaoo.

Ii yoe iaoaie/aneea ?uau — ia aaeeinoaaiiia ianeaaeaeaiea aa?oeiaa
Aeacanaioa, oae aeoaiei i?ace?athuaai «aeoiinoue e iioeinoue ethaeae».
Eiaaea ii oi/ao aeinoaaeoue naaa iniaaiiia oaeiaieuenoaea, ii ni/eiyao e
eniieiyao «aeoniaoth neioiieth». N yoie oeaeueth ii caeacae yuee,
iaiieiaiiue aieueoei /eneii ai/iieia n ?aciuie aiaeeaie. E?aiu yoeo
ai/iieia iiaoo iin?aaenoaii iniaiai i?eniiniaeaiey ioe?uaaoueny e
cae?uaaoueny iaeiia?aiaiii, e iiae eaaeaeui e?aiii noieo e?ioa/iay
?thiea, a eioi?oth i?e ioe?uoee e?aia iaaeaao iaeia eaiey. Yoio yuee
iacaai Aeacanaioii aai «aeoniaui i?aaiii». «I?aai iaoiaeeeny a
aeaenoaee. ?aaeno?u n iaaeienyie «oeaeoa», «ai?i», «iaaaniue aiein» auee
ioe?uou. Aeacanaio iee oi iaeio, oi ae?oaoth eaieth, iaea?uaae naaa
aioo?aiiea neioiiee, aeinoeaay ai ?oo oaeeo aea iuouaiee, eaeea iu
eniuouaaai ooii i?e iocuea. Eaaeaeay aiaeea niioaaonoaiaaea, eae ii
ooaa?aeaeae, caoeo oiai eee ae?oaiai eino?oiaioa; oa?ieee eth?ani,
iai?eia?,— eea?iaoo, caoe eioi?iai eeneiaao e iyaie, eae aa?oao,
ethiiaeue — aiaith, iaeooeoaeueiue caoe eioi?iai aioneo; iyoiay e
aieniaay aiaeea — oeaeoa, oae eae iie iaeiia?aiaiii e neaaeee, e i?yiu,
iyaee e ?acee; aeey aeiiieiaiey i?eano? ee?oaanna? aaoaii o?oaee, aeaeei
e aenee ?aaee i?ai i?iiceoaeueiuie caoeaie ei?iao-a-ienoiia e o?iiaiia,
a oein-?aee e ianoee a?aiaee oeeiaaeaie e aa?aaaiaie ii neecenoie
iaiei/ea ?oa ni no?aoiie neeie oaea?ia a?iia».

Aeacanaio ia oieueei neuoeo iocueo aiaeie, ii e aini?eieiaao iinii oeaao
caiaoia. Ia?yaeo n aeoniaui i?aaiii o iaai anoue iiniaay ea?oeiiay
aaea?ay, o. a. aieueoia nia?aiea aooueie ni anaaiciiaeiuie ynnaioeeyie.
Eiaaea aio ianeo/eee aeoniaua neioiiee, ii i?eieiaaony ca iiniaoth
iocueaeueioth iueano. «Ii neaeae a eaaeiaoa o ienueiaiiiai noiea… O
iaai auea eaaeay eeoi?aaeea, ii iia i?eiyoueny ca ?aaioo… Naiae
i?uneaeeie ii ie?oaeae naay caiaoii aia?icee, eaaaiaeu e aeooenoiai
ai?ioea; oaeei ia?acii ii iieo/ae aia/aoeaiea eoaa; a yoio eoa ii
aaiaeee nianue caiaoa ooaa?icu, oe??aei?aiaea e ieiaeaey, e oio/an aea
iiyaeyeanue eneonnoaaiiay ne?aiue, a eeiu eieuoaeenue, ?ani?ino?aiyy ii
caiea aeaaeiue naie a?iiao… A yoo aeaei?aoeeth, ia?eniaaiioth e?oiiuie
oo?eoaie, ii

aaeoaae eaaeee aeiaeaeue /aeiaa/aneiai e ii/oe eioa/ueaai caiaoa,
iaiiieiaaoaai caiao thaie e aicaauaaoaai iaioae?aiioth e iaaaeaiioth
aeaiueio; noaoaiioena, aeaiaia, iiiiiaena, na?eaioona e i?eaaaeye iaiae
na?eiae, /oiau i?eaeaoue yoie eneonnoaaiiie aeecie aaeee anoanoaaiiue
oeaao iaeeoie iioii oeuaee (!) e aanaeuey, ?acua?uaathuaainy i?e
ineaieoaeueiuo eo/ao nieioea».

Iiiyoii, /oi i?e oaeii ia?aca aeecie Aeacanaio caaieae. Aai aeaeoaeie ia
i?eieiaao ieeaeie ieue, e, aeaaiaea?y yoiio, ii aeinoeaaao aiiaay a
ethaae e eneonnoaaiiiio: ii auioaeaeai ieoaoueny eeeciaie ec iaioiia,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, niiniaii, i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiui anoanoaaiiiio.

ss i?iioneath ?aciua iiae?iaiinoe i caoeao, aini?eieiaaiuo aeacii, i aai
ethaeiii aiith/ai o?aioeocneii nu?a, ia i?oeaeayo, eioi?ua Aeacanaio
ethaeo, iioiio /oi iie iaiiieiatho aio ni/aueany ycau, i?uue e o. i. Iu
i?eaaaeai eeoue iaeioi?ua ae?oaea iniaaiiinoe aeona oeie/iuo
aeaeaaeaioia. «Eae naiay i?ae?aniay a?ey,— aiai?eony a ?iiaia,— iiaeao
eniioeeoueny e noaoue iaauiineiie, eiaaea ath caaeaaeaaatho oa?iaiee e
ioaeeea aa iaiaaaao, oae e ooaeiaeanoaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea, eioa?anothuaa
eaeaooaeiaeieeia, ia inia?eaaaiia aeoioeaie e aucuaathuaa ainoi?a oieiu,
oo?a/eaaao anyeoth i?aeanoue aeey iinayuaiiuo, noaiiaeony aoeueaa?iui,
ii/oe ioa?aoeoaeueiui».

Aeaeaaeaio ia eiaao ieeaeiai iiiyoey ia eneonnoaa. *oiau ciaoue, eae aio
ioianoenue e aeaiiiio ooaeiaeanoaaiiiio i?iecaaaeaieth, ii
iiai?a/eaaaony e iaio nieiie e i?eniao?eaaaony, eae e iaio ioiinyony
ae?oaea. Anee ooaeiaeanoaaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea aucuaaao ainoi?a, oi
aeaeaaeaio ioiineony e iaio i?ac?eoaeueii; anee, iaiai?io, ae?oaea
ioiinyony e iaio ?aaiiaeooii eee ei iaaeiaieueiu, oi ii oaeeaeyaony aio.
Cao?yaeiue /aeiaae iiae/eiyaony a naieo iuneyo, /oanoaao, aeaenoaeyo
oieia; aeaeaaeaio aea — iaiai?io; iaa iie ianaiinoiyoaeueiu e
auioaeaeaiu iinoiyiii niia?aciauaaoueny n iiaieai oieiu, ii a ioee/ea io
cao?yaeiiai /aeiaaea aeaeaaeaio — cao?yaeiue /aeiaae a io?eoeaoaeueiii
niunea, o. a. e ii niia?acoaony n iiaieai oieiu, ii a oii niunea, /oi
io?eoeaao ana oi, /oi iia i?eciaao, e iinoiyiii ceeony a oi a?aiy, eae
iia ii-naiaio ianeaaeaeaaony. Ei?i/a aiai?y, aeaeaaeaio a naiai
no?aieaiee ioee/aoueny io ae?oaeo ethaeae aeioiaeeo aei iaiee
i?ioeai?a/ey e aei aioeiauanoaaiiuo einoeieoia, ieneieueei ia
ianeaaeaeaynue naiei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui i?iecaaaeaieai.

Aeacanaio eiiaaea e ii/eouaaao. Aio, eiia/ii, i?aayony oieueei
i?iecaaaeaiey neiaieenoia e ia?ianoeaa naiiai e?aeiaai iooaiea, iioiio
/oi iie ecia?aaeatho «iineaaeiea noaei?iae noa?iai ycuea, eioi?ue,
iinoaiaiii ?aceaaaynue a oa/aiea aaeia, i?aoai?eeny a oaeinoaaiiua
iiiyoey e caaaaei/iua au?aaeaiey na. Aiieoaoeey e oia?…» Ii a ioee/ea
io eaoeineiai ycuea «ai o?aioeocneii yoio i?ioeann i?ecioae n?aco;
aaeeeieaiiue noeeue a?aoueaa Aiieo? e iaee/aeue noeeue Aa?aeaia e
Iaeea?ia noaeeeaathony a Ia?eaea, aeeaoo iaeiia?aiaiii a iaeiie e oie
aea enoi?e/aneie yiioa».

Iiaea?ieci (eoae. modernismo «nia?aiaiiia oa/aiea» io eao. modernus
«nia?aiaiiue, iaaeaaiee») — iniiaaiiay ia oeeinioee iiceoeaecia
ia?aaeeaia eneonnoaaiiiai e iiaeeiio?ieueiiai ?acoio eciaiaiey
nioeeaeueiie n?aaeu e nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee. Iiaea?ienoneay ia?aaeeaia
auea iaeiie ec aeaaiuo oeeaeeecaoeeiiiuo ia?aaeeai ia?aie iieiaeiu XX
aaea; ai aoi?ie iieiaeia aaea iia auea iiaeaa?aiooa ?aca??iooie e?eoeea.
Oa?iei «iiaea?ieci» i?enou oieueei ioa/anoaaiiie eneonnoaiaaae/aneie
oeiea, a caiaaeiuo enoi/ieeao — yoi oa?iei «modern». Oae eae a iaoae
oeiea iiaea?i icia/aao noeeue i?aaeoanoaothuee iiaea?iecio, aicieeaao
iaaieueoay iooaieoea a oa?ieiieiaee.

A aieaa oceii iiieiaiee «iiaea?ieci» — iai?aaeaiea a eneonnoaa,
iniiaiuie oa?aeoa?iuie i?eciaeaie eioi?iai iiaeii iacaaoue:
yenia?eiaioaeueiinoue, aooaioe/iinoue, au/o?iinoue, aeeeoao aaoi?neiai
aeaeaiey. Oeie/iuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie iiaea?iecia a eneonnoaa auee:
a?oeoaeoi? Ea Ei?athcuea, ienaoaeue Aeaeaein Aeaeien, eiiiiceoi?
A?iieueae O?iaa?a.

Ia?ianoeu – eeoa?aoo?iia iauaaeeiaiea, nicaeaiiia ai O?aioeee ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia 19 aaea.

Aeaeaaeain («oiaaei/ie/anoai», io o?. decadence — oiaaeie, aeaeaaea?in)
— oa?iei aeey iaicia/aiey eeoa?aoo?iiai oa/aiey, iiyaeaoaainy ai
O?aioeee a 1880-o aa. e a 1890-o—1900-o aicieeoaai a ?innee, Aa?iaiee e
ae?oaeo no?aiao. A?ioaiiia a?aaeaeaaiie yoiio oa/aieth e?eoeeie eae
oie/eaeeoaeueiia, io?eoeaoaeueiia, yoi iaicia/aiea auei iiaeoaa/aii aai
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie e i?aa?auaii a eicoia. Ia?yaeo n aeaeaaeaionoaii aeey
iaicia/aiey yoiai iauaaa?iiaeneiai oa/aiey iiycee e eneonnoaa
oiio?aaeythony oaeaea oa?ieiu: «iiaea?ieci», «iai?iiaioeci»,
«neiaieeci».Ec yoeo oa?ieiia — «iiaea?ieci» (io o?aioeocneiai «moderne»
— nia?aiaiiue, iiaaeoee) ca aanniaea?aeaoaeueiinoueth aeieaeai auoue
ioa?ioai; «iai?iiaioeci» neaaeoao i?eciaoue iaaeinoaoi/iui, eai ii
oeacuaaao eeoue ia oeiieiae/aneia noiaenoai yoiai oa/aiey a ?yaea
i?eciaeia n ?iiaioeciii ia/aea XIX aaea, a ia ia aai niaoeeoe/aneea
iniaaiiinoe (a caueoo yoiai oa?ieia aunooiae N. A. Aaiaa?ia, «Yoaiu
iai?iiaioe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey»).

Eiiaaea oa?iei aeaeaaeaionoai oiio?aaeyeny oaeaea a aeieiae/aneii
niunea, icia/ay iaoieiae/aneea i?eciaee ineoi-oece/aneiai au?iaeaeaiey a
iaeanoe eoeueoo?u (I. Ii?aeao e ae?.). N nioeeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey
oa?iei aeaeaaeaionoai i?eiaiei aeey iaicia/aiey i?iyaeaiee
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eiiieaena, naienoaaiiiai anyeiio
iauanoaaiiiio eeanno, iaoiaeyuaiony a noaaeee oiaaeea, iniaaiii aea
ienoiaeyuaio ainiiaenoaothuaio eeanno, aianoa n eioi?ui i?eoiaeeo a
oiaaeie oeaeay nenoaia iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee (Ieaoaiia, Eneonnoai e
iauanoaaiiay aeeciue).Oa?aeoa?iuie /a?oaie aeaeaaeaionoaa iau/ii
n/eoathony: noauaeoeaeci, eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, aii?aeeci, iooiae io
iauanoaaiiinoe, taedium vitae e o. i., /oi i?iyaeyaony a eneonnoaa
niioaaonoaothuae oaiaoeeie, io?uaii io ?aaeueiinoe, iiyoeeie eneonnoaa
aeey eneonnoaa, ynoaoeciii, iaaeaieai oeaiiinoe niaea?aeaiey,
i?aiaeaaeaieai oi?iu, oaoie/aneeo ooeu?aiee, aiaoieo yooaeoia,
noeeecaoeee e o. ae.

I?eia?ii a ae?aaiinoe iiaeii iacaaoue yiioo iaaeaiey ?eineie eiia?ee e
ae?.

Iaeaieaa y?eeie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie aeaeaaeaionoaa ia Caiaaea yaeyeenue O.
Aiaeea?, I. Aa?eai, O?. Ieoeoa, Iaoa?eeie, Atheniain, Noaieneaa
Ioeauoaaneee e ae?. A a?oiio ?onneeo aeaeaaeaioia oae iacuaaaiiai
«noa?oaai iieieaiey» a 1880-o — 1890-o aa. aoiaeeee oaeea iiyou e
aaeeao?enou, eae Aaeueiiio, A. Aeia?iethaia, Eiiaaneie, O. Nieiaoa,
Ia?aaeeianeee, Ceiaeaea Aeiieon, a oaeaea «?aiiee» A?thnia.

Anee, ii iiaieth Ieaoaiiaa, eeoa?aoo?iia ?acaeoea ?onneiai
aeaeaaeaionoaa e ia aiieia aua niioaaonoaiaaei nouanoaiaaaoae a ?innee
nenoaia eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, oi ei?ie aai neaaeoao eneaoue a
oneiaeyo ?aaeoeee 1880-o e ia/aea 1890-o aa. Ienaoaee-aeaeaaeaiou auei
iniaaiii iiioey?iu iinea ?aaiethoeee 1905.

Aaaeiieci (io a?a/. ????? — «ianeaaeaeaiea») — yoe/aneia o/aiea,
iaeaieaa ?acei au?aaeaiiia a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, enoiaeyuaa ec oiai
iieiaeaiey, /oi /aeiaae anaaaea no?aieony e ianeaaeaeaieyi,
oaeiaieuenoaeyi e eiioi?oo, a oaeaea anaaaea ecaaaaao no?aaeaiee.

Aia?aua ?ac?aaioaii a oeeinioee Yieeo?a, eioi?ue aeaeee ianeaaeaeaiey ia
o?e oeia: anoanoaaiiua, ecuneaiiua e i?ioeaianoanoaaiiua.
I?ioeaiiieiaeiinoueth aaaeiiecia yaeyaony aneaoeci, i?iiiaaaeoaiue
n?aaeiaaaeiaie oeeinioeae.

A yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey aaaeiieci ?anoea?e aiiaue, iainiiaaiiue oacenii
“*oi anoanoaaiii, oi ia aacia?acii”. Iiae aaaeiieciii /anoi iiieiaaony
no?aieaiea e oi?ioae aaea, ecuneaiiiio naeno (ionthaea
oea?eiaiineaayineee ia?aaiae “aaaeiia” eae iioioue, eioi?oth a
n?aaeiaaaeiauea neiaieece?iaaea aeaiueia), e iaeaaeaieth aei?iaeie e
i?anoeaeiuie aauaie (iaeaaeaea, eiioi?oiia aeeeeua, ee/iue o?ainii?o).
Aaaeiieci /anoi eiiaeie?oaony n iaoa?eaeeciii, iineieueeo ana ?aeeaee
enoiaeyo a naieo yoe/aneeo i?aaeienieyo ec cai?aoia.

Iiaua a?aoiaiou a iieueco aaaeiiecia aeaea oeeinioey o?aeaeecia,
ooaa?aeaeathuay, /oi aicaea?aeaiea eae ioeac io ianeaaeaeaiee i?eaiaeeo
e iaa?icai, o.a. aaaeiieci iieacai aeey caei?iauey. Ec iiauo ?aeeaeiciuo
aeaeaeaiee aaaeiieci i?iaicaeaoaao naoaieci.

Iniiaiie ia?aaeien aaaeiiecia: Aeey iieo/aiey aieueoeo ianeaaeaeaiee
iaiaoiaeeii naay ia?aie/eaaoue.

Neiaieeci (o?. Symbolisme) — iaeii ec e?oiiaeoeo iai?aaeaiee a eneonnoaa
(a eeoa?aoo?a, iocuea e aeeaiiene), aicieeoaa ai O?aioeee a 1870-80-o
aa. e aeinoeaoaa iaeaieueoaai ?acaeoey ia ?oaaaea XIX e XX aaeia,
i?aaeaea anaai a naiie O?aioeee, Aaeueaee e ?innee.

Oa?iei «neiaieeci» a eneonnoaa aia?aua aue aaaae?i a ia?auaiea
o?aioeocneei iiyoii AEaiii Ii?aanii a iaeiiei?iiii iaieoanoa — «Le
Symbolisme», — iioaeeeiaaiiii 18 naioya?y 1886 aiaea a aacaoa «Le
Figaro». Iaieoano i?iaicaeaoae, /oi neiaieeci /oaeae «i?inoui cia/aieyi,
cayaeaieyi, oaeueoeaie naioeiaioaeueiinoe e ?aaeenoe/aneiio iienaieth».
E oiio a?aiaie nouanoaiaae ae?oaie, oaea onoie/eaue oa?iei
«aeaeaaeaionoai», eioi?ui i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueii ia?aeaee iiaua oi?iu a
iiycee eo e?eoeee. «Neiaieeci» noae ia?aie oai?aoe/aneie iiiuoeie naieo
aeaeaaeaioia, iiyoiio ieeaeeo ?aceeo ?aca?aie/aiee e oai aieaa
ynoaoe/aneie eiio?iioaoeee iaaeaeo aeaeaaeaionoaii e neiaieeciii ia
onoaiaaeeaaeinue. Neaaeoao, iaeiaei, ioiaoeoue, /oi a ?innee a 1890-a
aa., iinea ia?auo ?onneeo aeaeaaeaioneeo ni/eiaiee, yoe oa?ieiu noaee
i?ioeainoinoaaeyoue: a neiaieecia aeaeaee eaeaaeu e aeooiaiinoue e
niioaaonoaaiii oae aai iaieoanoiaaee, a a aeaeaaeaionoaa – aacaieea,
aaci?aanoaaiiinoue e oaea/aiea eeoue aiaoiae oi?iie.

Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ynoaoeee neiaieecia aia?aua iiyaeeenue a oai?/anoaa
o?aioeocneeo iiyoia Oa?ey Aiaeea?a, Iiey Aa?eaia, A?oth?a ?aiai, Noaoaia
Iaeea?ia, Eio?aaiiia.

A naieo i?iecaaaeaieyo neiaieenou noa?aeenue ioia?aceoue aeeciue
eaaeaeie aeooe — iieioth ia?aaeeaaiee, iayniuo, niooiuo iano?iaiee,
oiieeo /oanoa, ieiie?oiuo aia/aoeaiee . Iiyou-neiaieenou auee iiaaoi?aie
iiyoe/aneiai noeoa, iaiieiea aai iiauie y?eeie e au?aceoaeueiuie
ia?acaie, e eeoue eiiaaea, iuoaynue aeiaeoueny i?eaeiaeueiie oi?iu, iie
ooiaeeee a aanniuneaiioth ?eoi?eeo.

Ec i?eaa?aeaioeaa neiaieecia a eeoa?aoo?a iaeaieaa ecaanoiu:

ai O?aioeee — AEtheue Eaoi?a, Ai?e aea ?aiuea, Iieue Aaea?e, Iieue
Eeiaeaeue, Iieue Oi?, Nai-Iieue ?o ;a Ii?aaaee — Aai?ee Eanai (a ia?eiae
iicaeiaai oai?/acoaa); a ?innee — Aaea?ee A?thnia, O?aei? Nieiaoa,
Aeieo?ee Ia?aaeeianeee, Aeaenaiae? Aeie, Aiae?ae Aaeue, Eiinoaioei
Aaeueiiio, Ay/aneaa Eaaiia, Aeaenaiae? Eo?neineee e ii. ae?.

I?a?aoayeeoeci — ynoaonei-ienoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea a aiaeeeneie iiycee e
aeeaiiene ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XIX a, ia?aciaaaoaany a ia/aea 50-o aiaeia
n oeaeueth ai?ueau i?ioea oneiaiinoe a aiaeeeneii eneonnoaa ia?aie
iieiaeiu aaea, i?ioea aeaaeaie/aneeo o?aaeeoeee e neaiiai iiae?aaeaiey
eeanne/aneei ia?acoeai. Iacaaiea «i?a?aoayeeoia» aeieaeii auei
iaicia/aoue aeooiaiia ?iaenoai n oei?aioeeneeie ooaeiaeieeaie yiioe
?aiiaai Aic?iaeaeaiey e oaeia aea, eae o iineaaeieo, aeaaiaiaaeiia
neaaeiaaiea i?e?iaea.

Iie n/eoaee eneonnoai neoaeaieai Aiao e iieaaaee, /oi niaea?aeaieai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee aeieaeii neoaeeoue i?aeiouanoaaiii an?
oi, /oi aiai?eo ia ioiioaiee /aeiaaea e aa/iinoe, i aiaeanoaaiiie oaeia,
ioe?uaathuaeny aeooa /aeiaaea oieueei iin?aaenoaii neiaieia.

A ia/aea I?a?aoayeeou i?aaeii/eoaee aaaiaaeueneea nthaeaou, eae aieaa
ae?oaeo iicaieythuea au?aaeaoue ?aeeaeiciia e ienoe/aneia iano?iaiea,
i?e/?i ecaaaaee a aeeaiiene oea?eiaiiai oa?aeoa?a e o?aeoiaaee Aaaiaaeea
neiaiee/anee, i?eaeaaay iniaia cia/aiea ia enoi?e/aneie aa?iinoe
ecia?aaeaaiuo aaaiaaeueneeo yieciaeia, a eo aioo?aiiaio oeeinioneiio
niuneo.

Oae, iai?eia?, a «Naaoi/a ie?a» Aaioa a aeaea Nianeoaey n y?eei
naaoeeueieeii a ?oeao ecia?aae?i oaeinoaaiiue aiaeanoaaiiue naao aa?u,
no?aiyueeny i?iieeiooue a cae?uoua /aeiaa/aneea na?aeoea, eae O?enoin
noo/eony a aeaa?ue /aeiaa/aneiai aeeeeua.

A iiieiaiee I?a?aoayeeoia neiaie ioee/aaony io i?inoie aeeaai?ee oai,
/oi aeea?o naiae nianoaaiiie aeeciueth. I?a?aoayeeou noa?aeenue
aini?iecaiaeeoue n aaee/aeoae aeia?iniaanoiinoueth e oi/iinoueth anyeee
i?aaeiao, anyeoth iiae?iaiinoue aiaoiaai ie?a, i?aaeaea anaai
ecia?aaeaoue aeeciue e i?aaaeo, a caoai oaea iieacuaaoue, /oi oaeony ca
aiaoiinoueth i?aaeiaoia e aeeciaiiuo yaeaiee. Iie no?aieeenue aianoe a
eneonnoai yoe/aneia niaea?aeaiea ia ioo?i i?aaio/aiee, a eneaieai enoeiu
a i?e?iaea.

Aieueoia cia/aiea aeey I. eiae Aeaeii ??neei, iiaeeyaoee naieie eieaaie
(a iniaaiiinoe «Modern Painters») ia ?acaeoea ynoaoe/aneiai aeona a
Aiaeee; ii oyniee cia/aiea O??ia?a e i?ea?e a nenoaio eaeae I.
ioiineoaeueii eneonnoaa. Ii aue ia niceaeaoaeai eneonnoaa I., ii aai
oieeiaaoaeai e oiaa?euai aai ia?auo aeayoaeae. ??neeio i?eiaaeeaaeeo
yniia ii?aaeaeaiea ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo oeaeae i?a?aoayeeonoaa.

«Eaaei oi?aaeyoue eenoueth, — aiai?eo ii, — e ienaoue o?aau e ?anoaiey n
aeinoaoi/iie aeey aeaca aa?iinoueth; yoiai iiaeao aeiaeoueny anyeee
iinea ianeieueeeo eao o?oaea. Ii ecia?aaeaoue n?aaee o?aa e ?anoaiee
oaeiu niceaeaiey e ni/aoaiee, eioi?uie i?e?iaea aiai?eo iaoaio
iiieiaieth, ia?aaeaaaoue iaaeiue ecaea e aieienooth oaiue ac?uoe?iiie
caiee, iaoiaeeoue ai an?i, /oi eaaeaony naiui iaeeei, i?iyaeaiea aa/iiai
aiaeanoaaiiiai iiainiceaeaiey e?aniou e aaee/ey, iieacuaaoue yoi ia
iuneyuei e ia c?yuei — oaeiai iacia/aiea ooaeiaeieea. Yoiai o?aaoao io
iaai Aia».

I?a?aoayeeou ieacaee aeeyiea ia o?aioeocneeo neiaieenoia — Aa?eaia,
Iaeea?ia e ae?., a oaeaea ii?aaeaeeee oai?/anoai iineaaeothueo
aiaeeeneeo ynoaoia: Iaoa?a, au?inoaai ec ??neeia, Oaeeueaea, Aa?iii Ee,
Neiiiiaena, Aeaoniia e ii. ae?

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