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Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa ia oaio:

Eoeueoo?a Eeaaneie ?one

Eieineiaie Aeeaiu

Ieai

1. Ca?iaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u ia ?one

2. sscu/aneea i?acaeieee

3. sscu/aneea aiae e aeooe

4. Iaeaaeaea, iocuea e o.ae.

5. I?eoiae O?enoeainoaa

6.I?iaeanee ycu/anoaa a O?enoeaineie ?one

7. Neacee

8. O?enoeaineay iaioaeueiay ?aaiethoeey a eoeueoo?a Eeaaneie ?one a XI
aaea

9. Auaiae

10. Aeaeeia?aoey

1. Ca?iaeaeaiea eoeueoo?u ia ?one

IX aae a enoi?ee neaayineiai ia?iaea ioe?uaaao iiaoth no?aieoeo.
Ia/eiaaony i?ioeann niae?aiey neaayineeo ieaiai iiae aaeeiie eiyaeaneie
aeanoueth n iiiiuueth aiaiiie neeu — ?iaeaeaaony iieiaeia neeueiia
ainoaea?noai. Ia?aciaaiea Eeaaneie ?one i?eiyoi ioiineoue e i?ecaaieth
ia eiyaeaiea a Iiaai?iae a 862 aiaeo aa?yaeneeo eiycae ?th?eea, Neiaona
e O?oai?a, a eiiaoe — e i?aaeaieth Aeaaeeie?a Iiiiiaoa (1113—1125).
Oaeei ia?acii, o?iiieiae/aneea ?aiee yiioe Eeaaneie ?one— na?aaeeia IX—
ia/aei XII aaea.

?th?eeiae/e, aeeianoey ?onneeo eiycae — aaeeeeo eiycae eeaaneeo,
aeaaeeie?neeo, iineianeeo e ?onneeo oea?ae (eiiaoe IX—XVI aa.,
iineaaeiee ?th?eeiae/ — oea?ue Oaaei? Eaaiiae/), n/eoaaoeony iioiieaie
?th?eea. E ?th?eeiae/ai i?eiaaeeaaeaee oaeaea iaeioi?ua aeai?yineea
?iaeu aei ia/. XX aaea, iioiiee oaeaeueiuo eiycae.

Eoeueoo?a ?one neeaaeuaaaony a oa aea aaea, /oi e noaiiaeaiea ?onneie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. ?iaeaeaiea ia?iaea oei iaeiia?aiaiii ii ianeieueeei
eeieyi – oicyenoaaiiie, iieeoe/aneie, eoeueoo?iie. ?onue neeaaeuaaeanue
e ?acaeaaeanue eae n?aaeioi/ea ia?iiiiai aeey oiai a?aiaie ia?iaea,
ninoiyuaai iiia/aeo ec ?acee/iuo ieaiai; eae ainoaea?noaa, aeeciue
eioi?iai ?acaa?ouaaeanue ia ia?iiiie oa??eoi?ee. E aanue i?eaeiaeueiue
eoeueoo?iue iiuo ainoi/iiai neaayinoaa noae aeinoiyieai aaeeiie ?onneie
eoeueoo?u. Iia neeaaeuaaeanue eae eoeueoo?a anao ainoi/iuo neaayi,
nio?aiyy a oi aea a?aiy naie ?aaeiiaeueiua /a?ou – iaeie aeey
Iiaeiai?iauey, ae?oaea – aeey Naaa?i-Ainoi/iie ?one e o.ae.

Aeieaea aiaeu ?onneay eoeueoo?a – onoiia ia?iaeiia oai?/anoai,
eneonnoai, a?oeoaeoo?a, aeeaiienue, ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ?aianei –
?acaeaaeanue iiae aeeyieai ycu/aneie ?aeeaee, ycu/aneiai ie?iaicc?aiey.
Enoi?ey e?ooi ?anii?yaeeeanue ni neaayineeie ia?iaeaie, eeoea eo
nianoaaiiie ieoieiaee yiioe ia?aioai?aiey. Ia auei o ieo naiaai Aiia?a,
iiaaaeaaoaai ie?o i aeecie ae?aaieo a?aeia, eo aiaia e aa?iaa. Ia
nio?aieeenue, eae o neaiaeeiaaia, naae e “Yaeaeu”, aeeaiienothuea
eaaaiaea?iia i?ioeia. Ia inoaeinue aeiiia, iieeoa, iaaeienae ia
a?iaieoeao, i?eioe?uaoeo iioiieao ae?aaieo aaeioyi no?aieaiey e /ayiey
eo i?aiooeaa. Iieiaiaeueai iaoeuioaoaa ia aeeciue neaayi-ycu/ieeia
o?enoeainoai niaoaei ia nai?i iooe ana i?eiaou i?ioeiai. Auei?/aauaaei
ia oieueei iaoa?eaeueiua ao?eaoou aueuo aa?iaaiee, ii e no?aieeinue
niuoue a niciaiee iiaiia?au?iiuo i?eau/iua aicc?aiey ia aiaeanoa e
eoie?ia, ia?yaeu e iau/ae.

A aaaeue iaiaa /ai ca aeanyoeeaoea aei i?eiyoey o?enoeainoaa aaeeeee
eiycue eeaaneee Aeaaeeie?, aoaeo/e y?ui ycu/ieeii, iinoaaee ia oieia
aeec naiaai oa?aia (ia ?one aeiia n o?aiy yoaaeaie e aieueoa iacuaaee
oa?aiii, iie n/eoaeenue, eae aeai?oeu) iaioaii ii noa?iaeaaiei eaeieai.
N?aaee ieo auaeaeyeny aia Ia?oi – n?oaeaiiue ec aea?aaa, n na?aa?yiie
aieiaie e cieiouie onaie, n iaeeoeae-iieieae a ?oeao. A ?yaeii n iei,
eae ienae a “Iiaanoe a?aiaiiuo eao” eaoiienaoe Ianoi?, noiyee eaeieu
ae?oaeo aiaia – Oi?na, Aeaaeueaia, No?eaia, Neia?aea E Iaeioe.

2. sscu/aneea i?acaeieee

Ana i?acaeieee ae?aaieo neaayi auee iinayuaiu ycu/aneei aiaai: “Ii/ue ia
Eoiaea” (Ii/ue ia Eaaia Eoiaea ii noae iacuaaoueny, eiaaea i?eoei
o?enoeainoai) eino?u, ianie, eoiaiey, nai? aieoaaiuo o?aa – auei aaea
aeooa ?acaoeyoueny a yoio i?acaeiee. I?acaeiee Eoiaea i?eoiaeeeny ia
eaoiaa nieioeanoiyiea, ia naiua ei?ioeea ii/e (yoio i?acaeiee nio?eny n
o?enoeaineei i?acaeieeii ?iaeaeanoaa Eiaiia e?anoeoaey, I?aaeoa/e Eenona
O?enoa). I?aaeee iaoe n/eoaee, /oi ii?a aoeiiai ?inoa o?aa, nic?aiey
oeaaia – naiia a?aiy aeey ?acaoea ceuo aeooia. Anooiatho a neeo e eo
i?eneoaeieee – aaaeueiu, ai?iaeae, iai?ioie, eieaeoiu, no?aiyueany
i?e/eieoue ethaeyi, eae iiaeii aieueoa a?aaea. Ii c?y, iaaa?iia, eiaiii
ii/ue ia Eoiaeo auae?aee aaaeueiu, /oi au ono?aeaaoue naie oaaaoe n
/a?oyie ia Eunie ai?a. Iniaaiii /anoi i?ieaceee a yoe aeie any/aneea
eaoea, aeiiiaua, ?onaeee. Aeey ai?ueau n ia/enoueth e iaiaoiaeeii auei
aa?oeoue i/enoeoaeueiua ia?yaeu. Eiaiii iiyoiio a ii/ue ia Eoiaeo e
?acaeeaaee eino?u, /a?ac eioi?ua i?uaaee ii ia?ii oaai/aiiua oeaaoaie
ia?ie n aeaaooeaie, aie?oa eioi?uo aiaeeee oi?iaiaeu n ianiyie.
I?iaiaeeee iaae eino?aie e neio, aaaeue i/euaiea i?eiinee ia oieueei
iaiiue, ii e aeui. I/enoeoaeueiue iaiiue ycu/ieee ioiaeaeanoaeyee n
nieioeai. Ia?iiiua eino?u iueaee a eoiaeueneoth ii/ue ia ieieeoea naea,
?yaeii noiea iau/ii aiae?oaeaee niieyioth ai/eo eee eieani. Iaeiaeea
nieiiie, noiea iiaeaeeaaee, e aonoie aeui noaeeeny iaae e?uoaie aeiiia,
iaae iieiaeuie iinaaaie. A au? a iaiiue oau?yee ioneoaeeaoea naie
eiaeooe, eaioe, iaeaaeaeo aieueiuo. Ethaeiie caaaaie auei eaoaiea n
ai?ee e ?aea ai?yueo eie?n. N/anoeea/eeii n/eoaeny oio ai?ee, /ue?
eieani oooei, eeoue einioaoenue aiaeu. Oae ioia/aea naeyia iiai?io
nieioea n eaoa ia ceio. Iaiiue, aicaeeaaaiue ia Eoiaeo, aue ia i?inoie,
aeiiaoiee. N/eoaeinue, /oi iaiiue e yoiio neo/ath iaaei aeiauaaoue
eiaiii o?aieai aea?aayiiuo a?oneia – “aeeaie iaiiue”. Iniaaiii no?iai
neaaeeee a oo ii/ue /a?iaeaenoaa ca neioeiie. Eioaaeae ia auioneaee a
ii/iia ianoenue ia eoaa, oaeyo inoaaeyee ii/aaaoue aianoa n ei?iaaie. A
ia iiaeieiiieee eeaee aeao/oth e?aieao, /oi au ia/enoay neea ia i?iieeea
a aeii e ia iaoai?eea aaae. Ii ia oieueei iaie eino?ia, ii e i/euaiea
aiaeie auei i?eiaoie eoiaeueneie ii/e. Yoiio i?acaeieeo iau/ii
i?aaeoanoaiaaee “?onaeee” – ooiiua oi?aeanoaa, caaa?oaaoeany eoiaieai a
?aea naie neaayia aiai?eee: ” A eoiaeueneoth ii/ue, o?aaa noiiao, a
aea?aaueyo nie aoaeeo, aeeeee caa?ue, e aeia?iio /aeiaaeo eanoeony. A
eoiaeueneoth ii/ue caiey ?iaeeo. Ia iaii?ioieea aea?-oeaaoie
?anoeaaoaao. Oae eiee eoi aai iaeae?o, o oiai naiia caaaoiia aeaeaiea
naoaeaony. A eoi a ?oea aai oaea?aeeo, oio eeaaeu neaicue caieth
aeaeaoue aoaeao e a /oaeeo onoao anyei neiai iai?aaaeu ?aniiciaao.
“I?iaiaeu aaniu” ia?yaeo n ss?eeie e Eaaeie auea Eino?iia iaeiei ec
aeaaiuo ia?niiaaeae yoiai aan?eiai i?acaeianoaa, i?ioiaeeaoaainy ia
iaaeaeth iinea eaoiaai nieioeanoiyiey. Eino?iia auea ia ycu/aneay
aiaeiy, a i?inoi nieiiaiiay eoeea, aiieiuathuay aanaiiea neeu
ieiaei?iaeey. Iaeioi?ua o/?iiua ia?aaiaeyo eiy, eae “Iaoue eieinueaa”.
Ii a eiioea ethiy oeaaa oaea caeieineeenue, e i?eoea ii?a i?iuaoueny n
Eino?iiie. Ia?yae?iioth a aeaineea iaeaaeaeu nieiiaiiia /o/aei,
o/oanoaiaaaoaio a aoeyiueyo iieiae?aee, a eiioea eiioeia ono?aeaaee…
iioi?iiioth i?ioeanneth e oi?aeanoaaiii oiieee a ?aea. Iieaeeaaee,
i?iuaynue aei aoaeouae aaniu. Iaee ?eooaeueiua ianie.

Eino?iia, Eino?iia,

Ou ia?yaeiay auea,

?acaan?eay auea…

A oaia?ue, Eino?iia,

Ou ai a?ia eaaea…

Ii yoe a?onoiua ianie ieeae ia onie?yee iauaa aanaeuea. “Eieyaea” (a
aoaeouai niaianoeony n o?enoeaineei i?acaeieeii “Ii/ue ia?aae
?iaeaeanoaii”) iieiae?aeue a yoio i?acaeiee oiaeeee ii aeiiai e iaee
ianith, yoi iacuaaeinue, eieyaeotho. A ethaee a aeiiao caneuoaa yoo
ianith aea?eee ?aayoai ainoeioea.

Iaeiie iaiouaieaiie /anoueth ?onneeo i?acaeieeia aue oi?iaiae. “A eano
?iaeeeanue ?ei/ea”… Yoo ia ioae?aioth ianaieo ciatho ana io iaea aei
aaeeea. Aiaey oi?iaiae aie?oa ?ac?yaeaiiie eaniie e?anaaeoeu, ?aayoeoee
e ia iiaeic?aaatho, /oi niaa?oatho ia?yaeiaua aeaenoaey, /anoue
ie?ioai?/anoaa iaoeo aeae?eeo i?aaeeia. Oae aea iiiai aaeia iacaae
niae?aeenue o aea?aaa ethaee, i?eiineee e aai ei?iyi aea?oau, iaee,
niaa?oaee ia?yaeiaua oaioeu, a eioi?uo eaaeaeia aeaeaeaiea eiaei
neiaiee/aneia cia/aiea. Aea?aai caieiaei a aeecie ycu/ieeia-neaayi
iniaia ianoi. Oi?iaiaeu aiaeeee aie?oa aeoaia, aa??c, ?eie.

3. sscu/aneea aiae e aeooe

Ie?oaeathuee ie? ?aaeei aue aeia? e /aeiaaeo. Ia iaei iianiinoae
oaeeinue a eaaeaeie ieiooa nouanoaiaaiey iaoeo i?aaeeia. Eae iiaeii auei
caueoeony io iieiee, io ?aceeaa ?aee, niuaoae iinaau, io iaaeaaaey,
caae?aaoaai ei?ieeueoea-ioioieea? Auoue iiaeao /aeiaae nai i?iaeieeny
ia?aae eaeeie-oi aa?oiaiuie nouanoaaie, eioi?ua oie aeanoiei ea?atho
aai? Auoiaeeo, eo/oa auoue n ieie a ae?oaeaa, oaeaaeaoue e ii/eoaoue eo.
Neaayineia ycu/anoai – yoi iaiaeanoaeaiea noeoee. No?aiynue aeaoue
iauyniaiea yaeaieyi i?e?iaeu eee aeecie naiaai ?iaea, ieaiaie, i?aaeee
ii?iaeeee iiiaeanoai ieoe/aneeo nouanoa, aiaeanoa, iioiaeeo naieie
no?aieaieyie e iinooieaie ia naieo ethaeae. Eo aeaea ia i?ioeai?a/ao
cae?aaiio niuneo, n?aaee ieo oiaea i?ienoiaeeo ai?ueaa aeia?a e cea,
naaoa e oueiu. E e oiio aea iie ia iaaeinooiiua iaaiaeeoaee, a
iaoiaeyueany caeanue, ?yaeii. O iiiaeo aa?oiaiuo aiaeanoa auee
nianoaaiiua eiaia: Ia?oi, Aeaaeueaia, Aaean, Iieioue, No?eaia. Ae?oaea,
?aiaii iiieaea, ninoaaeyee ia?iiioth a?ieth aeiiiauo, eaoeo, aa?aaeiue,
?onaeie, oaioanoe/aneeo caa?ae e ioeoe. E ana iie, eae e naia i?e?iaea,
iiaee auoue iano?iaiu oi ae?oaeaethaii, oi a?aaeaeaaii /aeiaaeo.

Aiae e aeooe ii ia/aeo aeeee oai aea, aaea aeee /aeiaae. Yoi aue
aaeiaie, aaoaenoue aeoa, e eaiaiue o aei?iae, e oeoay caaiaeue ?yaeii n
iinaeaieai, e nieiuoeii, aea?yuaa oaieua aeeaeoaeueiua eo/e. Naycue
naith n ie?oaeathuei ie?ii iao i?aaeie iuooee eae e?iaioth,
?iaenoaaiioth. Iiiaea ?anoaiey, aeeaioiuo ii aini?eieiae ia i?inoi eae
?iaenoaaiieeia, ii e aeaaea i?a?iaeeoaeae.

O ae?aaieo neaayi nouanoaiaae cai?ao, ioioeony ia iaaeaaaeae,
oiio?aaeyoue iaaeaaaeuea iyni, iineoue iaeaaeaeo ec aai oeo?. A cai?ao
yoio iiyaeeny ii oiio, /oi noiy ia caaeieo eaiao, iaaeaaaeue aue iioiae
ia /aeiaaea. Ethaee eniuouaaee ia oieueei no?ao ia?aae einieaiui, ii e
ii/oaiea e iaio. Iie ainoeuaeenue aai neeie, eiaeinoueth, n/eoaee naiei
iie?iaeoaeai, aaee/aee, eae ii iuia a neaceao aaothoeie, aeaaeooeie, a
ii?ie oicyeiii. Ii/eoaee iaoe i?aaeee e ?anoaiey. O ieo nouanoaiaaee
oeaeua nayuaiiua ?iue. A ioaeaeueiua aea?aauey /aua anaai noa?ua,
iiao/ea aeoau, aucuaaee eo iieeiiaiey. Aecaioeeneee eiia?aoi? Eiinoaioei
Aaa?yii?iaeiue, ?anneacuaay i o?oaeiii e iianiii ia?aoiaea /a?ac
Aeiai?ianeea ii?iae, ia iaio?e a?iiaaeiue aeoa ia ino?iaa Oi?oeoea. Aio
i?eiineee a aea?oao aeeauo iaoooia, eonee iyna, oeaa. Aieiu o ei?iae
aea?aaa aoueaee no?aeu naie aea?u. Ianoaie iieeiiaiey aiaai iiaee auoue
e ai?u, oieiu, ?aee, eaiie, ec eioi?uo aunaeaeenue ecia?aaeaiey, e
aeaaea eo ineieee, noaiiaeaoeany aioeaoaie-iaa?aaaie. Ieeoi ia ciaao,
neieueei aaeia i?ioei, iiea iiyaeeenue iauaneaayineea eaeieu, o?aaothuea
e?iaaauo aea?oaii?eiioaiee. Enooeaiu yoe iacuaaeenue “eaiue”. A ianoa eo
iaeoaiey, ia?aua eoeueoiaua nii?oaeaiey – eaieuaie. Neoaeeoaee oai
ae?aoeu-aieoau, eoaeanieee, aaaeaoaee, i?aaeneacuaathuea aoaeouaa.

AE?aoeu aieoau /ai-oi noiaee n ae?oeaeaie, oa aea nayuaiiua aeoau, nai?
iiaeu, ?acaiai?u n aeeaioiuie, iiieiaiea aeooe eaiiae, a oaeaea iie auee
iaiaiieeiiieeaie. Iie oniaoii i?aaeneacuaaee aoaeouaa, i?e/?i neo/aaa.
Eiaaea iie ioeaaeenue ia auei.

Ii/oe ana nouanoaa o.i. “iecoae ieoieiaee” a aicc?aieyo e?anoueyi – ia
i?inoi aeooe i?e?iaeu eee ia?niieoeeaoeee aa nee; i?aaenoaaeaiey i ieo
neiaeiu, iaiaeiicia/iu, neeaaeuaaeenue ia i?ioyaeaiee noieaoee. I?e
yoii, I.A.*a?aiaiiaa ioia/aao, /oi, iiaeiaii iiiaei “i?ic?a/ii
iioeae?iaaiiui” iacaaieyi (eaoee – “eaniie”, aeiiiaie – “iaeoathuee a
aeiia”), iie i?eiaaeeaaeao n?aaieoaeueii iicaeiei eaene/aneei ieanoai.
Ii aa aea iiaieth, eaoaio e aiaeyiiio aa?iaaiee XVIII-XX aaeia
i?aaeoanoaiaaea “eaoay e aiaeyiay neea” ?onneeo caaiai?ia XVII aaea.
Yoi, aa?iyoii, e anoue neea, enoiaeyuay io “aeeauo” aiaeu e eana.

Eaoee – ieoieiae/aneee ia?ac aeooa eana. I?aaenoaaeaiey i eaoai
nio?aieeenue aei iaoeo aeiae. Eaoee – oicyei eaniie /aue e iaeoathueo a
iae caa?ae. Ii eciaiyao naie ?ino – iiaeao noaoue aunieei, eae
aea?aauey, eee ieceei, eae o?aaa, e oe?uaaoueny iiae oiaaoeie eenoueyie.
Eaoee ?aaeei caoiaeeo a iiea, oaaaeay i?aaa iieaaiai aeooa – iieaaeea.
Ia caaeyaeuaaao a aea?aaie, /oiau ia nni?eoueny n aeiiiauie. Eaoee
ecaeaao ?acee/iua caoee – naenoeo, oioi/ao, aoeaao, iea/ao, aueao a
eaaeioe, eae ethaee. *aeiaaeo eaoee ?aaeei a?aaeeo. I?aaaea “oooee
eaoaai” auaatho ceua e ioaatho ethaeae. Ii iiaeao caaanoe /aeiaaea,
niae?athuaai a?eau e yaiaeu, a oaeea eaniua aeaa?e, ec eioi?uo oio ia
iiaeao aeieai aua?aoueny, e?oaea ii eano, iinoiyiii aica?auaynue e
iaeiiio e oiio aea ianoo. Iaeiaei eaoee ia aeiaiaeeo /aeiaaea aei
aeaaee. Nouanoaotho ?acee/iua i?iaeaiu ecaaaeaiey io i?ieac eaoaai. Oae,
caaeoaeeaoeeny /aeiaae aeieaeai ?acaeaoueny, auaa?iooue ia eciaieo anth
iaeaaeaeo e a oaeii aeaea niiaa iaeaoue, ia caaua i?e yoii iiiaiyoue
iaoaue n iaeiie iiae ia ae?oaoth. Anee caaeoaeeeenue ianeieueei /aeiaae,
oi ana iie aeieaeiu iiiaiyoueny iaeaaeaeie. Ii ia anaaaea n eaoei iiaeii
neaaeeoue. Nio?aiyaony iiaa?ea, /oi a aeaiue, eiaaea “eaoee aaneony” (4
ieoya?y) a ean eo/oa ia oiaeeoue. Eaaaiaeu e ieou i eaoeo nio?aiythony o
anao ia?iaeia ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo aaeia.

Aiaeyiie – aeaaeuea aiae (aieio, ica?, ?ae e ii?ae). Aai iacuaaee
ii-?aciiio – “aiaeyiie /a?o”, aiaeiaee, aiaeyiie aeaaeooea e o.i. Yoi
aeoo, ieeoeaoai?ythuee aiaeioth noeoeth. Aiaeyiie iiaeao i?eieiaoue
?acee/iua ia?acu: oi e?oiiie ?uau, oi ?aaaiea, oi eioaaee. O ainoi/iuo
neaayi aiaeyiie – yoi noa?ee n aeeeiiie naaeie eee caeaiie ai?iaeie.
*anoi aai i?aaenoaaeytho eae /a?oa n ?iaeeaie e aieueoei aeeaioii.
Iaeoaao aiaeyiie a iiooao, ethaeo naeeoueny iiae aiaeyiie iaeueieoeae.
Ii niiniaai ?ac?ooeoue cai?oaeu, iiyoiio aai iaaei oiaoue oieeinoeaeoue.
Aiaeyiie n/eoaaony iie?iaeoaeai ?uaaeia, eioi?ua e i?eiinyo aio a
aea?oao /anoue iieiaiiie eie ?uau. A neaceao e aueeiao aiaeyiiai /anoi
ioiaeaeanoaeytho n “ii?neei oea?ai”, eioi?ue aeeaao ia aeia ii?neii a
o?onoaeueiii aeai?oea. A ieoieiaee ainoi/iuo neaayi ecaanoiu e aeaineea
aeooe aiaeu – aiaeyieoeu, eioi?ua ii naiei ooieoeeyi iaiiieiatho
?onaeie. Aiaeyieoeu – yoi ooiieaiieoeu, i?aa?aoeaoeany a aeooia aiaeiie
noeoee.

Aeiiiaie (Aeiiiaaaeooea, Aeiiiaie oicyei, Aeiiiaee). – iau/ii iaaeaeeiue
iaeoaoaeue, oicyei, aeai?a e aeiia – o iaai iiiaeanoai eiai. Iaeioi?ua
ec ieo oeacuaatho ia ianoi i?aauaaiea aeiiiaiai (ecaiie, iiaeia/iee,
oeaaiee e o.ae.) eee aea ia oi?io aai iiyaeaiey eee oa?aeoa? e iniiaiua
caiyoey. Ii noa?oee a aeiia, /eai naiuee, i?aaeie e iaaeaeeiue oicyei.
Ia?ac aeiiiaiai i?e aiaoiae i?inoioa iiaeao auoue i/aiue neiaeai,
iaaeaeai anaaiciiaeiuie naienoaaie, iaeeeaie, niiniaiinoyie. Iniiaiua
caaea/e aeiiiaiai – caaioa i neioeia, i?aaeneacuaaiea aoaeouaai
iaeoaoaeae aeiia*. ssaeyaony iecoei aeooii neaayineie ieoieiaee;
eaaaiaeu i aeiiiaii nio?aieeenue o ?onneeo, aaei?onneeo e oe?aeineeo
ia?iaeia. Aeiiiaie n/eoaaony iie?iaeoaeai aeiia, ei?ieeueoeai. O
ainoi/iuo e thaeiuo neaayi n/eoaaony /oi ii ii/ai aeiiiaie “noo/eo e
niaa?oaao ?aciua i?ieacu”. A iaeiii aeiia iiaeao caaanoenue aeaa
aeiiiauo, oiaaea iie ia/eiatho nni?eoueny. Aeiiiaie iiiiaaao
o?oaeiethaeaiio oicyeio, eaieaiio a?aaeeo. Aeiiiaiai eo/oa
oieeinoeaeoue, inoaaea ieuo – oeaa, nieue, eaoo. I?e ia?anaeaiee a iiaue
aeii neaayia niaa?oaee ii?aaeaeaiiue ?eooae, n oie oeaeueth, /oiau
aeiiiaie ia?anaeeeny aianoa n oicyaaaie e iiiiaae ei ia iiaii ianoa.

Aaiiee – aeoo, iaeoathuee a aaia. Ii iaaeaeei, ii eiiaaea iiaeao
iieacuaaoueny a /aeiaa/aneii iaee/ee. ?ieue aaiieea ii?aaeaeyeanue
cia/aieai aaie a ?onneii auoo. *oiau caueoeoueny io aaiieea, eioi?ue
aeeaao iiae iieii eee ca eaiaieie e iiaeao iaeeoue eeiyoeii eee a?ineoue
ai?y/ee eaiaiue a iithuaainy, aai iaaei oieeinoeaeoue eoneii ?aeaiiai
oeaaa eee i?eianoe a aea?oao eo?eoeo. Aaiieeo neaaeiaaei inoaaeyoue
aiaeo, iuei e aaiee, oae eae ii iiaony iineaaeiei.

Iaeiiee – aeiiaoiee aeoo, aeeaouee a iaeia e io?aiythuee oeaa io ii?/e.
I?aaenoaaeyee aai a ia?aca noa?eea, eioi?iio i?eiineee iiaea?ee. A iaeia
e?anoueyia nooeee niiiu naia, e iaeiiee neaaeee, /oiau ia no/eeny
iiaea?. Ii ia iicaieye ?aaioaoue a iaeia a aieueoea i?acaeieee e ai
a?aiy neeueiuo aao?ia. Ia?aaeeauo oicyaa ii iaeacuaae, iia aeaaea
neeueii oaea?eoue. Iaeiiee oeiiae a eaaeioe. Oioioae, eaye eae niaaea.
Ia?aae ia/aeii ?aaiou a iaeia ioaeii auei iii?ineoue ?ac?aoaiey o
iaeiieea.

I?eaeai?iue – aeoo, a?ao aeiiiaiai, eioi?ue ia aoiae a ecao, a aeea?o ia
iiaeai?uea. Ii a iiiaiii ioaa/aao ia ca /aeiaaea, a ca neioeio.

Oiu?ue – iecoee aeoo, aeaiiie/aneia nouanoai a ieoieiae/aneii
i?aaenoaaeaiee ainoi/iuo neiayi. A “Neiaa ia eaeieao” aiai?eoueny i
ae?aaiai ii/eoaiee neaayiaie oiu?ae. A ia?iaeiuo i?aaenoaaeaieyo – yoi
ceua, a?aaeiiiniua aeooe. Oiu?e (aaiie?u) aunanuaatho e?iaue o ethaeae e
aeeaioiuo. Eo ioiaeaeanoaeyee n ia?oaaoeaie, auoiaeyueie ii ii/ai ec
iiaee, iiaeea?aoeeaathueie e oaeaathueie ethaeae e aeiiaoiee neio. Ii
ia?iaeiui iiaa?ueyi, oiu?yie noaiiaeeenue ethaee, “oia?oea
iaanoanoaaiiie nia?oueth” – ianeeuenoaaiiia oaeaiea, nieaoeeny
iueyieoeu, naiioaeeoeu e o.i., a oaeaea eieaeoiu. N/eoaeinue, /oi caiey
ia i?eieiaao oaeeo ia?oaaoeia, iiyoiio eo oi?iieee aia eeaaeaeua. Aeey
oiai, /oiau oiu?ue ia auoiaeee ec iiaeeu, aai neaaeiaaei “oniieieoue” –
aueiiaoue o?oi ec iiaeeu e i?ioeiooue ineiiaui eieii. Neacaiea ia
oiu?yo, aaiie?ao io neaayi ?ani?ino?aieeinue n?aaee anao ia?iaeia
Aa?iiu.

Aa?aaeie – aeaineea aeooe, io?aieoaeueieoeu io ceuo nee, i?ioeainoiyuea
oiu?yi. Ec o?enoeaineeo “iio/aiee…” e “Neia…” iiaeii naeaeaoue
caeeth/aiea i nouanoaiaaiee eoeueoa aa?aaeiue. Yoe aeaineea aeooe
io?aiytho io anaai iaaeaeaoaeueii, iaiaeeaeaiiiai. A “Neiaa iaeiaai
o?enoiethaoea” aiai?eoueny i oii, /oi iiiaea iieeiiythony e i?eiinyo
aea?oau “iaith e eaiaiueyi, e ?aeai, e enoi/ieeai, e aa?aaeiyi”.
Ae?aaiea neaayia aini?eieiaee aa?aaeiue eae iiaeaoaeueieoe aeaae,
aeiaeaey, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ieiaei?iaeey caiee.

Eeeeii?a (Oeoeii?a)- ii ieoieiae/aneei i?aaenoaaeaieyi ainoi/iuo neaayi
– ceie aeoo aeiia. Ii ii?aaeaeaieth a neiaa?a Aeaaeeie?a Aeaey, eeeeii?a
– yoi aeae aeiiiaiai. Iaeioi?ua enneaaeiaaoaee auoa ?onneiai ia?iaea
n/eoatho, /oi eeeeii?a – aeaia aeiiiaiai. Iia ethaeo ii ii/ai o oicyae
iooaoue i?yaeo, ioaaao iaeaiueeeo aeaoae, iiaeao e?anoue eo?.
I?aaenoaaeaiey i eeeeii?a nio?aiythony a ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiao ?innee.
Nouanoaiaaee ?acee/iua caaiai?u aeey ecaaaeaiey aeiia io eeeeii?u.
Aianoa n oai aa?eee e a oi, /oi oiaeui oicyeeai eeeeii?a iiiiaaao, a
eaieaui e ia?aaeeaui a?aaeeo.

?onaeea – a Ae?aaiae ?one ieoieiae/aneea nouanoaa a aeaea
iieoaeaiueiu-iieo?uau. ?onaeeaie noaiiaeeenue i?aaeaeaa?aiaiii oia?oea
aeaaooee eee iaaanou, ia aeiaeeaoea aei naaaeueau. Iie ecia?aaeaeenue n
aeeeiiuie, ?aniouaiiuie aieinaie. A ?yaea iano ?onaeea – aiaeyiie aeoo.
?onaeee naycaiu n eoeueoii ieiaei?iaeey, iiyaeyeenue iie a naie
i?acaeiee ia “?onaeueae iaaeaee”, eiaaea ia/eiaea oeaanoe ?iaeue. A aeie
yoiai i?acaeieea iaeuecy ?aaioaoue. Ia?ooeoaeae cai?aoa ?onaeee
iaeacuaatho, auoaiouaay eo iinaau. ?onaeie iiaeii ano?aoeoue ii iiiaeo
ianoao – a iiea, o aiaeu, ia aea?aaueyo. A oi?iaiaeiuo ianiyo ethaee
i?ecuaatho ?onaeie iiiiaaoue ?inoo oeaaa. A oiaea i?iieeiiaaiey
o?enoeainoaa a ia?iaeioth aeeciue ?onaeee noaee ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
ia/enoay neea. I?aaenoaaeaiea i ?onaeeao noaei noiaea n i?aaenoaaeaieai
ia oiu?yo. “?onaeuey iaaeaey” noaea niaiaaeaoue n O?ieoeae. *aoaa?a ia
o?ieoeeie iaaeaea i?aa?aoeeny a “aeaiue ?onaeie”. A yoio aeaiue iaeuecy
auei ?aaioaoue, oae eae ?onaeee iiaee ianeaoue ii?/o ia neioeio. A
o?ieoeeee /aoaa?a (“Naiee”) aeaaooee ieaee aaiee e inoaaeyee ec a eano
aeey ?onaeie. A ?yaea iano a iineaaeiee aeaiue “?onaeueae iaaeaee”
niaa?oaee ia?yae “i?iaiaeia ?onaeee”. A yoio aeaiue ia?yaeaee a caeaiue
ia?yae iaeio ec aeaaooae, iaaeaaaee ia iaa aaiee e auaiaeeee a iiea eee
e ?aea, aaea n?uaaee n iaa aaiee e a?inaee eo a aiaeo eee einoa?, iinea
/aai oaaaaee.

O?iiie aan(*??o) – a?aa /aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea, ceie aeoo aeio?enoeaineiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey, anaaaea no?aiyueeny niaeacieoue, oieeiooue ia aeo?iie
iinooiie, /??o i/aiue aonoi canaeee caieth. Aiiaua o iaai oeaeay eo/a
ei?i, a oieeiaii neiaa?a Aeaey ian/eouaaaony ieiei ni?iea ei?i: eoeaaue,
ai?ia, ia/enoue, iae?aeee, naoaia, aeaiii, aeueyaie, eeoie, /??iay neea,
ai/ooea, eooeee… Aaaeue iiieiaoue /??oa ii eiaie n/eoaaony aieueoei
a?aoii. Nai aan iau/ii, /??iaiueeee, eioiaoue, n aeeeiiui oainoii,
eiiuoaie e ?iaeeaie e iai?aiaiii o?iiaiueeee.

4. Iaeaaeaea, iocuea e o.ae.

C ae?aaieo a?ai?i aieiaiui oai?ii ?onneeo aeaiuei auee /aioeu ?acee/iuo
oi?i, oe?aoaiiua auoeaeie, e?oaeaaii e ?aciioeaaoiui aena?ii. Iaeioi?ua
/aioeu eiaee oi?io eo?eiiai a?aaaoea e iacuaaeenue eieioieeaie, ia
Oe?aeia eieioieee /anoi oe?aoaee oeaaoaie e eaioi/eaie. Eo iau/ii iineee
caioaeiea aeaiueiu. Eioou, aac?oeaaee, thaee, ia?aaeieee, auoeoua
e?anoeeii, ?iiaaie e oeaaoi/iui i?iaiaioii. Ioae/eiu iineee aeeeiiua n
aunieei aeooei ai?ioii noyioouie ia oaeee iiynii. Ioae/eiu iaoaaeenue a
naiiae, a aeaiueiu a iyaeea naiiaeee.

Ec iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioia ia?aia ianoi caieiaee aonee. Aonee aeieai
aini?eieiaeenue eae eino?oiaio neaci/iue, aueeiiue. N?aco aniiieiaeenue
Naaeei, Aeia?uiy Ieeeoe/, neiii?ioe. Aua aecaioeeneee enoi?ee niiauaao i
ieaiaiee a 591 aiaeo i?eaaeoeeneeo neaayi, eioi?ua eiaee i?e naaa
no?oiiua iocueaeueiua eino?oiaiou. A Eeaaneie ?one aonee nii?iaiaeaeaee
oea?eiaiua ia?yaeu, ia?iaeiua i?acaeianoaa, ?aoiua iioiaeu.

Ii/oe ana ae?aaiea neaayia ciaee a?aiioo, oae eae ienaee ia aa?anoa, a
a? auei i/aiue iiiai. Ia aa?anoa auaeaeaeeaaee iaaeiene “Ienaeaie”.
“Ienaea” caino??iiua iaei/ee eo /anoi oe?aoaee ?acueaie. Eiaaea aeaoae
o/eee ienaoue, eo canoaaeyee i/aiue iiiai ?ac ia?aienuaaoue iaeei e oio
aea oaeno, oaeno n ioeaea caeeaaee niieie, a iioii n?acaee e ia oie aea
naiie aa?anoa ienaeinue an? caiiai. Eiiaaea ienaee ia aea?aayiiuo
oaaee/eao, eiaiii oae auea iaienaia nayuaiiay eieaa ycu/ieeia “Aaeaniaa
eieaa”. Iia ?anneacuaaea i iiiaeo, iaaaaeiiuo /a?oao auoa ae?aaiae ?one,
a? ia?iaeia, eo aa?iaaieyo. Iaeia ec ia?auo i?i/eoaiiuo oaaee/ae auea
iinayuaia aiao Aaeano. Ii iae iaiau/iay eaoiienue e iieo/eea iacaaiea
“Aaeaniaa eieaa”.

Iiaue aiae o ae?aaieo neaayi ia/eiaeny 1 ia?oa, ii oeeeeo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ?aaio, iacuaaiea yoiai ianyoea oiaea auei naycaii
n ia/aeii ?aaio, “Nooee”. Ai?aeue neaayia iacuaaee “Aa??cicie”, Iae
“O?aaiee”, Ethiue “Eocia/ee”, Etheue iacuaaee eeai “Na?ieai” eeai
“AEaoaeai”, Aaaono “Ca?ea”, Naioya?ue “Aa?aneiue”, Ieoya?ue “A?yciee”
eeai “Eenoiiaae”. Anoue iiaiea, /oi anee ieoya?ue aue nu?ie e a?yciue,
oi aai iacuaaee “A?yciee”, a anee ii aue o?ieue e nooie, oi aai iacuaaee
“Eenoiiaae”. Iiya?ue “A?oaeaiue”, Aeaeaa?ue “Nooaeaiue”, ssiaa?ue
“I?neiaoe”, oaa?aeue “Ni/aiue”. Ia iiaue aiae auea o?aaeeoeey aaaeaoue
ia iiaiaeo, noaaeee /a?eo n aiaeie ia aethaeoea iie?iyi eioi?iai auee
iaaeiene (aethaeoea eaeaiaea?ue). Caoai e?oaeeee /aoo, niio?y ia eaeoth
iaaeienue oiaae?o eaiey. Eoia aaaeaiey aeeye ia iinaau.

Auoea ae?aaieo neaayi auei oanii naycaii n i?e?iaeie. Ii?ie aaniiiiuiua
ia?aae iath, iie iieeiiyeenue ae, iieeeenue i i?ethoa, o?iaeaa e
oaea/iie ioioa, i naiie aeecie. Iie eae au iaeooaaeyee aea?aai e ?aeo,
nieioea e aaoa?, ioeoeo iieieth. Iie i?eia/aee caeiiiia?iinoe i?e?iaeiuo
yaeaiee e i?eienuaaee eo aeia?ie e ceie aiea oaeinoaaiiuo nee.

5. I?eoiae o?enoeainoaa

A eoeueoo?ieiae/aneii ieaia ia/aei iiaiai yoaia neaaeoao naycuaaoue n
i?eiyoeai ?onueth o?enoeainoaa. E?auaiea ?one a 988 aiaeo noaei
iiai?ioiui ioieoii a enoi?ee e eoeueoo?a ainoi/iineaayineeo ieaiai.
Aianoa n iiaie ?aeeaeae iie aini?eiyee io Aecaioee ienueiaiiinoue,
eieaeioth eoeueoo?o, iaauee eaiaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, eaiiiu eeiiiiene,
iaeioi?ua aeai?u e ia?acu i?eeeaaeiiai eneonnoaa. Iinea yoiai Eeaaneay
?onue ia?aaeeea iiaeuai eoeueoo?u, a oa/aiea ia?aiai aea noieaoey
auoaaeoae ia aunieee aa?iiaeneee o?iaaiue. A oa/aiea /aou?ao
iineaaeothueo noieaoee Eeaaneay ?onue noi?ie?iaaeanue a oi?ioi
oi?aaeyaiia aeaiie?aoe/aneia ai?iaeneia ?uii/iia iauanoai. A ia?eiae
iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa a XI aaea aa ianaeaiea aeinoeaei 7—8 iei /aeiaae,
aeeth/ay oaeea ?acaeoua ai?iaeneea oeaio?u, eae Eeaa, Iiaai?iae e
Niieaine. Yoi auei naiia aieueoia e ianaeaiiia ainoaea?noai Aa?iiu.

O/aiua nii?yo naaiaeiy e nii?eee a i?ioeii aaea i oii, iiceoeaii eee
iaaaoeaii neacaeinue ia aeaeueiaeoae enoi?ee ?innee caeinoaiaaiea
aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u. Iaeioi?ua iieaaatho, /oi oai naiui iia iaanaaaea
ioai?iaeeea naay io eaoiee/aneiai Caiaaea e, eae neaaenoaea, ionoaea a
yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee. Iaeiaei ia noieo caauaaoue e i oii, /oi eiaiii
Aecaioey aeaea /aeiaa/anoao o?enoeainoai eae aunoee ?aeeaeiciue caeii e
nenoaio ie?iaicc?aiey. Oaeei ia?acii, aua?aaI?aaineaaea, Ae?aaiyy ?onue
/a?iaea i?aanoaaiii-?aeeaeiciua i?eioeeiu ec ia?aienoi/ieea .

Aecaioeeneia ianeaaeea icia/aei aeey ?innee niinia i?eiauaiey e
eoeueoo?a yeeeiecia, a /a?ac iaa – e enoieai eoeueoo?u eaoeineiai
Caiaaea, Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea e Ae?aaiaai Aaeioa. Eiioaeou n Aecaioeae
i?iaeieaeaeenue e a aieaa iicaeiaa a?aiy. Ia i?ioyaeaiee aaeia eoeueoo?a
e ia?aciaaiea a ?innee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a no?ieeenue ii aecaioeeneiio
ia?acoeo, /oi i?iyaeeinue a nicaeaiee a eiioea XVII aaea i?e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiii o/anoee a?aei-aecaioeeneeo i?inaaoeoaeae, a?aoueaa
Eeooaeia, Neaayii-a?aei-eaoeineie aeaaeaiee. I?aaineaaiua eieae aieoaee
a naay eneonnoai a?a/aneie ?eoi?eee, ieioy eaoeineia iin?aaeie/anoai.

E?auaiea ?one i?ienoiaeeei ii aecaioeeneiio ia?acoeo. Niaeanii eaoiiene,
aeai? eeaaneiai eiycy Aeaaeeie?a, e?anoeaoaai ?onue, iinauaee iiiaea
?aeeaeiciua iinieuenoaa e i?aaeeaaaee aio i?eiyoue eo aa?o: “iaioeu”
(eaoieeee) io iaiu, aieaa?u (ionoeueiaia), oica?neea aa?ae e ae?.
Aeaaeeie?, ii niaaoo naiae ae?oaeeiu, iineae naieo iineia a ?aciua
no?aiu. Aa?ioaoenue, iie n iniaui ainoi?aii ?anneacuaaee i aeaeaiiii eie
i?aaineaaiii aiaineoaeaiee a eiinoaioeiiiieueneii o?aia Na. Nioee.
I?aaeii/oaiea, ioaeaiiia aecaioeeneiio i?aaineaaeth, iauyniyeinue ia
oieueei e?anioie aiaineoaeaiey, ii e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneeie
i?e/eiaie.

Oa?aeoa? enoi?e/aneiai auai?a, naeaeaiiiai a 988 aiaeo eiycai
Aeaaeeie?ii, ia aue neo/aeiui. Ianoiiieiaeaiea ?one iaaeaeo Ainoieii e
Caiaaeii, ia?ae?anoiia aeeyiea ia iaa ?acee/iuo oeeaeeecaoeee ieacaei
ieiaeioai?iia aicaeaenoaea ia aeooiaioth aeeciue e eoeueoo?o ?onneiai
ia?iaea. Iiiaiia?aciua oi?aiaua e iieeoe/aneea ioiioaiey naycuaaee
Ae?aaithth ?onue n Caiaaeiie e Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiie, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
Aecaioeae e Aceaoneei Ainoieii — n ae?oaie. Oaea a O aaea Ae?aaiyy ?onue
ieacaeanue a oeaio?a o?aiceoiuo oi?aiauo iooae, niaaeeiyaoeo aa
caiaaeiuo, ainoi/iuo e thaeiuo ninaaeae — ec Naaa?iie Aa?iiu a
Aecaioeth. A IX—O aaeao aue ecaanoai e Aieaeneee iooue, ii eioi?iio
ainoi/iua oiaa?u e iiiaou iinooiaee /a?ac ?onneea caiee a Caiaaeioth
Aa?iio, a oaeaea aei?iaa ii Aeiio, Ieaeiae Aieaa e Eanieth aei
Aaaaeaaea, eioi?ie iieueciaaeinue ianaeaiea thaeiuo iaeanoae
ainoi/iineaayineiai ie?a. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia aaia?aoe/aneoth aeecinoue
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu, iniiaiie iaiai eaeayie e ethaeueie aeey
ainoi/iineaayineeo ieaiai oae a naaa?iii e thaeiii iai?aaeaieyo, neaaeoy
oa/aieyi ?ae Ainoi/ii-Aa?iiaeneie ?aaieiu. Ii yoiio iooe n thaa, ec
Aecaioee, o?enoeainoai noaei i?iieeaoue ia ?onue caaeieai aei aai
ioeoeeaeueiiai ooaa?aeaeaiey, /oi ai iiiaii i?aaeii?aaeaeeei auai? eiycy
Aeaaeeie?a.

6.I?iaeanee ycu/anoaa a O?enoeaineie ?one

Yoi oieueei eaaeaony, /oi iiaeii aei aaeiai eenoa noa?aoue iaiyoue
ia?iaeioth. Ia?ac ycu/anoaa, eacaeinue oia?oaai iiiai noieaoee iacaae,
ainnicaeaaaeny ii “ia?uaeai oci?a” Eae ie no?aiii, y?inoii ai?ynue n
i?aaeieie aa?iaaieyie, e naii o?enoeainoai nio?aiyei a naieo ia?yaeao
ioaeane ycu/aneie noa?eiu.

Ia ianoa oie/oiaeaiiuo eaieu ia?aaeei aicaeaeaaeenue oea?eae, eioi?ua a
niciaiee ethaeae ia ?aaeei ioiaeaeanoaeyeenue n ecae?aaia i?eau/iuie
aiaeanoaaie. Nayuaiiua, ii/eoaaoeany ycu/ieeaie ai?u, eana, iacuaaeenue
eiaiaie o?enoeaineeo nayouo, naeeaeay aeey i?inoiai /aeiaaea ia?acu
aiiaue ia?ao?iiua n i?eau/iuie. A e iiiaea o?enoeaineea i?acaeieee,
i/aaeaeii ia neo/aeii niaiaaeatho n ycu/aneeie. Oae, ?iaeaeanoai
anoanoaaiii aeey iiiaeo neeeinue n /anoaiaaieai ycu/aneiai aiaeanoaa
oi?aeanoa e ie?a Eieyaeu. E ieeiaaea iui/a ia oaeeaeyao, /oi a
?iaeaeanoaaineoth ii/ue ii aeiiai oiaeyo ?yaeaiua aeaoe e iieiae?aeue e
eieyaeotho – aeaeatho oicyaaai n/anouey e aeia?a, iieo/atho ainoeioeu. E
naiue naaoeue i?acaeiee ianoe aia?ae a naay ycu/aneoth ?aeiieoeo –
aeaiue iaiyoe ii oia?oei, eiaaea ooaaeoeo ?iaeiuo e aeeceeo iiieiatho
aaeie, /oi ia i?eiyoi a o?enoeainoaa. A ianeaieoea, eiaaea iu. Eae e
iaoe i?aaeee, aaeei cieioenoua aea?eea aeeiu, ieeoeaoai?ythuea nieioea?!
Iiiaea o?enoeaineea ia?yaeu ai?yioth noiaeyony ni noa?iaeaaieie. Iaoe
i?aaeee-ycu/ieee ie?iieyee iiai?iaeaeaiiiai aiaeie. Aeey iiiaeo ec ieo
yoio ia?yae anoanoaaiii i?aoai?eeny a e?auaiea. Nio?aieeenue ia aeieai e
i?enyae-eeyoau, aiaeuee noaeu, aeaaineiaaiey, ecaeaaia ciaeiiua ethaeyi
ae?aaiinoe. N?ineenue n aeeciueth ia?iaea, inoaeenue a iianaaeiaaiii
iaeoiaea e iiiaea neiaa aeio?enoeaineeo a?ai?i, ninouanoaothuea n aiiaue
i?eoaaeoeie a?a/aneeie e eaoeineeie. Nio?aieeny e iau/ae ano?a/aoue
ainoae eee iaaanoo n aeaieoii oeaaii e nieueth.

sscu/aneea aiae aii?aee iaeeaeaieyi, an?-oaee ia oia?ee n i?eoiaeii
o?enoeainoaa, ia niio?y ia ana aiiaiey Aeaaeeie?a. Iie ni?yoaeenue a au?
iaeiie iaioaieaiie /anoe ?onneie eoeueoo?u, a neaceao.

7. Neacee

A neaaiii ai?iaea ai Io?iia,

Ai naea auei Ea?a/a?iaa,

Neaeiai neaeae Eeuey Io?iiaoe, e?anoueyineee nui,

Neaeiai neaeae oeaeuo o?eaeoeaoue eao.

Oae ia/eiaaony aueeia i ia?iaeiii aa?ia caiee ?onneie, naa?oeaoai iaiaei
aiaaou?neeo iiaeaeaia. E oioy niaeanoii eaoiienyi Eeuey Io?iiaoe eeoei
enoi?e/aneia – aeee a eiioea 12 a. O?aa?ue e neeueiue /aeiaae n oaeei
eiaiai, – ianie e neacaiey ia?iaea i?eienuaatho aio ieoieiae/aneea /a?ou
, i?enouea aiao-a?iiiaa?aeoeo Ia?oio.

…I?eoee e aeiio Eeuee eaeeee ia?aoiaeea, iii?ineee ioe?uoue aeaa?ue e
iiaeaoue ieeinouith. Iiaeaeiaaeny ei Eeuey, /oi ia iiaeao yoiai
naeaeaoue, eai ia aeaaeaao oae o?eaeoeaoue eao ie ?oeaie, ie iiaaie. Ii
eaeeee ia?aoiaeea ianoaeaaee ia nai?i. E oiaaea Eeuey anoae ?acau iiae e
aionoee ainoae. Oa iaeeee /a?i/eo ieoueaoea iaaeayiiai e iiaeianee nuio
e?anoeineiio . Auiee Eeuey e aae?oa ii/oanoaiaae a naaa neeo aaeeeoth.
“Eaau aue, – iieaee ii, – n caiee aei iaaa, oi ia?aaa?ioe au y caieth!”.

A ieoieiaee oaeie neaeaeaoe annioeee?oaony n ieiaaiiui ceiiae nooaeae
Ia?oiii. *a?ea aeeaiai ieouey – iaoaoi?a aeiaeaey aanaiiaai,
?aciuaathuaai eaaeiaua ieiau, aea?yuaai aa?ith neeu aeecie. E eii?e o
Eeuee ia iau/iue – ao?ue, einiaoaiueeee, anei?ieaiiue ioaiii “aaeiy?ui”.
E eoe ooaie, ?ac?ua/aoue, e no?aeu eae?iiua, e eiiue?, neiaii iieieae
?acauaa. Yoei eiiue?i iieieie aa?ie “neeooeo” aaeeeoth a?aaia, cae?uaoeo
aio iooue e neaaiiio *a?ieaia a?aaeo. Oaeaeinue Eeuea iaeieaoue nieiauey
?acaieieea. Noea ii aai eae?iiie no?aeie, a ca oai i?ea?c a noieueiue
Eeaa e eiycth Aeaaeeie?o “E?anii Nieiuoei”. A yoeo ?aoiuo iiaeaeaao,
iaiineeueiuo aeey i?inoiai /aeiaaea, a iiaaaea iaae anyeie ia/anoueth,
eae au iiae/??eeaaaony ?iaenoai aa?iy Ia?oiii. Eeuey iinoiyiii n?aaeaeny
n /??iuie ceuie neeaie, iioiio e neaao aio “aae io aaeo”.

Naiay ia?aay “no?aoeeea”, n eioi?ie ano?a/athony a aeecie iaeaiueeee
/aeiaae, – Aaaa-yaa. E eae ooo ia caaiyony. A neaceao yoi oiuay, iinaoay
noa?ooa – aieoaaieoea n ?ano?aiaiiuie aieinaie, ai?yueie ceiaie aeacaie.
AEea?o aaaa-yaa a e?aneaie ecaooea ia eo?ueeo iiaeeao, eioi?ay noieo ia
eaniie iiooea. Caai? aie?oa ecau naeaeai ec /aeiaa/aneeo einoae, ia
caai?a aenyo /a?aia. A ianoi caiea ianoue n ino?uie coaaie. A neaceao
ano?a/a n aaaie-yaie caaeneo io a? iano?iaiey, anee oi?ioaa oi aei?iao
iiaeneaaeao e caieo Eiuay eee e ciath – Ai?uiu/o, a anee a ieioii oi
iiiuoaaony nuanoue. Ai?i/ai ethaay ano?a/a n aaaie-yaie iiania e
iai?aaeneacoaia. Aaaeue iia ii/eoaaony iin?aaeieoeae iaaeaeo aeeauie e
i??oauie. A ecaooea a? a?aoa a i??oaia oea?noai. Iioiio oae o?oaeai
auaaao iooue i?aaeneacaiiue aaaie-yaie. Ia anyeiio aeaii aa?ioony
ia?aoii oeaeui e iaa?aaeeiui ec i?aeniiaeiae. Au? yao iacuaatho
“einoyiie iiaie”. Auoue iiaeao yoio a? iaaeoa i?e/eia oiio, /oi
ia?aaeaeaaaony iia ia ia naieo aeaieo, a a naiieaoiie aeaeaciie nooia,
iiaeiaiie oie, a eioi?ie naaiaeiy ia eooia oieeoo nooa?e, oieueei
iiaieueoa. A /oi au eaoaea a? “eieanieoea” iiauno?aa, ssaa iiaeaiiyao
a?, iinooeeaay iiiaeii eeai aeaeaciie iaeeoeae. Aea au? e iiaeiaoaao ca
niaie i?eaeaeaiiui e nooia iiiaeii. Iaeioi?ua neacee iaiaeatho ia oi.
*oi ioae a? nai Eiuae Aannia?oiue. Caoi oi/ii ecaanoii, /oi o?e aei/a?e
a? – ssaeoiu – ai an?i ae iiiiuieoeu. Oae aea eae e iaoue, n?iaeieeenue
iie n i?e?iaeiuie neeaie – aao?ii, ao?ueth, iaoaeueth. Eiia/ii, ethaiai
iaeuoa oaeay neaci/iay aa?ieiy niiniaia i?eaanoe a oaean. Ii aeaei a
oii, /oi a aeaaiea a?aiaia e nianai ac?ineua ethaee i?e oiiieiaiee
aaau-yae eniuouaaee no?ao. AEaeaee io noa?ie eieaeoiuee anyeeo eaaa?c e
iai?eyoiinoae. A eiaaea o?aaaiiue aaoa? iiaeieiae iueue noieaii iaae
aei?iaie eee iieai, aiai?eee, /oi yoi ssaa iao?o naiei iiiaeii.

Iaiaei oeiiio e caaio i?eiineo neaci/iui aa?iyi eo aa/iue iaae?oa Eiuae
Aannia?oiue. Noieo eeoue aethaeony oea?aaio-e?anaaeoeo, caaeoiaoueny i
aeaieoueaa, eae ceiaiue e eiaa?iue Eauae e?aae?o a? i?yii ec iiae aaioea
e oiineo ca o?eaeaayoue caiaeue. E i?eoiaeeony thiioa niaa?oaoue
iiaeaeae, /oi au inaiaiaeeoue, naaa ethaeiith. Noa?ineaayineee “Eiuue”
(eiooue) ia?aaiaeeony, eae “nooie, ooaeie, oiuee”. Eiy neaci/iiai
aioeaa?iy, nei?aa anaai, aini?eieiaeinue, eae ieoieiae/aneee ia?ac
ieinoaiaaoae, cai??coae io ethoiai ii?ica i?e?iaeu. Aeaiii ceiu a
ia?iaeiuo neacaieyo /anoi i?aaenoaaeyaony a ia?aca noa?iai, einoeyaiai,
aacia?aciiai eieaeoia. Aio noa?inoue, aea e ioa?aoeoaeueiay aiaoiinoue
ia a ?aaeinoue, aio e oyiaony ii e iieiaeinoe e e?anioa, ia/oay
iicaeinoaiaaoue o ia? nieia e nee, /oiau e aeaeueoa oai?eoue naie
iai?aaaaeiua aeaea. Iooiai oae /anoi aai aea?oaaie noaiiayony aeaaeoeu
e?anaaeoeu.

E?ana, e?anioa – iaiouaieaiia ea/anoai neaayineie aiaeie ethaae e aaniu
Eaaeu. Aio a?-oi e noa?aaony Eiuae ieaieoue, ecaanoe, caii?iceoue iieiia
ethaae e oaiea a? na?aeoea, iie?uoue eiaai a? cieioenoua aieinu. Iaeiei
neiaii i?enaieoue naaa, caoi/eoue a nai?i oa?aia. A aa?ie-oea?aae/,
ioi?aaeythueeny ia aie n /oaeiaeuai, iiaeiaai aiao-a?iiiaa?aeoeo. A
o?oaeiii iooe iiiiaatho thiioa ana neeu i?e?iaeu. Aai iiaaaea yoi
iiaaaea iaae nia?oueth, iaae aa/iui i?aeii e oieiaeii. Oae /oi neacea
eiaeue, aea a iae iai?e…

8. O?enoeaineay iaioaeueiay ?aaiethoeey a eoeueoo?a Eeaaneie ?one a XI
aaea

E?auaiea ?one eiycai Aeaaeeie?ii iieiaeeei ia/aei oi?ie?iaaieth
niaoeeoe/aneie oeaiiinoii-oaiaoe/aneie nenoaiu, eioi?oth aoaeai
iacuaaoue o?enoeaineie noaeoeueoo?ie. Iiyaeaiea o?enoeaineie
noai?ino?ainoaaiiie eiioeao?aoeee a iaae?ao naiiaeiaeathuaai ycu/aneiai
oeaiiinoii-iuneeoaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa e auno?ia a? ?anoe?aiea a ia?aie
iieiaeia XI a. (?ino o?enoeaineeo iauei, eiee/anoaa iiiaoia e
iiianou?ae, oea?eiaiia no?ieoaeuenoai e o.ae.) auei iiaeiaii aniuoea
naa?oiiaie caacaeu ia oaiiii ycu/aneii iaaineeiia, eioi?ay aci?aaea
onoiyaoeany no?oeoo?u iaoo?aeenoe/anee-ieoieiae/aneiai aeooa. Nooue
yoiai aeoaieiai aeooiaiiai ia?aai?ioa caeeth/aaony a ?ac?ooaiee
neie?aoe/aneiai iaoo?aeenoe/anee-ieoieiae/aneiai aaeeinoaa ycu/aneiai
i?ino?ainoaa ae?aaia?onneie eoeueoo?u, a ioe?uoee ainoeoeaoae
i?icaeeoia, /enoi aeooiaiie aiaeanoaaiiie ?aaeueiinoe (O?ieoea, Oea?noai
iaaaniia e o.ae.) e oai?aiee oeaiiinoii-iuneeoaeueiiai i?ino?ainoaa ia
ae?oaie ooiaeaiaioaeueiie iioieiae/aneie iniiaa: niciaiee
ianiaianoeiinoe e i?ioeainoiyiee, i?aaeaea anaai, aeaoo ?aaeueiinoae,
aunoae, aeooiaiie, aiaeanoaaiiie e iecoae, iaoa?eaeueiie, oaa?iie,
iineieueeo naiaia?acea noauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoe a XI XII aa. au? a
iieiie ia?a ia iniciaaaeinue. Aa?iyoii, o/aiea i /enoi aeooiaiii
aiaeanoaaiiii ie?a i?iecaiaeeei iaeii ec naiuo neeueiuo aia/aoeaiee ia
ycu/ieeia. Auneooaa i?iiiaaaee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?acee/iuo ?aeeaee, eiycue
Aeaaeeie? a /anoiinoe caiaoee aiy?ai: “Ioae?i aiai?yo iie, e /oaeii
neooaoue eo, e eaaeaeiio ethai eo iineooaoue, ?anneacuaatho iie e i
ae?oaii naaoa…”.

?acaeaeaiea oieaa?noia ia aeaa ie?a, /oanoaaiiue e naa?o/oanoaaiiue,
noaei iaeaieaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiie e anaiauae oa?aeoa?enoeeie
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai ie?iaini?eyoey a yiioo Eeaaneie ?one. Ieo?iiieeo
Eeaaneee Ieeeoi? a “Iineaiee” e Aeaaeeie?o Iiiiiaoo ieoao: “Io oiai
aeaienoaaiii auoea iaoa: ?acoiiia e ia?acoiiia /”neiaaniia e
aanneiaaniia”/, e aeooiaiia /”aanieioiia”/, e oaeaniia. Aaaeue ?acoiiia
e aeooiaiia yoi ia/oi aiaeanoaaiiia e /oaeiia, iiaeiaiia aanieioiiio
anoanoao, a ia?acoiiia iiaeiaii no?anoiiio e neanoiethaeaiio. E iiyoiio
ai?ueau a ian iiiai, e i?ioeaeony ieioue aeooo, a aeoo ieioe”. Ai anao
oaenoao aac eneeth/aiey yoiai ia?eiaea o?ainoeaiaeaioiue, aiaeanoaaiiue
ie? aunooiaao n?aaenoaii iauyniaiey i?ienoiaeyueo i?e?iaeiuo e
nioeeaeueiuo niauoee, caeiiiia?aciie iinueeie (“yenieaiainii”) a
no?oeoo?a iauyniaiey. “?aciuoeye, ieeue, ?aciuoeyoue iaaeeaaeeo e
ciaoue, ieoao a naiai “Iineaiee” Eeeiaio Niieyoe/, eae ana nouanoaoao, e
oi?aaeyaony, e niaa?oainoaoaony neeie aiaeueae: ieeaeie iao neeu, e?iia
neeu aiaeueae, ieeaeie iao iiiiue, e?iia iiiiue aiaeueae, eai ana, eae
neacaii, /oi iiaeaeae ii, ana nicaeae ia iaaanao, e ia caiea, e a ii?a,
ai anao aacaeiao e i?i/aa”. Aeaaeeie? Iiiiiao a naiai “Iio/aiee”
caia/aao: “Ainiiaeue iao ia /aeiaae, ii aia anae anaeaiiie, /oi caoi/ao,
ai iaiiaaiea iea ana nioai?eo…”. *oanoaaiiue ie? oa?yao anyeoth
naiinoiyoaeueiinoue. Oae, ana iiaaaeu e ii?aaeaiey a aeoaao iauyniythony
oieueei aiaeanoaaiiie i?e/eiie. “A oii aea aiaeo, /eoaai a Eiaoueaaneie
eaoiiene, iiaoaeee aia Nayoineaaa, eiycy Eeaaneiai e aaeeeiai eiycy
?th?eea ?inoeneaae/a iieoe aieiie ia iieiaoeaa.… A iieiaoeu, oaeaeaa
io?yae Aeaaeeie?a, niaei eaeouee ei iaano?a/o, iiaaaeaee, aiieiua aiaaii
aiaeueei e nayoie aiai?iaeeoeu.… A aaeeeee eiycue Nayoineaa
Anaaieiaeiae/ e ?th?ee ?inoeneaaiae/, iieo/ea io aiaa iiaaaeo iaae
iiaaiuie, aica?aoeeenue ii aeiiai ni neaaie e /anoueth aaeeeie”.
Iauyniyy iaoanoaea iieiaoeaa, eaoiienaoe iio/aao: “Yoi aia iaionoee.

A 988 a. ycu/aneiio eaeieiiieeiinoao i?eoae eiiaoe. Ei a?aiaie i?eiyoey
O?enoeainoaa ?onue anooieea a iieino naiaai ?anoeaaoa, au?in aa
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaoi?eoao, neiaeeeanue naiiauoiay eoeueoo?a. Aunieiai
o?iaiy aeinoeaee ?aianea, oaoieea aea?aayiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa;
neeaaeuaaeny yiin. Neioac neaayineie aeio?enoeaineie eoeueoo?u n oai
eoeueoo?iui ieanoii, eioi?ue iinooiee ia ?onue n i?eiyoeai O?enoeainoaa
ec Aecaioee, a oaeaea Aieaa?ee (oaea a oa/aiea noieaoey e yoiio a?aiaie
yaeyaoaeny o?enoeaineei ainoaea?noaii), i?eiauee no?aio e aecaioeeneie e
neaayineie o?enoeaineie eoeueoo?ai, a /a?ac ieo – e eoeueoo?ai aioe/iie
e aeeaeiaainoi/iie, nicaeae oaiiiai ?onneie n?aaeiaaaeiaie eoeueoo?u.
Aecaioeeneia aeeyiea ia ae?aaia?onneoth eoeueoo?o i/aaeaeii e a
aeieacaoaeuenoaao ia ioaeaeaaony. Ianiiiaiii e aai aieueoia
iieiaeeoaeueiia cia/aiea aeey ?one. Iii ia auei ie anaiauaiethuei, ie
iinoiyiiui. Iaeaieaa eioaineaiuie eoeueoo?iua nayce ?one n Aecaioeae
auee a ia?eiae n eiioea O a. aei na?aaeeiu OII a. Cia/eoaeueiui auei
aicaeaenoaea aecaioeeneie eoeueoo?u ia aunoea neie iauanoaa, ai?acaei
iaiueoa aai eniuouaaee oe?ieea neie ianaeaiey. Iniaaiii neeueii yoi
aicaeaenoaea i?iyaeyeinue a iaeanoe oea?eiaiie eaeaieiaee, eaiiie/aneiai
i?aaa, eoeueoiaiai ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa.

Eiie oa?aeoa? eiaee eoeueoo?iua eiioaeou Eeaaneie ?one ni no?aiaie
Oeaio?aeueiie e Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu. A aeiiiiaieueneee ia?eiae ?onue ia
onooiaea a naiai eoeueoo?iii ?acaeoee aieueoeinoao no?ai Aa?iiu, i?e/ai
eoeueoo?iia acaeiiaeaenoaea aa ni no?aiaie Aa?iiu auei iaithaeiui e
?aaiii?aaiui. Aaaeiaeoaa ianoi a eoeueoo?a Eeaaneie ?one caieiaea
eeoa?aoo?a. Nicaeaiea neaayineie acaoee naycuaaaony n eiaiaie
aecaioeeneeo ienneiia?ia Eiinoaioeia (Ee?eeea) (827-869) e aai a?aoa
Iaoiaeey (815-885) Yoi niauoea naycaii n i?eiyoeai o?enoeainoaa, ii
aeio?enoeaineay eoeueoo?a oaea eiaea ca/aoee nenoai ienueia.

Auaiae

A oeaeii thiay Eeaaneay ?onue, aini?eiya aecaioeeneea, aieaa?neea e
ae?oaea i?aaineaaiua o?aaeeoeee, noiaea nicaeaoue eneonnoai n aunieeie
e?eoa?eyie oai?/anoaa, /oaeaeia aiaoiei yooaeoai, aeoaieia ii aeooiaiie
o?enoeaineie nooe. Oai naiui aue caeiaeai i?i/iue ooiaeaiaio aeey
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u.
Aeaeueiaeoaa aeeyiea ia naith eoeueoo?o iieo/eea ?onue n i?eoiaeii
oaoa?i-iiiaieueneiai eaa, eiaaea iia noaea iiiieiyony ainoi/iie
eoeueoo?ie.

Aeaeeia?aoey

1. “ss iiciath ie?. Ieoieiaey” aaoi?u-ninoaaeoaee I.A.Iiaeea, E.E.
Neeueyiiaa

2. “an? iai an?i. Eneonnoai” Aae?eai Neiaoii

3. “O??o aeaaue i??e” Aeaaeeie? Naa?aeei

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