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Культура и искусство Кушанского царства

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Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii eoeueoo?ieiaee ia oaio:

Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai Eooaineiai oea?noaa

Ieai

1. Yiioa i?aaeaiey Eooaineie aeeianoee

2. Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai Eooaineie eiia?ee

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Yiioa i?aaeaiey Eooaineie aeeianoee

Iauea naaaeaiey

Eooaineia oea?noai — ae?aaiaa ainoaea?noai ia oa??eoi?ee nia?aiaiiie
N?aaeiae Acee, Aoaaienoaia, Iaeenoaia, Naaa?iie Eiaeee, ia?eiae
?anoeaaoa i?eoiaeeony ia 105—250 aiaeu i. y. Ii iaeiie ec oai?ee,
Eooaineia oea?noai auei iniiaaii ia?iaeii thy/aee, i?eoaaeoai n
oa??eoi?ee, ia eioi?ie nae/an iaoiaeeony eeoaeneee aaoiiiiiue ?aeii
Neiueoecyi. Ainoaea?noai eiaei aeeieiiaoe/aneea nayce n ?eiii, Ia?neae e
Eeoaai.

Yoie/anee ?acii?iaeiia ianaeaiea Eooaineiai oea?noaa iauaeinue ia ?aciuo
ainoi/ii-e?aineeo ycueao oaeeo eae nai eooaineee ycue, aaeo?eeneee ycue
e ae?oaea ycuee. A Eooaineii oea?noaa ?acaeaaeny o. i. a?aei-aoaeaeeci.
Eooaineay oeeaeeecaoeey inoaaeea caiaoiue neaae a enoi?ee ie?iaie
eoeueoo?u, niaaeeiea aeinoeaeaiey iiiaeo ia?iaeia.

Nai oaeo iaee/ey ia?iiiie Eooaineie eiia?ee aue iniciai enoi?eeaie a
na?aaeeia XIX aaea. Naaaeaiey, nio?aieaoeany i Eooaineie eiia?ee —
yieciaee/aneea, ?acii?iaeiua e i?ioeai?a/eaua. O?iiieiaey e enoi?ey
ainnoaiiaeaiu i?aeiouanoaaiii ii nio?aieaoeiny iiiaoai, eeoaeneei
eaoiienyi (a /anoiinoe «Oio Oaiue Oo» — Enoi?ey Iicaeiae aeeianoee
Oaiue) e ioaeaeueiui eiaeeeneei e a?a/aneei naeaeaoaeuenoaai. Ii iiaiaeo
ei?i oea?ae e o?iiieiaee i?iaeieaeathony nii?u.

Ec enoi?ee i eooaineii oea?noaa.

Enoi?ey eooaiia aanueia neoaeii inaauaia a enoi/ieeao. Eooaineia
oea?noai aicieeei a ?acoeueoaoa iauaaeeiaiey (aeaeeii, ioo?i caaiaaaiey)
neiaeeaoeony ia oa??eoi?ee Aaeo?ee e Niaaeeaiu oioa?neeo e naeneeo
eiyaeanoa iiae aeanoueth iaeiiai ec eiycae, i?eiaaeeaaeaaoaai e ieaiaie
(eee ?iaeo) eooaiia. Ia?aiia/aeueiia ianoiiieiaeaiea eiyaeanoaa eooaiia
oi/ii ia ecaanoii. *oi eanaaony ia?aciaaiey Eooaineiai oea?noaa, oi
nayciue ?anneac ia yoii niauoee aea?o «Enoi?ey Ieaaeoae aeeianoee
Oaiue». Eeoaeneea ecaanoey iiaeoaa?aeaeathony e ?acuyniythony aeaiiuie
iiiao. Iaaeiene ia iiiaoao ia?auo eooaineeo oea?ae naeaeaiu a?a/aneeie
ienueiaiaie, iineieueeo eooaiu n/eoaee naay i?aaiieeaie
a?aei-aaeo?eeneeo oea?ae e io/anoe iiae?aaeaee ei a /aeaiea iiiao. Ii
iiiaoai e eeoaeneei enoi/ieeai ecaanoii eiy iniiaaoaey Eooaineiai
ainoaea?noaa — Eoaecoeu Eaaeoena, eia/a Eaaeoena I (Eeioectheth — a
eeoaeneeo enoi/ieeao). Ii iiae/eiee naiae aeanoe aeieeio Eaaoea, Ioaeo
(eeoaeneia iacaaiea Ia?aiaienaae) e thao io Aeiaeoeooa e, aiciiaeii,
oaeaea Oi?aci. Iineaaeiee, iaeiaei, e a ninoaaa eooaineiai iauaaeeiaiey
nio?aiee ecaanoioth naiinoiyoaeueiinoue: a i?i i?iaeieaeaee i?aaeoue
iniaua oea?e, noaey ii eo iiiaoai, aeeianoe/anee naycaiiua n eooaiaie.
Aiiaua Eooaineia oea?noai ia auei oeaio?aeeciaaiiui: a ?yaea iiei??iiuo
iaeanoae oiaea nio?aiyeenue ianoiua oea?e, caaeneiua io aa?oiaiiai
aeaaeuee.

I?aaiieeii Eaaeoena I aue Eaaeoen II, i?aaeaoee a na?aaeeia I a. i. y.
Eaaeoen II caai?auaaao Eiaeeth aei Aaia?ana. Iineaaeiea a?aei-eiaeeeneea
oea?e, iioiiee Yaoeaeaia e Yae?aoeaea, eeai oa?ytho naie oea?noaa, eeai
i?eciatho naay iiaeaeaiiuie Eaaeoena. Eiaei-ia?oyineea eiycuey
nio?aiytho aei eiioea I a. eeoue inoaoee naieo aeaaeaiee ia Ieaeiai
Eiaea. E eiioeo i?aaeaiey Eaaeoena II Eooaineia oea?noai ioaaouaaei
ia?iiioth oa??eoi?eth — io A?aeueneiai ii?y aei Aaiaa.

A ia?eiae neeaaeuaaiey Eooaineiai oea?noaa oeaio? aai i?iaeieaeae
inoaaaoueny ia oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae Acee, a Niaaeeaia (a Eooaiee ia
Ca?aooaia). Iaeiaei i?e o?aoueai eooaineii oea?a — Eaieoea —
iieeoe/aneee oeaio? ainoaea?noaa ia?aianoeeny a Eiaeeth.

Eaieoea ?anoe?ee aeaaeaiey eooaiia a Eiaeee e oniaoii aiaaae n Ia?oeae;
iaeaieaa aaaeiui ec aiaoieo niauoee aai oea?noaiaaiey auea iiiaieaoiyy
ai?ueaa n Eeoaai. A oiaea yoie ai?ueau eooaineia aienei aoi?aeinue a
Ainoi/iue Oo?eanoai. Iaeiaei iii iioa?iaei ii?aaeaiea io eeoaeneiai
iaianoieea Caiaaeiiai e?ay Aaiue *ai, eioi?ue iiae/eiee Eeoath Oa?aaio e
Oi?aci e aeaaea canoaaee Eaieoeo i?eciaoue (aa?iyoii, oieueei
iiieiaeueii) aa?oiaioth aeanoue eeoaeneiai eiia?aoi?a.

Iaeiaei anei?a iinea nia?oe Aaiue *ai Eeoae noae oa?youe iaeii ca
ae?oaei naie aeaaeaiey ia caiaaea. Oi?aci niiaa iiae/eiyaony Eaieoea (ai
II a. caeanue aac?acaeaeueii ainiiaenoaotho iiiaou eooaeneie /aeaiee).
Ia?aoiaeeo iiae aeanoue eooaiia e Oa?aaia. Yienna?u Eaieoee
aicaoaeaeatho i?ioea Eeoay i?aaeoaeae ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa Ainoi/iiai
Oo?eanoaia, e a 105 a. caeanue ia/eiaaony aii?oae?iiay ai?ueaa i?ioea
Eeoay. Eeoaeneee iaianoiee Caiaaeiiai e?ay aue inaaeae?i ainnoaaoeie a
naiae ?aceaeaioeee. E eiioeo i?aaeaiey Eaieoee aaaeiaeoea
ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia — Eaoaa?, ss?eaiae e Oioai —
aioee a ninoaa Eooaineie aea?aeaau. Oieueei ia e?aeiai ainoiea
Ainoi/iiai Oo?eanoaia, eioi?ue aue aeeaea e Eeoath, /ai e ainoaea?noao
eooaiia, inoaeny iaaieueoie eeoaeneee aa?iecii a 300 /aeiaae. Aea?aeaaa
eooaiia aeinoeaea iaeaieueoaai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai ?anoe?aiey.

I nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii no?ia Eooaineiai oea?noaa ecaanoii iaei.
Aea?aeaaa eooaiia auea iaeiie ec aaeeeeo eiia?ee yoiai ia?eiaea. Iia
ioaaouaaea aieueoia eiee/anoai no?ai n ?acee/iui iauanoaaiiui
ono?ienoaii: a ia? aoiaeeee e aiaaoua oi?aiaua ai?iaea n ?acaeouie
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneeie ioiioaieyie, e ieiaei?iaeiua caieaaeaeue/aneea
iaeanoe, naiaiaeiua iaueiieee eioi?uo nio?aiyee a nai?i auoo
iiiai/eneaiiua ia?aaeeoee ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy, e noaie,
ianae?iiua ei/aaieeaie. Ia?aciaaiea Eooaineie aea?aeaau niinianoaiaaei
?acaeoeth ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai no?iy ia anae a? oa??eoi?ee. Naie eooaiu,
auaoea ca noieaoea n iaaieueoei aei Eaaeoena I n?aaieoaeueii
iaiiiai/eneaiiui ei/aaui ieaiaiai e aeieai nio?aiyaoea iiiaea
iniaaiiinoe naiaai auoa e iinea iinaeaiey a Aaeo?ee, noaa oaia?ue ai
aeaaa ia?iiiie aea?aeaau, i?aoa?iaee, iiaeaeeiiio, cia/eoaeueiua
eciaiaiey a nai?i iauanoaaiiii no?ia.

?acoeueoaoii Eooaineiai caaiaaaiey auei iauaaeeiaiea ii/oe anae N?aaeiae
Acee a nenoaia aaeeiie eiia?ee, iniiaaiiie iaeiei ec n?aaeiaaceaoneeo
ia?iaeia. Eooaineay aea?aeaaa aeaeaei ooea io oao i?eieoeaiuo eiyaeanoa,
eioi?ua aicieeee a Aaeo?ee iinea caaiaaaiey a? thy/aee. I?e eooaiao
?anoe?yaony e??eaaoeeiiiay naoue: e a Oi?acia, e a Niaaeeaia, e a
Aaeo?ee, e a Oa?aaia neaaeu iaeaieaa e?oiiuo eaiaeia ioiinyony eiaiii e
eooaineiio a?aiaie. Iinoiyiiua aieiu aeaaaee, aa?iyoii, aieueoia
eiee/anoai ?aaia. No?iyony iiaua ai?iaea, iniaaiii ia oa??eoi?ee Eiaeee.
Iaeei ec yoeo ai?iaeia, Eaienii?, aei neo ii? iineo eiy Eaieoee. ?ano?o
oi?aiaey, ?acaeaaaony aeaiaaeiia oicyenoai. Anee aeey ia?eiaea
nouanoaiaaiey A?aei-Aaeo?eeneiai oea?noaa auea iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ia
na?aa?yiay oao?aae?aoia, naycaiiay n e?oiiuie iai?ioaie aiaoiae
oi?aiaee, oi oaia?ue a? caiaiytho aieaa iaeeea a?iiciaua iiieiaeu,
oeacuaathuea ia cia/eoaeueiia i?iieeiiaaiea aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee a noa?o
?icie/iiai iai?ioa. An? yoi aeieaeii auei niinianoaiaaoue ?acaeoeth
?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneeo ioiioaiee, eioi?ia, iaeiaei, ia oa??eoi?ee
Eooaineiai oea?noaa ia nii?iaiaeaeaeinue nenoaiaoe/aneie iaoia?ecaoeeae
iaeeeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae; caeanue i?iaeieaeaee nouanoaiaaoue ia?iiiua
iannu ia niaiaiiiai n caiee e?anoueyinoaa, iaueiiay i?aaiecaoeey e o.
ae. Iiaeaeeiiio, yoi a aeaeueiaeoai iaeaa/eei oi?ie?iaaiea yeaiaioia
oaiaeaeecia ia oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae Acee.

Iauaaeeiaiea ia?iiiuo oa??eoi?ee a ?aieao iaeiiai ainoaea?noaa
niinianoaiaaei eoeueoo?iiio niaoaieth. Yoi eoeue oo?iia niaoaiea
iaeaa/aeinue oai, /oi ia?iaeu N?aaeiae Acee aiai?eee ia aanueia noiaeiuo
iaaeaeo niaie e?aineeo ia?a/eyo. Oai ia iaiaa ioaeaeueiua ieaiaia e
ia?iaeiinoe, aoiaeeaoea a ninoaa Eooaineie eiia?ee, eiaee naiaia?acioth
eoeueoo?o, a iioiio caaea/e oi?aaeaiey o?aaiaaee iaee/ey ioeoeeaeueiiai
iauaeiia?neiai ycuea n ?acaeoie ienueiaiiinoueth. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
cia/aiea ia oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae Acee eiaee a yoi a?aiy a?aiaeneee ycue,
ienueiaiiinoue eioi?iai eaaea a iniiao ?acee/iuo nenoai e?aineiai
ienueia, aoii /enea niaaeeeneie e oi?acieeneie (n eiioea II — ia/aea III
a. i. y.), a oaeaea a?a/aneee, eioi?ue oiio?aaeyeny ia iiiaoao ia?auo
eooaiia. Iicaeiaa ia iniiaa a?a/aneiai aeoaaeoa neiaeeeinue iniaia
eooaineia ienueii. Iaeiiaoe, a nayce n ia?anoathuei eiaeeeneei aeeyieai
iiyaeythony e eiaeeeneea nenoaiu ienueia (ienueii aeaaaiaaa?e
ano?a/aaony ?yaeii n eooaineei ienueiii ia iiiaoao).

Ieaaea neie?aoeci ia i?iyaeeny noieue y?ei, eae a iaeanoe ?aeeaee. Ia
yoii iiaeii noaeeoue aeaaiui ia?acii ii iiiaoai. Ia oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae
Acee ii/eoaeenue naiua ?acee/iua aiaeanoaa: ianoiua (Ieo?a, Aiaoeoa,
Neyaoo), ci?iano?eeneea (Aoo?aiacaea), a?a/aneea (Caan, Aaeein, Naeaia),
eiaeeeneea (Oeaa). I?ienoiaeeo neie?aoe/aneia neeyiea ia?acia aiaeanoa
?acee/iuo ia?iaeiinoae, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aeaeieciaiythony e ia?acu
ianoiuo aiaeanoa: oae, e?aineay e n?aaeiaaceaoneay Aiaoeoa neeaaaony n
a?a/aneie Ao?iaeeoie.

Ni a?aiaie Eaieoee iniaaiii neeueiui noaei aeeyiea aoaeaeecia. Eaieoea
ia?aiineo naith noieeoeo ec Niaaeeaiu a Iaoaaa? (Io?ooaio?a). A Eiaeee
eooaiu, eae aei ieo yeeeiu e iaeaaeiiyia, aeieaeiu auee iaieioaii noaoue
ia noi?iio aoaeaeecia Aeey ieo, «aa?aa?ia» e caaiaaaoaeae, ia auei ianoa
a aa?iao a?aoiaineie Eiaeee. Iai?ioea, o/aiea, ia?auaaoaany ei anai
ethaeyi iacaaeneii io eo i?ienoiaeaeaiey, aeieaeii auaei iaeoe a eooaiao
naieo i?eaa?aeaioeaa. Aoaeaeeci ai a?aiaia eooaiia aue oaea aeaeaei ia
oai, /ai ii aue aia/aea,— o/aieai, au?inoei ia iniiaa i?ioanoa oe?ieeo
iann eiaeeeneiai ianaeaiey i?ioea nineiaiiai ia?aaiii?aaey e ?aeeaee
a?aoiaiia; neeaoenue n ae?aaieie eoeueoaie, ii noae iaeiie ec ie?iauo
?aeeaee oiai a?aiaie e a ea/anoaa oaeiaie ioaa/ae oa?aeoa?o
?aciiieai?iiie e ia?iiiie eiia?ee eooaiia. Ia eooaineeo iiiaoao
iiyaeythony aoaeaeeeneea neiaieu (eae oaea ?aiaa — ia iiiaoao iaeioi?uo
a?aei-aaeo?eeneeo oea?ae), a /anoiinoe ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiua a?a/aneeie iaaeienyie. Eiaiii yoio neie?aoe/aneee,
ia?aiaoaiiue n ianoiuie aa?iaaieyie aoaeaeeci iicaeiaa iieo/ee
?ani?ino?aiaiea a Oeaaoa, Iiiaieee, Eeoaa e ssiiiee. Oi?aiaua nayce n

Eiaeeae e iie?iaeoaeuenoai eooaiia aoaeaeecio niinianoaiaaee
?ani?ino?aiaieth aai a N?aaeiae Acee. Iaeaieaa neeueiia aeeyiea
aoaeaeeci ieacae ia Aaeo?eth: ii i?eeacaieth Eaieoee a ia/aea II a. aue
iino?iai aieueoie aoaeaeeeneee o?ai a Aaeo?ao. A oeaeii aoaeaeeci
?ani?ino?aieeny a N?aaeiae Acee aeiaieueii oe?iei, ii ieaaea aeoaiei ia
oei?aieeny, cao?iioa, a ioee/ea io Eiaeee, a iniiaiii oieueei
ainiiaenoaothuea neie ianaeaiey. Yoei e iauyniyaony n?aaieoaeueii
iacia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea aoaeaeecia ia ianoiua ?aeeaee e en/aciiaaiea aai
a aeaeueiaeoai n oa??eoi?ee N?aaeiae Acee. Neie?aoeci iao?e io?aaeaiea e
a eneonnoaa eooaineiai ia?eiaea. Iaiyoieee aai aeioee eae ec N?aaeiae
Acee e Ainoi/iiai E?aia, oae e ec Naaa?iie Eiaeee. Eneonnoai yoi iau/ii
iacuaatho aaiaeoa?neei, iineieueeo aieueoia eiee/anoai aai iaiyoieeia
aeioei ec iaeanoe Aaiaeoa?u a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie Eiaeee (caeanue
iaoiaeeeanue noieeoea Eaieoee), eee a?aei-aoaeaeeeneei, iineieueeo iii
ni/aoaao yeeeienoe/aneea oi?iu n aoaeaeeeneie oaiaoeeie; i?aaeeueiaa,
iaeiaei, auei au iacaaoue aai eooaineei, iineieueeo yoi auei eneonnoai
Eooaineie aea?aeaau, au?inoaa ia iniiaa neeyiey n?aaeiaaceaoneeo,
e?aineeo, eiaeeeneeo e yeeeienoe/aneeo oi?i.

?aaeeci a ecia?aaeaiee /aeiaa/aneeo oeao?, oa?aeoa?iue aeey
yeeeienoe/aneiai eneonnoaa, iuoiua ei?eioneea eaieoaee, eenouey aeaioa,
eae iniiaiie yeaiaio i?iaiaioa, neoaeao caeanue aeey ioi?ieaiey
aoaeaeeeneie oaiaoeee. I oii aea neie?aoecia aiai?yo noaooyoee Aiaoeou
ec Oi?acia, ecia?aaeathuea a? a aeaea a?a/aneie Ao?iaeeou, ecia?aaeaiey
Aoaeaeu e aiaeenaoa, auiieiaiiua a ?aaeenoe/aneie iaia?a yeeeiecia, e o.
ae. E ia/aeo eooaineiai a?aiaie ioiineony o?ec ec Ae?oaia, oe?aoaaoee
ia?oaeiua noaiu caeaiey (aiciiaeii, aoaeaeeeneiai o?aia), n
ecia?aaeaieyie thiioae e aeaaooae — iocueaioia e ae?eyiaeiiinoeaa;
iaiiieiay ai iiiaii aaiaeoa?neea iaiyoieee, ii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aianoa
n oai i iaee/ee a ie?anoiinoyo Oa?iaca ianoiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo
o?aaeeoeee.

2.Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai Eooaineie eiia?ee

?anoeaao eneonnoaa Eiaeee, aicieeiiaaiea iiauo eoeueoiauo ia?acia
(i?aaeaea anaai ia?aca Aoaeaeu), ?acaeoea iniiaiuo oaiaeaioeee
a?oeoaeoo?u e neoeueioo?u, caeiaeaiiuo i?e Iao?ueyo, ioiinyony e yiioa
i?aaeaiey Eooaineie aeeianoee (I a. aei i. y. — III a. i. y.). Eooaineea
i?aaeoaee nicaeaee ia?iiioth aea?aeaao, aeeth/aaooth a naay Naaa?ioth
Eiaeeth, iaeanoe nia?aiaiiuo Iaeenoaia, Aoaaienoaia e N?aaeiae Acee.

A I a. aei i. y. a eoeueoiaie a?oeoaeoo?a Eiaeee iiyaeeenue iaua?iua
o?aiu — /aeouee. I?eia?ii iiaeao neoaeeoue /aeouey, iaoiaeyueeny a
Ea?ee. Ia?aae iaua?ie aicauoaeenue aeaa eieiiiu, eo oaai/eaaee eaieoaee,
iiaeiaiua iao?eeneei. Aaaeiaeoae aeaoaeueth oanaaea iaua?u yaeyaony
ia?iiiia iiaeeiaiia?aciia ieii, eioi?ia neoaeeo aeaaiui enoi/ieeii naaoa
a o?aia. A iaua?o aaaeoo o?e aoiaea, aeathuea ia/aei ei?eaei?ai,
neiaieece?othuei iooue Aoaeaeu. Oeaio?aeueiue ei?eaei? ioaeae?i io
aieiauo ?yaeaie eieiii ni neoeueioo?iuie eaieoaeyie. A yoii
a?oeoaeoo?iii i?ino?ainoaa, iaeeae?iiii neoeueioo?ie, nicaea?ony
iaiau/iue yooaeo ea?u naaoa e oaie, i?aia?aaeathuee eioa?uea?,
neiaieeeie eioi?iai yaeyaony nooia, iiiau?iiay a o?aia.

Neoeueioo?iua ?aeueaou n ioaeneeie e aeaineeie oeao?aie, ?aniieiaeaiiuie
ia?aie, oe?aoatho ia?oaeiue oanaae /aeouee a Ea?ee. Aiciiaeii, caeanue
ecia?aaeaiu aea?eoaee, ia n?aaenoaa eioi?uo aue iino?iai o?ai. A
o?aeoiaea ioaeneeo oeao? ni/aoathony ioaeanoaaiiinoue e iyaeinoue. O ieo
iiao/ee ?acai?io iea/ e oiieay oaeey, ii i?iii?oeee oaea, iyaeinoue e
ieaaiinoue oi?i aeecee e aeaineei. Neoeueioo?u aeaiuei oiiaeiaeaiu
o?aaeeoeeiiiiio aeey Eiaeee ecia?aaeaieth aiaeie ieiaei?iaeey. Ia
eneeth/aii, /oi oaeay o?aaeeoeey ieacaea aeeyiea ia oi?ie?iaaiea eaeaaea
ia oieueei aeaineie, ii e ioaeneie e?aniou, eioi?ay noaea aiieiuaieai
aioo?aiiae yia?aee e aeeciaiiie neeu /aeiaaea. Ia?u, ecia?aae?iiua ia
oanaaea /aeouee, ieeoeaoai?ytho e aeaa eaeaaea e?aniou, e aeaa ia/aea a
i?e?iaea — ioaeneia e aeaineia. Eo niaaeeiaiea ?iaeaeaao an? aeeaia ia
caiea.

A aoaeaeeeneie a?oeoaeoo?a aicaaaeaiea ia?aae aie?oa o?aiia e nooi noaei
o?aaeeoeeae. Ia?aaeu e ai?ioa ii-i?aaeiaio iaeeueii oe?aoaee
neoeueioo?ie, ?aeueaoiuie eiiiiceoeeyie. Oi?aiu nooiu a Nai/e (I a. aei
i. y.) oe?iei ecaanoiu ?aeueaoaie, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho caeanue aaeeiia
oeaeia n a?oeoaeoo?ie.

Ia ?aeueaoao i?aaenoatho ethaee e aeeaioiua, a?oeoaeoo?iua iioeau,
auoiaua i?aaeiaou, ?anoeoaeueiua i?iaiaiou. Iniaaiii au?aceoaeai ia?ac
yeoeie n ainoi/iie oi?aiu. Iaiaae?iiue noai ae?aaaniie aiaeie ecyuii
ecaeaaaony, ?oee oyioony e noaieo iaiaiaiai aea?aaa e aai iuoiie e?iia.
Aeaeaeaiey a? eaaee e a?aoeeiciu, iica naiaiaeia e anoanoaaiia. Yoaeiiii
e?aniou aeaiueiu e aiaeie ieiaei?iaeey ii-i?aaeiaio inoathony
iiae/??eiooi ie?oaeua a?ae?a e athno.

A ?aeeaee aoaeaeecia e eiaeoecia ia?iiiia cia/aiea i?eaea?ony oea? noao
aeeaioiuo. A i?aaenoaaeaiee eiaeeeoea, ethaee, aeeaioiua, ?anoaiey e
aeaaea aunoea aiaeanoaa anaaaea naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie ia?ac?uaiuie
ocaie. A iiiaioeao?iuo noeaiao ii?aaeaao iuouaiea anai?iieeathuae
aeecie, yia?aee, iaeooaaeythuae ana oi?iu. Ethaiaue e i?e?iaea,
i?aeeiiaiea ia?aae a? iiuueth e eciaeeeai, aeeciue, oi?aeanoaothuay ai
anao i?iyaeaieyo, — aio iniiaiay oaia eiaeeeneiai eneonnoaa, e a
/anoiinoe a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieanoe/aneiai ainaiaey a Nai/e.

A I—IV a. i. y. a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?a Eiaeee i?iecioee
cia/eoaeueiua ia?aiaiu. A ecia?aceoaeueiii eneonnoaa Aoaeaeo noaee
i?aaenoaaeyoue a iaeeea /aeiaaea, a ia a aeaea neiaieia — nayuaiiiai
aea?aaa Ai, Eieana Caeiia e o. ae. A yoio ia?eiae n?aaee i?i/eo
auaeaeythony o?e iniiaiua oeieu aoaeaeeeneie neoeueioo?u: Aaiaeoa?a
(naaa?i-caiaae), Iaooo?a (naaa?) e Aia?aaaoe (tha).

Aaiaeoa?a (iuia a Iaeenoaia) — ae?aaiyy enoi?e/aneay iaeanoue a
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie Eiaeee. Aaiaeoa?neia eneonnoai aeinoeaei ?anoeaaoa ia
?oaaaea I—II aa. Iiae aeeyieai eoeueoo?u no?ai, ?aniieiaeaiiuo caiaaeiaa
Eiaeee, a Aaiaeoa?a ia?ac Aoaeaeu i?eia??e yeeeienoe/aneea /a?ou. ?aiiei
oeiii aaiaeoa?neiai Aoaeaeu iiaeao n/eoaoueny aai ecia?aaeaiea ec
Oioe-Ia?aeaia (II a.). Yoa noaooy noiyuaai O/eoaey ioee/aaony i?ae?aniui
eniieiaieai. Iiiai/eneaiiua neeaaeee iaeaaeae ieoouaatho anth oeao?o
Aoaeaeu. I?aaeeueiua i?iii?oeee aeaeiai no?ieiiai oaea auaeatho
a?a/aneoth o?aaeeoeeth a neoeueioo?a. Iaeiaei a ia?aca i?ineaaeeaathony
e eiaeeeneea /a?ou. I?aaeaea anaai a noaooa iiae/??eiooa aioo?aiiyy
nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue, a ia oece/aneay e?anioa.

Ia a?aie iaaeaeo eiaeeeneie e yeeeienoe/aneie o?aaeeoeeyie nicaeaia
noaooy neaeyuaai Aoaeaeu ec Oaoo-e-Aaoe (ieiei 300 a.). Iaeee O/eoaey
ynai, iieii oie?ioai?aiey e nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe, i?aaeaeueii niieiai.
Iica Aoaeaeu ni ne?au?iiuie e iiaeaeaouie iiaaie, n auaa?ioouie eaa?oo
iiaeioaaie — iica «eioina» — n oiai a?aiaie noaea eaiiie/aneie aeey anao
oeie aoaeaeeeneie neoeueioo?u. Iaeueoeu «iio/aiey». A eiaeeeneie
ieanoeea ia/aea oi?ie?iaaoueny nenoaia ioae?, eiaaea ii?aaeae?iiua yoaiu
nayuaiiiai iooe Aoaeaeu au?aaeaee /a?ac niaoeeoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ?oe,
eaaeiiae e iaeueoeaa. Iaeeiooia ia iea/e Aoaeaeu iaeayiea, nia?aiiia a
neeaaeee, iieiinoueth cae?uaaao oaei Aoaeaeu, ia ne?uaay, ai?i/ai, aai
e?oiiuo oi?i.

Ae?oaei oeaio?ii ?acaeoey neoeueioo?u auea Ia’ooo?a. Caeanue aue nicaeai
ia?ac Aoaeaeu, iieo/eaoee /enoi eiaeeeneoth o?aeoiaeo, a oaeaea ia?acu
ae?oaeo aoaeaeeeneeo ia?niiaaeae. Aoaeaeo a iaooo?neie ieanoeea /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeatho aiaeoenaooau (iiiiuieee O/eoaey) eee yeoe. Ie?oaeua
eeoea ecia?aaeaiee ica?aiu e?aeie oeuaeie, a iicu i/aiue aeeiaie/iu.

Ia noaea ec Eao?u (ia/aei II a.) i?aaenoa?o Aoaeaea, neaeyuee ia o?iia,
eioi?ue iiaeaea?aeeaatho o?e eueaa. Aai iica yia?ae/ia, oaei eiaao
ieaaiua, aeainoaaiiua i/a?oaiey. AEano Aoaeaeu — niaiooay a eieoa e
iiaeiyoay i?aaay ?oea — icia/aao iaeia?aiea. Iaeeiooue ia eaaia iea/i
ieau ia ne?uaaao iieoiaiaae?iiia oaei e neoaeeo nei?aa oe?aoaieai. Eeoei
Aoaeaeu, e?oaeia, n iooeuie aoaaie, neiaeaiiuie a e?aeoth
iie?iaeoaeuenoaaiioth oeuaeo, niieieii e aanno?anoii. Ii niio?eo i?yii
ia?aae niaie, eae yoi e i?aaeoniao?eaaao aai aeano iaeia?aiey. Ca
aieiaie aiaeanoaa iaoiaeeony ieia, ca nieiie ?aniieaaathony aeaa
ioaeneea oeao?u n iiaoaeaie. Aiciiaeii, yoi aiaeoenaooau eee yeoe.

A Aia?aaaoe ia?ac Aoaeaeu aia?aua iiyaeeny a neoeueioo?iii ?aeueaoa ia
oi?ioi nio?aieaoeony iaeeoeiai/iuo ieeoao nooiu (II a.). Aoaeaea ec
Aia?aaaoe i?aaenoa?o neaeyuei a iica «eioina» ia o?iia; ieia, eae ciio,
i?ee?uaaao aai aieiao. Ecia?aaeaiey Aoaeaeu ia yoeo ?aeueaoao
aeinoaoi/ii oneiaiu, a ieo iao oaeiai eiee/anoaa aeaoaeae, eae a
neoeueioo?a, i?eiaaeeaaeauae ae?oaei oeieai.

Naiiauoiia eneonnoai ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiia Ae?aaiae Eiaeee, ?acaeaaynue,
iieiaeeei ia/aei ooaeiaeanoaaiiui o?aaeeoeeyi neaaeothuaai ia?eiaea —
eneonnoaa eiia?ee Aoioia (IV—VI aa.).

Eooaineia oea?noai eniuoaei aieueoia aeeyiea yeeeienoe/aneie eoeueoo?u.
A /anoiinoe, eooaineia ienueii auei iniiaaii ia a?a/aneii aeoaaeoa n
aeiaaaeaieai iaeiie i?eaeiaeueiie aoeau aeey iaicia/aiey oiiaiu /o/.

Aoaeaeeci i?e eooaiao a oe?ieeo ianooaaao i?iieeaao a Aaeo?eth e a
iaeioi?ua iaeanoe N?aaeiae Acee. Yoi iauyniyaony ia oieueei oai
iie?iaeoaeuenoaii, eioi?ia eooaineea oea?e ieacuaaee aoaeaeecio.
Aic?inoay aai iiioey?iinoue naycaia n ?ieueth aoaeaeecia eae eaeaieiaee,
aeeceie e iiiyoiie a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ai?iaeneiio ianaeaieth,
/eneaiiinoue eioi?iai a Eooaineii ainoaea?noaa auea aanueia aaeeea.
Aoaeaeeci au?aaioae iiaue acaeyae ia ee/iinoue, i?iiiaaaeiaae ?aaainoai
ethaeae, ii e?aeiae ia?a a aeooiaiie iaeanoe. Ooaa?aeeaoeeny i?e Eaieoea
aa?eaio aoaeaeecia cia/eoaeueii oi?inoee «iooue e nianaieth». Ana yoi
niinianoaiaaei i?aa?auaieth aoaeaeecia a iiaeeeiii ianniaoth ?aeeaeth,
iiioey?ioth eae o ?yaeiauo ai?iaeai, oae e a n?aaea ai?iaeneie aa?oooee.

Aianoa n oai, oaea/aiea aoaeaeeciii ia i?eaaei e auoaniaieth ianoiuo
ia?iaeiuo eoeueoia e ci?iano?ecia. I?iaeieaeaee nii?oaeaoueny
iiioiaioaeueiua o?aiu iaiy e iaaieueoea aeiiaoiea nayoeeeua, a eioi?uo
oeaio?aeueiia ianoi caieiae aeoa?ue aeey aicaeeaaiey nayuaiiiai ieaiaie.

Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie eooaineie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony oaniay naycue n
ai?iaeaie e ?ani?ino?aiaiea o?aaiece?iaaiiie eoeueoo?u a naeueneie
ianoiinoe.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Ai?iaeiaa E. A. «Eooaineia oea?noai (ii ae?aaiei eeoaeneei
enoi/ieeai)»

2. A. Aa?cei. Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e i aoaeaeecia e eneaia a Aoaaienoaia

3. AEo?iae Aie?oa Naaoa noaouey «Aiein Caauoie Eiia?ee»

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