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Eiio?ieueiay ?aaioa

ii eoeueoo?ieiaee ia oaio:

Eoeueoo?a e eneonnoai Eaiio/ee

Ieai

1. Ec enoi?ee Eaiio/ee

2. Eneonnoai Eaiio/ee

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1.Ec enoi?ee Eaiio/ee

Nia?aiaiiay Eaiio/ey iaoiaeeony ia thai-ainoiea Eiaeieeoay. Ae?aaiaeoei
ainoaea?noaii ia yoie oa??eoi?ee auei oea?noai Ooiaiue (I—VI aa.).
Iniiaioth /anoue aai ianaeaiey ninoaaeyee ae?aaiea eoia?u.

Ooiaiue, eee Aaiiii, ?aiiaeeanniaia ainoaea?noai a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee a
I—VI aaeao, ia?aia eoia?neia ainoaea?noai, yaeaoaany aoi?ui ii aic?anoo
a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee (iinea aueaoneiai ainoaea?noaa Aaieaia-Aoeae).
?aniieaaaeinue a thai-ainoi/iie /anoe nia?aiaiiie Eaiaiaeaee, a aeaeueoa
Iaeiiaa. Noieeoeae aue ai?iae Aaaeoueyio?a. Ia?aiia/aeueii a ninoaa
oa??eoi?ee Ooiaie aoiaeeee caiee io ica?a Oiieanai aei onouey Iaeiiaa. A
aeaeueiaeoai aneaaenoaea aiei ae?aaiaeoia?neeo eo?oiaia ia caiaaea e ia
naaa?a, oa??eoi?ey ainoaea?noaa auea ?anoe?aia a/aoaa?i.

A iniiaa yeiiiieee eaaeaei i?ioaaiia ?eniaiaenoai a aannaeia ?aee
Oiieanai, aa?ouae nai? ia/aei a ica?a Oiieanai, e a i?eeaaathueo
oa??eoi?yo ii aa?aaai Iaeiiaa. Oe?iei i?eiaiyeanue ioioa ia aoeaieao e
aueao. E oiio a?aiaie ae?aaiea eoia?u aeiaeeenue auniei o?iaiy ?acaeoey
?ai?nae, aneaaenoaea /aai eo aieueoea ai?iaea, iaoiaeeaoeany a oeaio?ao
?enii?iecaiaeyueo ?aeiiia, aaea i?ineoaeueiua eaiaeu ia?anaeaeenue n
o?ainii?oiuie (aeey oi?aiaiai noaeioiaenoaa), noaee e?oiiuie oi?aiauie
oeaio?aie. Ii o?ainii?oiui eaiaeai iiaee i?ioiaeeoue e ii?neea noaea, a
iniiaiii yoi auee eeoaeneea oi?aiaua ei?aaee. Aiaeiniaaaeaiea a ai?iaeao
auei i?aaieciaaii oaeei ia?acii, /oiau naanoe aei ieieioia aiciiaeiia
ca?aaeaiea a oneiaeyo /anouo a o?iieeao yieaeaiee.

A caieaaeaeee e ?ai?neao iianaianoii eniieueciaaeenue aeaeaciua i?oaeey.
Iiieii aoeaieia e aueia oe?iei i?eiaiyeenue i?e?o/aiiua neiiu, aeey
eioi?uo auea ecia?aoaia naiaia?aciay oi?yaeue.

A aii/a?iii ?aianea eniieueciaaeny iiaeiie aii/a?iue e?oa. Aii/a?u a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie auee iauaaeeiaiu a ianoa?neea, ecaioiaeyaoe
ninoaeu eae o?aaeeoeeiiiuo, oae e iiauo oi?i; eo ecaeaeey ia onooiaee
eiaeeeneei eee aa?iiaeneei oiai a?aiaie. Iaeeea niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oi?i
ea?aieee aiai?eo i neiaeiie yeiiiie/aneie aeecie ai?iaea. Iniaia
aieiaiea i?eaeaeatho ea?aie/aneea iia?aaaeueiua o?iu e ia?aiiniua ia/e n
ianoiui eoeueoiaui i?iaiaioii.

?aianeaiieee-iaoaeeenou i?iecaiaeeee ?aciiia?aciua ecaeaeey ec aeaeaca,
a?iicu, ieiaa, naeioea, i?eiaiyeenue neiaeiua i?e?iu eeouey
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee. ?aianeaiieeaie-thaaee?aie
i?iecaiaeeeenue oe?aoaiey ec cieioa, na?aa?a, ae?aaioeaiiuo eaiiae.
Ianoa?a-noaeeiaeaeu ecaioiaeyee /aoe e eoaee. Ia ecaeaeeyo ano?a/athony
ciaee ?aianeaiieeia, /oi aiai?eo i neiaeiie i?aaiecaoeee ?aianea.

Ooiaiue iiaeaea?aeeaaea oi?aiaua nayce ia oieueei n thaeiieiaeeeneeie
ainoaea?noaaie Eeoaaeia, Iaeeaaia, Naoaaaoaiia, ii e n E?aiii, A?iaieae,
?eineie eiia?eae. Aaeanue oi?aiaey n thaeiuie i?iaeioeeyie eiia?ee
Oaiue, iicaeiaa — n oea?noaii O e niaieaoeie aai thaeiuie eeoaeneeie
oea?noaaie.

Ii aeaiiui ?aneiiie, eioaineaiie auea oi?aiaey n iiineeie ainoaea?noaaie
e ainoaea?noaii Iueth a Caiaaeiii Eiaeieeoaa, a oaeaea n aueaoaie,
oyiaie, ia?iaeaie Eiaeiiacee, iniaaiii iinea i?aa?auaiey Ooiaie a
ii?neoth eiia?eth.

I ?acaeoie aioo?aiiae oi?aiaea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia?auaiea nianoaaiiie
iiiaou ia oieueei ec cieioa e na?aa?a, ii e ec a?iicu e ieiaa, ianoiuo e
iauaie?iauo oi?i, n eiaeeeneeie neiaieaie e aac ieo. Iiiaou Ooiaie
iaeaeaiu aieioue aei Caiaaeiiai Eiaeieeoay; eeoaeneeo iiiao a Ooiaie a
ioee/ea io aueaoneeo caiaeue ia iaia?oaeaii. Iaee/ea iiiao e
iaaeaeueiiia ec ?eineie eiia?ee e ainoaea?noa Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea aiai?eo
i aeaeueieo oi?aiauo naycyo.

Ooiaiueneea i?aaeoaee iieueciaaeenue oeooeii Oea?ue Ai?u, aeaeeii n
ae?aaiinoe ioiaeaeanoaeyy naay n aiaaie. Aa?iyoii, oeaio?ii ie?icaeaiey
eoia?u n/eoaee ai?o aiaia Ia?o. A yoii ?aaeiia o?ai-ai?a, aicaiaeeiue ia
eneonnoaaiiii (ianuiiii) oieia, noae nayuaiiie ?aceaeaioeeae eoia?neeo
i?aaeoaeae.

A IX a. a no?aia ia?yaeo n aoaeaeeciii ?ani?ino?aieeny eiaeoeci. A
IX—XIII aa. eoia?u nicaeaee eiia?eth Eaiaoaeaeaaeaoa — e?oiiaeoaa a oi
a?aiy ainoaea?noai a THai-Ainoi/iie Acee.

2. Eneonnoai Eaiio/ee

Neaaeu /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, nio?aieaoeany ia oa??eoi?ee
Eaiio/ee, ioiinyony e na?aaeeia 5 oun. aei i. y.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee eco/aiey iaiyoieeia a?oeoaeoo?u Eaiaiaeaee
aaaeioth ?ieue ea?aee ?aneiiee. ?acoeueoaou ioaeeeiaaeenue a
aaeaaiaeieeao Aeaeueiaainoi/iie oeieu. Caneoaeeaatho aieiaiey aeaiiua,
iieo/aiiua Ai?e Iaicaai 2 a Nai?ioia Nai e Eiiai?ai (i?iaeioeey
Eiiiiia/iaia), a oaeaea Eaae Iieais a Ieth I?ae (i?iaeioeey Eiiiiiaoii).
Eo ?aneiiee ii?aaeaeeee n?aaieoaeueii aunieee o?iaaiue iaoa?eaeueiie
eoeueoo?u ia?iaeia, ianaeyaoeo oa??eoi?eth Eaiio/ee aei iaoae y?u.

I?e iiiiue ay?ioioinuaiee ianoiinoe oaeaeinue auyaeoue iaaieueoea
iaieeoe/aneea iinaeaiey aeaoe oeiia: e?oaeua a ieaia iinaeaiey,
oe?aieaiiua caieyiuie noaiaie ni ?aii iaaeaeo ieie, e aeeceea e
eaaae?aoo iinaeaiey, ie?oaeaiiua oceeie eaiaaaie ceacaaiia?aciie oi?iu.

AEeeeua auee e?oaeua e i?yiioaieueiua a ieaia n iiaeiyoui iieii e
oa??anie, iie?uoea eiioniia?aciui e aeaoneaoiui.

Eoeueoo?a Nai?ioia Nai, nouanoaiaaaoay aieaa aeaoo ouny/aeaoee o ieaiai
iii-eoia?-neie a?oiiu ia?iaeia, iaeaaeaea oieueei ae i?enoueie /a?oaie
oaoieee ecaioiaeaiey «iaaeueiuo» oiii?ia, eiiueaa, iee, iniaaiiinoyie
ieaie?iaie iinaeaiee e oi?i aeeeeu. Yoi ioee/aao aa io nii?aaeaeueiuo e
iaeiia?aiaiiuo eoeueoo? naaa?a Aueaoiaia e Iaeaecee.

Ia ieaoi io O?ai Ieiue aei ieaoi Iie, iaaenathuaai iaae aeaeueoie
Iaeiiaa, e aei ieaoi ?ieao ia caiaae ?annayiu ainaiaee iaaaeeoe/aneeo
iino?iae. Iaiyoieee iaaaeeoa naycaiu n oaeee/aneei eoeueoii e eoeueoii
i?aaeeia. Iie i?aaenoaaeaiu oeeoiaaiiuie eaiiyie n iaae/aneeie ciaeaie,
eaiaiiuie noaooyie (iau/ii ecia?aaeaiey i?aaeeia), iaiae?aie n
oaeee/aneeie neiaieaie, aeieueiaiaie, a eioi?uo iiiauaiu ea?aie/aneea
o?iu. Iicaeiaa (II a. aei i. y.) ea?aie/aneea o?iu niaieeenue a?iiciauie
ni neiaeiui aaiiao?e/aneei e ciiii?oiui i?iaiaioii iiaa?oiinoe (noiyiea
Ieth I?ae).

Eoeueoo?a Nai?ioia Nai, nouanoaiaaaoay ia oa??eoi?ee Eaiio/ee —
ia?aienoi/iee oeeaeeecaoeee iaaaeeoa a Eiaeieeoaa, oae eae iia
o?iiieiae/anee i?aaeoanoaiaaea eoeueoo?a Aeioia Oii ia oa??eoi?ee
naaa?iiai Aueaoiaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, aeaiiua a?oaieiaee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ia aaoiooiiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?oth nicaeaee ieaiaia eoia?ia ia Eiaeieeoaeneii
iieoino?iaa.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee I oun. aei i. y. ia oa??eoi?ee THai-Ainoi/iie Acee
i?ienoiaeeee iea?aoeee ia?iaeia, i?iaeaeaaaoeony n naaa?a ia tha e a
iaiueoae noaiaie n caiaaea ia ainoie. Iea?aoeey niinianoaiaaea
acaeiiiaiaauaieth e ?acaeoeth eoeueoo? ianoiuo ieaiai e i?eoaeueoeaa.

Eae oeacuaatho a?oaieiae/aneea iaoa?eaeu e ienueiaiiua enoi/ieee, a
na?aaeeia I a. i. y. ia oa??eoi?ee Eaiio/ee nouanoaiaaei e?oiiia
ainoaea?noai Ooiaiue, caieiaaoaa oeaio?aeueioth e thaeioth /anoe
Eiaeieeoaeneiai iieoino?iaa, aa?aaa Neaineiai caeeaa, Iaeaeeneee
iieoino?ia, aiciiaeii, e thaeioth Ae?io a ieaeiai aannaeia Iaiaia.
Iaia?oaeaiiua ae?aaiea iaaeiene ia oa??eoi?ee Ooiaie ninoaaeyeenue ia
o?ao ycueao: eoia?neii, oyineii e iaeaeneii. Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue ianaeaiey ninoaaeyee eoia?u.

Iineaaeiea aaea aei iaoae y?u e ia?aua aaea iaoae y?u auee iciaiaiiaaiu
e?oiiuie oniaoaie a ii?aoiaeiii aeaea. Yoi iicaieeei aeeoaeyi
i?ea?aaeiuo ?aeiiia Eiaeieeoay, eioi?uo, niaeanii eaoiiene, eiaiiaaee
«thaeiuie aa?aa?aie», aeinoe/ue aa?aaia eiia?ee Aoiee a Eiaeee, a
eiaeeeoeai a naith i/a?aaeue aeiieuoue aei iiaa?aaeee THai-Ainoi/iie
Acee. Ia?eiaee/aneea aieiu iea?aoeee ec Eiaeee ia iineee
caaiaaaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. Nei?aa, oae ie?iue i?ioeann neeyiey ianoiiai
ianaeaiey n i?eoaeueoeaie, inaaeaaoeie ia oa??eoi?ee Eaiio/ee e ianoeie
n niaie aeinoeaeaiey aieaa ?acaeoie eoeueoo?u.

Ia?iaeu Eiaeieeoay anooieee a ia?eiae enoi?e/aneiai auoey ianeieueei
iicaeiaa, /ai ia?iaeu Eiaeee. Ca?y iaoae y?u canoaea ianaeaiea
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee ia noaaeee ?aceiaeaiey ia?aiauoii-iaueiiiai no?iy ni
neiaeeaoaeny eoeueoo?ie ianoiuo ieaiai e nicaeaiey ?yaea ainoaea?noa o
ia?iaeia iii-eoia?neie o?oiiu, a ia?iaeu Eiaeee ia noaaeee aeinoaoi/ii
?acaeoiai ?aaiaeaaeaeue/aneiai no?iy n aanueia aunieei eoeueoo?iui
o?iaiai. E ana-oaee, ianiio?y ia cia/eoaeueioth ?acieoeo a o?iaiyo
?acaeoey, a oio iiiaio, eiaaea Eaiio/ey aia?aua iuooeea aeeyiea
eiaeeeneie eoeueoo?u, ia?iaeu aa oaea iaeaaeaee naiiauoiie
oeeaeeecaoeeae, iniaaiiinoe eioi?ie e nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey io eiaeeeneie
iaaethaeaeenue a noa?a i?iecaiaenoaa, iauanoaaiiii no?ia, ?aeeaee. Ana
i?eaiineiia ec Eiaeee iiiaaeaei ia aeaaii?eyoioth ii/ao, auno?i
ia?a?aaaouaaeinue e anneieee?iaaeinue niia?acii ianoiie iniiaa,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui o?aaeeoeeyi e neeaaeo iuoeaiey ei?aiiiai ianaeaiey.

Aini?eyoea ooiaiueoeaie aeinoeaeaiee eiaeeeneeo ciae/eo ia ?acee/iuo
enoi?e/aneeo yoaiao i?ioaeaei ii-?aciiio. N I ii II a. i. y. iniiaioth
?ieue a ooiaiueneii ciae/anoaa ea?aee ianoiua yeaiaiou, iniiauaathueany
ia ae?aaieo no?ieoaeueiuo o?aaeeoeeyo, a eiaeeeneia aeeyiea auei
iacia/eoaeueiui e au?aaeaeinue a noiaenoaa ieaiia ai?iaeia. A III—IV aa.
caiaoii oneeeeinue eiaeeeneia aeeyiea ia eoeueoiaoth a?oeoaeoo?o Ooiaie;
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiua i?eioeeiu, iai?ioea, iooiaeyo io eiaeeeneeo eaiiiia;
a?aaeaeaineay a?oeoaeoo?a iai?a?uaii i?iaeieaeaao ianoiua o?aaeeoeee.

Niaeanii aeaiiui a?oaieiaee, ii?neie ii?o Ooiaie Ie-Ai (II a. i. y.)
eiae i?yiioaieueiue ieai n niioiioaieai noi?ii 1:2 (i?eia?ii 3000 X 1500
i) e aue ?ac?acai i?yiioaieueiie naoueth oeeoe. Aaeieue aeeeiiie noi?iiu
n naaa?a ia tha ai?iae ia?anaeaeny eaiaeii, ii iaa noi?iiu eioi?iai
?aniieaaaeenue iino?ieee. Yoio eaiae oyioeny 2 ei ca i?aaeaeaie ai?iaea,
aaea niaaeeiyeny n ii?ai. Ii aoiaeee a neiaeioth naoue ia?anaeathueony
i?yiieeiaeiuo eaiaeia, eaeoueo a iai?aaeaiee naaa? — ainoie e tha —
caiaae, /oi niioaaonoaiaaei iai?aaeaieth iniiaiuo oi?aiauo iooae /a?ac
Ooiaiue. ?onea iaeaieaa e?oiiuo eaiaeia oe?aieyeenue a?aieoiuie noaiaie
e caieyiuie ianuiyie. Oe?eia aiaeiuo iooae iicaieyea noaeai i?iieeaoue a
aeoaue no?aiu.

Ii ia?eiao?o ai?iae oe?aieyee aeaa caieyiuo aaea, ii aa?oo eioi?uo oae
/anoieie ec a?aaai 1. Oi?oeoeeaoeey thaeiie noi?iiu, ia?auaiiie e ii?th,
auea auoa e ianneaiaa, oae eae ia?aaeaeaea ai?iae e io aiaeu ai a?aiy
?aceeaia. Noaia ieaia Ie-Ai eaneieueei iaiiieiaao naaa?ieiaeeeneoth
Oaeneeo (iinaeaiea Ne?eaia, 50 a. aei i. y.— 150 a. i. y.), oioy
?acia?aie ii/oe aaeaia i?aainoiaeeo iineaaeithth. I?eioeei ieaie?iaee,
ia?eaeeiiaeueiay i?eaioaoeey e eiino?oeoeee oe?aieaiee noiaeiu o yoeo
ai?iaeia, ca eneeth/aieai oiai, /oi Ie-Ai n naaa?a ia tha ia?anaeae
eaiae, a Oaeneeo ?annaeaea oe?ieay oeeoea.

Iniiaiay ianna ai?iaeneie cano?ieee Ie-Ai, aeeth/ay ei?ieaaneee
aeai?aoe, auea oeaeeeii aea?aayiiie, e oieueei iaeioi?ua nii?oaeaiey
?aeeaeiciiai, a aiciiaeii e a?aaeaeaineiai iacia/aiey aicaiaeeeenue ia
ee?ie/iii eee a?aieoiii iniiaaiee. A?oaieiae/aneea ?aneiiee a Ie-Ai
iaia?oaeeee inoaoee ae?aaieo naaeiuo iino?iae,; /oi oeacuaaao ia ianoiia
eo i?ienoiaeaeaiea. Naae caaeaaeenue ii i?yiie eeiee ainoie — caiaae n
eioa?aaeii ieiei 2 i. ia aeoaeio 0,75 i. Iino?ieee noaaeeenue aaeieue
eaiaeia. Eiioeao?aoeey ieaia no?iaiee auea i?yiioaieueiie.

?aniieiaeaiiua ?yaeaie noieau aeeeiie 2,8 i ii e?ayi e 4,7 i iina?aaeeia
iicaieytho i?aaeiieaaaoue, /oi o iino?iae auee aeaoneaoiua e?uoe n
aieueoei iaeeiiii, iaiaoiaeeiui a o?iieeao. Oei naaeiuo aeiiia ia
aunieeo e ieceeo naayo i?iaeieaeaao auoiaaoue e a nia?aiaiiie Eaiio/ee.
Iiaeiaiua naaeiua iino?ieee iaia?oaeaiu A..Aieoaaaui i?e ?aneiieao
iaiyoieeia oeeaeeecaoeee Aeioia Oii ai Aueaoiaia, ioiinyuaeny
i?eaeeceoaeueii e oiio aea a?aiaie.

Iaiyoieee iiioiaioaeueiiai ciae/anoaa Eaiio/ee — yoi i?aaeaea anaai
a?aiaeeiciua a?oeoaeoo?iua ainaiaee. Yiioeeiiaeueii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
aicaeaenoaea aiaei?neeo o?aiia — aunoaai aeinoeaeaiey eoia?neiai aaiey —
iaiau/aeii aaeeei e naaiaeiy. Iie iio?ynatho aaee/aaie
oi?aeanoaaiiinoueth, ai?aeaeeaui niieienoaeai e oaeeaeoaeueiie
/aoeinoueth eiiiiceoeeiiiiai iino?iaiey. Oa a?oeoaeoo?iua ainaiaee,
eioi?ui oaeaeinue auaea?aeaoue iiiaiaaeiaua eniuoaiey a?aiaiai,
i?aaenoaaeytho iuia aaeeeoth oeaiiinoue ia oieueei aeey ia?iaea
Eaiio/ee, ii e aeey ie?iaie ooaeiaeanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u.

Eeanne/aneee iaiyoiee eneonnoaa eoia?ia — eiiieaen Aiaei? Aao (XII a.).
A iai aiieioeeenue ?aeeaeiciua eaeae e eo/oea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua
aeinoeaeaiey yoiai ia?iaea. Eiiieaen auno?iai ia o/anoea ?acia?ii 1500 o
1300 i, iaianaiiui oe?ieei eaiaeii. *a?ac yoo aiaeioth i?aa?aaeo e
aeaaiiio aoiaeo aaaeao aei?iaa, aaeieue eioi?ie ?aniieaaathony noaooe
eueaia-io?aieoaeae e iaaia. A oeaio?a eiiieaena, ia nooiai/aoie ai?a,
iaianaiiie noaiie, aicauoathony iyoue o?aiia-aaoai, neiaieece?othueo
iyoue ieeia ai?u Ia?o. A oeaio?aeueiii, naiii aieueoii, o?aia iaoiaeeony
aeaaiia nayoeeeua. Eiiieaen aeeth/aao iiiaeanoai aeiiieieoaeueiuo
iino?iae: iiiai/eneaiiua aioo?aiiea aeai?eee, eanoieoeu, aaoaiee,
aaea?ae e o.i. ia?acotho aa?iiie/iue a?oeoaeoo?iue ainaiaeue.
Iiaen/eoaii, /oi ia aai iino?ieeo auei ec?anoiaeiaaii noieueei aea
eaiiy, neieueei iio?aaiaaeinue aeey aicaaaeaiey aaeiaoneie ie?aieaeu.
O?ai oe?aoai ?aaeeeie ii e?anioa ?aeueaoaie, ni/aoathueie oeao?iua
ecia?aaeaiey n ?anoeoaeueiui e aaiiao?e/aneei i?iaiaioii. Aiaei?-Aao ii
i?aao n/eoaaony iaeiei ec aaee/aeoeo ainaiaeae ie?a. A iai aiieioeeenue
?aeeaeiciua eaeae e eo/oea ooaeiaeanoaaiiua aeinoeaeaiey yoiai ia?iaea.
Eiiieaen auno?iai ia o/anoea ?acia?ii 1500 o 1300 i, iaianaiiui oe?ieei
eaiaeii. *a?ac yoo aiaeioth i?aa?aaeo e aeaaiiio aoiaeo aaaeao aei?iaa,
aaeieue eioi?ie ?aniieaaathony noaooe eueaia-io?aieoaeae e iaaia. A
oeaio?a eiiieaena, ia nooiai/aoie ai?a, iaianaiiie noaiie, aicauoathony
iyoue o?aiia-aaoai, neiaieece?othueo iyoue ieeia ai?u Ia?o. A
oeaio?aeueiii, naiii aieueoii, o?aia iaoiaeeony aeaaiia nayoeeeua.
Eiiieaen aeeth/aao iiiaeanoai aeiiieieoaeueiuo iino?iae: iiiai/eneaiiua
aioo?aiiea aeai?eee, eanoieoeu, aaoaiee, aaea?ae e o.i. ia?acotho
aa?iiie/iue a?oeoaeoo?iue ainaiaeue. Iiaen/eoaii, /oi ia aai iino?ieeo
auei ec?anoiaeiaaii noieueei aea eaiiy, neieueei iio?aaiaaeinue aeey
aicaaaeaiey aaeiaoneie ie?aieaeu. O?ai oe?aoai ?aaeeeie ii e?anioa
?aeueaoaie, ni/aoathueie oeao?iua ecia?aaeaiey n ?anoeoaeueiui e
aaiiao?e/aneei i?iaiaioii. Aiaei?-Aao ii i?aao n/eoaaony iaeiei ec
aaee/aeoeo ainaiaeae ie?a.

Iiii-Aaeoaia – iaeei ec ia?auo o?aiia, iino?iaiiuo a Aiaei?a. Aai
no?ieoaeuenoai ioiinyo ei a?aiaie i?aaeaiey ei?iey ssniaa?iaia I
(889-910 aa.). O?ai i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iyoey?oniia nii?oaeaiea ni
iiiaeanoaii aaoaiie e nooiaiyie, aaaeoueie aaa?o. Aiaei?-Ooii (“Aieueoie
Ai?iae”) – oeeoaaeaeue ai?iaea, aai oeaio?aeueiay /anoue, iino?iai ai
a?aiaia Aeaeayaa?iaia VII (1181-1210 aa.) iinea oiai, eae a 1181 aiaeo
Aiaei? aue acyo e ?aca?aaeai /aiaie. Aieai?-Ooii ie?oaeai ?aii, oe?eia
eioi?iai ninoaaeyao 100 i., e noaiie aunioie ieiei 8 i., eioi?ay
ia?acoao eaaae?ao ni noi?iiie ieiei 3ei. A noaia eiaaony iyoue ai?io,
iaae eioi?uie aicauoaaony aaoiy aunioie ieiei 23i., oe?aoaiiay eeoeaie
aiaeoenaoau Aaaeieeoaoaa?u.

Ae?oaie aaee/anoaaiiue iaiyoiee – o?ai Aaeii n aeaaioneeie eaiaiiuie
ecaayieyie eeoe Aoaeaeu. Ecaeaeaea Aaeii auaeyaeeo, eae i?e/oaeeeaia
iaa?iiiaeaeaiea ia?iiiuo eaiiae, iaeiaei ii ia?a i?eaeeaeaiey e iaio ana
io/aoeeaaa /oanoaoaoue iaiaueiiaaiioth e?anioo yoiai nii?oaeaiey. Aaeii
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie o?aoo?iaiaaia caeaiea, n iniiaaieai 140 ia 160i.
Oeaio?aeueiay aaoiy iiaeieiaaony ia aunioo 45i iaae caieae. Aaeii
oe?aoatho aua 52 eaaae?aoiua aaoie, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia ?aciuo o?iaiyo e
eiathuea ?acioth aunioo, ia eaaeaeie noi?iia yoeo aaoai ecia?aaeaii
eeoei aiaeoenaoau Aaaeieeoaoaa?u, i?e/?i oae, /oi aaea au au ie
iaoiaeeeenue, yoe eeoea “niio?yo” ia aan.

Oieeaeueia e Neiiiaay oa??ana (aunioa 350i n eioi?ie eoia?neea ei?iee
iaaethaeaee oea?aiiiee ia aeaaiie ieiuaaee Aiaei?-Ooiia, eaaeauae ia?aae
aeai?oeii. A naiii oeaio?a iaianaiiie noaiie oa??eoi?ee iaoiaeeony
Ieiaiaean (“Iaaaniue aeai?aoe”) – auaoay ?aceaeaioeey eoia?neeo ei?ieae.
A thaeiie /anoe Aiaei?a eaaeeo ia?iiiue eneonnoaaiiue aiaeiai, eioi?ue
iineo iacaaiea “Ainoi/iue Aa?ae”. Aai ?acia?u i?inoi iio?ynathue – 7ei a
aeeeio e 1,8ei. a oe?eio. Ii aue aueiiai i?e ei?iea ssniaa?iaia I
(889-910 aa.) aeey niaaaeaiey ai?iaea aiaeie a canooeeaue ia?eiae. A
na?aaeeia iaoiaeeony eneonnoaaiiue ino?ia, ia eioi?ii aicauoaaony
iaaieueoie o?ai Iaaii, a ia thaeiie noi?iia iaoiaeeony o?ai Oa-I?ii,
eioi?ue oae e ia aue i/euai io aeaeoiaeae, e i?aaenoaao a oii aea naiii
aeaea, a eaeii e oaeaeaee aai enneaaeiaaoaee a eiioea XIX aaea. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aiaeie caiieiaia eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue Caiaaeiiai
aiaeiaia (8ei ia 2.3ei), Ainoi/iue aiaeiai aaniethoii nooie

Oa??ana I?ieaaeaiiiai Ei?iey iieo/eea naia iacaaiea ec-ca noaooe
i?ieaaeaiiiai ei?iey, iaoiaeyuaeny ia ieaooi?ia. Nae/an caeanue noieo
eiiey, a i?eaeiae iaoiaeeony a iaoeeiiaeueiii iocaa a Iiii-Iaia. Eiy
i?ieaaeaiiiai ei?iey iie?uoi oaeiie. Oai?ey i oii, /oi ei aue
Aeaeayaa?iai VII e eiaiii iiyoiio no?iee iiiai aieueieoe, ia iaoea
enoi?e/aneie iiaeaea?aeee. Iaeioi?ua enoi?eee ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi noaooy
ecia?aaeaao Eaaa?o, aia aiaaonoaa, eee ssniaa?iaia I, iaa ec eioi?uo
auee, i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii, i?ieaaeaiiuie. Aua iaeia aa?ney, /oi noaooy
iieo/eea iacaaiea ec-ca eeoaeieea, eioi?ue ?anoao ia iae.

O?ai Aiaei? Ooii (Angkor Thom) ?aniieiaeai a 1,7ei naaa?iaa Aiaei? Aaoa.
Yoi oeaio?aeueiay /anoue ai?iaea. Iacaaiea “Aiaei? Ooii” icia/aao
“Aieueoie Ai?iae”. Aiaei? Ooii aue nii?oaeai a 1181-1210 aa. iinea oiai,
eae a 1181a Aiaei? aue acyo e ?aca?aaeai /aiaie. Oa Eai – iaeia ec naiuo
aieueoeo e aunieeo iino?iae a noeea o?ai-ai?a. Aai no?ieoaeuenoai ia
auei caeii/aii. Anee au Oa Eai aue caaa?oai, oi yoi aue au iaeei ec
eo/oeo o?aiia a Aiaei?a. O?ai eiaao 32i a aunioo. Ionoonoaea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai ioi?ieaiey i?eaeaao aio /enoioo e naaaeanoue. Oa Eai –
oi/iay eiiey nayuaiiie ai?u Ia?o, n i?yiioaieueiui iniiaaieai e iyoueth
eaaae?aoiuie aaoiyie.

O?ai Oa I?ii (Ta Prohm) niaoeeaeueii ia i/euaeny io aeaeoiaeae e
i?aaenoaao a oii aeaea, a eioi?ii aai oaeaeaee o?aioeocu. Aaoie,
aoeaaeueii ?ac?uaaaiua noaieaie aea?aaueaa, ecaayiey aiaia, iaaeoua
aaoeaie eeai, e e?uoe aaea?ae, i?iaeaaeaiiua iiae oyaeanoueth ia?iiiuo
ei?iae – oaeei naaiaeiy auaeyaeeo yoio o?ai.

O?ai I?aae Iaae Iaai (Preah Neak Pean) iaeaaeaao eioa?aniie
eiiiiceoeeae: aie?oa aieueoiai eaaae?aoiiai aannaeia iaoiaeyony /aou?a
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoeo aannaeia, no?iai i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ii noi?iiai
naaoa. A oeaio?a aeaaiiai aannaeia ia eneonnoaaiiii ino?iaa iaoiaeeony
iaaieueoie o?ai, a ieiei iaai noaooy aeeaioiiai a aeooa Naeueaaaei?a
Aeaee.

Cio?aieeenue e ae?oaea ae?aaiea o?aiu – aieueoie o?ai I?a-OaiOa-Nii (XII
a.), Aaioae-Eaeae (aoi?ay iieiaeia XII a.), I?anao-E?aaai (iino?iai a
921a). Iyoue iineaaeieo aaeia o?aieoaeueieoeae e “a?oeoaeoi?ii”
ae?aaiaai ai?iaea auea naia i?e?iaea. Ca yoi a?aiy ai?iae noae iienoeia
neaci/iui /oaeii – eieinnaeueiua aicaeooiua ei?ie ?anoaiee oniaee
caaeooeoue a naieo iauyoeyo aeeaiua oai?aiey ?oe /aeiaa/aneeo.

Iaaaniay oaioeiaueoea. ?aeueao . XII a

O?aiiaue eiiieaen Aiaei? Aao oe?aoai ?aaeeeie ii e?anioa ?aeueaoaie,
ni/aoathueie oeao?iua ecia?aaeaiey n ?anoeoaeueiui e aaiiao?e/aneei
i?iaiaioii. A ?aeueaoao aaea?ae ia?aiai yoaaea caia/aoeaiu, a iniiaiii,
nthaeaou ec ae?aaiaeiaeeeneiai yiina «Iaoaaoa?aoa» e «?aiayia», ia
?aeueaoao aoi?iai yoaaea i?aaenoaao iiiaeanoai aeenoathueo a?aoeeae
iaaaniuo oaioeiaueoe. Eiiiiceoeey ?aeueaoia iino?iaia oae, /oi iaeia
noeaia ieaaii ia?aoiaeeo a ae?oaoth. Iuouaiea aeoaeiu ecia?aaeaiey
nicaeaaony ia ca n/ao iauaiiinoe oeao?, a a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiaeaiey eo
ae?oa ia ae?oaa. Ia?aiia/aeueii ?aeueaou auaeyaeaee cia/eoaeueii aieaa
aeeaiieniuie, o.e. auee ?ane?aoaiu e iie?uou iicieioie. I?ioiaey ii
aaea?ayi, c?eoaeue iaeii ca ae?oaei «/eoaao» iiiaioeao?iua ecia?aaeaiey.
Ieiuaaeue, caieiaaiay neoeueioo?iuie ?aaioaie a Aiaei?-Aaoa, ninoaaeyao
ieiei aeaoo ouny/ eaaae?aoiuo iao?ia. Ii?aceoaeueii, /oi i?e oaeii
eciaeeee ?aeueaoia e i?enoaeueiiio aieiaieth e aeaoaeyi ooaeiaeiee
nio?aiee /oanoai ia?u e oaeeaeoaeueiie aa?iiiee n a?oeoaeoo?ie.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Enoi?ey eneonnoa. Eaiaiaeaea

2. Enoi?ey Eaiio/ee. E?aoeee i/a?e.

3. Eaiio/ey: io o?aaaaeee e aic?iaeaeaieth

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