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EOEUeOO?A YIE?NEIAI OeA?NOAA

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E????? 2009a

E???a Y???? ???a

E????y ??ue Y???? ???a ????a a ???o ?????? ???yo, ?ae ?????? ??? ????:
???a??-??????, ????i-y??????, a ??e ???????. ???????, n ??e ???u, ??o
???? ???? ?????? ??o?u (E???????i e O?????e, ???y ????????a ??y ?? ???a
a ?i ???), E??? e N??? — n ???, Y?? ???? ??? ?? ?????i ??o ????e A???? e
C???e A??u, ??o ??y??i ????? (???e e ????e) e A????. E? e I???ay ???y, ?
? ??? ?????e ? ?? ?????ey ???, ? e ????y ?? ????? e ????? ???e e ??e
????, ????? ??? ?????? eth?i (E??a A???a, A??ey A??? e ?.), ?????
E??????? e A?? ??a ?y?y ? ??????e, ?i ???n???i ????th e ???o ????? ??e a
y?e ???a ????? ??e A?????e ???e.

N ??? ?ny???e ??????y ??? ?????a ??? ?????? ??????i, ????a ???i ???a e
e?? XIII a. I??i ???a ?????? ???? Y?? ??i, e ???o ?????u e ????????
????a ?????y ??ue ???i.

N?????? a Y???i ???a ?? ??????i ???????i a ????. A ss?? (???a a ???
?ny???y XIII a.) ? ???a ???e ??a ?? ????i ????i ????o ?????. Ai ??? ???a
— A?a — ?e I??? II A??a (1230—1268) ? ???? ???? ?? ?????y ????, ??? ???e
????y ???e ???. A ??i ??? e ?i ?????yo ???y?y ??? ??? ??a.

A ???? ?????a Y?? ??i ???? ?e ??y, ?e ???y: ??????, ????? ? ??????o ??a
????o ??? (????-????o, ?????? e ??????o) X—XII ?., ???e, ?e «????» e
«???y????».

A ???a XIII a. a Y???i ???a ???ny, ???????y e ???u??ny ??i ???e ??????
??a. I?? ???y A?????i ???e a ???? ????? ???? ?????ue e ?????? ??n???a,
???? ? ??a ???a, e ???a ? ???a, e ????ay ??? ?????? ??????a ??????? ??u
??????? ?????th. I???th?y ? ??? ?? ???e, ? e ???? e ????e. O??u
????-?i??? (n ???i ? ???o ??? — «???» ?i) E??ay ???ue (E?e?e Y???y,
I??ey A??n) a 30 ei e ??? ? A?u (1281), ???ue ?. Ae???y a A?a (??? ???
??????a, ??oe XIII a.), ????????y ?????y ???ue I??ay ???n a A?a (??y?i,
1260 1270 n ?? ?e ??oe XIII a.), ????? ????-??????e ?? A?????i i????y a
A?a (??. XIII a., ??? ??? ?????o?), ????? ??????e n ??ay?? ????i ?? I???
A?i ie o ???e I???? ?? A?u (??i 1238 a.) . A ?iy??? ??????i ??y ??cy
????? ???? ???ey ??????e ??e. N?? ?i ??th??y ?e ?c a ??????a, a ??????i
????e e ????.

A?? ??? ?? ??????? ???a, ???a ??i ???ue ???i, ?e «????». I? ????? a A??e
?? a VIII — IX ?.; ????e ????eytho n?? ?????? ????a ??, ????a ? ???i
??y. I??? «i???? ???a a ?????a ??? ???????? e n XIII a. ????ey? ?a ??e
?ie ???????i ?????, ???ath??y ? ????i ????a ????? ????o ???, ?????oth?o
??? ????? ????y. A ?????a Y???? ???a y? ???a ?????? ??e ??th???? ??????e
????? ??ey?: ????? ????e, ?e??e ??ay?? ???e, ????? ????e ?e ????e ????e.
Y? ????e ?? ??????? ?????i. I??? ???? ??????: ???ue ?. A??ey a A?a (???
XIV a., ???a ????? ?a ?a ??) ????ey? ??e ????oth ????, ???oth ??ay??
???, n ???i, ?????i ? ???; ???ue ?. I??ay (XIII a.) a ss?? ?? ????a ?e
????ay ????y ????; ???ue ?. A??ey o ??a a A?a — ????ay ????y ????,
??????ay a ??a, e o. ae.

E????ey e ????ey y?o ???e, ????o a ?ay ???u «???? ?????u, ??ue ???,
??????u e ?????yi ???? ????-?????. C??y ???u ? ??? ??? ??y. Y?? ??th,
???, ???a e ?iy ????????ue. E???? e e????ey ??ey ????u ??? ????eth ???y
n A??. A??????a ??? ???e ????i ????? n ????? ?e ??? e a?e ??ue ??????.

O??a ???a a ?????a Y?? — ?e ???a?e ?i ????? ??ey «???y????» (????????),
???i?e e ????e E. I????i. Y?o ??i ????e ???o ????e ????e, ???????? ? ???
a Y???i ???a, ? ??i e ? I?????, ?y??y a ????? ????y ???? ????-????ai
??a. Oe??? ????ey? ??e ???a ?y????? ????-?i??? ???, ? ?c ???. E?? ???
??o a ??a ??o ???, ???e ???tho ???e ?o e ????, ????th??y a ?i ??a, ?a
??? ????y ??e.

I?? ? ??? ????? ?? «???y????» y?y?ny ????ay ????y ???ue E?i I??ey a A?a
(??o 1231 —1271 aa.). Ca ?e ???o ?yae ??? ???e: ????ay I?? I??ey a O???
(?. 1285 a.), ????ay ???ue E??a A???? a A??e (??ay ???? XIII a.), ????e
????i ????y ?. Ae???y ??i O?????? (??a 1283 a.), ???ue ?. O??? a A?a e
?.

I?? 1283—1296 ?. a A?a ????y ?? ? ????? a Y??, ?, ???e, e ? ?? A??e,
????a ??? — ?????ay ???? I??? I??????. I? ?? ???? ???i ??i ???a I??? II
I????, ?i ??e A?? e ? ??i O?? e ??a ???e ???ueth ??? ???e ?a???
????-????e, ?????ny ?y?i. I??ey I?????? — ???a e ???a ?????, a ???i ??e
????a ??? ????? ????o ?????? ??????o ??a, ??????-???o ??, n ???????
y????, ???y??ny a ?????????, i??a ??i ??uey??e, ?????a. Ii ??e ??????
??????e ? ??i ?? ? ???ue ??????i «??????i ????.

Ii ??a ?? ????ey? ??e ?c ???? ?i?a ???e ?a n ??y ????. A ??? ??a ??o
??????y ?i????y ???a ????e e ???? ?y ??? n ???i ? ??? ???: ??? (? ???),
??? e ??a—??i 20 i. I??i ?????? ?i?a, ??? ??o ?a 5 ???a: ??? — ? ??i, a
???, ??a ???, i??????e ???? ????e ? ???a, ????? ?? ??e ?n?a e ???, ????,
?????e. O? ?i ??? (????, ???? e th??), ????? ??y ?y?? ???o ???o ?? e
????? ???e ??y??? I-???? ????, ???? ????, ????e ???, a?e ????ue ??? e
???, ?ae ??????? ??? ???i ???n??. E? e a ?????a ???e Y?? (???? ? ???),
??ae ??? ?e ????? ???.

A??? y?? I??? I?????? ?? ???u ? ??e ??ey?i ???th??y ??a ????i ????a e
???o ????, ?i ???? ?????? ?????e ??. A ???? ? ????y ??? e ???????? ??
???e 45 ?, ???e ?e ?? ?? ?i?? y?? ? ???? e ????e ???. O?c ???o ? ??? ??o
e???o ????e e ????? ??-???e y??, ??????o a ????i ??y?a. Ii ???ny e ??a
?????i ????i. O?? ?? ?o???ny a ??uey??o ?iy???, ? ??ue ??e a A???e.
C???y n??? ??? ?????? ????? ????a ????e: ???, ?i?, ??u, ????y a ?? ???
??e ?e ???a. *???ay ???a ??? n ???ath?? ???? ???? ??????e ???, ???a
???tho ?????????a ???.

A??? ??e ?????o ????oth ?????th ??ue ??? e ????y ? ??? ??i ???th?? ???,
????i?o a ?e y??. O?? ??????a ???a ??? ????i ???? i????? ?????i ????y —
???? ??????i ??, ? ?????? ? ??, ?e e o ???? ???e. I?????a ????a ? i???ey
e ? ?????? ? ???th ??? ??? ????? ?????a ???a. I??u ??? ?? y??a ???ath?y
? ??a: ? ?ey??a ???i y?? ? ???o ?????? ???e ????. E??, ??a ??, ???? ?
???o e ???o. A ????o ???? ????? ??????a ???o??a ???, ????a a ?????a ?? a
???o ??yo ?????uo ???a, a ??a ??????? ???u e ????. A???th?y ??ue ???,
????? a ??u ??a, y?y?ny ???y? ?y ???, ???o ??e.

I? ??y? ? I??eth I?????? ?????ny ?????a, ?i ? ????e ????? ????? ?a
??????? ??????a ??u, ??????? a ???e ????a A???e, e ae???ue ?a-?i ??a ?
???? ?????. I??i ????y???, yoi ??y?i ?eth???tho ???u ???i e ???i y??e.
A? ?e ?????i ???, ???? ?????e ???ey? ????o ??a. O?? ????o ????e ???yo e
??????e y?? e ?atho ?? ?e ?a ?y? ???? ????o ???a. A?ue e ????????a ????
n ??ue ??????? ????? ??uey?. E??? ???? y?? ??y?y ? ????yo n ?????? ???u
?e ???, ?i ?????i ????o ? ???? ?ey?a.

???i-????? ??? a ?a ???e ???e ??e ?? ????a a ?????? ?????, ???th?e ????
???. O?, ? 11 ??yo ???e ?? n ???? e ????e ??? ???? ?????- ?a ????u.
??????a ??? a ????? ????? ????y ???? ????o e ????? ???e. I?? ? ????
nth??a ????? y?y?ny nth?o ????? O???a. A????a ???? ? ????? ??, ???i
???iy??ue, ???a ??? ? ??oth ??, n???th a ??a, ??a ?e ? ??y ?? ??y?? ????
?ae ??? ???. Y? ?? A????u ??i ?????y a ???? ???th?o.

N ???? ???u ???e ?? ? ?th? ?????? ????ey ???? O????. I??? O??a e ?i ???
??ue ?????u. ?y?i n ?i ?????u ?????u E?? e I??e, ????i?a a ?? ???a n
???e. N?? ??? ??? ????? ???o ??- ?? ????: ???? N???a, ???i a ?????th ???
n ???e?? ???e ? ???, Ae??a a ????e ?? e ?????e ?y?-???. C?? ? ??aey?y e
???e E?, E?ey, C??ey, E??ey.

A?e a ????eyo ? ???? e ????e ???? ???e ?? ??????ny ????a ?????a ????
???ia, ? ????ey ? ?th? n ???? ???u ?? ????ey? ??e ?/? ??oth ??th n
??uey??o ???e. Y? ?????? e ?o ??, ?i, ???? ??? O????? ???, ?????a ? ?th?
??a A???, ???th?? ? ??e ??????, ????i a ?????? ???. A? ???o i ?i, ?i
?????? ????u ?? ????u ????e ????e, ??y?? ??i ??uey??e, ??????e ???? Y??.
C???a ?ey?a ??a ??i ????i a ?????, ???y ? ??a ???o o???e a A???e. Y?
?iy??? e a ????? ???a O???, ?? ae??? Y?? I??? II, ???????? ??a ???. I??u
? ???? ?? I?e?? a A?a ???? ??????e ?????. I??i ????a ???a, ???? a nth??o
????i ????a, ???? e ? ?????? ??eyi. I???? ? ?e ??i ?a ????a ??u ? A?u n
??th??? a ????u ????i ?????? ?? e ??a ?????tho y?o ??ae.

I?y? n ?????? e ?????e ?????e a Y?? ?????y e ????. I??i ???iyy ??i
?????? ?????o e ????? ? ??? ???????o ??ith. A ???? ??i ???? ?a ?????y:
????????a ?????? n y????e ??? ??y e ????a, ????????? ????i.

A???????ia ?????? ???a a ???? ????ny ?a n ??? ?ny???e XIII a. Y? ?ei
????i, ?????th??y ???? XI—XII ?., ??? ?????y e y???. A ???o ?????o ???e
?i. A??a n ?i ??y?y e ????a ????a: ???a ??e ??e ???, ?i ????i ?????th
???e ???e y?????? ??c?????, ????a ???o ??a ?? n ????e, ?????e ??i? ???.
Ii y? ?????ey ??e ? ???tho ???????? «??????? ??y y?? E???a.

E ?iy??? y?? ???y ??ny?y ??? ??i ??? ???e E??a A???? a A??e, I??ay ????
a A?a, I??ee A??n, I?? I??ey a O???, Ae???y E???n, E?i I??ey a A?a, ???
th??i ?? ???? A????? a O????? (?. 1230 a.) e ????a ???. Ii ??? ??? ?e
??? n ???? XIII a. a ???o ?. I?????a a I??e e ?. A??ey a E????. A ????
???a ??????i ??y ????? ??a ???? ???? e ?????th a ??? E??a A?i??a, ???y
????ny ???i XIII a.

N?? ??? ????u ? ?e ??: ??? ???a??i A????a, ????? — A?????a, ??o — ?.
A??? e ?. Ei?i C???o. Ia th?? ??a ??a ??? ????? ??u ? «????? O???? ?
«A???y ? ??». Y?o ?? ????i ? ???????e, ???? ???a. N??? ?? ?? ????
?????y? ???? Aea??a, N???, E???, a ??a E??a A???? n A?????, ???? ????, e
N??? N????.

N ??e ??ey ?????e ??u a ???? ??e??? ?y ??????i ????a XI—XII ?.: ?e ??a a
????? ?ay O??? ????i ?c ??a, a n?? A?????y ???? A??? ??a ??? ??????? ?a
e I??, ?iy?e ??? a ???? e ??? ?????a ??. A ??i ???i ?? ???? ???? ?/ e
???, ?????oth?a ?????a Nayo?i Ae?a. N?? ? ???????e ?????u ??u «A???y ?
??» n E??? e I??e, ???? E??a-????, N???i e A?? e «Niy?y n ???». A ????e,
???e, ????, n ???e A????a ???ny ?? ??? ??, e ??i e?? ? ?? ???tho ??a
y????, ?i ???, ?????? ???? ??u. O??????ue e ?? ?????? ????? ?y ?????y
A????e I??u a ???.

I??i ???ath?y e ?????y ? ?????? ?????e. O?, a ??? ??a e ??? ? ????? ??
?????ia ??a «I???? ????? n ??y ??th??ny ?????. I??i ? ??ue ?????? ????.
I??i ?. A??? e ?. E?? C???o ???? ? ?ayi ???. I??????i y?y?ny a ??a
«Nay?a ?? o ?i?» e ???a ??a ?? ?i.

N?y ? ??????? ???, ??? ??? E?i? A???? ???? ??y ?????e. Ii ? ??ue a
?????e ?c, ae????e ???, ???? ????y a ??i a ??? ??????i ????a. I??a, ???a
????y e ????th ??ae, ????th ??y?a, ???????e e y??? ?c. N??e ?? ??????o n
???? ?iy? ? ??o. I?? ??a ????a??y e ???? ??? a ??? A????y. N??? ??u ????
? ??th?? e a ???? ??????y ???o ? ???u Y???? ???a A?u e ? ??????. A ???
E?i I??ey, ?????e e ?????e ?e I??? II, ?. Ei?? a ??????? ???a ????i e
?????? ??? ???o? XII a. Ii ??? n ?i ???? ???e a ?i ??? ??????, ??e ???o,
?i ????o ? ???n ????? e ???????? ?? ???a ?????y. AEe??? ??? ?. I??ay
???? ??i A?u ??a ???y? ?????? ??u. E?a ???, ?e e ? ???o ? ??a ?. I?????a
a I??e, ???tho ? ?ay ???? ???? ?iy?, ?????? e ??????th. E?ue ????a ???u
?? ??a ????i e n ???i ????? ??oa.

O???????i ???? e ???ay ??????ay ????, ??? ??i ????a ?????y ???????
?????th?? ??? Y?? e ???? ???e. O?? ???? ???o ?i????? O???, ?i ?? I??, ?i
??a E??a e ???e ????ai A?u a ??? I??? A??n (1281 a.), ???o ??????? E??a
E??ia A??a, ????ey ??? I?? I??ey a O??? (?. 1285 a.), ? ???i ???? ??a e
?. *?? y?? ??y ??? ? ??? n ????th ? I??e, ? e n ???y?, ??y???e ??? E??
II A?iy ?ae O???i E???i a 1230 a., a ??? N??a ????a a O???.

C????? ??? y???? ??? ? ???i a ????, ??????? ??? N??a ????a a th?? ??
???? A????? a O?????. O???, ??????? ??? ????a, n i?? ???u, ???ytho ??i
?????a ??u ???? XI a. (???a iy?a ? ??o, ??????y ??a ??), a n ??? — ?a
??? «?????» ?????y ??a XII a. (??u ?? ?? ???i, ???oth?y ???a e ???a
????? ??e). N??? e y????y ?????otho ??? ??i ?????a ?. A???y, a ??a ???
????o ??? ???e?, e ??? ? ?????? ? ??? ???i ???? ??? A????y O???a a
I????. Y? ???? ?a ??cy ???ue ??????? o???? ??????i ????a. C?? ?????tho
??? ??? e i????i ?????????i ??y.

????? y?? ??y y?yth?y ??? ??? O?a?y A????u ? ?? I??? (?. 1250 a.), e
????th ?????e ?ae ??e ??????? ??a. E?e ?y?o a ??a ????y a ????? ?ay
????u n ?a ???i ????? ???? y????e, n ???e ???? e ??????th, ?i a ????
O?????. C?????? ??? ???ey ???tho e ???y?e ??n, e ????a ??, e ??a?a ???e
???. A? ??? ???? y???u ??? ?????i ??y, ???e, ????, ?????iy?y ec I???i a
N??e.

Y?o ??ue ??i ???ue ????? ? ??????i ????a e ???????o, ?i «??? ???????
??ue ???i ??? ??? ??y? a XIII ??. E?? ??a ???y E??????ey ? ??i ?????
????a, ? ????? ??? ?????y e ?y?, ????a ???? a ??? ??y XI— XII ?. Y?o
???n ???y ??e ?????? a N??e, Y??, A??e e I??. AE???ue ???? ??????y ?
?????? ??, ?????y ??a ????e e ?????e. O????a ????tho ??????a e ???a y???
e ?a?. E???y ??? ??? ???? ???y?ny ??a ??????? i???e: ?????? ????ny
??????i e ????, ?? ??? — ??a y??????e. N??e e ???e ??e, ??? ????a ??? ?a
??? ???atho ?? ???. I???? ? y?o ?? ? ?a ???? a ???yo th??i ?? ????
A????? e ??? O??ey A????u. Ii, ?????, ????? ???ey ??u ??? ??y ???? a
???? ???e ??? I??? I?????? a A?a. A ?e a ???a ? ??? ???e Y?? ?????ue
???e — y??? ??? a ????a XIII a., ?y ???? ????? ????a ???e. A y???e ????
????a ?????y ??????u ?a ??? a E?i I??ey (?????y O??a e A????u) ea???
I??ay ?i??a.

I??? I?????? ?????ue a ???? a ??? e ???? ? ???o. E?? ?????i ???i ????
I???a??i, ????? ????? e ?????, a ??o ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????
(?????y Ae?e? e N???a ? ?????ue). Io ??? ?????? ? ???o ??e ?e?i ????u.

E????? O??a I?????a ????i a ???e e ??? ???. Ii ?? a ??i ????i-???? ??a,
? ???e i???i ???e ???e. A???? ?? O??a ???a e ??????a, a ? oy??a e ???a,
?e a XI—XII ?. Ii ?i ???a ??a n ??????e ??y? ???yo ? ???y n ??e ??????
????th. E????a ??? O??a, ?e a ?????a ?????? I?????a e XI XII ?., ?c??? ?
?a ???u. I???? ???? a ?????e O??a ?a ? ??? ? ???i XII a. E??i y?i
?uy?y?ny ?????ue ????o ??. E?? ??, ? ??ue ??i ?? n ???? ??? ???? ????e
???e, ??a ??? a ???? ???a ?????e ????oth ????th ??o O??a.

N????i ?ay ??? o ?????, ????? i???? ??? ????. Ii ??eth A. I????, ?e ??
?e ?????????o ?????, ????th?o ??e ??????? ??ue. Ie ?? ? ???? ? ????i ???
?????, ?e y? ?? ???i, ????, a Ae??. C?? ?e ?iyo e ???th a ??????? ????
?e ??e a ???ue. I???? ???i ????, ??? ?-???o ??? ?????e ???. A? ???e — a
?????? ???????o ???o: ???? ??? — ???e, ? ??o — ????, ??????a ??y?.

Ii ??i e ????th ?? ???? ??i ????ue ? ?e ???: a) ????? ?i — ??????y ???,
??? ???ii ??tho ? ??e, ??yae ??????i ????i a ??????ue, ??aeay ????ue e
?????ue (E?ey, E??ey, E????); a) ?i ????y — ??? ??? ????, ?a ???e e ??e,
??? ????, ??? ???ay, ? ?? ??? ????i ?????y (A??e, E??, A??); a) ?i ?y? –
??? ??? ?e ??? ??y?, ????a ??i ??a ??? e ???, ????a ????a (N???, I??e,
E??, E?y).

E????? ???? y?i ????o ? ????a?? ??????? e ????????? ????o ???e, ? ??c io
????? e ??????e. I????? ?ay?e ???tho ???? e ae?????ue. I??u ???? ???tho
?? e ???atho ????e ??ae??, ???ay ????? e ???? ???. AE??? e y????y ??a,
?????? ?c, ????? ????e ?e — ?a y? ???o i ?i, ?i c?? ???? ?????? ???a.
A??? ???? ?e ????o ?e e a ??????e ???, ???a ??? ? ??? ???y?y ??a ???e, ?
e ????eytho ??e ??e??th ??? — ??o, ???o, ???o, ??o e ???o. I????a ??i?o
????? n ???th ???a ???u e ????? ????a ??? ???? ?????? ?iy??? a ??o E???,
N??? e A??a, a ???o ???a, ???a e ???a ???e ???i ?????otho ?? n ???.
A????a ??????a ???? ????? ???y? ??????, ?i ???a ??????? ????e IV—V ?.,
???o e ???i, ?e e ? ??? ??? ???eyi ???-????? ????a, a ??a ???i ??????e
??????th ??????? ????.

I??? ??? I??? I?????? ?????ue a ?????, ?e ?????????e, ??? ????. Iiy??
??e ?o ? ????i ?e ?????ey n ?????e ????? ??? (I?o????), ?e e ???
???????e e ???????e ???e ???? — ????e ??o y???e ????. Y?o ??? ?????y ?
??? OO—XIV ?. A??a c?? ? ?y??? ??-??? ??????i a ???e ??????? ae???e. E?
????y ????, ???? ??? ??????ay a I??? I?????? ???y? ??a XIII—XIV a., ?
???? ???????i ??iy ???. Y? ????y ?e e ?????th A????u e ???a Ae??a a ???,
?e e e ??? O??ey e A????y A????u ? ??? ??a ?e ???i n ???? ?yo? A??y,
E??a C???? e A???y A???? a ????. I? ???ee ???e ????ey ?a ?e ??aey?y a
?????? ??o ??i?e.

I??? ?? ??????? ???? a ????a Y???? ???a XIV a. a ????e ???e ??????ny
????i ????e. E ???? ??? ??? ??ny?y ?a ???a ?????a ??u e ??? I?? I?a?y.
Ia ?o ????? ?????y?? O??? e ?? e ?iy?y I???ey. I????a ?? n iy??e ???e,
?????y ???? ????e ?a ?????atho ??ue ????e ????, XIV a. E OO a. ????y e
?????yy ??a n ???ae??i ??iy?y e A????e I???? (? ????y o ???e I?a ??
A?u). E?? ??, ???y ??????i ??? O???y, ??? ??y ?. N??, ?i ????e, ????y? a
??? 1219 a. a N??th ??c O?????, ???e o ???? ????o ????? ?a ???a ??u n
?????? O??a e Nay?e A?u. I? ?? ??? ???? ??????y? e ????? a ????a O????.
N? O???e ??e ? ???a e ????ny ? ?e??? e ????th.

E XIV a. ?????i ??ny?y ?e ??u, ?????a ? ??? ?n?? ss?? O?u I?eth??? e ?i
?? I?? I????? ??o 1372—1384 ?.: «O???a O?? (????ue I?????y a I???o) n
?????? I?? I????? e, ????, O?u I?eth???; «E?? I?? I?????» (?i ?) n
?????? ????u o ?a A????e e 14 ????? ?????y? ?y?o ? ????; ???????? (a ???
a Eoy?a a E???), ?o?? ?e ???? a 1383—1384 ?. e ????y ??? «E?? I??
I?????» e ???????y ??? e ?e ??u n ?????? O?u I?eth??? o ?a O??a. Ii ????
y?e ??u, ?e e ? ??a ?i ??,— ????a ?????y ?y?o.

A ??a «O???a O?? ?????? ??u ????u n ???y?. N?? ???e ?iy?? ? ???yo O??a n
????th??y e ?? O?? ????a y?????. A????? ? ??a ?????ny ?e ???ay ??a, ?? —
?e ??a y???????i ??????? ???a. O??u ??ey ? ??? ??a. ??????i ??a? y?y?ny
?????a ???a ? ?? ?? a ??e ??e ??u. A?e ??? ????a ?? ?????i, ? ?????th
I?? I????? y?i ???u ??????? ??u — ?e a y?e ??a, ?e e a «E?? I?? I?????»
e a ????????e ??? a Eoy?a.

A y?o ??? ????u ?a ??y. E????ey O??a e I?? I????? ???? n ???th ???? ?y
????e ??ie ???? XIV a. ??o ?????o ??e, ???aey?o «a ???? ????? ??? ??e a
???oth ????o, ?????oth?th n ???? ?iy?». I??i ?????u ?y?o ???? ????? e
???e ???e a ???eyo ???? ???e ???? XIV a. Ii n?eth e y???i ??? ??? ??a
«A????e O???? (??ay ??a?a XIV a., A?. Y???), a ???e ????? 14 ?y?o ???? a
??a ????e ???, ?i A?i???.

A??e ? ?????? ??ue y???e ????e ? ??a ?e ?e ????i ? E??????ey ?e N??e?
I???y ? ???? ??? ??????? ???? a Y??, ??? ??i ?????? ???. I??i ?????i
y?y?ny ?? ??????y a Y???i ???a ??? ????i? ??y ? ??? ???? XIV a.

Io XIII—XV ?., ?e ????, ?????ue ??i ?????? ?????i ????a. A ?e???? ??i y?
??ay??, ????a e ???? ???. ???a ? ???? ??e ???? a ???, ??ue ?? ???e ?
?????o ???? e y??. A ???? ???o ?????? ?????y ??? ?????y, ??? n ?????e.
Ii ????ue ??th??ny a ? ??? ????a e ?????e. E???a ?????yy ??ay ??ay?ay
????y ?i? ?. A??ey (XIII a., Ae????? ??e a A??o), ????y?y ? ??? a E???e.
I? ????? ? ??th, a a ??? ?. A??ey ?????y ???? ?ey?a.

Ae???y ??ue ??? a ??? ???? XIII a. ????a ?ae ??? ??? n ??iy??. Y? ?ay
??????? ? ??? a I???? ???e, ? e a Y???i ???a, ???? a O??????e ???e.
A????? y????i ?????ey ??i ????y e ???? A???e, ???th aa ???? a Y??, ?e e
a I??, ???? ?? ????a a ?????? i?????yo ??? ???, ? ??? ??i a ?????.

N????y ???????e ???c, ????? ae??? O????? E??? O?????i. A ?i ??????ny i
???o ?. Ae???e, ?????i ?????? O????? n IV a. A???o ???????i i????o ? ??a
??? ???e, ??????e ????, ??iy?? a 1204 a. e E??i II A??i a 1230 a. Ii ???
????y ??? ?. Ae???y ??ae ???ny ?????i?.

Ae??y ??a y?? ???????? ?????ey, ? e ??????y ??? ???—????a ??????
????a??? ??o ???i e ??iy?i, ????a ??????e ???ey ?o??. I?y?y?ny y? a
????e ??n Ae???y ? ?y ?i ???u e ? a??? ??e ????a a ?? ?????e ?????? ??e.
Iiy?? E?? O????e ??i ????y? ????y «?? ?a ??? ?e «?? ????. E???? ??????e
?????? ???e ????? e i?????oth ??: ???? ??? ?. Ae???e ??? th?a ????ue
?????. A? ?e ????o y? E?? O????e: ??u, «????a ????, ????? ?a ? ??u, ? ?.
Ae???e ???? y??y ? a ??? ?????? ??a e ??? ???e, ????a ? a ??? ????
????e. I??i ???i ???e, ??ey?? ??a ???e ???th ?? e n?? ???e e O?????.

E ??a ??????e Ae???e y??y ? ??aey?i ? ??? n ?????? ????.

A ??e ?. Ae???e ?iy?y? ?ith ???oth ?? a ??? ??? A?????e ???e: ? ???o ?
?????a y???i? ????, ???y? ? ??? ???e O???e, ???? ??? e ?e?? ? ????y ???,
??ey? ??? a E??????? e A????i?, ????o ??? a E????e e o. ae. Ae???e «????
e ???e ?? ???ath?i ?i ? ??? a O????? e ? ?????yo, ? e a ??? n???». O?
??c ?y?? ?????o ??u ???????, ?i ???? y?o ?iy?? ? ?????? ?????th?e ?????.

Y? ????i-?????? ????a ??e ??ee ? ??a ???o ??? ?? ???e ??i ?????? ???
???????? ??y, ?e ?????a, ????? e ??? ????. Ae???e ????? e ???? ? ???
????? ???? ?e ???-??? ???, ? ?? ???i ? ??a ?????. Ii ?e ? ??? ??th?? ?
?? ????y?i ? ??a e ??? ?y?y?ny a ?? ??a ?e ??? o?, ?a ????y ?i ???.

I?? i ?????e e ??? ????? e a ?o ?i????yo y???e ?????, ???a ???????i
????? ?e ?y?? n ??ueth ???o ????o ??. I??a a??, y? — ???? ??????y ??? ?
????o ????o ?y??e Y???? ???a, ?????a I???a (??o 1204—1230 ?.) E??a
A???a.

???ny ?, ??y?i, a ???? XII a. (??? ?ae ?????). I????? ???e a E???????, ?
??a 1204 a. ?????y a Y?? e a ???a ?????i ???e ?e ?????? I???a, y?yy?
?????? ??? ? ????i e ??????? ??i.

I??i ???? ??????e, ? A???a ??e y???? e ???a y???y?? ????.

N???a ??????y, ?e y???e, ???a A??? ???e ??i, ?????i ?????ey ??? ??? ?e
???, a?ue ??iy?th ????a ??????? ?????ey, ??? ??e ?a?u e ?????a ????
?????? e ?????i e ???? ??aeo. A ?o ????i ????tho ??? ??u ??????i ?? ???i
Ia??? e ???yi ?????. ???a ????? ?? ????e ??ae ??i ?????a, ???????ue ???
????a ????: ????i ??? ???yi ?oyo ??e ???? o ???? ??? ???e ??e (????
??????a XV), ??ay ??i ?? ???a N??? (XVI), ? ????ny ?????e n??? (XII) e
o. ae. I???i ??i ??????e ???????i ????a ?e ??th??y ????y ????. C?? e
???a, ? ??o ???e ?? ??e, a ?ae ??iyao (XXIX), e ???? «?a???-?ae, ?? ????
???i ??? (? ???? a ???a): ?a ??a??a ?i, ?i ? ? ??o ? ????ue e ???y?
?????a ?y??i?e, a ?y?? ??iy? ?o. I?????? A???a ? y?? ?? ????ny ???????th
e ?????th: ?i ?? ??? e ?i ??i ???? ???o ??? ??????ny ??ay ??th??y ??? a
???i ????. ?????? ?? ?? ????i ??e ??ae, ? ??? ? ? eth???a, «??u ??? ?
???i ??, ?eth?a ???thth ???o, ??????ue n ?e e ?e y?i ??y?ny ?y? ? a ??»
(XX).

A????ueth e ?????i ???th?y e ??? ?o?a ??????y A???a. Ca ???????? ???? ?
????o ??? ????a ??y?a e ???th y???th, ???? ? ????a ?cy?a ??????y ????,
?e ?e ????, ?i ? ?????? ??a?a ??i ???? ?? ?????y ????, ?? ????? ??? ???.

A ????? A???a, ?e e a ????? I???? ???e, ???i ???n e ?????. O?, ?? a
?????a ??????a ? ???????o ?? ??? ???y? ?a ??a ? «I???» A????a (48 e
1070) e ?? ?? ec A??a, ??u ???? «?i ???a ???i ????? (I??ay. XV. 20). A
?i ???o ??y?ny ??i ???ey ???a. E??a y? ???? ???? ? ???i I???? (???
XXXIII) ?e a????a ???oy? ??u e ??? ???? e ??ae (XI), a ? e ??? ???
??ueyi ??? ??? ? ???a, ???ny ???e e ??i (XIX). A ???o ??a ??i th??, ??o
?????? e ???a (????, ?o? ???? ??ueyi i ????o ??e ??e (VIII, OO11) ?e ??o
n ????i, ?n??? ?o ????? ??a, ? ???? ?????? e y?? ?? iy? e ?? (IV)).

Ae? ??? ??????y ???? Y???? ???a — A??? A??i e Ae???e O???i — ?iyo ????i
a ???a io ??????i ????. Io A??ey A???, ???e ???y a A??o, ae? e I??, a
??i, ??????ue a Y??, ?? ?????? E???, ??i ?? ????i y????o ?e?????, ??????
?????ey ??? ??iyi e ??? e ???? ??i.

A? ?????e Ae???e O???i, ?????i Io?? (1216 1234), ???e ?????? ??i ????e
(???? e ???? ??????y, ?????? ???ey e ??? e ?????o, ????a n ?a????ey?
?????e ???). I??a, ?y ???e ??a ??i ? ?ae???a, ?e ???? ? ???e e ?????
???? ?????a e ?i????? ??o, ?i ?????? ?????a e ?????e.

E????a Y???? ???a ??y?o ??? ? n???eth n ?????i ????e e ????a I?? ?e
O????a. C?nue ? ?? ???i ? ??e ??????e, ? ?????? ?????? i?????e. Aea e
????? ????o ?? y???o ????o ?y??e ????? ??i ?e ?ny???y ??????y ?????a. I
????? ???a ?i ??? ? ????. A ??i ??ae Y?? a ?????oth e???o XIII a. ???ny
a ??oth ???ue e ????eth ??????o ????? ?????thu? y?? e ? ????eth a ??ue a
?iy??? ????e ?????u, a ??a e ???eth ??????o ???e a ????a e ???????i
?e???.

N??e ?????:

1. E???a A???e XIII – ??ay ???? XV a. I.: I??, E 90., 1991. – 640 n.

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