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Eoeueoo?a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee

Aaaaeaiea

Ae?aaiee ie?. Yiioa, eiaaea nicaeaaaeenue ai?iaea, ia?aua no?aiu e
oeaeua oeeaeeecaoeee, eioi?ua aei neo ii? eco/atho. Iiiaea oaeiu
Ae?aaiaai ie?a oae e inoathony oaeiaie, eioi?ua o/aiui i?aaenoieo
?ane?uoue.

Enoi?ey Yaaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee caaa?oeeanue n i?eoiaeii naaa?iuo ieaiai
a?aeia – aei?eeoeaa, eioi?ua ii n?aaiaieth n aoaeoeaie noiyee ia aieaa
ieceii o?iaia ?acaeoey. A?aay e naeeaay, aiaaoua aoaeneea ai?iaea, iie
auoanieee aoaeoeaa ia ino?iaa Yaaeneiai ii?y, a Iaeoth Aceth e ia ino?ia
Eei?. I?eaeeceoaeueii n XI a. aei i.y. ianooiaao niooiue ia?eiae a
enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, a?aiy oiaaeea iaoa?eaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Ii
i?iaeeeeny ianeieueei aeanyoeia eao, iiea a?a/aneea ieaiaia iacaaaoea
naay yeeeiaie, ia nicaeaaeoo naith naiiauoioth eoeueoo?o, eioi?ay
ioe?iao neaaeothuee ia?eiae a?a/aneie enoi?ee.

Ec?acaiiua aooou Yaaeneiai ii?y niinianoaiaaee ?acaeoeth ii?aieaaaiey.
Ai?enoay caiey A?aoeee auea o?oaeiie aeey caieaaeaeey. Ii a?aee
aicaeaeuaaee aeiia?aaeieee, ieeaeiaua naaeu e oeaaiua iiey, eioi?ua
i?eiineee aeaaiua i?iaeoeou ieoaiey: aeii, ieeaeiaia ianei e oeaa.
Iiiaeanoai iie?uouo eanaie ai? auee i?ae?aniui ianoii aeey ioiou ia
ieaiae, eaaaiia, eueaia. A i?aaeai?ueyo ianoooe ianee eic e iaaoe. Naiie
aunieie e nayuaiiie ai?ie auea Ieeii. Ia Ieeiia, a caiaea/iie aune, ii
iiaieth ae?aaieo a?aeia, iaeoaee i?ae?aniua, iioiaeea ia ethaeae aiae.

A?a/aneea o/aiua aeinoeaee ia?iiiuo aunio e ia inoaiaaeeaaeenue ia
aeinoeaiooii. Iie iuoaeenue naeaeaoue aua aieueoa, ioe?uoue iiaua caiee.
Eiaiii a A?aoeee iiyaeeenue oaeea oi/iua iaoee eae aaiiao?ey e aeaaa?a.
I iiue a?a/aneie a?iee oiaeeee eaaaiaeu, yoi auee aanno?aoiua aieiu,
eioi?ua ia aeaeaee nee a aith.

Oae aea iaeuecy iaieoe noi?iiie ia?iiiia eiee/anoai ieoia, eaaaiae e
neacaiee, inoaaoeony iinea yoie ae?aaiae oeeaeeecaoeee, iai?eia?
eaaaiaea i 12 iiaeaeaao Aa?aeea (eee Aa?eoeana), eee i iooaoanoaee
i?aaiaaoia ca cieioui ?oiii.

Aei neo ii? nia?aiaiiua enoi?eee e o/aiua i?iyaeytho i/aiue aieueoie
eioa?an e enoi?ee yoiai ainoaea?noaa.

Iniiaiuie oeaeyie aeaiiie ?aaiou yaeythony:

1. Enneaaeiaaoue Ae?aaithth A?aoeeth eae ainoaea?noai n oieeaeueiie
eoeueoo?ie.

2. ?anniio?aoue aeayoaeueiinoue auaeathueony ee/iinoae A?aoeee e
iieacaoue eo aeeyiea ia eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneea i?ioeannu ainoaea?noaa.

1. Ieoieiaey e ?aeeaey

Eoeueoo?a ae?aaieo a?aeia ioee/aeanue naaoneei oa?aeoa?ii. Ii aeaaiaea?y
aiaaoie, e?ani/iie e ?aciiia?aciie ieoieiaee e ?aeeaee iu iiaeai iiiyoue
ie?iaicc?ai/aneea iniiau yeeeiia.

Oeaio?ii ie?iaicaeaiey ae?aaieo a?aeia aue /aeiaae. I?iecaaaeaiey
a?a/aneiai eneonnoaa ii?aaeatho aa?iiieae e niaa?oainoaii. Aeaaiui
iiiyoeai eneonnoaa noaiiaeony aioo?aiiaa e aiaoiaa niaa?oainoai. Ana a
aeecie ae?aaieo a?aeia auei ni?acia?ii /aeiaaeo. Iiyoiio e i?e?iaea, e
aeeaioiua, e ?anoaiey, e aiae ia?aoaee a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie ieoieiaee aeae
/aeiaaea.

Aiae ae?aaieo a?aeia ai anai iioiaee ia ethaeae, eeoue aieaa e?aneau e
aannia?oiu. Eiaiii iiyoiio ethaee a ecia?aaeaiee ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo
ooaeiaeieeia i?ae?aniu e iiaeiaiu aiaai.

Iaioaii a?a/aneeo aiaia i/aiue aaeee. Nouanoaiaaei o?e iieieaiey aiaia.
I?a?iaeeoaeyie anao aiaia auee aicieeoea ec aa/iiai Oaina Aay (Caiey) e
O?ai (Iaai). Eo aeaoe-oeoaiu (iiao/ea aiae aeeeeo nee i?e?iaeu) – aoi?ia
iieieaiea. N?aaee ieo E?ii e ?ay – ?iaeeoaee o?aoueaai iieieaiey aiaia –
ieeiieeoeaa, eioi?ua ioiyee aeanoue o oeoaiia e onoaiiaeee a ie?a
ii?yaeie e caeii.

Ia ono?ienoaa ie?a o eaaeaeiai ec ae?aaieo ia?iaeia auee naie
i?aaenoaaeaiey, eioi?ua iaoee io?aaeaiey a ieoieiaee e ?aeeaee.

Yeeeiu n/eoaee, /oi Caieth ie?oaeaao Ie?iaie ieaai. Iaae Caieae
iooaoanoaotho iaaaniua naaoeea; eoia, nieioea, caacaeu, eioi?ua
iiaeieiathony ec Ie?iaiai ieaaia e iioneathony a iaai.

Ia caiaaeiii e?ath caiee iaaaniue eoiie aea?aeeo ia iea/ao iiao/ee
Aoeaio. Caeanue aeeaoo aai aei/a?e Aania?eaeu, eioi?ua noa?aaoo cieioua
yaeiee aa/iie iieiaeinoe. Caeanue aea, ia caiaaea, ii iiaieth ae?aaieo
a?aeia, iaoiaeeeenue ino?iaa Aeaaeaiiuo (Aeenaeneea iiey) – ?ae aeey
aeia?iaeaoaeueiuo a?aeia, iieo/eaoeo io aiaia aannia?oea. A ia naaa?a
iaeoaao ieaiy aeia?ai?aeoeaa – ethaeioeaa aiaia.

Naiuie iiaouanoaaiiuie ec a?a/aneeo aiaia auee aeaaiaaeoeaoue
ieeiieeoeaa. A noi?ie?iaaaoainy iaioaiia aiaia eaaeaeia aiaeanoai eiaei
naie i?aaa e iaycaiiinoe.

A?a/aneea aiae:

CAAN – oea?ue Ieeiia, aia a?iia e iieiee, aeanoeoaeue ieeiieeneie naiuee
aiaia e ethaeae. Neiaieu Caana: iieiey, i?ae e aeoa.

IINAEAeII – aeaaeuea ii?y, «eieaaaoaeue caiee», a?ao iiao/aai Caana.
A?oea aai o?acoaaoe. Neiaieu Iinaeaeiia: o?acoaaoe, aeaeueoeiu e eiie.

AEAe – i?a/iue aeaaeuea iiaecaiiiai oea?noaa ia?oauo, a?ao Caana e
Iinaeaeiia.

Iaeaaeaao aieoaaiui oeaiii, aeaeathuei aai iaaeaeeiui.

AA?A – noi?oaa e nano?a Caana, eeeaeii-?oeay, aieiieay iie?iaeoaeueieoea
a?aea e noi?oaeaneie aa?iinoe. Neiaieu Aa?u: a?aiao e iaaeei.

AANOEss – aiaeiy aeiiaoiaai i/aaa.

AeAIAO?A – aiaeiy ieiaei?iaeey e caieaaeaeey. Neiaieu Aeaiao?u: y/iaiiue
eee ioaie/iue eiein.

AO?IAeEOA – aiaeiy ethaae e e?aniou. Neiaieu Ao?iaeeou: ?icu, aieoae,
ai?iauee, aeaeueoeiu e aa?aiu.

AOEIA – aiaeiy ioae?inoe e ni?aaaaeeeauo aiei. Neiaieu Aoeiu: niaa e
ieeaeiaia aea?aai.

AIIEEII – aia naaoa e iiycee. Neiaieu Aiieeiia: eaaaaeue, aiee, eaa?,
eeoa?a e eoe.

A?OAIEAeA – aiaeiy ioiou e eoiu. Neiaieu A?oaieaeu: eeia?eniaia aea?aai,
eaiue e niaaee.

AA?IAN – aanoiee aiaia.

AeEIIEN – aia aeiia?aaenoaa e aeiiaeaeey. Neiaieu Aeeiiena: /aoa e oe?n.

A?AN – aia aieiu. Neiaieu A?ana: ai?yuee oaeae, eiiuea, niaaea e yno?aa.

AAOANO – aia iaiy e eocia/iiai aeaea.

AAAA – aiaeiy thiinoe.

AIOEO?EOA – aiaeiy ii?y.

IA?NAOIIA – aiaeiy oea?noaa ia?oauo.

2. Eeoa?aoo?a

Ieoieiaey nua?aea aaaeioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eeoa?aoo?u,
e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a ?iaeaeaiee yie/aneie iiycee.

I?ae?aniuie ciaoieaie a?a/aneie ieoieiaee auee iiyo – e?anoueyiei
Aaiineae e neaiie iaaaoe Aiia?. Eo aeiiu e iiyiu noaee aeey ian aeaaiui
enoi/ieeii ciaiee ia yoie yiioa. Iie ioe?uee iai ie? a?a/aneeo aiaia.

AANEIAe aeee a eiioea VIII – ia/aea VII aaea aei i.y. a Aaioee. Aoaeo/e
iaeeei caieaaeaeueoeai, caieiaeny oyaeaeui e?anoueyineei o?oaeii e
iao/eeny eneonnoao aeaeeaiaoeee ?a/eoaoeaii yie/aneeo iiyi ia
i?acaeieeao. Ii ia eii?iaece?iaae n ianiyie, a eiiaeie?iaae io?uaee
?aco/eaaaiuo ii caiene oaenoia.

A iiyia «Oaiaiiey» («i?ienoiaeaeaiea aiaia») Aaneiae iiaanoaoao i ia/aea
ie?a e ?iaeaeaiee aiaia, i ai?ueaa aiaia n oeoaiaie.

Iiyia Aaneiaea «O?oaeu e aeie» iaienaia a oi?ia ianoaaeaiee e
iaioonoaee, ia?auaiiuo e a?aoo Ia?no. A ieo auneacaiu aeaaiua
i?aanoaaiiua oeaiiinoe, eioi?ua iiaeii n/eoaoue iniiaiui aeeciaiiui
e?aaei Aaneiaea.

Aaieaeueiue ae?aaiaa?a/aneee iiyo AIIA? ?iaeeeny a iaeiii ec ai?iaeia
Eiiee a Iaeie Acee. AEee ii a VIII aaea aei i.y., e i aai aeecie iao
ii/oe ieeaeeo naaaeaiee. Aue yoio aaieaeueiue neaiie iaeiei ec
no?ainoaothueo iaaoeia, eioi?ua, ia?aoiaey ec ai?iaea a ai?iae n eeoa?ie
a ?oeao, ia?aniaa ?anneacuaaee i aeaaieo a?aiaiao, aiaao, aa?iyo,
aieiao.

Ia/eiay n yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey e aieioue aei eiioea XIX aaea Aiia?a
n/eoaee auiuoeaiiui eeoeii e iiaa?eee a ?aaeueiinoue aai nouanoaiaaiea
eeoue iinea ioe?uoee Oeeiaia e Yaaina. Ii a aioe/iua a?aiaia, noaey ii
auneacuaaieyi Aa?iaeioa, enoi?e/iinoue ee/iinoe Aiia?a ia aucuaaea
niiiaiee.

Neiaeea iiiaeanoai aeiiia aiaai, Aiia? «nioai?ee» a?a/aneeo aiaia. Aai
aeaaea e?eoeeiaaee ca iaoaaaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea e iaaiaeeoaeyi.

I aeecie Aiia?a ii/oe ie/aai iaecaanoii: a eaeii ai?iaea ii ?iaeeeny,
eae aeee, aaea iioi?iiai. I aai ee/iinoe iiaeii noaeeoue ii
neoeueioo?iiio ii?o?aoo neaiiai noa?oea e ii aeaoi aaieaeueiui
i?iecaaaeaieyi ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eeoa?aoo?u, iinayuaiiui aoaeneiio yiino
i iioiaea ia e O?ith, eee Eeeii. Yoi iiyiu «Eeeaaea» e «Iaeennay».

Aiia?a n/eoatho aaoi?ii yoeo aeaoo oaaeaa?ia yie/aneie iiycee. Caienaiu
iie auee a IX–VIII aa. aei i.y., a aei yoiai, aeaeeii, nouanoaiaaee a
aeaea ioaeaeueiuo onoiuo neacaiee.

Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey – ?iaeeia aanie, eioi?ay eiaiii caeanue neiaeeeanue a
naiinoiyoaeueiue aeai?. Aaniy – yoi ei?ioeee, /anoi noeoioai?iue
?anneac, a eioi?ii aeeaioiua aiai?yo e aeaenoaotho ii-/aeiaa/anee e
eioi?ue, caeai/eaaynue ii?aeueth, o/eo ian oio – ?acoio.

Ecaanoiui ni/eieoaeai aanai a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee aue YCII, eiy eioi?iai
ecaanoii oae aea, eae e eiy Aiia?a. I aeecie Yciia iu ii/oe ie/aai
iaciaai. Aia?aua i iai, eae ia enoi?e/aneie e aeiaieueii ecaanoiie
ee/iinoe, aneieuecue iaienae enoi?ee Aa?iaeio. Iie?aynue ia ni/eiaiey
Aa?iaeioa, iiaeii eeoue neacaoue, /oi Ycii aue aaniiienoeai, aeee ia
ino?iaa Naiin ieiei 560 a. aei i.y., aue ?aaii iaeiaai Eaaeiiia e aue ca
/oi-oi oaeo a Aeaeueoao.

I aeecie Yciia aue iaienai ?iiai «AEeciaiienaiea Yciia». Eieaa i
Enaioa-oeeinioa, aai ?aaa, eee Iioiaeaeaiey Yciia» – iaeia ec iaiiiaeo
nio?aieaoeony «ia?iaeiuo eiea» a?a/aneie eeoa?aoo?u. Aanie Yciia, eae e
iiyiu Aiia?a, ia?aaeeee aaea. Iiyou e ienaoaee ?aciuo no?ai ia?a aiaeeee
eo ia naie ycuee.

3. A?oeoaeoo?a

A?a/aneay a?oeoaeoo?a, aei neo ii? ii?aaeathuay aeaai?iaenoaii naieo
oi?i, n eiino?oeoeaiie oi/ee c?aiey ioee/aeanue i?inoioie. Oaea a
ia?eiae a?oaeee yeeeineea ianoa?a ?ac?aaioaee no?iai i?iaeoiaiioth
nenoaio ?aoeeiiaeueiuo niioiioaiee iaaeaeo eieiiiaie e ia?ae?uoeyie,
eaaeaueie ia ieo. Aa nooue caeeth/aaony a ooaeiaeanoaaiiii ioi?ieaiee
noia/ii – aaei/iie eiino?oeoeee, ninoiyuae ec aeaoo /anoae: ianouae e
ianiiie. Noieeiiaaiea yoeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo nee, nin?aaeioi/aiiuo a
aa?oeeaeueiie iii?a e iiia?a/iie aaeea, i?eaaaeaii a ninoiyiea
aa?iiie/aneiai ?aaiiaaney.

Yoa oeaeueiay ooaeiaeanoaaiii iniuneaiiay nenoaia auyaeaiey eiino?oeoeee
nii?oaeaiey iieo/eea iacaaiea I?AeA?A.

Eiaiii a aioe/iii i?aea?a io?aceeanue iniiaiiieaaathuay nouiinoue
aioe/iiai eneonnoaa – aai iai?aaeaiiinoue ia /aeiaaea. Yoi i?inooiaei
aeaaea a oaeii iauaeoeaiii ia/aea, eae iaoaiaoe/aneea.

Iniiaiua a?a/aneea i?aea?a: aei?e/aneee, eiie/aneee e ei?eioneee –
noi?ie?iaaeenue ia n?aco. A eiioea VII a. aei i.y. aiciee aei?e/aneee,
anei?a eiie/aneee, a eiioea V – ia/aea IV a. aei i.y., iiyaeeny i?aea?
ei?eioneee. Ia?aue i?aea? ?acaeaaeny a iniiaiii ia Iaeiiiiiana e a
ai?iaeao Aaeeeie A?aoeee, aoi?ie – aeaaiui ia?acii ia iiaa?aaeuea Iaeie
Acee, eioi?ia iacuaaee Eiieae.

Aei?e/aneee i?aea?

Aei?e/aneee i?aea? ioee/aaony ioaeanoaaiiui aaee/eai, no?iaie i?inoie,
iiioiaioaeueiie oi?aeanoaaiiinoueth, neeie e aieueoie naea?aeaiiinoueth
a i?eiaiaiee aeaei?a. Eieiiia aei?e/aneiai i?aea?a ia eiaao aacu. Noaie
eieiiiu, noiyuee iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia aa?oiae nooiaie. I?eaeeceoaeueii ia
1/3 auniou noaie eieiiiu eiae i?eiooeinoue. Aei?e/aneay eaieoaeue,
ninoiyuay ec eaaae?aoiie ieeou n i?yiuie e?ayie, e e?oaeie a ieaia
iiaeooeie n auioeeui e?eaieeiaeiui i?ioeeai, – i?aaeaeueii i?inoa e
eiino?oeoeaia. Aioaaeaiaio aei?e/aneiai i?aea?a anaaaea ninoiyea ec o?ao
yeaiaioia: a?oeo?aaa, o?eca e ea?ieca. A?oeo?aa i?aaenoaaeye niaie
aeaaeeoth aaeeo, iie?aaoothny eaieoaee eieiii. Iaae a?oeo?aaii o?ec,
ninoiyaoee ec o?eaeeoia e iaoii. O?eaeeou i?aaenoaaeyeenue ?oaeeiaioaie
oi?oeia iiia?a/iuo aaeie, a iaoiiu – /anoi ?aeueaoiuie ieeoaie,
cae?uaaaoeie i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo o?eaeeoaie. Iaoiaeeaoeeny iaae o?ecii
ea?iec naiae aai/athuae /anoueth neeueii aunooiae aia?aae, iaaenay iaae
ieaeieie yeaiaioaie aioaaeaiaioa. O?aoaieueiay noaia iaaeaeo
ai?eciioaeueiui ea?iecii e aeaoiy iaeeiiiuie e?ayie neaoia e?iaee
iacuaaeanue o?iioiiii. Aai iiaa?oiinoue oe?aoaeanue ?aeueaoaie,
i?ioioeiia aei?e/aneiai e eiie/aneiai i?aea?ia a aea?aayiiuo iino?ieeao.
Ia e?uoa ii oaeai o?iioiiia noaaeee ae?ioa?ee.

Eiie/aneee i?aea?

Eiie/aneee i?aea? ioee/aaony io aei?e/aneiai eaaeinoueth i?iii?oeee,
ooii/aiiinoueth oi?i, oe?ieei i?eiaiaieai aeaei?a. ?eineee oai?aoee
a?oeoaeoo?u Aeo?oaee oniao?eaae a eiie/aneii i?aea?a iiae?aaeaiea
ooii/aiiie, aeiiieiaiiie oe?aoaieyie aeaineie e?anioa a ioee/ea io
aei?e/aneiai i?aea?a, iiae?aaeaaoaai ioaeneie e?anioa.

Aieaa no?ieiay eiie/aneay eieiiia eiaea a iniiaaiee ecyuii
i?ioeee?iaaiioth aaco e iaiueoa, /ai aei?e/aneay, noaeaeanue eaa?oo.
Aieaa aeoaieea eaiiaeth?u ?acaeaeyeenue oceeie aei?iaeeaie, a eaieoaeue
eiaea aeaa ecyuiuo caaeoea. A?oeo?aa eiie/aneiai i?aea?a ninoiye ec o?ao
/ooue iaaenathueo iaeia iaae ae?oaie ai?eciioaeueiuo iiein. Aianoi o?eca
n o?eaeeoaie o eiie/aneeo iino?iae iai?a?uaiue, /anoi ?aeueaoiue
?anoeoaeueiue o?ec.

Ei?eioneee i?aea?

Aeeceee e eiie/aneiio ei?eioneee i?aea? iiyaeeny eeoue ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia V a. aei i.y. Ei?eioneee i?aea? ?acaeeny ec eiie/aneiai. A?aee
ia/anoi eniieueciaaee ei?eioneee i?aea?. Ieii/aoaeueii ii noi?ie?iaaeny
oieueei a iineaaeothuee, ?eineee, ia?eiae. Io eiie/aneiai ii ioee/aeny
aieaa auoyioouie i?iii?oeeyie eieiii e neiaeiie eaieoaeueth, oe?aoaiiie
i?iaiaioii a aeaea eenoueaa aieaoa.

I?ienoiaeaeaiea ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai i?aea?a

I?iecioae ii io aea?aayiiie noia/ii-aaei/iie eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ay ii
a?oaieiae/aneei aeaiiui e iiiaioo nicaeaiey i?aea?ia ea?aea aaaeioth
?ieue n?aaee yeaiaioia iino?iae ec aea?aaa, nu?oeiaiai ee?ie/a eee
aeeiu. Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii ec ?enoieia i?ioioeiia aei?e/aneiai e
eiie/aneiai i?aea?ia a aea?aayiiuo iino?ieeao. Iai?eia?, o?eaeeou
ecia?aaeatho oi?oeu aea?aayiiuo aaeie ia?ae?uoey, a iaoiiu – ieeou,
cae?uaaaoea i?ino?ainoai iaaeaeo o?eaeeoaie.

4. Aioe/iue o?ai

A?oeoaeoo?iue i?aea?, nicaeaiiue ae?aaieie a?aeaie ia iniiaa noia/ii –
aaei/iie eiino?oeoeee, noae iniiaie aioe/iuo o?aiia.

Ii i?aaenoaaeaieth yeeeiia aiae iiaee iaoiaeeoueny ia oieueei a
i?e?iaeiuo noeoeyo, ii e auae?aee naaa naiua e?aneaua ianoa ia caiea.
Iiyoiio a aiia?ianeoth yiioo aiaai iieeiiyeenue a nayuaiiuo ?iuao,
iaua?ao, aaea aeey i?eiioaiey aea?oa noaaeee aeoa?e. Iicaea, a yiioo
a?oaeee, eiaaea iiyaeeenue noaooe aiaia, aicieeei noaeaeaiea, /oi aeey
yoeo noaooe, eae e aeey ethaeae, iaiaoiaeeii aeeeeua. Aaaeue a?a/aneea
aiae iiaeiaiu ethaeyi. Oae iiyaeeny o?ai – aeeeeua, eee aeii, aiaa,
aioo?e eioi?iai iaoiaeeeanue aai noaooy.

Ia?aua «aeeeeua aiaia», eioi?ua i?aeoe/anee ia nio?aiyeenue, auee
ne?iiiuie e no?ieeenue ec aea?aaa e nu?oeiauo ee?ie/ae ia eaiaiiii
iniiaaiee. N VII a. aei i.y. aeey nii?oaeaiey o?aiia noaee
eniieueciaaoue eaiaiue.

Noaaeee o?aiu a naiuo e?aneauo, aeaeiuo ianoao, iaycaoaeueii naycuaay eo
n ie?oaeathuae i?e?iaeie. Aaaeue aiae – yoi ethaee n i?ae?aniui iaeeeii
e niaa?oaiiie oeao?ie, e eo aeeeeua aeieaeii auoue niioaaonoaaiii
i?ae?aniui e iaycaoaeueii ni?acia?iui /aeiaa/aneie oeao?a.

A aeecie ae?aaieo a?aeia o?ai eiae ia?iiiia cia/aiea. Yoi aue ia oieueei
oeaio? ii/eoaiey aiaeanoaa, ii nayuaiiay eeaaeiaay, eanna, aaie, a?oea
ai?iaea, oaaaeeua. Iiyoiio o?ai aue aaaeiaeoei iauanoaaiiui nii?oaeaieai
e aicaiaeeeny anai ai?iaeii.

A?a/aneee o?ai ia aue oaeei iainiaeaiiui e no?ieeny n ?an/aoii
aini?eyoey nia?oaee. Iineaaeiea niae?aeenue ia?aae o?aiii, aoiae a
eioi?ue ?aniieaaaeny ia ainoiea.

A iniiaa ieaie?iai/iie no?oeoo?u o?aia eaaeae aeeeie aeii oeia iaaa?ii,
aaea i/aa aue caiaiai noaooae aiaeanoaa. Ia?aiia/aeueii yoi auee i?inoua
caeaiey, eiaaoea i?iaeieueiue i?yiioaieueiue ieai n aeaooneaoiie e?uoae
e iaaieueoei aioo?aiiei i?ino?ainoaii. Aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai ninoiyei
ec oeaio?aeueiie /anoe, eee nayoeeeua, aaea noiyea noaooy aiaeanoaa, e
ia?aaeiae /anoe – ii?oeea. Eiiaaea ia caiaaeiie noi?iia o?aia
?aniieaaaeinue iiiauaiea aeey o?aiaiey aea?ia.

Aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai aieueoeo o?aiia auei o?aoiaoiui. A n?aaeiai iaoa
iiiauaeanue oeao?a aiaa.

A caaeneiinoe io ?aniieiaeaiey eieiii o?aiu iiae?acaeaeyeenue ia
neaaeothuea oeiu:

1. «O?ai a aioao» i?aaenoaaeye niaie iaaieueoia i?yiioaieueiia
nii?oaeaiea, aoiae a eioi?ue ia?aieyeny aunooiaie i?iaeieueiuo noai –
aioaie, iaaeaeo eioi?uie noaiiaeeenue iaeia – aeaa eieiiiu.

2. Anee eieiiiu ?aniieaaaeenue ia?aae iaeiei ec oanaaeia, oi oaeie o?ai
iacuaaeny i?inoeeue.

3. Anee eieiiiu ?aniieaaaeenue ia?aae aeaoiy i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie
oi?oeaauie oanaaeaie, oi oaeie o?ai iacuaaeny aioei?inoeeue.

4. Anee aea eieiiiaaea ie?oaeaea i?yiioaieueiia caeaiea ii anaio
ia?eiao?o, oi oaeie o?ai iacuaaeny ia?eioa?. Yoi naiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiue
eeanne/aneee oei a?a/aneiai o?aia. O ia?eioa?a eiee/anoai eieiii ia
aieiaii oanaaea ?aaiyeinue oaeaiaiiiio eiee/anoao eieiii ia aeaaiii
oanaaea iethn iaeia eieiiia.

5. O?ai n aeaieiui ?yaeii eieiii iacuaaeny aeeioa?.

6. Aue e e?oaeue o?ai – iiiiioa?, ninoiyaoee ec iaeiie eieiiiaaeu,
ia?ae?uoie eiioniaeaeiie e?uoae.

A?a/aneea o?aiu ia auee iaeiioeaaoiuie, a ?anienuaaeenue ii
ii?aaeaeaiiie nenoaia. Eieiiiu e a?oeo?aa inoaaaeenue naaoeuie, o?eaeeou
iie?uaaeenue neiae e?aneie, iaoiiu e iiea o?iioiiia – e?aniie, ia
eioi?ie oi?ioi auaeaeyeenue neoeueioo?iua oe?aoaiey. *a?iui, aeaeoui,
oaiii – ei?e/iaaui e iicieioie iiae/a?eeaaeenue aieaa iaeeea
a?oeoaeoo?iua oe?aoaiey. E?anee auee ?anoeoaeueiiai e ieia?aeueiiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey.

Aioe/iue o?ai – yoi i?aaeaea anaai ieanoe/anee yniia oeaeia. A iai iao
aieueoiai aioo?aiiaai i?ino?ainoaa – a?oeoaeoo?a noieue aea ieanoe/ia e
ynia, neieue ynai ia?ac aioe/iie noaooe. o?ai – yoi aua aiieia ?aaeueii
aini?eieiaaiia aeeeeua aiaa a ia?aca noaooe. E yoiio aeeeeuo i?eoiaeeee
i?acaeie/iua i?ioeannee, aie?oa iaai ?acai?a/eaaeinue naii i?acaeianoai,
aai aiaoiee ieanoe/aneee iaeee aue ia iaiaa, ii aeaaea aieaa aaaeai, /ai
aai aioo?aiiaa i?ino?ainoai. Aa?iiiey e yniinoue aai niioiioaiee
aunooiatho a iieiii aaeeinoaa n yniie e eiie?aoii – /oanoaaiiie
iaaeyaeiinoueth oe?aoathueo aai neoeueioo?iuo ia?acia.

Oeie/iui aeey VI–V aa. aei i.y. o?aiii yaeyeny ia?eioa?, o.a. o?ai,
i?aaenoaaeythuee a ieaia oaeeeiaiiue i?yiioaieueiee, ie?oaeaiiue ni anao
noi?ii eieiiiaaeie. Any eiino?oeoeey iiiauaeanue ia eaiaiiii iniiaaiee –
noeeiaaoa. Iia eiino?oeoeaii e c?eoaeueii naiei /aoei au?aaeaiiui
eiino?oeoeaiui ?eoiii iiaeaea?aeeaaea ai?eciioaeueii ?an/eaiaiiue e
oyaeaeue aioaaeaiaio.

ss?/aeoei ia?ac/eeii eeanne/aneiai ii naiei i?iii?oeeyi aei?e/aneiai
o?aia yaeyaony o?ai Caana a Ieeiiee, iino?iaiiue Eeaiiii. Eo/oa aea anao
nio?aieeny o?ai Iinaeaeiia a Ianooia, iino?iaiiue i?eia?ii a oi aea
a?aiy e yaeythueeny oaeaea i?ae?aniui ia?acoeii aei?e/aneiai noeey.

Aeey aioe/iiai o?aia /?acau/aeii oa?aeoa?ia naycue n ie?oaeathuae
a?oeoaeoo?ie e i?e?iaeiie n?aaeie.

Aioe/iue o?ai aunooiaao eae nicaeaiea /aeiaaea, iino?iaiiia ii aai
ynoaoe/aneei caeiiai, ioee/athuei o?ai io anoanoaaiiuo i?e?iaeiuo oi?i.
I?eieoeaiinoueth aioe/iie oaoieee iiaeii iauynieoue oi, /oi i?e
nii?oaeaiee o?aiia ecaaaaee aieueoeo ?aaio ii ieaaee?iaea, canuiea e
o.ae., a ionoonoaeai aieueoeo ai?iaeia iiaeii iauynieoue oi, /oi anyeia
caeaiea aunooiaei a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce n iaecaaeai.

5. Aoeineee Ae?iiieue

Nayouiae eaaeaeiai ai?iaea aue Ae?iiieue – aa?oiee ai?iae, eioi?ue
neoaeee e?aiinoueth e aeeth/ae a naay ia?aiia/aeueii eeoue aeai?aoe
oea?y, a iicaeiaa noae ea?aoue ?ieue ?aeeaeiciiai e eoeueoo?iiai oeaio?a
ai?iaea.

Iaeiei ec aunoeo aeinoeaeaiee ae?aaiaa?a/aneie a?oeoaeoo?u yaeyaony
eiiieaen Ae?iiiey a Aoeiao, ainnoaiiaeaiiue a?aeaie iinea ecaiaiey
ia?nia a V a. aei i.y. Yoi a?aiy iacuaatho «cieioui aaeii» Aoei e
a?aiaiai Ia?eeea. N eiaiai Ia?eeea naycai ?anoeaao aeaaiiai oeaio?a
a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u – Aoei. Eiaiii a Aoeiao ia/eiaaony no?aieoaeueiue
iiaeuai yeiiiieee, ?acaeoea ?aianea, eoeueoo?u, oi?aiaee, oe?aieyaony
aeaiie?aoey. ?acoeueoaoii e neiaieii yoiai aceaoa yaeeny aiiaue
nicaeaiiue eiiieaen Ae?iiiey. Aai nicaeaoaeyie auee ciae/ea, ?aaioaaoea
iiae ooaeiaeanoaaiiui ?oeiaiaenoaii neoeueioi?a Oeaeey.

Ae?iiieue a Aoeiao i?aaenoaaeyao niaie anoanoaaiioth neaeo,
aicauoathuothny ia 150 iao?ia iaae o?iaiai ii?y. Ae?iiieue yaeyaony
eiiiiceoeeiiiui oeaio?ii ai?iaea, ?aniieiaeaiiiai o iiaeiiaeey. A
ieaie?iai/iie eiiiiceoeee Ae?iiiey iao neiiao?ee.

Aeaaiia nii?oaeaiea anaai eiiieaena – aei?e/aneee Ia?oaiii, o?ai Aoeiu
Aeaau. Ia?oaiii aini?eieiaaony n oaea, oae, /oi aeaeiu aai aeaaiue e
aieiaie oanaaeu. Ii aiaaoi oe?aoai neoeueioo?ie e ?aeueaoaie.

Ae?iiieue aue aeey Aoei e nayoeeeuai, e oe?aieaieai, e iauanoaaiiui
oeaio?ii. N aoeineei Ae?iiieai auee iaeaieaa iuoiua i?acaeianoaa.

A nicaeaiee Ae?iiiey a Aoeiao o/anoaiaaee e?oiiaeoea a?a/aneea
a?oeoaeoi?u e ooaeiaeieee oiai a?aiaie: Eeoei, Eaeeee?ao, Iianeee,
Eaeeeiao e iiiaea ae?oaea. ?oeiaiaeee no?ieoaeuenoaii anaai ainaiaey e
nicaeae aaaeiaeoea aai neoeueioo?u Oeaeee.

Aeaaiia nii?oaeaiea Ae?iiiey – o?ai aiaeie Aoeiu Aeaau Ia?oaiiiu,
iino?iaiiue a?oeoaeoi?aie Eeoeiii e Eaeeee?aoiia 447 – 438 aa. aei i.y.
Aeaeeii, ae?aaiea a?oeoaeoi?u o/ee ?aaiiaanea aneiiao?e/iuo
a?oeoaeoo?iuo iauaiia e ?aniieiaeeee Ia?oaiii ia i?yii iai?ioea
I?iieeae, a thaeiaa. Iiyoiio oanaae Ia?oaiiia aini?eieiaaony ia n
oanaaea, a n oaea, oae /oi aeaeiu thai-caiaaeiay e naaa?iay noi?iiu.
Niaa?oaiiua i?iii?oeee o?aia, i?ae?aniay ni?acia?iinoue anao aai /anoae
nicaeatho aia/aoeaiea aacoi?a/iie e?aniou. Ii naiaio ieaio Ia?oaiii –
aei?e/aneee ia?eioa? ?acia?ii 70 o 30 i, ie?oaeaiiue ni?iea oanoueth
eieiiiaie.

Aioo?e caeaiea auei ?acaeaeaii noaiie ia aeaa ia?aaiua /anoe. A aeaaiie
oeaeea ia aunieii iinoaiaioa noiyea ciaiaieoay noaooy Aoeiu Ia?oaiin
nicaeaiiay Oeaeeai ec cieioa e neiiiaie einoe. Ia aieiaa Aoeiu aue oeai
n ecia?aaeaieai noeiena e e?ueaouo eiiae, ia a?oaee – yaeaea n ianeie
Iaaeocu Ai?aiiu, o iia aiaeie neoeueioi? iiianoee a?iiaaeiiai nayuaiiiai
ciay, ia i?aaie ?oea aiaeiy aea?aeaea aeaooiao?iaoth e?ueaooth aiaeith
Ieeo, a eaaie ?oeie – ueo.

6. Oaao?

Ae?aaiyy A?aoeey auea ?iaeeiie ia oieueei aeaiie?aoee, ii e aa?iiaeneiai
oaao?a. Ae?aaiaa?a/aneee oaao?, niae?aaoee ouny/e c?eoaeae, n/eoaeny
«oeieie aeey ac?ineuo», oeieie a?aaeaeainoaa, ioaeanoaa, ioae?inoe e
ea?ae a aeecie a?aea ia?iiioth ?ieue. Eaaeaeue a?aaeaeaiei iieena aue
iaycai iinauaoue oaao?aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey. Iaaea?ii Ia?eeeii aue
auiouai caeii i aeaiaaeiie iiiiue iaeiouei a?aaeaeaiai aeey iinauaiey
oaao?a.

Iiaea?ee yoi c?aeeuiia eneonnoai «aia aeiia?aaea» Aeeiien. Eiaiii n
?aeeaeiciuie i?acaeianoaaie a /anoue yoiai eeeothuaai aiaa aaniu,
nieioea e ieiaeiiinyuae caiee, iie?iaeoaey aeiiaeaeia naycaii
ca?iaeaeaiea a VI a. aei i.y. oaao?a.

Aeaa ?aca a aiaeo ae?aaiea a?aee ono?aeaaee a /anoue aiaa aeiiaeaeey
«no?anoe Aeeiiena» – i?acaeianoaa, eioi?ua inaiaiaeaeaee /aeiaaea io
ie?neeo caaio e o?aaieaaee anao. A Aoeiao yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey
i?aa?aoeeenue a aieaa i?acaeie/iia aeaenoai, eioi?ia ioia/aeinue aaniie
a oa/aiea iyoe aeiae e iacuaaeinue Aaeeeea, eee Ai?iaeneea, Aeeiienee. A
534 a. aei iaoae y?u oe?ai Ieneno?ao naeaeae eoeueo Aeeiiena
ainoaea?noaaiiui, /ai nieneae ethaiaue e oaaaeaiea ia?iaea.

I?aaieciauaae oaao?aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeue ai?iaeneeo
aeanoae. Ii iacia/ae ninoiyoaeueiuo a?aaeaeai iaoeaiaoa, eioi?ue
iiea/eaae iinoaiiaeo iuean. Oaao?aeueiua i?aaenoaaeaiey i?iaeieaeaeenue
ianeieueei aeiae n oo?a e aei oaiiiou, e c?eoaeue oniaaae iiniio?aoue
o?e – /aou?a iueanu. *oiau auaea?aeaoue noieue aeieaee niaeoaeeue,
c?eoaee i?eiineee n niaie ec aeiia ieuo, iaieoee e iiaeooee ia eaiaiioth
neaiueth, /oiau auei oaeiaiaa neaeaoue.

Aua ai a?aiy naeueneeo Aeeiienee caieaaeaeueoeu iaeaaaee eiceeiua oeo?u
e ianee, iiae?aaeay naoe?ai.

Oae ec oi?iauo ianai eiceiiiaeo niooieeia Aeeiiena aicieeee aeaaiua
aeai?u a?a/aneiai oaao?aeueiiai eneonnoaa: o?aaaaeey e eiiaaeey. Neiai
«o?aaaaeey» a aeineiaiii ia?aaiaea icia/aao «ianiue eiceia». Eiiaaeey
aea ?iaeeeanue ec ianai aanaeuo iinaeyi, oanoaey eioi?uo ai a?aiy
Naeueneeo Aeeiienee iacuaaeinue eiiin. Iicaeiaa iiyaeeny o?aoee oei
a?a/aneie ae?aiu – «ae?aia naoe?ia».

O?aaaaeey, iau/ii ?anneacuaay i aiaao e aa?iyo ec ieoia, iiaeieiaea
aa/iua i?iaeaiu, iai?eia?, i /anoe e aeiaeanoe. Ia?niiaaee eiiaaeee
auee, eae i?aaeei, iaueiiaaiiuie ethaeueie, ioeaee eioi?uo auniaeaaeenue
n auaeoieie, aanaeueai e a?oaiaaouie oooeaie. A naoe?ianeie ae?aia
o?aae/aneay oaia e o?aae/aneea aa?ie ecia?aaeaeenue eiie/anee, a oi? aue
iaeao naoe?aie, eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeyee iieoethaeae – iieocaa?ae.

Oaao? ninoiye ec o?ao iniiaiuo /anoae: oaao?iia, i?oano?u e neaiu.

Oaao?ii – yoi c?eoaeueneea neaiuee, nii?oaeaiiua ia neeiia oieia e
aiauaaoea ouny/e ethaeae. Iie ?acaeaeyeenue i?ioiaeaie ia naeoi?u. Ia
«aoiaeiuo aeeaoao» – aeaoiiao ec naeioea eee iaiaeaeaiiie aeeiu – aoeaie
oeacuaaeny ii?aaeaeaiiue naeoi?, aaea ?ac?aoaeinue caieiaoue ethaia
ianoi. Ciaiaieoua ethaee caieiaee niaoeeaeueiua eaiaiiua neaeaiey a
ia?aii ?yaeo.

Ae?oaay /anoue oaao?a – i?oano?a, i?aaenoaaeyea niaie e?oaeoth
ieiuaaeeo, ia eioi?ie aunooiaee aeoa?u e oi?. A oeaio?a i?oano?u
iaoiaeeeny aeoa?ue. Auoiaeee oi? ia i?oano?o /a?ac aieiaie i?ioiae.
Aeonoeea oaao?a auea oaeie oi?ioae, /oi neiaa, i?iecianaiiua oaiioii ia
i?oano?a, auee neuoiu ia naiuo ioaeaeaiiuo neaiueyo oaao?iia.

O e?ay i?oano?u i?ioea iano c?eoaeae aicaiaeeeanue neaia – iaaieueoia
caeaiea, aaea onoaiaaeeaaeenue aeaei?aoeee. Ia?aiia/aeueii neaia ea?aea
?ieue iaeaoee, aaea ia?aiaeaaaeenue aeoa?u. Ii iicaeiaa iia noaea
ea?aoue ?ieue a?oeoaeoo?iiai e aeaei?aoeeiiiiai oiia. Ec o?ao yeaiaioia
oaao?a neaia auea iaeaieaa iiaeaa?aeaia eciaiaieyi.

Oa?ainoai neaiu iaiyeinue a caaeneiinoe io oeia iueanu. Aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey o?aaaaeee ioaeiu auee yeaiaiou aeai?oeiaie ianoaiiaee:
eieiiiu, o?iioiiu, noaooe. a eiiaaeeyo ia?niiaaee aunooiaee a aieaa
i?inoie n?aaea, e aeaei?aoeee ecia?aaeaee /anoiua aeiia n aaeeiiaie e
ieiaie n aeaeaie ia ie?oaeathuoth ianoiinoue. Naoe?ianeay ae?aia
o?aaiaaea aeaei?aoeee n ecia?aaeaieai aeaeia i?e?iaeu: eana, ai?, iaua?.

Anaie?ioth neaao eneonnoao a?a/aneiai oaao?a i?eianee Ynoee, Nioiee,
Aa?eieae e A?enoioai. Eo aeeyiea ia iineaaeothuoth ie?iaoth eeoa?aoo?o
ia?iiii. Iiyou, ae?aiaoo?ae, iocueaiou, ooaeiaeieee anao yiio
ia?auaeenue e eo aannia?oiui i?iecaaaeaieyi. Eo oai?/anoai nua?aei
ia?iiioth ?ieue a ainieoaiee iiiaeo iieieaiee.

YNOEE (525 – 456 aa. aei i.y.) ?iaeeeny a Yeianeia, aeec Aoei a
a?enoie?aoe/aneie naiuea. 13 ?ac ii aue iiaaaeeoaeai ae?aiaoe/aneeo
ninoycaiee. Aai iueanu iieo/eee i?aai ia iiaoi?iua iinoaiiaee. Ynoee
aaae a o?aaaaeeth aoi?iai aeoa?a e ia?aaae aieiaiea n oi?a ia aeeaeia
aeoa?ia, oaaee/ea /enei aeeaeiaia e aeaenoaothueo eeoe. Ii aaae
?ineioiua einothiu, ianee, eiioo?u e noeaie/aneea i?eniiniaeaiey. Ec
ainueieaeanyoe iaienaiiuo ei iuean aei ian aeioee oieueei naiue
o?aaaaeee: «I?ineoaeueieoeu», «Ia?nu», «Naia?i i?ioea Oea», «I?eeiaaiiue
I?iiaoae», «Aaaiaiiii», «Oiyoi?u», e «Yaiaieaeu».

NIOIEE (496 – 406 aa. aei i.y.) – nia?aiaiiee e ae?oa Ia?eeea, ?iaeeeny
a i?aaeianouea Aoei a aiaaoie naiuea. ?anoeaao aai oai?/anoaa
i?eoiaeeony ia a?aiy iaeaunoaai eoeueoo?iiai e yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia
Aoei. A 468 a. aei i.y. a ninoycaieyo o?aae/aneeo iiyoia ii niae,
iiaaaeeoue aaeeeiai Ynoeea. Ii aaae o?aoueaai aeoa?a e nie?aoee iauai
ia?oee oi?a. Nioiee iaienae ieiei123 ae?ai. Naiua ecaanoiua aai
o?aaaaeee – «Oea?ue Yieae» e «Aioeaiia».

AA?EIEAe (ie. 484 – 405 aa. aei i.y.) – o?aoee ianoa? ae?aaiaa?a/aneie
o?aaaaeee, ?iaeeeny a ninoiyoaeueiie e ciaoiie naiuea ia ino?iaa
Naeaieia. Ia ninoycaiee o?aaeeia ii iaea?aeae /aou?a iiaaaeu, a iyooth
aio i?enoaeeee iinia?oii. Ei auei iaienaii 92 i?iecaaaeaiey. Eo/oay ec
aeioaaeoeo o?aaaaeee – «Iaaeay».

A?ENOIOAI (445 – 385 aa. aei i.y.) – «ioaoe eiiaaeee», aeee a Aoeiao e
i?ineaaeeny caia/aoaeueiuie eiiaaeeyie, eioi?ua auniaeaaee o?iaeeeaua
noi?iiu aeecie /aeiaaea. Ec 40 iaienaiiuo eiiaaeee aei ian aeioee 11:
«Aoa?iyia», «Anaaeieee», «Iaeaea», «Inu», «Ie?», «Ioeoeu», «Eeneno?aoa»,
«AEaiueiu ia i?acaeieea Oaniioi?ee», «Eyaooee», «AEaiueiu a ia?iaeiii
nia?aiee» e «Aiaaonoai». Ino?ioiiua eiiaaeee A?enoioaia, cao?aaeaay
aaaeiaeoea aii?inu i aieia e ie?a, i ia/anoiuo iieeoeeao, i ia?aaainoaa,
i/euaee e ainieouaaee niaoii aoeineia iauanoai.

7. Neoeueioo?a

Iniaia ianoi a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eoeueoo?a caieiaao neoeueioo?a –
eneonnoai aayiey e ieanoeee, i?iiecaiiia ainoeuaieai oece/aneie e?anioie
e ioae?ui ono?ienoaii /aeiaaea. Ii iiaieth ae?aaieo, a Aoeiao auei
aieueoa noaooe, /ai aeeoaeae. Neoeueioo?a oe?aoaea o?aiu aiaia e aeeeeua
ethaeae, oaaeiaa/eaaea iaiyoue ethaeae e ioia/aea iiaeeu. E?iia
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo noaooe aiaia ia ieiuaaeyo noaaeee noaooe iiaaaeeoaeyi
Ieeiieeneeo ea? e auaeathueiny a?aaeaeaiai. Aeaaiay oaia
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie neoeueioo?u – i?ae?aniue, iiaouanoaaiiue e aa?iiie/iue
/aeiaae.

Ethaeiui iaoa?eaeii ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo neoeueioi?ia auee eaiaiue e a?iica,
eiiaaea eniieueciaaeanue niaoaiiay oaoieea, Aioiaua eaiaiiua noaooe
?ane?aoeaaeenue. Iaeaaeaeo e?aneee a y?eea oeaaoa, a aieinu – a
cieioenoue oeaao. Aeaca aeey noaooe ecaioiaeyee ec oeaaoiiai eaiiy,
noaeea eee neiiiaie einoe. E niaeaeaieth a?a/aneay neoeueioo?a ii/oe ia
nio?aieeanue. Aei ian aeioee eeai iaeiiee e o?aaiaiou, eeai ?eineea
eiiee.

Ia?aua ia?acoeu a?a/aneie neoeueioo?u iiyaeeenue a A?OAE*ANEEE IA?EIAe
(VII–VI aa. aei i.y.).

Yoi a?oae/aneea noaooe iaiaaeaiiuo no?ieiuo thiioae e caae?aie?iaaiiua
noaooe aeaaooae. Aua ia inaiaiaeeaoenue io aeanoe eaiiy, iie naea?aeaiu
a aeaeaeaieyo: ieioii i?eaeaou e oaeo ?oee, naeaeai oii? ia aeaa iiae. A
yoeo noaooyo nicaeaaony iaiauaiiue ia?ac «a?oae/aneiai» /aeiaaea,
anaaaea iieiaeiai e niieieiiai, n oae iacuaaaiie «a?oae/aneie» oeuaeie
/ooue i?eiiaeiyouo oaieeia aoa.

A EEANNE*ANEEE IA?EIAe (V–IV aa. aei i.y.) a neoeueioo?a oeaieony
eeanne/aneay e?anioa eaeaaeueiuo aa?iaa. A yoi a?aiy a neoeueioo?a
i?eiaiyoue i?eai eiio?iinoa – ecaea aa?oeeaeueiie ine oaea.

Aunoea aeinoeaeaiey a?a/aneie neoeueioo?u V–IV aa. aei i.y. naycaiu n
eiaiaie Ie?iia, Iieeeeaoa e Oeaeey.

IE?II (500 – 440 aa. aei i.y.). Aai noaooe aoeaoia ioee/aeenue
eiiiiceoeeiiiie i?iaeoiaiiinoueth, aeeiaieeie e naiaiaeiui aeaeaeaieai.
A ?eineie eiiee a?iiciaie noaooe Ie?iia «Aeeneiaie» iieacaii
no?aieoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea. Yoe aea caaea/e noaaeeenue neoeueioi?ii a
a?iiciaie a?oiia «Aoeia e Ia?nee», noiyaoae ia aoeineii Ae?iiiea.

IIEEEEAO (ieiei 480 a. – eiiaoe V a. aei i.y.) – aa?inneee neoeueioi?,
ieaaeoee nia?aiaiiee Oeaeey, aue «oai?oeii /enoi oi?iaeueiuo
ieanoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae». Iieeeeao ii?aaeaeye i?iii?oeee /aeiaa/aneie
oeao?u, enoiaey ec aa auniou. Iai?eia?, aieiaa ?aaiyeanue iaeiie
ainueiie auniou, nooiiy – iaeiie oanoie, eeoei e eenoue ?oee – iaeiie
aeanyoie. Yoe eaeae auee i?aeoe/anee ?aaeeciaaiu a neoeueioo?ao
«Aei?eoi?», «Aeeaaeoiai», «?aiaiiay aiaciiea».

OEAeEE (ia/aei V a. aei i.y. – ieiei 432 – 431 aa. aei i.y.) – nieneae
neaao aaee/aeoaai ianoa?a. Ii aue ianoa?ii ?aeueaoa e e?oaeie
neoeueioo?u. Aai iaeaieaa ecaanoiua ?aaiou – yoi ?aeueaou Ia?oaiiia a
Aoeiao e o?aia Caana a Ieeiiee, neoeueioo?u Aoeiu Ia?oaiin ec cieioa e
neiiiaie einoe ia aea?aayiiie iniiaa e Aoeiu I?iiaoin ec a?iicu. Ii
naiui ecaanoiui i?iecaaaeaieai Oeaeey auea eieinnaeueiay noaooy Caana a
Ieeiiee. Aai i?iecaaaeaiey i?eaeaeatho iiaeeeiii yie/aneie neeie e
aeeciaooaa?aeaeathuei aoiaieciii. A ieo n iaiau/aeiie
au?aceoaeueiinoueth cao/eo oa?aeoa?iay aeey aai yiioe iuneue i aaee/ee
/aeiaaea – a?aaeaeaieia, a eioi?ii ia?aie/aiii ni/aoathony oece/aneay
e?anioa oaea e i?aanoaaiiay /enoioa e aeiaeanoue.

YIIOA YEEEIECIA (IV–I aa. aei i.y.) naycaia n eiaiai aaeeeiai
iieeiaiaeoea Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai, aeaaecii eioi?iai auee neiaa:
«Yeeeio aeieaeai oiiaeiaeoueny eaaeaeue ec aa?aa?ia».

Yeeeienoe/aneay eoeueoo?a i?iaeieaeeea a?a/aneea o?aaeeoeee. Iiaua
ai?iaea no?ieeenue ii ieaie?iaea, ?ac?aaioaiiie aua a V a. aei i.y.
Aeiiiaeaiii Ieeaoneei n oe?ieeie i?yiuie oeeoeaie, ia?anaeathueieny iiae
i?yiui oaeii. Ai?iae ?acaeaeyeny ia /aou?a eaa?oaea aeaoiy iaaeno?aeyie.

A?oeoaeoo?a e neoeueioo?a yoiai ia?eiaea ioee/aeanue a?aiaeeiciuie
?acia?aie. A a?oeoaeoo?iue ainaiaeue ino?iaa ?iaein aoiaeeei ieiei 100
noaooe eieeinaeueiuo ?acia?ia. Naiay ciaiaieoay ec ieo – iiciei/aiiay
a?iiciaay noaooy aiaa nieioea Aaeeina, naeaeaiiay o/aieeii Eeneiia
Oa?anii. «Eieinna ?iaeinneiai» oaeaea i?e/eneyee e /oaeanai Ae?aaiaai
ie?a.

E a?aiaeeiciinoe oyaioae e aeoa?ue Caana, iino?iaiiue ia ae?iiiea
Ia?aaia – noieeoeu iaaieueoiai yeeeienoe/aneiai ainoaea?noaa a Iaeie
Acee.

A neoeueioo?a yeeeienoe/aneiai ia?eiaea io?aceeenue e iiaua aayiey
yiioe: eioa?an e ino?ui, ae?aiaoe/aneei nthaeaoai, ethaiiuonoai e
aeeoaeneei iiae?iaiinoyi e ?aciiia?aceth iianaaeiaaiinoe. Anee
neoeueioi?u eeanne/aneie yiioe ecia?aaeaee /aeiaaea a ia?eiae aai
?anoeaaoa, oi a yiioo yeeeiecia noaee iiyaeyoueny oaiu noa?inoe e
aeaonoaa, nei?ae e aeaaea nia?oe. Yoi iiaeii oaeaeaoue a neoeueioo?ao
«Eaieiii» Aaanaiae?a, Iieeaei?a Aoeiiaei?a, «Eoea/iue aiaoe»,
«Oie?athuee aaee».

E oaaeaa?ai yeeeiecia ioiineony iaeii ec naiuo auaeathueony iaiyoieeia
neoeueioo?u aioe/iinoe, auiieiaiiua ai I. aei i.y. Yoi «Aaia?a
Ieeinneay» i?aii?iay noaooy aiaeie ethaae Ao?iaeeou, eioi?oth ioee/atho
/aeiaa/iinoue, aeooaaiay oaieioa, niaa?oainoai e eioi?ie iinayuaii
iiiaeanoai i?iecaaaeaiee. Aa aaoi?ii n/eoaaony Aaanaiae? ec Aioeioee.

8. AEeaiienue

Oaeie aea i?ae?aniie e aeeciaooaa?aeaeathuae, eae a?oeoaeoo?a e
neoeueioo?a, auea aeeaiienue ae?aaiae Yeeaaeu, i ?acaeoee eioi?ie iiaeii
noaeeoue ii ?enoieai, oe?aoathuei aeioaaeoea aei ian aacu ia/eiay n
XI–X aa. aei i.y.

Anee a ?aiieo i?iecaaaeaieyo aii/a?iiai ?aianea /oanoaoaony
i?aainoaaiiinoue o?aaeeoeee ieeaineie ea?aieee, oi oaea a IX–VIII aa.
aei i.y. a aaciiene neeaaeuaaaony aaiiao?e/aneee noeeue, aaeeinoaaiiui
oe?aoaieai eioi?iai aue eeiaeii – aaiiao?e/aneee i?iaiaio ec oci?ia –
ciaeia a aeaea eaaae?aoia, o?aoaieueieeia e eiioeaio?e/aneeo
ie?oaeiinoae ia i?inouo, no?iaeo, iiioiaioaeueiuo ninoaeao: aioi?ao,
e?aoa?ao. Iiyaeyaony ecethaeaiiue a?a/aneee i?iaiaio – iaaiae? – oci? a
aeaea iai?a?uaiie eceiiaiiie iiae i?yiui oaeii eeiee. Aaiiao?e/aneee
i?iaiaio ?aniieaaaeny ai?eciioaeueiuie iieineaie e, aeaeeii, eiae
ne?uoue iaae/aneee niune. Iicaea, a VII a. aei i.y., a aano?aeoiue oci?
aeeth/atho oneiaiua, ieineea, noeeeciaaiiua ecia?aaeaiey oeao?ie
aeeaioiuo e ethaeae, eioi?ua noaiiayony ia?niiaaeaie ?acee/iuo noeai ni
no?iaie, i?iaeoiaiiie eiiiiceoeeae.

A eiioea VII a. – ia/aea VI a. aei i.y. ae?aaiaa?a/aneea aacu noaee
oe?aoaoue oci?ii, i?eaioe?iaaiiui ia eneonnoai Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea. Yoio
noeeue iieo/ee iacaaiea «i?eaioaeece?othuee», eee «eia?iaue», eiaaea ana
iiea ninoaea iie?uaaaony i?iaiaioii. Iiyaeythony ecia?aaeaiey nthaeaoii
– iiaanoaiaaoaeueiuo noeai e oaioanoe/aneeo aeeaioiuo. Oeaio?aie
eia?iaie ?iniene aac a ainoi/iii noeea auee ?iaein e Ei?eio.

E ia/aeo VI a. aei i.y. iiioiaioaeueiua aacu, neoaeeaoea iaaea?iaeyie,
niaiythony aieaa iaeeie ea?aieeie. E yoiio a?aiaie neeaaeuaathony
ii?aaeaeaiiua oeiu ninoaeia, oi?ia e ?acia? eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyeenue
aaeeinoaii e?aniou e i?aeoe/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe.

Oae, oceiai?eay auoyiooay aioi?a n aeaoiy oaeiaiuie aeey ia?aiina
?o/eaie i?aaeiacia/aeenue aeey o?aiaiey ieeaeiaiai ianea eee aeia.
Iaeeea oaeaea neoaeeea aeey o?aiaiey aeia e ianea.

Aeae?ey, eiathuay onoie/eaia iniiaaiea e o?e ?o/ee, i?aaeiacia/aeenue
aeey ia?aiina e ?aceeaa aiaeu.

Eiiaaea nianue aeia e aiaeu ia?aeeaaeenue ec e?aoa?a a eoaoei, eioi?ue
iacuaaeny ieiioiy, eee ieueia, a ec iaai iioii ?aceeaaee a aieaeu.

Ieee aeii ec eeeeea, eioi?ue eiae oiieoth, oaeiaioth aeey iaoaaoa ?oeie
iiaeeo e aeaa ?o/ee. Aeey ieouey eniieueciaaee oaeaea neeoin. Ii eiae
aieueoea ?o/ee, /oiau oa, eoi aiceaaeae ia eiaeao, iiaee eaaei
oaea?aeeaaoue eo.

*a?iaee aeii ec e?aoa?a eeaoii, eioi?ue eiae ecyuioth aunieoth ?o/eo.

Iaeio ?o/eo eiae e iaeaiueeee eaeeo, a eioi?ii o?aieee aeaaiaiiey e
oe?aoaiey, a ei?iai/ea aeey aeaineeo ooaeaoiuo i?eiaaeeaaeiinoae
iacuaaeanue ieeneaeie.

Aii/a?iia eneonnoai, nicaeathuaa ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ecaeaeey ec aeeiu, eee
ea?aieea, auniei oeaieeinue a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee, a aii/a?u e aaciienoeu
iieueciaaeenue oaaaeaieai e ii/aoii. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
aaoi?neea iiaeiene ia aacao. A iacaaiea iaeiiai ec eaa?oaeia Aoei –
Ea?aiee – i?aa?aoeeinue a iacaaiea ecaeaeee ec iaiaeaeaiiie aeeiu.

Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia VI a. aei i.y. oeaio? aaciiene ia?aianoeeny a Aoeiu,
aaea iniaie iiioey?iinoueth iieueciaaeenue ninoaeu /a?iioeao?iiai noeey.
Iiiaioeao?iua eiiiiceoeee yoiai noeey i?aaenoaaeyee niaie noeaiu ec
aeecie aiaia, aa?iaa e i?inouo nia?oiuo. *a?iioeao?iay ?inienue
ioee/aaony aeaei?aoeaiinoueth e neeoyoiinoueth. Nia/aea ooaeiaeiee
i?ioea?aiuaae eiioo?u oeao?, caoai caeeaae eo /a?iui eaeii. *a?iue, eae
au «iaaaoeaiue» ?enoiie i?ae?anii auaeaeyeny ia aeeiyiii aeaeoui,
i?aiaeaaii e ?iciaaoii oiia. A Aoeiao nouanoaiaaee oeaeua ianoa?eea n
oaeaioeeauie ianoa?aie. Iaeei ec ieo Yecaeee – aaoi? ecaanoiuo aac:
aioi?u n ecia?aaeaieai Aoeea e Ayena, ea?athueo a einoe; eeeeea ec
Aoeue/e n ecia?aaeaieai Aeeiiena a eaaeuea e ae?oaeo. Oaaeaa?ii
/a?iioeao?iie ea?aieee n/eoaaony aaca «O?ainoa», ia eioi?ie iyoueth
iiynaie ecia?aaeaiu ieoieiae/aneea noeaiu: oi?aeanoaaiiia oanoaea aiaia
ia naaaeueao oea?y Iaeay e ii?neie ieiou Oaoeaeu, aeoau, aeaaeue Aoeea,
ioioa ia aai?y.

Ieiei 530 a. aei i.y. aoeineea ianoa?a nicaeaee aieaa niaa?oaiiue
e?aniioeao?iue noeeue ?iniene ea?aieee, eioi?ue anei?a auoaniee
/a?iioeao?ioth oaoieeo. Ia /a?iii oiia iie?uoiai eaeii ninoaea yooaeoii
auaeaeyeenue iaie?aoaiiua naaoeua oeao?u oeaaoa aeeiu. Aeaoaee oaea ia
i?ioea?aiuaaee, a i?i?eniauaaee oiieie /a?iie eeieae. Yoa oaoieea
iicaieyea aieaa naiaiaeii ecia?aaeaoue oeao?u ethaeae e aeeaioiuo,
no?ieoue neiaeiua iiai?iou e ?aeo?nu, oaaee/eoue eiee/anoai nthaeaoia a
?iniene aac. Eo/oeie ianoa?aie yoie oaoieee auee Aao?iiee, Yaoeieae,
A?ea e Aeo?en.

9. Iocuea e ee?e/aneay iiycey

E niaeaeaieth, iu ia ciaai, eae cao/aea ae?aaiaa?a/aneay iocuea. Ii
aeaaiaea?y ecia?aceoaeueiiio eneonnoao, a eiaiii: neoeueioo?a e ?enoieai
ia aacao, iu i?aaenoaaeyai, eae auaeyaeaee iocueaeueiua eino?oiaiou a
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee.

EE?A, iiaeaeoe, auea naiui ethaeiui eino?oiaioii ae?aaieo a?aeia.
Naaiaeiy aa ecia?aaeaiea i?eiyoi n/eoaoue yiaeaiie iocuee. Ii eaaaiaea,
ee?a auea ecia?aoaia aiaii Aa?ianii. Ii naeaeae yoio ueieiaue eino?oiaio
ec iaioee?y /a?aiaoe e ?iaia, naie aeee e oeo? iioeuaiiuo ei?ia. Aiieeii
onooiee Aa?iano ca ee?o iyoueaeanyo ei?ia, oeo?inoueth iioeuaiiuo ei aea
o Aiieeiia.

EEOA?A – yoio ueieiaue eino?oiaio yaeyaony aieaa neiaeiui aa?eaioii
ee?u. Ia eeoa?a iau/ii ea?aee ae?ooicu ia iocueaeueiuo eiieo?nao e
i?acaeieeao. Ia?aiia/aeueii eeoa?a eiaea /aou?a no?oiu, caoai /enei
no?oi aeinoeaei naie, a iicaea eo noaei ainaiiaaeoeaoue.

A?OA oaeaea ioiineony e ueieiaui eino?oiaioai, ecaanoiui a ae?aaiinoe.

AAEIN, eee AeAIEIAss AeOAeEA – ae?aaiee aeooiaie eino?oiaio n aeaieiie
o?inoueth. Aaein i?aaenoaaeye niaie aeaa ioaeaeueiua aeoaeee n
eaiuoiauie caaoaieeaie. Iocueaiou ea?aee ia aeaoo aeoaeeao n?aco.

NAE?EIAA, eee NAE?AEUe – yoi aeooiaie eino?oiaio oeia iaeiinoaieueiuo
eee aeaonoaieueiuo oeaeo. A eeoa?aoo?a nae?aeueth /anoi iacuaatho
iiiainoaieueioth oeaeoo Iaia. Iia ninoieo ec iaai?a cae?uouo n iaeiiai
oi?oea e ?acee/iuo ii aeeeia o?oai/ae, naeaeaiiuo ec noaiea eaiuoa,
o?inoieea eee aaiaoea. Eaaeaeay o?oai/ea ecaeaao oieueei iaeei caoe,
aunioa eioi?iai caaeneo io aa aeeeiu e aeeaiao?a.

OEIIAI – oaea?iue eino?oiaio.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay iocuea auea oanii naycaia n eeoa?aoo?ie, iniaaiii n
ee?e/aneie iiyceae.

Ee?e/aneay iiycey, i?eoaaeoay ia niaio aaee/anoaaiiiio yiino, au?aaeaea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ie? ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe. Iiycey, eae e iocuea, auea
aaaeiui ainieoaoaeueiui n?aaenoaii.

A Ae?aaiae A?aoeee noeoe /eoaee ia ?aniaa iiae iocueaeueiue
aeeiiiaiaiaio ee?u eee oeaeou. Neiai «ee?eea» i?iecioei io iacaaiey
ethaeiiai iocueaeueiiai eino?oiaioa a?aeia – ee?u.

Ia/eiay n VII a. aei i.y. a a?a/aneie ee?eea neeaaeuaathony aeai?u:
ianaiiue (iaeeea), yiae/aneee, oi?iaie, yeaaey. E oioy ee?eea a?aeia
ii/oe oeaeeeii i?iiaea, ec aeoaeiu aaeia aei ian aeioee eiaia A?oeeioa,
Naioi, Aeeay, Aiae?aiioa, Ieiaea?a, eioi?ua ainiaaaee ethaiaue e
ae?oaeao, ioaeanoai e iao?eioeci, ioae?inoue e aeaai?iaenoai.

?iaeeiie iaee/aneie ee?eee aue ino?ia Eanain n aeaaiui ai?iaeii
Ieoeeaiie. Caeanue aicieeee iocueaeueii – iiyoe/aneea nooaeee, eoaea
i?eacaeaee o/eoueny ec ae?oaeo ai?iaeia A?aoeee. Iaeio ec oaeeo nooaeee
aicaeaaeyea i?ae?aniay niaie, iaea?aiiay iiyoanna Naioi (VII–VI aa. aei
i.y.), eioi?oth ie?oaeaee ainoi?aeaiiua o/aieoeu e iieeiiieee aa
oaeaioa.

Aeeae (VII–VI aa. aei i.y.) – nia?aiaiiee Naioi, aue oiaea ?iaeii ec
Eanaina. Ii oaeaea ienae a aeai?a iaeeee, ainiaaay ie?oanoaaiioth /aoo e
ethaiaue e ?iaeeia. Iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa /anoi caieiaea iuneue iiyoa,
eioi?ue aue ecaiai ec Eanaina iaeiia?aiaiii n Naioi.

Ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ie?iaoth ee?eeo ieacae iiyo, ienaaoee a aeai?a
iaeeee, Aiae?aiio (559 – 478 aa. aei i.y.). Aai n/eoatho iaaoeii
/oanoaaiiie ethaae, aaccaaioiiai aanaeuey, ?aaeinoae aeecie e aianoa n
oai acaeioia a?aiiinoe aeecie.

I?aaenoaaeoaeai oi?iaie ee?eee aue iiyo Aeeiai (na?aaeeia VII a. aei
i.y.). Aai aoi?ie ?iaeeiie noaea Nia?oa. Aeeiai aue ?oeiaiaeeoaeai
iaa/aneie oeieu aeaaooae, e iniiao aai oai?/anoaa ninoaaeytho noeoe aeey
oi?iauo ianiiiaiee – oae iacuaaaiua ia?oaiae, eee ia?oaiee.

AEai? oi?aeanoaaiiie oi?iaie ee?eee e iae, i?aaenoaaeyao Ieiaea? (521 –
441 aa. aei i.y.). Aai ee?e/aneea i?iecaaaeaiey auee ?aciiia?aciu, ii
aeioee aei ian iieiinoueth oieueei 45 iioaaeueiuo aeiiia a /anoue
iiaaaeeoaeae eiiiuo ni?aaiiaaiee.

A VII a. aei i.y. ?ani?ino?aiaiiui aeai?ii ee?eee noaiiaeony yia. Yoio
yia?ae/iue ?acia? noeoa, aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue au?aceoue o?acaoth,
eiiaaea ianiaoeeaoth iuneue, aiineaaenoaee noaiao ethaeiui iao?ii
?onneie iiycee. Iooeii yiae/aneie iiycee n/eoaaony A?oeeio (VII a. aei
i.y.), ?iaeeaoeeny ia ino?iaa Ia?in. Aai noeoe /oaeaeu iaaeiinoe e
i/a?iaaiey, ii a ieo /oanoaoaony ene?aiiinoue, oaa?aeinoue aeooa,
niieieiiai i?eciaiey neeu ianoiyoaeuenoa. Ienae A?oeeio e yeaaee.

Yeaaee eniieiyeenue iiae oeaeoo aua a VI a. aei i.y. Ii iniaaiii
ethaeiui yoio aeai? noae a yiioo yeeeiecia. Niieieiue ?eoi e i?inoie
ycue yeaaee iicaieyao au?aceoue na?ueaciua iunee, ?annoaeaeaiey e
ii?aeue. A yoii aeai?a ienae ecaanoiue caeiiiaeaoaeue Aoei Nieii (ia/aei
VI a. aei i.y.) e iaaeiaieueiue ie?ii iiyo – neaioee Oaiaieae (VI a. aei
i.y.).

Ii i?inoioa e naeaoinoe ycuea auea aeecea yeaaee e yiea?aiia –
ei?ioaiueeia noeoioai?aiea, ioiinyuaany e eaeiio-ieaoaeue /aeiaaeo,
ianoiyoaeuenoao eee i?aaeiaoo. N?aaee yiea?aii auee iaaea?iaiua,
oeeinioneea, y?ioe/aneea. Yiea?aiiu ienaee iiyo – aoeieee Oaie?eo (?iae.
a III a. aei i.y.), oeeinio – eaeaaeeno Ieaoii (427 – 347 aa. aei i.y.),
iiyo – o/aiue Eaeeeiao (310 – 240 aa. aei i.y.).

Caeeth/aiea

ss aua?ae yoo oaio, iioiio /oi iia i/aiue oioaeinue ociaoue eaeay
eoeueoo?a auea a yoii ainoaea?noaa. ss /eoae ae?aaiaa?a/aneea ieou e
eaaaiaeu, e iie iia i/aiue iii?aaeeenue, iniaaiii iii?aaeeenue iienaiey
o?aiia, aeiiia e ae?oaeo iino?iae. Oaeaea y /eoae ia ecaanoiuo ee/iinoyo
yoiai ainoaea?noaa. E iia i/aiue oioaeinue ociaoue eaeea ?aiueoa auee
ethaee, eae iaeaaaeenue, eae auaeyaeaee, eae aeeee e eae auaeyaeaee eo
aiae.

Ae?aaiea a?aee auee aeecia?aaeinoiua e aeeciaethaeaua. Iie i/aiue iiiai
o?oaeeeenue ia aeaai naiae ainoaea?noaa. Iie auee iao?eioaie naiaai
ainoaea?noaa, ia yoii aiai?eo oi, /oi auei iaienaii i/aiue iiiai
iao?eioe/aneeo ianai e aeiiia. Oaeaea a?aee auee i/aiue ioae?ui
ia?iaeii, iioiio /oi ei auei ana eioa?anii, iie iinoiyiii aeoiaee, /oi
oaeia iaai, ioeoaea iii acyeinue, ii/aio iaeuecy inoaiiaeoue a?aiy e oae
aeaeaa. Iie oioaee ciaoue ana. Iie aeaaea nicaeaee naith nianoaaiioth
eoeueoo?o. Aiaeiaia yoie eoeueoo?u ia auei ieaaea a ie?a. A Ae?aaiae
A?aoeee auei i/aiue iiiai oaeaioeeauo ethaeae. Eoi-oi ec ieo iia
ni/eiyoue noeoe, iaeu, aeiiu, yiea?aiiu, eoi-oi iia aeaeaoue
neoeueioo?u, eoi-oi iia ia?eniaaoue /a?oaae o?aia, eoi-oi ea?ae ia
iocueaeueiuo eino?oiaioao. A A?aoeee auei i/aiue iiiai ethaeae, eioi?ua
aioee a enoi?eth, iai?eia?: Oeaeee, Aiia?, Ycii, Naioi e ae?. Iie i/aiue
oi?ioi no?ieee aeiia e o?aiu. O ieo iieo/aeenue i/aiue e?aneaua
neoeueioo?u e ea?aie/aneea ecaeaeey. Ae?aaiea a?aee auee i/aiue o?aa?uie
aieiaie. Iie caueuaee naia ainoaea?noai, noiy iania?oue, yoi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaienaiiay Aiia?ii iiyia «Eeeaaea».

A?aoeey – yoi oaeia ainoaea?noai, aiaeiaia eioi?iai iao, ia auei e ia
aoaeao.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. A.I. Aa/ueyioe. Ie?iaay ooaeiaeanoaaiiay eoeueoo?a. I.: Ae?en i?ann,
2004.

2. E.Ae. Ethaeiia. Eneonnoai Ae?aaiaai ie?a. I.: I?inaauaiea, 1980.

3. I.A. Aeieo?eaaa. E?aoeay enoi?ey eneonnoa. I.: I?inaauaiea, 1986.

4. I.A. Ie?aoeeay, A.A. Ie?aoeeay. O?iee aioe/iie eoeueoo?u. Iaieine:
Oeooe, 1996.

5. I.I. Aiaaee/. Anaie?iay enoi?ey eneonnoa. I.: Nia?aiaiiee, 1996.

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