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AIO AII a. Iineau

«Iineianeay aeaaeaiey oo?enoneiai e ainoeie/ii–?anoi?aiiiai aeciana

(einoeooo) i?e I?aaeoaeuenoaa Iineau»

?aoa?ao ii eoeueoo?ieiaee ia oaio:

«Eoeueoo?a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee»

?aaioo auiieiee:

Aeiaeaoaeeiia I.?.

nooaeaio 1-iai eo?na 103 a?oiiu

cai/iiai ioaeaeaiey

?aaioo i?iaa?ee(a):

Iineaa

2008

Aaaaeaiea

A aeaiiie ?aaioa y iiiuoaeny ?ane?uoue iniiaiua /a?ou e iiiaiou ?acaeoey
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eoeueoo?u e a? yeaiaioia. A ?aaioa iienaiu i?e/eiu
iiyaeaiey ca/aoeia eoeueoo?u, a? ?acaeoea niaianoii n ethaeueie e a?
aeeyiea ia noaeueau aoaeoueo iieieaiee. Aac aayiey eoeueoo?u naiie
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee i?inoi au ia auei, a aue au aaneiia/iue eaiaiiue aae,
ie/aai eiae/iiai e ?acoiiiai. A ?aaioa iiae/a?eeaaaony oieeaeueiinoue
oie yiioe a? iainiaeaiiinoue e yaiethoeeiiiie /a?ou a ?acaeoee nioeeoia.
I?aanoaaiiua i?iyaeaiey /aeiaaea oie ii?u, aai auo e oaea/aiey (aeinoa),
aai ?aeeaeiciua acaeyaeu e aiiaua any aeeciue /aeiaaea aeeaoaai a oi
a?aiy. Aaee/aeoea iuneeoaee e oeeiniou oiai a?aiaie, o?oaeu eioi?uo
eciaieee enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa, ana yoi iienaii a yoie ?aaioa,
i?aaeeaaath aai ia?aianoenue a oa aeaaiea a?aiaia e aiea iiae?iaii ana
ociaoue.

Eoeueoo?a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee

Iiaeao ee /aeiaae aeeoue aac eoeueoo?u? Iiiaea ia n?aco aeaaeoo
i?aaeeueiue ioaao ia yoio aii?in.

Ioaeia ee eoeueoo?a /aeiaaeo, eioi?ue iaania/ai, eacaeinue au anai?,
iiaeao ee i?iaeeoue /aeiaae aac aayiey eoeueoo?u anth naith aeeciue?
Aaaeue eoeueoo?iua yeaiaiou ie?oaeatho /aeiaaea ni anao noi?ii, e aoaeao
ee /aeiaae /aeiaaeii, anee ia aoaeao eo i?eaea?aeeaaoueny? Ethaeneay
?ana i?ioea aeieaee iooue ia?aae oai eae ia/aea iieiioeaiii onaaeaaoue
eoeueoo?o e a? yeaiaiou. Ioeoaea acyeinue ana oi /oi ie?oaeaao ian a
aeaiiue iiiaio, eae /aeiaa/aneay ?ana niiaea aeinoeaiooue oaeiai
?acaeoey. Aeey yoiai iai i?aaenoieo ia?aianoenue a aeaeaeea a?aiaia a
ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey aioe/iie eoeueoo?u. N oie naiie ii?u, eiaaea
e?iiaiueiiaoe (/aeiaae ?acoiiue) ioaeaeeeny io iaaiaea?oaeueoea e noae
canaeyoue aanue ie?, a yoii i?ioeanna aio iiiiaaee i?oaeey o?oaea e
ia?aua ca?iaeuoe iauanoaaiiie aeecie. Iiyaeythony aa?iaaiey a aioeaou,
iauaeoaie iieeiiaiey noaiiayony oaoeoe ( iauaeou i?e?iaeu, ethaua
i?aaeiaou) AEeciue iiiaeo iauei a oi a?aiy caaenaea io oioaiecia
(eiiieaen aa?iaaiee e ia?yaeia). Eoeueoo?a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee e ae?oaeo
e?oiiuo ainoaea?noa e oeeaeeecaoeee aicieeea ia iniiaa anaai, /oi auei
nicaeaii ia?aiauoiuie i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie.

?aiiaa?a/aneay eoeueoo?a noi?ie?iaaeanue a 3000 – 1200 a. aei i.y. A
ianoa ca?iaeaeaiey yoie eoeueoo?u auee oi?ioea oneiaey, eioi?ua
niinianoaiaaee onei?aieth a? ?acaeoey. Iyaeee eeeiao, iai?eia?,
niinianoaiaae caieaaeaeeth ai ana a?aiaia aiaea, ia ieiaei?iaeiuo
?aaieiao niae?aee aiaaoue o?iaeae, ii?a caueuaei io aiei e iaaaaia.

Ae?aaiaa?a/aneay oeeaeeecaoeey neeaaeuaaeanue eae caieaaeaeue/aneay, e
yoi ?iaeieei a? n ?a/iuie caieaaeaeue/aneeie oeeaeeecaoeeyie. A
iaeaieaa ?acaeouo oeaio?ao Ae?aaiae A?aoeee iiyaeeenue naiaia?aciua
oi?iu aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oi?aaeaiey.

I?aaenoaaeaiea i a?a/aneie eoeueoo?a aoaeao iaiieiui aan ?anniio?aiey
aii?ina i auoa e i?aaao Ae?aaiae A?aoeee.

Iaeaaeaea ninoiyea ec aeaoo aeaaiuo /anoae ieaeiaai iaeayiey iaiiaeiaea
?oaaoee e iaeeaeee eee ieaua. A iniiaiii ana eciaiaiey, eioi?ui
iiaeaa?aaeanue iaeaaeaea, eanaeenue oieueei a? oe?aoaiee e iaoa?eaea,
ii niinia ecaioiaeaiey ia iaiyeny.

Nia?oaioeu iaeaaaeenue a oa?noyiua oeaie iaoo?aeueiiai oeaaoa. Yoa
e?aeiyy i?inoioa e ninoaaeyea ioee/ea aei?eeneiai einothia io ae?oaeo.
Nia?oaineea ioae/eiu aeiaieuenoaiaaeenue oieueei ieauii eee iaeeaeeie.
Ioaeneay ieaeiyy iaeaaeaea ( oeoii ) auea neiaeaiiui aaeaia
/aou?aooaieueiui eoneii oeaie n i?i?acueth aeey ?oee ia naeaa. Aa?oiea
e?ay oeoiia ne?aieyeenue ia iaieo iea/ao i?yaeeaie eee cano?aeeaie.
Iaeaaeaea aei?eeneeo aeaiuei iaei ioee/aeanue io ioaeneie. Iia oaeaea
ninoiyea ec aa?oiae e ieaeiae. Aeaaooee a ioee/ea io thiioae
i?aaeii/eoaee oeoii.

Ioae/eiu a A?aoeee iineee aieiaiie oai? oieueei aeey caueou io aeiaeaey
e nieioea. A aio aeaiueiu iaaeaaaee aieiaiie oai?, /oiau eacaoueny
ia?yaeiuie. N iaoaueth auei eia/a, iaaeaaaee a? aeey i?aaeio?aiaiey iia.
Naiie ?ani?ino?aiaiiie iaoaueth o ioae/ei auee ecaanoiua ecaeaaia ia
Ainoiea e a Aaeioa naiaeaeee. AEaineay iaoaue auea ia?yaeiaa ioaeneie,
iia oeaaoiie e n iaoaeee/aneeie oe?aoaieyie. Oe?aoaiey auee o a?aeia
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth oieueei aeaineiai ia?yaea, aeey ioae/ei yoi
n/eoaeinue iai?eee/iui e n/eoaeinue i?eciaeii aeaiiiiaeiaey. O
nia?oaioeaa ioae/eiai iineoue oe?aoaiey cai?auaeinue caeiiii. Ii
ioae/eiu ana aea iineee ia?noie e eieueoea.

Ioaeneia ianaeaiea iineei oeyiu e oaiee. Naeueneia ianaeaiea iineei
aieei/iua oeyiu, eiiaaea oeyiu e?aneee a ?aciua oeaaoa eee oe?aoaee
oeaaoiie eaeiie.

Ioee/eoaeueiie iniaaiiinoueth eoeueoo?u ae?aaieo a?aeia aue aaii
(ninoycaoaeueiia ia/aei) Ni a?ai?i Aiia?a ooaa?aeaeaaony eaeay i iiaaaea
a ninoycaiee eae aunoae oeaiiinoe, iiaaaeeoaeue iieo/ae neaao e
oaaaeaiea a iauanoaa, ana yoi a aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeeinue a ?acee/iua
ea?u.

Naiuie aaaeiuie auee ea?u ono?iaiiua aia?aua a 776 a. aei i.y. a
/anoue Caana Ieeiieeneiai e n oao ii? iiaoi?ythueany eaaeaeua /aou?a
aiaea (ianoii i?iaaaeaiey ea? auea Ieeiiey) Iiaaaeeoaeue iieo/ae
ieeaeiaoth aaoaue. Oaia Ea? io?aceeenue ia neoeueioo?a – iaiaae?iiia
oaei aoeaoa noaei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui iioeaii ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai eneonnoaa.

Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u VIII – VI aei i.y. n/eoaaony
iiaay nenoaia ienueiaiiinoe. *a?ac oeieeeeoeaa a?aee i?eiyee naieoneee
aeoaaeo iooai aeiaaaeaiey ianeieueeeo ciaeia aeey iaicia/aiey aeaniuo.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n ae?aaiaainoi/iuie eoeueoo?aie a Ainoi/iii
N?aaeecaiiiii?uea e iaeioi?uo iaeanoyo iaoa?eeiaie A?aoeee nouanoaiaaei
auniei?acaeoay yaaeneeay eoeueoo?a.

A a? ninoaa aoiaeeee eoeueoo?iua iauiinoe: ae?aaiaeoay e?eoneay eee
ieiieneay, n oeaio?ii ia i. E?eo a Yaaeneii ii?a.

Eeeeaaeneay, ino?iaiay eoeueoo?a (eoeueoo?a ino?iaia Yaaeneiai ii?y e
yeaaeneay a Aaeeaineie A?aoeee. Ai 2 oun. aei i.y. a iaoa?eeiaie A?aoeee
aicieeea aeeceay e e?eoneie – ieeaineay eoeueoo?a.

Iaeiei ec oeaio?ia ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eoeueoo?u a oa a?aiaia aue i.
E?eo. E?eoneia oea?noai auei neeueiie aea?aeaaie n iiaouanoaaiiui
oeioii. Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea ino?iaa, eioi?ue aue ?aniieiaeai
iaaeaeo Aa?iiie, Naaa?iie Ao?eeie e Iaeie Aceae, ioaiaeeei aio
cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiauo ioiioaieyo oiai
a?aiaie, /oi aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoue e?eoneie eoeueoo?a ?acaeaaoueny a
oaniii eiioaeoa n ae?aaieie eoeueoo?iuie ie?aie.

Ae?aaiea e?eoyia auee ethaeueie ?aeeaeiciuie, ia yoii, iai?eia?,
aiai?eo ?eooae eioi?ue i?iaiaeeeny ia ino?iaa iinoiyiii, ii aeeth/ae a
naay neaaeothuaa : aiaeanoai aiieiuaaiia ae?eoeae, yaeyeinue o/anoieeai
?eooaea (noeaia yieoaiee).

Aeey yoiai aeaenoaa a caiaaeiie /anoe Eiinneiai aeai?oea aue
iai?oaeiaai O?iiiue cae. E?eoyia auee iaaeaeaiu no?anoiie, o?aiaoiie
ethaiaueth e aeeaiio ie?o: eaaeaeay o?aaeiea, oeaaoie io?aaae eee ioe/ea
eacaeenue ei eniieiaiiuie iniaiai niunea. Yoi auee ia i?inoi aeeaua
nouanoaa, ii aiaeanoaa, nayuaiiua nicaeaiey.

Aaee/aeoei aeinoeaeaieai yaaeneie eoeueoo?u auei nicaeaiea
ienueiaiiinoe (OVIII – XVII aa. aei i.y.) E?eoneay ienueiaiiinoue aei
neo ii? ia ?anoeo?iaaia.

Caeanue aea ia ino?iaa nicaeathony oaaeaa?u a?oeoaeoo?u oiai a?aiaie:
aeeeeuiua eiiieaenu, ia?aua aeai?oeu, ?aceaeaioeee oea?ae.

Naiue ciaiaieoue iaiyoiee yoiai a?aiaie – Eiinneee aeai?aoe
ieiuaaeueth a aeaaaeoeaoue ouny/ eaaae?aoiuo iao?ia, ?aniieiaeaiiue ia
aunieii oieia. Aeai?aoe aue iino?iai ec eaiiy e aea?aaa, aai oe?aoaee
eieiiiaaeu e o?anee. Iiioiaioaeueiay a?oeoaeoo?a e o?aneiaay ?inienue
ioee/aee E?eo io nia?aiaiiie aio eeeeaaeneie e yeeaaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee,
iineaoeo aieaa i?eieoeaiue oa?aeoa?. Yoio aeai?aoe aue iienai a
a?a/aneeo ieoao i ieiioaa?a. A?aee iacuaaee Eiinneee aeai?aoe
Eaae?eioii. No?iaiea ian?o a naaa i?eciaee ainoi/iie iuoiinoe, aai
a?oeoaeoo?a iaiiieiaao ae?aaiaaaeiaoneoth. Ia noaiao aeai?oea
e?aniaaeenue ?iniene e ecia?aaeaiey ethaeae e aeeaioiuo. AEaineea
ecia?aaeaiey aiaeanoa caieiatho aeaaiia ianoi e?eoneii iaioaiia, /oi
aiai?eo i aieueoie ?iee aeaiuei. Iineieueeo o e?eoyi aue ?ani?ino?ai?i
eoeueo auea, oi ecethaeaiiue nthaeao e?eoneeo o?anie- oaa?iiaoee (ea?u
n aueii) ionthaea enoaoe auoaeaao ieo i ieiioaa?a.

Aiai?y i ieoao, neaaeoao ioiaoeoue ec auoa neacaiiiai, /oi aaaeiui
yaeaieai a eoeueoo?a ae?aaieo a?aeia auea ieoieiaey, eioi?ay i?ioea
naiaia?acioth yaiethoeeth. Ia ia/aeueiii yoaia ae?aaiea a?aee
iaiaeanoaeyee caieth. Caiey auea eae au nouiinoueth anaai. Oaeaea a
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie ieoieiaee ioia?aaeathony aeaiiiu e /oaeiaeua, eioi?ua
iiaee a ethaie iiiaio i?iieeiooue a aeeciue /aeiaaea, a iioii aanneaaeii
en/aciooue. Nionoy eaeia-oi a?aiy a ieoieiaee iiyaeythony
aiae-iie?iaeoaee. N eo iiyaeaieai ia/eiaaony eno?aaeaiea noa?uo aiaia,
eioi?ui aa?iyoii ae?aaiea a?aee iieeiiyeenue ?aiaa.

Ii iaienaiiui caeiiai aeecie iauanoai, eae e eoeueoo?a, ieeiaaea ia
noieo ia ianoa, iii ?acaeaaaony e iaiyaony, iaiythony e acaeyaeu ia ie?.
A oo ii?o noaeueaa i?aaenoaao aeanoieei yeaiaioii iia aaniiuaaeia e
iau/iiio nia?oiiio, aeaaea aiae ieoe/aneiai Ieeiia i?aoa?iaaatho ?yae
aeeciaiiuo eniuoaiee e iaoaea/ , a eiiaaea e ai?a. ?aeeaey aeeyea e ia
a?oeoaeoo?o oao a?ai?i ii/oe ana aeinoeaeaiey a?a/aneie a?oeoaeoo?u oiai
a?aiaie naycaiu ni no?ieoaeuenoaii o?aiia.

?aeeaeiciui aaaeiaeoei yeaiaioii a aeecie ae?aaieo a?aeia auei
aea?oaii?eiioaiea.

Nicaeaaaeenue o?aiu , eoaea iau/iue /aeiaae iia i?eeoe e i?eianoe
aea?oao aiao , a acaiai iii?ineoue aiaa auiieieoue aai i?inueao.
AEa?oaaiiua i?eiioaiey ii/oe anaaaea nii?iaiaeaeaee iauanoaaiioth
aeeciue, Anee i?ienoiaeeei aaaeiia niauoea iai?eia?: iiaaaea iaae a?aaii
eee yieaeaiey, ethaee oee e i?eiineee aea?oau aiaai. A ea/anoaa aea?oa
aunooiaee iau/ii iaoeu e naeiuee. Auaaei /oi a aea?oao i?eiineee
ethaeae. E naiiio i?ioeanno aea?oaii?eiioaiey ae?aaiea a?aee ioiineeenue
i/aiue na?ueacii, e iiaeaioiaea e ?eooaeo oea i/aiue ouaoaeueii.

An? yoi ia iiaeao ia iaaiaeeoue ia iuneue e a eoiaa eiinoaoe?iaaoue
oaeo, /oi ae?aaiea a?aee auee ethaeueie i/aiue ?aeeaeiciuie, e aeecie
ethaeae oanii ia?aieaoaeenue n ?aeeaeae oao a?aiai.

E eiia/ii aiai?y i aeecie, ae?aaiea a?aee iuoaeenue iiiyoue ioeoaea
acyeanue aeeciue, ioeoaea acyeinue ana oi /oi ie?oaeaao eo, e eoaea an?
yoi «eaoeoueny» e «eaoeo»

Ii auee n?aaee iau/iuo ethaeae ethaee eioi?ua caoee a naieo iuoeaieyo
«aeaeaei» Yoe ethaee auee ae?aaiaa?a/aneeie oeeinioaie, eioi?ua
auneacuaaeenue ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a ?aciinoi?iiia eaaeaeue ii naiaio.

Ia?aua yeaiaiou oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee noaee
iiyaeyoueny a i?iecaaaeaieyo Aa?iaeioa, Aiia?a e Ooeeaeeaea. Iie
noaaeee aii?inu i i?ienoiaeaeaiee ie?a e aai ?acaeoee e iaeiia?aiaiii
iniuneeaaee eo.

Naiie ia?aie oeeinioneie oeieie Ae?aaiae A?aoeee i?eiyoi n/eoaoue
Ieeaoneoth. A eioi?ie /aua anaai cao/aei eiy ioae?aoea Oaeana, eioi?ue
iau/ii i?eciaaony ia?aui ae?aaiaa?a/aneei oeeinioii. Oaean i?aaeiieaaae,
/oi ana, nouanoaothuaa a yoii ie?a, aicieeei ec aiaeu. Oaean aue
ecaanoai oaeaea e eae aaia?ao, ano?iiii, iaoaiaoee. A /enei ieeaoneeo
oeeinioia aoiaeee oaeaea Aiaeneiaiae?, o/aiee e iineaaeiaaoaeue Oaeana,
aaoi? oeeinioneie i?icu. Ii noaaee e ?aoae aii?inu i iniiaa ie?a.
Aiae?ii yaeyeny eae ia/oi aani?aaeaeueiia e aa/iia. Ii ia ciaao
noa?inoe, aannia?oai e iaoie/oiaeei, anaaaea aeoeaai e i?aauaaao a
aeaeaeaiee. Aiae?ii auaeaeyao ec naay i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoe: aeaaeiia e
nooia, oieiaeiia e oaieia. Eo eiiaeiaoeee aeatho a eoiaa caieth (nooia e
oieiaeiia), aiaeo(aeaaeiia e oieiaeiia), aicaeoo (aeaaeiia e ai?y/aa) e
iaiiue (nooia e ai?y/aa).Ii iieaaae, /oi aeeciue ca?iaeeeanue ia
a?aieoea ii?y e nooe ec eea iiae aicaeaenoaeai iaaaniiai iaiy.

Iineaaeiaaoaeai Aiaeneiaiae?a aue o?aoee ecaanoiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
Ieeaoneie oeieu – Aiaeneiai, oeeinio, ano?iiii e iao?ieia. Ia/aeii anaai
nouaai ii n/eoae aicaeoo. I?e ?ac?yaeaiee aicaeoo noaiiaeony nia/aea
iaiai, a iioii yoe?ii, a naouaynue noaiiaeony aao?ii, iaeaeaie e aiaeie,
caieae e eaiiai. Aiaeneiai i?eaea?aeeaaeny iiaiey, /oi aeooa /aeiaaea
oiaea ninoieo ec aicaeooa. Oaeaea caiaoioth ?ieue ea?aea oeiea,
naycaiiay n eiaiai Aa?aeeeoa ec Yoana. Ii eiae iiaiea /oi ana /oi ana
ie?oaeathuaa auei nioai?aii ec iaiy. Aeooo /aeiaaea Aa?aeeeo
?anniao?eaae oiaea eae iaiaiioth eee aeaaea neacaoue noooth, nooay
(iaiaiiay) aeooa – ioae?aeoay e iaeeo/oay. Aa?aeeeo auaeaeioe oaeaea
eaeath i Eiaina. Ii iiieiae aai iaeee iauaeoeaiue e iaoie/oiaeeiue caeii
ie?icaeaiey.

Aa?aeeeo a i?inoaeoae oi?ia eceiaeee iniiau aeeaeaeoeee eae o/aiey i
?acaeoee anaai nouaai. Ii iieaaae /oi ana a yoii ie?a acaeiinaycaii, e
yoi aeaeaao ie? aa?iiie/iui. Aua iaeei aeaeiue i?aaenoaaeoaeue
ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee Ieoaai? eioi?ue iniiaae nianoaaiioth
oeeinioneoth oeieo. Ii iinoaaee aii?in i /eneiaie no?oeoo?a ie?icaeaiey.
Ieoaai? o/ee, /oi iniiaie ie?a yaeyaony /enei: ` Iniaoth ?ieue ioaiaeeee
aaeeieoea, aeaieea, o?ieea e /aoaa?ea. Noiia yoeo /enae aeaao /enei
`aeanyoue`, eioi?ia oeeiniou n/eoaee eaeaaeueiui.

Caiii ec Yeae ionoaeaae oacen i aaeeinoaa e iaeciaiiinoe anaai nouaai.
?aiiyy a?a/aneay oeeinioey auea i?aaenoaaeaia oaeaea oai?/anoaii
Yiieaaeieea e Aiaenaai?a. Ia?aue ec ieo auaeaeioe iieiaeaiea i /aou?ao
noeeyo anaai nouaai – iaiiue, aicaeoo, caiey e aiaea. Aeaeaeoueie neeaie
ie?a ii n/eoae Ethaiaue e A?aaeaeo, eioi?ua niaaeeiytho eee aea
?acuaaeeiytho yoe noeoee. Aiaenaai? iniiaie anaai nouaai n/eoae iaeea
aiiaia?ee, eioi?ua iaoneiaeeaatho aaeeinoai e ?aciiia?acea ie?a. Ie?ii
aeaeaeao iaeee ion (?acoi eae enoi/iee aa?iiiee aaeeinoaa).

Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a ?aiiae a?a/aneie oeeinioee caiyei oai?/anoai
aoiienoia ( Aeaiie?eo).

Aeaiie?eo n/eoae, /oi aaeeie/iua aaue oeaiiu e ?aniaaeathony. Nai aea
/aeiaae, eae ooaa?aeaeae Aeaiie?eo, i?iecioae anoanoaaiiui iooai, aac
o/anoey Oai?oea.

Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii a enoi?ee noae ia?aoiae io iaoo?oeeinioee e
aio?iiieiaee e nioeeaeueiie oeeinioee.. A ia?eiae noaiiaeony caiaoia
oeiea nioenoia, ia?auo ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo o/eoaeae ioae?inoe (I?ioaai?,
Ai?aee, Aioeoiio) Iie aianee aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea ?eoi?eee,
y?enoeee e eiaeee. I?ioaai? aue i?aiiaeaaaoaeai ?eoi?eee e y?enoeee.
I?ioaai? aue ecaanoai oaeaea e naieie aoaenoe/aneeie acaeyaeaie. Ca yoe
noaeaeaiey I?ioaai? aue iaaeiai a aacaiaeee e aaaeae ec Aoei.

A ioee/ee io I?ioaai?a, Ai?aee iieaaae, /oi a iiciaiee ana eiaeii. Ii
o/ee, /oi ie/aai ia nouanoaoao, a anee e nouanoaoao, oi iaiinoeaeeii. Ii
oaaaeaeaieth yoiai oeeinioa, iaeuecy aeieacaoue, /oi auoea e iaauoea
nouanoaotho iaeiia?aiaiiith. Ai?aee cao?aaeaae neiaeiua eiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n iiciaieai ie?a /aeiaaeii. Ii oaaaeaeaieth Ai?aey,
?a/ue a ninoiyiee ioiaiaoue no?ao e ioaanoe nei?aue, aucaaoue
iieiaeeoaeueiua ineoe/aneea ninoiyiey ethaeae.

Aioeoiio a iiciaiee /aeiaaea iioae aeaeueoa ae?oaeo nioenoia. Ii n/eoae,
/oi /aeiaae aeieaeai caaioeoueny i?aaeaea anaai i naiii naaa, oioy e ia
caauaay caeiiia aiaoiaai ie?a. Aioeoiio ioionoee naieo ?aaia ia aieth, a
nai anooiee ni naiae auaoae ?aauiae a a?ae, ca /oi aue iauyaeai
noianoaaeoei e eeoai a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa.

Nioenou caieiaeenue eiaeeie e iaoaiaoeeie, ano?iiiieae, iocueie e
iiyceae. Iaeiaei eo e?eoeeiaaee ca ?aeyoeaeci e neiaaniua ooeu?aiey.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae naiae oeeinioee Nie?ao n/eoae ieacaiea iiiiue /aeiaaeo
Iaoiae enneaaeiaaiey /aeiaaea Nie?aoii iiaeii iacaaoue noauaeoeaiie
aeeaeaeoeeie. Eiae/aneia eneonnoai i?eaiaeeeinue aio a aai aeecie,
aaaeue ca iacaaeneiua e aoaenoe/aneea acaeyaeu ii aue iaaeiai a
?anoeaiee iieiaeaaee e i?aaenoae ia?aae noaeii, aaea aio e
iiiaaeiaeeinue e?anii?a/ea aeey nianoaaiiie caueou. Nie?ao n/eoae, /oi
i?e anai ?aciiia?acee iiaiee enoeia ana aea aaeeinoaaiia e iia
iinoeaaaony n iiiiuueth ?aciuoeaiee.

Nie?ao n/eoae iaee/ea o /aeiaaea niaanoe eae iaeiaai `aioo?aiiaai
aieina`.

Aeia?i ia/eiaaony aianoa n i?aaenoaaeaieai e ciaieai i iai. Oieueei
ciaiea nooe ioaeanoaa aeaeaao /aeiaaea ioaeanoaaiiui. Cei anaaaea
yaeyaony ?acoeueoaoii iaciaiey aeia?a.

Ii auniei ioeaieaae ?ieue caieaaeaeue/aneiai o?oaea a enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa, eioi?ue, ii aai iiaieth, ia aoaeo ethaeae e ia ?ac?ooaao
iaueiiue no?ie aeecie.

Nie?ao aeoeaii niinianoaiaae ia?aaiaeo aieiaiey oeeinioee n oaiu
i?e?iaeu ia oaio /aeiaaea. Nie?aoa ii i?aao ioiinyo e `aaeeeie o?ieea`
ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo oeeinioia, ia?yaeo n Ieaoiiii e A?enoioaeai. Iinea
Nie?aoa a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee nouanoaiaaea oeiea eeieeia (Aioenoai,
Aeeiaai). Iie n/eoaee iniiaie /aeiaa/aneiai n/anouey ioeac io
/oanoaaiiuo oaeiaieuenoaee, aiaaonoaa e neaau, a oeaeueth aeecie
aeinoeaeaiea iacaaeneiinoe. Naiie caiaoiie oeao?ie aue Aeeiaai
Neiiineee. Aeeiaai ii i?aaeaieth aeee a ai/ea e oiaeee a eioiioueyo oai
naiui aeaiiino?e?iaae aneaoe/aneee ia?ac aeecie.

I/aiue aaaeiia ianoi a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee caieiaao ee/iinoue
Ieaoiia, iniiaaoaey Aeaaeaiee. Ii n/eoaaony ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
iauaeoeaiiai eaeaaeecia, noi?iiieee eioi?iai n/eoatho ?aaeueiui
nouanoaiaaiea iaeiaai aeooiaiiai ia/aea, eioi?ia ii?iaeeei ec naay yoio
iaoa?eaeueiue ie?.

Ieaoii i?eaea?aeeaaeny iiaiey i nouanoaiaaiee ie?a eaeae. Yoio ie? aia
i?ino?ainoaa, ii aa/ai. Eaeay – yoi eae au i?iia?ac iaoa?eaeueiuo aauae,
a aaue –anaai eeoue ioia/aoie eaeae.

A ie?a eaeae nouanoaoao naiy ea?a?oey, iaeay ie?aieaea. Aa?oiaiie n?aaee
anao yaeyaony eaeay aeaaa, a ioee/ee io eaeae cea. Aeaai enoi/iee
enoeiu. Iii – auni/aeoay aeia?iaeaoaeue. Ii e iaoa?ey ea?aao ana aea ia
iineaaeithth ?ieue. Ie? ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac iaa. ?acaeaay enoiaeiue
oacen, Ieaoii i?eoae e auaiaeo i nouanoaiaaiee iaeiae ie?iaie aeooe,
enoi/ieea anae aeecie.

A enoi?ee Ieaoii oi?ioi ecaanoai nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei o/aieai. Ii
aai oaaaeaeaieth, a ainoaea?noaa aeieaeiu auoue o?e nioeeaeueiua a?oiiu.
Ia?aay – yoi ioae?ua i?aaeoaee e oeeiniou. Aoi?oth ia?acotho
ioaeanoaaiiua aieiu. A o?aouea yoi caieaaeaeueoeu e ?aianeaiieee. Ii aai
oaaaeaeaieth, oaeia ainoaea?noai aoaeao i?i/iui, iineieueeo eaaeaeue a
iai noaiao caieiaoueny naiei aeaeii.

Ieaoii io?eoeaoaeueii ioiineeny e aeaiie?aoee. Ii oaaaeaeaieth
iuneeoaey, eaeaaeueiue oei ainoaea?noaa – a?enoie?aoe/aneay ?anioaeeea.
Oai aoaeoo i?aaeoue niiniaiua.

Ii yaeyeny ?iaeiia/aeueieeii oeeinioneiai eaeaaeecia. A oai?/anoaa
Ieaoiia ae?aaiaa?a/aneee eaeaaeeci i?aaenoaao eae ie?iaicc?aiea.

Aa?oeiie a ?acaeoee ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee noaei oai?/anoai
A?enoioaey, o/aieea e e?eoeea Ieaoiia. Yoio aanueia iaea?aiiue
iuneeoaeue i?iyaee naay a eiaeea e ynoaoeea, a iieeoe/aneie oai?ee e
anoanoaiciaiee.

A?enoioaeue n/eoae /oi auoea nouanoaoao, a iaauoey iao. Iniiaie auoey ii
n/eoae ia?aoth iaoa?eth. I?iiaaeooi/iie nooiaiueth iaaeaeo iaoa?eae e
aauaie yaeythony: iaiiue, aicaeoo, aiaea e caiey. Ii A?enoioaeth.
?aaeueiue ie? yaeyao niaie aaeeinoai iaoa?ee e oi?iu. Oi?iie anao oi?i
aunooiaao Aia eae iaeee «ia?aiaeaeaaoaeue». A?enoioaeue e?eoeeiaae
naiaai o/eoaey Ieaoiia ca oi, /oi oio ?acaeaeee nouaa ia aeaa
?aaeueiinoe – ie? eaeae e ie? aauae. Oai naiui i?aaeiaou auee eeoaiu eo
aioo?aiiaai enoi/ieea, ieacaaoenue aacaeeciaiiuie.

E?eoeeoy Ieaoiia, A?enoioaeue noa?aeny niaaeeieoue aauanoaaiiia e
aeooiaiia. Ii A?enoioaeth ?acaeoea ie?a yaeyao niaie oeaiue i?aa?auaiee
aiciiaeiinoe a ?aaeueiinoue.

A?enoioaey i?eiyoi n/eoaoue iniiaaoaeai eiaeee (iaoee i niiniaao,
oi?iao, e caeiiao iuoeaiey).

Ii iuoaeny enneaaeiaaoue yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey a iauanoaa oiai
a?aiaie. Ii aue noi?iiieeii /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe. Io aeeaioiuo /aeiaaea
ioee/aaony i?aaeaea anaai oai, /oi iaeaaeaao ?acoiii, niiniaiinoueth
aeoiaoue e iiciaaaoue. Ia?yaeo n yoei, /aeiaae eiaao ?a/ue, iaoeo e
aieth, /oi aeaeaao aai niiniaiui ciaoue, iauaoueny e aeaeaoue auai?.
A?enoioaeue ionoaeaae oacen i anoanoaaiiinoe ?aanoaa. A aai
i?aaenoaaeaiee ?aau yoi aa?aa?u, ioee/athueany io ainiiae
i?eniiniaeaiiinoueth e oece/aneiio o?oaeo.

Oi?iu ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, A?enoioaeue ?acaeaeee ia
«iai?aaeeueiua» e «i?aaeeueiua». Oneiaeai nouanoaiaaiey ainoaea?noaa ii
n/eoae a?aaeaeaieia eae iieiii?aaiiai o/anoieea anao ainoaea?noaaiiuo
aeae.

A?enoioaeue ecaanoai oaeaea e eae iniiaaoaeue aeieiaee. Ieaiaoo Caiey
A?enoioaeue n/eoae oeaio?ii ie?icaeaiey, a eiia/iui e aa/iui enoi/ieeii
anao oi?i aeecie e aeaeaeaiey ia iae Aiaa.

Iiiaia?aiiia oai?/anoai A?enoioaey caaa?oaao niaie eeanne/aneee ia?eiae
a ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee.

Aeaeaa neaaeoao ia?eiae caeaoa ae?aaiaa?a/aneie oeeinioee, eioi?ue
niaiae n oiaaeeii naiaiaeiie iieeoe/aneie e aeooiaiie aeecie a ai?iaeao.
Eioa?an e oeeinionoaiaaieth cia/eoaeueii nieceeny. Aicieeei ?aiiaa
o?enoeainoai. Aaaeiaeoeie oeeinioneeie oa/aieyie a oi a?aiy auee
yieeo?aenoai, noieoeeci e neaioeoeeci.

Oeeinio Yieeo? yaeyaony naiie e?oiiie oeao?ie a oeeinioee a?aei?eineiai
ia?eiaea. Ii ai anai i?ioeai?a/ee Aeaiie?eoo.

A naiai o/aiee i i?e?iaea Yieeo? iieaaae, /oi ie/oi ia aicieeaao ec
ie/aai e a ie/oi ia i?aa?auaaony. Ie? anaaaea aue oaeia, eaeia ii
nae/an.

Ioee/ea oeeinioee Yieeo?a io Aeaiie?eoa ninoieo a oii, /oi ia?aue aaae
i?eioeei ioeeiiaiey aoiiia a oiaea eo aeaeaeaiey a ionoioa. O Aeaiie?eoa
aea ana ecia/aeueii aeanoei caaeaii e ia i?aaeiieaaaao aa eciaiaiey.
Noieoeeci au?acee iuouaiey iaiaaeaaeiinoe ie?a e iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe.
Eaeaaeii aeey noieeia noae /aeiaae, eioi?ue iiaeioaony noaeueaa e aiea
aiaia.

A yoii ie?a ana oi?aaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiinoueth e caeiiii. Eiay ia/aei
ai a?aiaie, ie? aeieaeai eiaoue naie eiiaoe.

Aeaaiui a iiaaaeaiee /aeiaaea aeieaeai noaoue iieie e iaaiciooeiinoue.
Neaioeoeeci ioaa?aae aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey /aeiaaeii aeinoiaa?iuo
ciaiee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a. Iiyoiio ia neaaeoao iacuaaoue aaue ie
i?ae?aniuie, ie aacia?aciuie, ioeaieaaoue iinooiee ethaeae eae
ni?aaaaeeeaua eee aea ia ni?aaaaeeeaua.

Neeueiui oie/eii, eioi?ue eciaiee, onoie aeecie e eciaiee ?acaeoea
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee e iiiaeo no?ai, iineoaeeee iioiaeu Aeaenaiae?a
Iaeaaeiineiai. Ii yaeyeny ia oieueei oaeaioeeaui iieeiaiaeoeai, ii e
oai?aoeeii iiaiai ie?iii?yaeea. Aai iioiaeu nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ianniaie
eieiiecaoeeae a?aeia e iaeaaeiiyi. Yoio ia?eiae i?eiyoi iacuaaoue
yeeeienoe/aneie yiioie. Aeaenaiae? nicaeae ia?iiioth eiia?eth, eioi?ay
i?aainoiaeeea ii ?acia?ai ana i?aaeiea ainoaea?noaa.

A yeeeienoe/aneoth yiioo cia/eoaeueii aic?inea ?ieue iaoee a aeecie
iauanoaa. Aeaenaiae?ey noaiiaeony iao/iui oeaio?ii. A oi a?aiy oai
?aniieaaaeny enneaaeiaaoaeueneee oeaio?. Caeanue ?aaioae iaoaiaoee
Yaeeeae; ano?iiii A?enoa?o Naiinneee, a Aa?ioee Oaeeaaeiineee ioe?ue
e?iaiia?auaiea.

Aeaeaa iinea ?aniaaea aea?aeaau Aeaenaiae?a Iaeaaeiineiai, a o. i.
ia?eiae yeeeiecia (III – II aa.), a A?aoeee i?aiaeaaeaee ainoaea?noaa e
nithcu aiaiece?iaaiiiai oeia inia?eaaaoea ainiiaenoai a A?aoeee.

N 146 a. aei i. y. (iinea ?aca?iia ?eieyiaie Aoaeneiai nithca) A?aoeey
iiae/eiyeanue ?eio (n 27 a. aei i. y. ia aa oa??eoi?ee ia?aciaaia
?eineay i?iaeioeey Aoaey).

N IV a. i. y. A?aoeey noaea iniiaiie /anoueth Ainoi/iie ?eineie eiia?ee
Aecaioee.

Caeeth/aiea

A caeeth/aiee oioae au ioiaoeoue /oi oaeia ainoaea?noai eae Ae?aaiyy
A?aoeey aeaei ia?iiiue oie/ie a noaiiaeaiee naaiaeiyoiaai ie?a (aioe/iay
eoeueoo?a – yoi «eieuaaeue iaoae oeeaeeecaoeee» ( A.I.?icei) ) Eiaiii a
oa aeaaiea a?aiaia noi?ie?iaaeanue oa nooiaiue eioi?ay auaaea
/aeiaa/anoaa ec «oaiiiou» «aaeioioea a iaai ?acoi» e ioe?uea
eieinnaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey ?acaeoey iaoee e iieo/aiey ciaiee. Aac
anaai oiai /oi i?ienoiaeeei a oo ii?o iiyaeaiea iaoaai naaiaeiyoiaai
ie?a ia aiciiaeii.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

Eoeueoo?ieiaey (TH.E.?iiaiia)

Enoi?ey Ie?iaie Eoeueoo?u, /anoue I ( A.A. Nieiaueaa, E.A. Iiaeeiaa )

Eoeueoo?ieiaey (A.I. ?icei)

Yeaeo?iiiue Eioa?iao ni?aai/iee http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki

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