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Oaia

Eoeueoo?a Ae?aaiae A?aoeee

Niaea?aeaiea

1. Yoaiu ?acaeoey a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u. «Aeai?oeiaua oeeaeeecaoeee»
Oaie?aoey. Iieen

2. Ieoieiaey a?oae/aneie A?aoeee. Aiia? «Eeeaaea», «Iaeennay»

3. «Cieioie aae» Aoei. Oaaeaa?u ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eeoa?aoo?u. Aeeae,
Yoee, Nioiee, A?enoioai

1. Yoaiu ?acaeoey a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u. «Aeai?oeiaua oeeaeeecaoeee»
Oaie?aoey. Iieen

A ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u A?aoeee III—1-e iieiaeiu I oun. aei i. y.
aeeth/atho ia?eiae ae?aaiaeoeo oeeaeeecaoeee (III—II oun. aei i. y.),
aiia?ianeee ia?eiae (OI—IO aa. aei i. y.) e a?oae/aneee ia?eiae (VIII—VI
aa. aei i. y.)

E ae?aaiaeoei oeeaeeecaoeeyi ia oa??eoi?ee A?aoeee ioiinyony Ieiieneay e
Ieeaineay (Aoaeneay) eoeueoo?u.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy n/eoaaony, /oi enoi?ey Ae?aaiae A?aoeee ia/eiaaony
i?eia?ii ia ?oaaaea III oun. aei i. y., eiaaea ia aa oa??eoi?ee
iianaianoii ?ani?ino?aiythony a?iiciaua i?oaeey o?oaea. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
III oun, aei i. y. iaeaieaa ?acaeoui auei ianaeaiea Eeeeaaeneeo
ino?iaia, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a Yaaeneii ii?a. Aei iaoaai a?aiaie aeioee
inoaoee e?aiinoiuo noai, i?aii?iua noaooyoee, ?anieniua ninoaeu. Ia
?oaaaea III—II oun, aei i. y. ia ino?iaao iiyaeythony ianoiyuea ai?iaea,
n yoiai a?aiaie oeaio?ii oeeaeeecaoeee noaiiaeony ino?ia E?eo, eoeueoo?o
eioi?iai eiiaaea iacuaatho Ieiieneie ii eiaie Ieiina — eaaaiaea?iiai
oea?y ino?iaa.

Any aeeciue ia E?eoa auea nin?aaeioi/aia aie?oa oae iacuaaaiuo
aeai?oeia, eioi?ua ninoiyee ec iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo ii ioaeaeea e
iacia/aieth iiiauaiee, ii aini?eieiaaiuo eae aaeeiue a?oeoaeoo?iue
ainaiaeue. Yoiio ai iiiaii niinianoaiaae caieiathuee oeaio?aeueioth
/anoue aeai?oea aieueoie i?yiioaieueiue aeai?, n eioi?ui auee naycaiu
ana inoaeueiua iiiauaiey. Aeai?oeu iinoiyiii ia?ano?aeaaeenue e
noaiiaeeenue ana aieaa iuoiuie. Iniaiai aieiaiey caneoaeeaaao
caia/aoaeueiay ianoaiiay ?inienue, oe?aoaaoay aioo?aiiea iiiauaiey,
ei?eaei?u e ii?oeee. Ia o?aneao ecia?aaeaeenue aeeaioiua, oeaaou, noeaiu
ec aeecie iaeoaoaeae aeai?oea, a /anoiinoe «ea?u n aueaie» ?aeeaeiciue
?eooae, naycaiiue n iaeiei ec aeaaiuo ieiieneeo eoeueoia — eoeueoii
aiaa-auea, a ia?aca eioi?iai aiieiuaeenue ?ac?ooeoaeueiua neeu. Neiaieii
aa/iiai iaiiaeaiey i?e?iaeu, iaoa?einoaa, aeainoaaiiinoe auea Aaeeeay
aiaeiy (aeaaeu/eoea) — oeaio?aeueiay oeao?a ieiieneiai iaioaiia aiaia,

?aeeaey ea?aea ia?iiioth ?ieue a aeecie E?eoa, oai neiaeeeanue iniaay
oi?ia oea?neie aeanoe — oaie?aoey (io a?a/. theos — aia), i?e eioi?ie
naaoneay e aeooiaiay aeanoue i?eiaaeeaaeeo iaeiiio eeoeo. Oea?neee
aeai?aoe auiieiye oieaa?naeueiua ooieoeee, yaeyynue iaeiia?aiaiii
?aeeaeiciui, aaeieieno?aoeaiuie e oicyenoaaiiui oeaio?ii. N?aaee
aeioaaeoeo aei ian iaiyoieeia ?aianea e eneonnoaa e?eoneie oeeaeeecaoeey
neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, e?iia i?ae?aniuo o?anie, caia/aoaeueiua a?iiciaua
noaooyoee, i?oaeea, aaeeeieaiioth e?ani/ioth ea?aieeo.

?anoeaao Ieiieneie eoeueoo?u i?eoiaeeony ia OVI — 1-th iie. OV aa. aei
i. y. Iaeiaei a na?aaeeia OV a. aei i. y. ii/oe ana iinaeaiey e aeai?oeu
ino?iaa auee ?ac?ooaiu a ?acoeueoaoa ecaa?aeaiey aoeeaia ia ino?iaa Oa?a
(nia?aiaiiue Naioi?ei) iaaeaeaei io E?eoa, a oaeaea aoi?aeaiey ec
iaoa?eeiaie /anoe A?aoeee aieinoaaiiuo a?aeia-aoaeoeaa. Oeaio?
oeeaeeecaoeey ia?aiauaaony a iaoa?eeiaoth A?aoeeth, aaea a yoi a?aiy
aeinoeaea ?anoeaaoa Ieeaineay (eee Aoaeneay) eoeueoo?a, noi?ie?iaaaoayny
ia ?oaaaea OVIII—OVI aa. aei i. y.

Ia?aiia/aeueii yoa eoeueoo?a eniuouaaea neeueiia aeeyiea Ieiieneay
oeeaeeecaoeey. N E?eoa auee caeinoaiaaiu iaeioi?ua aiaeanoaa, o?aneiaay
aeeaiienue, oaniiu iaeaaeaeu, aiaeii?iaiae, eaiaeecaoeey y ae?. Iaeiaei
oanii naycaiiay n ae?aaiaeoeie eoeueoo?aie iaoa?eeiaie A?aoeee,
Ieeaineay oeeaeeecaoeey auea aeinoaoi/ii naiaia?aciie. Iaeiei ec ?aiieo
iaiyoieeia Aoaeneie eoeueoo?u auee oae iacuaaaiua oaooiua a?iaieoeu a
Ieeaiao, ioe?uoua a 1876 a. ecaanoiui iaiaoeeei a?oaieiaii Aai?eoii
Oeeiaiii (1822—1900). A a?iaieoeao aianoa n einoyie oia?oeo auee
iaeaeaiu oe?aoaiey, ninoaeu, i?oaeea, cieioua iinia?oiua ianee.

?anoeaao Ieeaineie oeeaeeecaoeee i?eoiaeeony ia OV—OO aa. aei i. y. Eae
e ia E?eoa, iniiaiuie oeaio?aie eoeueoo?u auee aeai?oeu. Iaeaieaa
cia/eoaeueiua ec ieo — a Ieeaiao, Oa?eioa, Ieeina, Aoeiao, Eieea. Ii/oe
ana aoaeneea aeai?oeu a ioee/ea io e?eoneeo auee oe?aieaiu, eo iiuiua
noaiu nii?oaeaeenue ec ia?iiiuo eaiaiiuo aeua aac anyeiai naycothuaai
iaoa?eaea.

Eae e ia E?eoa, aeai?oeu auee oe?aoaiu o?aneaie, iaeiaei aeey
aieinoaaiiie, iaiaa ooii/aiiie ieeaineie eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ii
i?aiaeaaeaiea noeai aieiu e ioiou. A ia?eiae ?anoeaaoa aoaeneie
oeeaeeecaoeee ia niaio oaooiui iia?aaaieyi i?eoiaeeo iiaue aeae oea?neie
onuiaeueieoeu oiein (eoiieueiay a?iaieoea), naiay aieueoay ec ieo —
a?iaieoea Ao?ay a Ieeaiao.

Aoaeoeu, caoaaoea a OV a. aei i. y. E?eo, ia?aiyee o ieiieoeaa
ienueiaiiinoue (eeiaeiia neiaiaia ienueii A) e i?eniiniaeee aa aeey
ia?aaea/e naiaai ycuea (eeiaeiia neiaiaia ienueii A). Aeeiyiua oaaee/ee
ni neiaiaui ienueiii A, niaea?aeauea caiene ia a?a/aneii ycuea,
oaeaeinue ?anoeo?iaaoue. Neiaiaia ienueii A, eioi?ui iieueciaaeenue ia
a?aee, a ieiieoeu — aeiaoaeneia ianaeaiea E?eoa, aei neo ii? ia
iiaeaeaaony ?anoeo?iaea.

A eiioea OIII a. aei i. y. ia?iiiay ianna naaa?iaaeeaineeo aa?aa?neeo,
oi anoue ia cao?iioouo E?eoi-Ieeaineie oeeaeeecaoeeae, ieaiai
ono?aieeanue ia tha. Aaaeouay ?ieue a yoii ia?anaeaiee ia?iaeia
i?eiaaeeaaeaea a?a/aneiio ieaiaie aei?eeoeaa. Iie iaeaaeaee aieueoei
i?aeiouanoaii ia?aae aoaeoeaie aieaa yooaeoeaiui, /ai a?iiciaia,
aeaeaciui i?oaeeai. Eiaiii n i?eoiaeii aei?eeoeaa a XII—XI aa. aei i. y.
ia/eiaaony a A?aoeee aeaeaciue aae, e eiaiii a yoi a?aiy i?ae?auaao naia
nouanoaiaaiea E?eoi-Ieeaineay oeeaeeecaoeey.

A yoio ia?eiae (VIII — 480 aei i. y.) i?ioiaeeea Aaeeeay eieiiecaoeey —
inaiaiea a?aeaie iiaa?aaeuey N?aaeecaiiiai, *a?iiai, I?aii?iiai ii?ae. A
?acoeueoaoa a?a/aneee ie? auoae ec ninoiyiey ecieyoeee, a eioi?ii
ieacaeny iinea e?ooaiey E?eoi-Ieeaineie eoeueoo?u. A?aee noiaee iiiaiio
iao/eoueny o ae?oaeo ia?iaeia. O eeaeeeoeaa auea caeinoaiaaia /aeaiea
iiiaou, o oeieeeeoeaa — aeoaaeoiia ienueii, eioi?ia a?aee
oniaa?oainoaiaaee, aaaaey iaicia/aiey ia oieueei niaeaniuo, ii e
aeaniuo. Ca?iaeaeaiea a?a/aneie iaoee, a /anoiinoe ano?iiiiee e
aaiiao?ee, i?ienoiaeeei iiae aeeyieai aaeioyi e aaaeeiiyi. Ia a?a/aneia
eneonnoai ieacaee neeueiia aicaeaenoaea aaeiaoneay e aeeaeiaainoi/iay
a?oeoaeoo?a e neoeueioo?a. Yoe e ae?oaea yeaiaiou /oaeeo eoeueoo? auee
oai?/anee ia?a?aaioaiu e i?aaie/ii aioee a a?a/aneoth eoeueoo?o.

A ia?eiae a?oaeee n ieii/aoaeueiui ?aceiaeaieai ?iaeiaie iaueiu
i?ienoiaeeo oi?ie?iaaiea aioe/iiai iieena (a?a/. ?olis, eao. nivitas) —
ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa, a?aaeaeaineie iaueia eioi?iai i?eiaaeeaaeaea e
ie?oaeathuay ai?iae naeueneioicyenoaaiiay oa??eoi?ey. Iaeaieaa e?oiiuie
iieenaie auee Aoeiu, Nia?oa, Ei?eio, A?ain, Oeau.

A iieeoe/aneii ioiioaiee A?aoeey aeaeeeanue ia iiiaeanoai
naiinoiyoaeueiuo ai?iaeia-ainoaea?noa, iaeiaei eiaiii a a?oae/aneoth
yiioo aeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea a?aeia n ae?oaeie ia?iaeaie i?iaoaeeei a
ieo niciaiea aaeeinoaa, iiyaeythony iiiyoey «yeeeiu», «Yeeaaea»,
ioaaouaathuea a?a/aneee ie? a oeaeii. Aaaeiuie oeaio?aie yeiiiie/aneeo,
iieeoe/aneeo, eoeueoo?iuo naycae iaaeaeo iieenaie noaiiayony
iauaa?a/aneea nayoeeeua, aicieeiiaaieth eioi?uo niinianoaiaaei
ieii/aoaeueiia nicaeaiea aaeeiiai iaioaiia aiaia a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey
ae?aaieo ianoiuo eoeueoia, iniiaiui n?aaee eioi?uo noae eoeueo
ieeiieeneeo aiaia.

2. Ieoieiaey a?oae/aneie A?aoeee. Aiia? «Eeeaaea», «Iaeennay»

Yoio ia?eiae I—IO aa. aei i. y.) a?a/aneie enoi?ee iieo/ee naia iacaaiea
ii eiaie aaeeeiai Aiia?a. Aai i?ae?aniua iiyiu «Eeeaaea» e «Iaeennay»,
nicaeaiiua a VIII a. aei i. y., yaeythony aaaeiaeoei enoi/ieeii
eioi?iaoeee ia yoii a?aiaie, oioy e ?anneacuaatho i i?ienoiaeeaoae a
OIII a. aei i. y. O?iyineie aieia e aica?auaiee iaeiiai ec aeaaiuo
aa?iaa — Iaeennay — aeiiie iinea aieiu. Iaeiaei, iienuaay niauoey,
ioiinyueany aua e E?eoi-Ieeaineie yiioa, Aiia?, eae i?aaeei, ia?aiinyo
eo a aieaa iicaeithth enoi?e/aneoth n?aaeo. A iiyiao io?aaeaia aeeciue
iauanoaa n ai?acaei aieaa i?eieoeaiie eoeueoo?ie, /ai oa, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaao ia?aae iaie a iaiyoieeao E?eoi-Ieeaineie oeeaeeecaoeee. Aa?ie
Aiia?a — oea?e e i?aaenoaaeoaee ciaoe — aeeaoo a ie?oaeaiiuo /anoieieii
aea?aayiiuo aeiiao, noieue ia iioiaeeo ia aeai?oeu e?eoi-ieeaineeo
oea?ae.

Aei ian aeioei iaei iaiyoieeia aiia?ianeiai ia?eiaea. Iniiaiuie
no?ieoaeueiuie iaoa?eaeaie auee aea?aai e iaiaiaeaeaiiue ee?ie/,
iiioiaioaeueiay neoeueioo?a oiaea auea aea?aayiiie. Iaeaieaa y?ei
eneonnoai yoiai ia?eiaea i?iyaeeinue a ea?aie/aneeo aacao, ?anienaiiuo
aaiiao?e/aneei i?iaiaioii, a oaeaea a oa??aeioiauo e a?iiciauo
noaooyoeao.

Aiia?ianeee ia?eiae aue aanienueiaiiui, ia?aua ecaanoiua iinea
aeeeoaeueiiai ia?a?uaa a?a/aneea iaaeiene i?eiaaeeaaeao oaea ae?oaie
yiioa a?oae/aneie (2-y iie. VIII a. aei i. y.). Ii a ieo eniieuecoaony
oaea ia eeiaeiia neiaiaia ienueii A, a niaa?oaiii iiaia aeoaaeoiia
ienueii, caeinoaiaaiiia a?aeaie o oeieeeeoeaa. A oeaeii aiia?ianeee
ia?eiae aue a?aiaiai oiaaeea, canoiy eoeueoo?u, ii eiaiii oiaaea
auc?aaaee i?aaeiinueee no?aieoaeueiiai iiaeuaia a?a/aneiai iauanoaa a
a?oae/aneoth e eeanne/aneoth yiioo.

Aeey a?a/aneie ?aeeaee, eae e aeey ae?aaiaainoi/iuo, oa?aeoa?ai
iieeoaeci. Ii i?aaenoaaeaieyi ae?aaieo a?aeia, ia?aiia/aeueii
nouanoaiaae Oain, ec eioi?iai auaeaeeeanue caiey (Aay) e iiaecaiiue ie?
(Oa?oa?). Iaai (O?ai) auei ii?iaeaeaii Aaae. Aoi?ui iieieaieai aiaia
noaee aeaoe Aae e O?aia — oeoaiu, eioi?ua naa?aee iooea. Iaeei ec
oeoaiia, E?iiin (a?aiy), aioea?eeny iaae ie?ii, ii iinea iaeanoi/aiiie
ai?ueau aue niauai naiei ieaaeoei nuiii — Caanii. Ii i?aaeaieth, Caaa e
ie?oaeaaoea aai aiae aeeee ia ai?a Ieeii, iiyoiio a?aee iacuaaee eo
ieeiieeoeaie. Iiaaaeea oeoaiia, Caan-a?iiiaa?aeaoe noae aa?oiaiui aiaii,
aai aeaia Aa?a — aeaaeu/eoeae iaaa. Naiaio a?aoo Iinaeaeiio Caan
i?aaeinoaaee ai aeaaeaiea ii?a, a ae?oaiio a?aoo — Aeaeo — iiaecaiiia
oea?noai.

Aiaii naaoa e iiycee aue Aiieeii, eioi?iai iau/ii nii?iaiaeaeaee
aeaayoue ioc — iie?iaeoaeueieoe eneonnoa e iaoe. Aiaeiae e?aniou auea
Ao?iaeeoa, ioae?inoe — Aoeia, aiaii iaiy e eocia/iiai ianoa?noaa —
Aaoano, aieiu A?an. Eaaeaeay io?aneue oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe eiaea
naiaai aiaa-iie?iaeoaey: Aeaiao?a iie?iaeoaeuenoaiaaea caieaaeaeeth,
Aoeia oea/anoao, Aeeiien — aeiiaeaeeth, Aa?ian — oi?aiaea e o. ae.

E?iia iauaa?a/aneeo aiaia a eaaeaeie iaeanoe A?aoeee ii/eoaeenue e
ianoiua aiaeanoaa, ianaeyaoea eana, ai?u, enoi/ieee, eoaa.

Iiieii ieoia i aiaao e ia/aea ie?a, o a?aeia auee i/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiu
anaaiciiaeiua ieou i aa?iyo, i?e/ai iaeaieaa iiioey?iua iauaaeeiyeenue a
oeeeeu, iai?eia?, i O?iyineie aieia, i iiaeaeaao Aa?aeea, Ia?nay e
iiiaeo ae?oaeo aa?iyo.

Aaaeiui oaeoi?ii eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey A?aoeee auee ea?u, ono?aeaaaoeany
a /anoue iaeioi?uo aiaia. Naiuie cia/eoaeueiuie ec ieo auee: Ieeiieeneea
ea?u — nii?oeaiua ninoycaiey, iinayuaiiua Caano, i?ioiaeeaoea ?ac a
/aou?a aiaea a Ieeiiee, ia/eiay n 776 a. aei i. y.; Ieoeeneea ea?u —
nii?oeaiua e iocueaeueiua ninoycaiey a /anoue Aeieeiia a Aeaeueoao (?ac
a /aou?a aiaea); Enoieeneea — a /anoue Iinaeaeiia, i?iaiaeeaoeany iiae
Ei?eioii ?ac a aeaa aiaea:

A ea?ao a /anoue aiaia i?iyaeyaony iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo yeaiaioia ae?aaia
— a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u — aaiianoeea. No?aieaiea e i?ioeaiai?noao,
ninoycaieyi, i?aaie/ii i?enouaa ie?iaicc?aieth ae?aaieo a?aeia,
i?iiecuaaao i?aeoe/anee ana noa?u eo aeayoaeueiinoe. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi a
nenoaia ainieoaiey a?oae/aneie yiioe aeaaiia — i?aacieoe inoaeueiuo,
noaoue eo/oei. Ia?aciaaiiue /aeiaae aeieaeai aue aeaaeaoue anaie aeaeaie
i?oaeey, ea?aoue ia ea?a, iaoue, oaioeaaaoue, o/anoaiaaoue a nii?oeaiuo
e ea?iauo ninoycaieyo e o. i.

A yiioo a?oaeee iaeaieaa ?acaeoie iaeanoueth A?aoeee auea Eiiey
(caiaaeiia iiaa?aaeuea Iaeie Acee), eiaiii oai aicieeea ia?aay
oeeinioneay nenoaia aioe/iinoe — iaoo?oeeinioey. Aa i?aaenoaaeoaee
aini?eieiaee ie? eae aaeeiia iaoa?eaeueiia oeaeia, iuoaeenue iniuneeoue
aai caeiiiia?iinoe. Oaean (624—546 aei i. y.) n/eoae ia?aiiniiaie anao
aauae aiaeo, Aiaeneiai (ie. 585 — 525 aei i. y.) — aicaeoo, Aiaeneiaiae?
(ie. 611 — 546 aei i. y.) aiae?ii (aani?aaeaeueiia), o. a. ia?aiiaoa?eth
n aa i?ioeaiiieiaeiuie ia/aeaie — oaa?aeui e aeeaeeei, oaieui e
oieiaeiui. Enneaaeiaaieai ia?aii?e/eiu ie?a caieiaeenue e ae?oaea
oeeiniou a?oae/aneie yiioe.

Ieoaai? (ie. 540—500 aei i. y.) e aai iineaaeiaaoaee, n/eoay iniiaie
anaai nouaai /enea e /eneiaua ioiioaiey, aianee cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a
?acaeoea iaoaiaoeee, ano?iiiiee e oai?ee iocuee. Iaeiei ec e?oiiaeoeo
a?a/aneeo oeeinioia aue Aa?aeeeo Yoanneee (ie. 554—483 aei i. y.),
n/eoaaoee ia?aiiniiaie iaoa?ee iaiiue. Ii aai iiaieth, eae a i?e?iaea,
oae e a iauanoaa i?ienoiaeyo aa/iia aeaeaeaiea, aa/iay ai?ueaa, auoea
iinoiyiii eciaiyaony. Aieueoie aeeaae a ?acaeoea oeeinioee aianea
yeaeneay oeiea, iaeaieaa y?eei i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?ie aue Ia?iaieae
Yeaeneee (ie. 540—480 aei i. y.), noi?ioee?iaaaoee i?eioeei oiaeaeanoaa
iuoeaiey e auoey. N/eoay ?acoi, a ia iuouaiey enoi/ieeii iiciaiey,
iiiaeanoaaiiinoue aauae, eo aeaeaeaiea ii iauyniye iaiaiii i?aaiia
/oanoa.

Eeoa?aoo?iia oai?/anoai ecaeaaia nouanoaiaaei a A?aoeee a onoiie oi?ia:
yiin, o?oaeiaua ianie, aanie e i?., /oi iiaeaioiaeei iiyaeaiea
aiia?ianeeo «Eeeaaeu» e «Iaeennae» — ia?auo a?a/aneeo eeoa?aoo?iuo
i?iecaaaeaiee, i?e/ai ianoieueei niaa?oaiiuo, /oi aei neo ii? yoe iiyiu
yaeythony aaee/aeoeie aeinoeaeaieyie ie?iaie eeoa?aoo?u, oioy nicaeaiu
iie auee a VIII a. aei i. y. E yoiio aea a?aiaie ioiineony e oai?/anoai
Aaneiaea, iaienaaoaai iiyiu «Oaiaiiey» (o. a. ?iaeineiaiay aiaia) e
«O?oaeu e aeie» aia?aua io?aceaooth ee/iinoue naiiai aaoi?a, ath
aeeciue.

A eeoa?aoo?a yiioe a?oaeee aaaeouay ?ieue iinoaiaiii ia?aoiaeeo io yiina
e ee?e/aneie iiycee. Aieiaiea e /aeiaaeo, aai aioo?aiiaio ie?o, e
niauoeyi nia?aiaiiie aeecie oa?aeoa?ii aeey oai?/anoaa A?oeeioa (2-y
iie. VII a. aei i. y.), Naoi (Naioi) (ie. 610 — ie. 580 aei i. y.),
Aeeay (?oaaae VII—VIaa. aei i. y.), Oaiaieaea Iaaa?neiai (2-y iie VI a.
aei i. y.), Aiae?aiioa (2-y iie. VI a. aei i. y.). Ni/eiaiey ee?e/aneeo
iiyoia iau/ii aeaeeaie?iaaeenue ia?aniaa e nii?iaiaeaeaeenue ea?ie ia
ee?a.

A oeaio?a ee?eee Naoi — oaiu ethaae, iaaeiiai iauaiey iiae?oa,
aeaae/ueae e?aniou. Noeo Naoi ioee/aaony iao?e/aneei ?aciiia?aceai,
auaeaeyaony no?ioa, iacaaiiay ii eiaie iiyoannu naioe/aneie:

Oio, eoi i?ae?anai, — aeia?

A oio, eoi aeia?, — nei?i noaiao i?ae?aniui

E VI a. aei i. y. eae iniaue aeai? a?a/aneie eeoa?aoo?u ioi?ieyaony
aaniy, eioi?oth o?aaeeoeeiiii naycuaatho n eiaiai iieoeaaaiaea?iiai
Yciia. Iiiaea nthaeaou aai aanai (iai?eia?, «Aiee e yaiaiie», «Eeneoea e
aeiia?aae», «Ai?iia e eeneoea») iieo/eee ?acaeoea a iineaaeothuea yiioe,
a /anoiinoe, a Iiaia a?aiy a ia?aeiaeaieyo AE. aea Eaoiioaia
(1621—1695), E.A. E?ueiaa (1769—1844) e ae?. Iaeei ec ecaanoiaeoeo
aoi?eciia Yciia:

Ia iieiaa, oeuieyo ia nin/eoaaoue.

A VIII—VI aa. aei i. y. ca?iaeaeathony a?a/aneay enoi?eia?aoey, a oaeaea
a?a/aneee oaao?, au?inoee ec oi?iaiaeia, ianai, iieeoa, eniieiyaoeony ia
?aeeaeiciuo i?acaeieeao a /anoue Aeeiiena. ?acaeoea ae?aiaoe/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee naycaii n auaeaeaieai ec oi?a aeaenoaothuaai eeoea —
aeoa?a.

Eneonnoai ia?eiaea a?oaeee oa?aeoa?ecoaony iieneaie oi?iu, au?aaeathuae
ynoaoe/aneee eaeaae i?ae?aniiai oaeii e aeooii a?aaeaeaieia iieena. A
yoi a?aiy iiyaeythony aeaa iniiaiuo oeia iaeeii/iie neoeueioo?u
iaiaaeaiiiai thiioe (eo?in) e caae?aie?iaaiiie aeaiueiu (ei?a) n
oa?aeoa?iie, oae iacuaaaiie a?oae/aneie oeuaeie. E?iia oiai, iiyaeythony
neoeueioo?iua iiiaioeao?iua eiiiiceoeee e ?aeueaou. Ia?ac /aeiaaea,
neiaeeaoeeny a a?oae/aneii eneonnoaa, iaeaaeaao iaeioi?uie /a?oaie,
aeeceeie eneonnoao Ae?aaiaai Ainoiea: iaeioi?ay oneiaiinoue
ecia?aaeaiey, noaoe/iinoue, oi?aeanoaaiiinoue.

E VI a. ioi?ieyaony a?oeoaeoo?iue i?aea? a aai aei?e/aneii e eiie/aneii
aa?eaioao. No?iaiio, ianeieueei oyaeaeiaaniiio aei?e/aneiio noeeth
niioaaonoaoao no?iaay, aaiiao?e/anee i?aaeeueiay eaieoaeue eieiiiu. A
eiie/aneii, aieaa iuoiii, noeea eieiiia ia?yaeo n /enoi ooieoeeiiaeueiie
ianao e aeaei?aoeaioth iaa?oceo, aeey iaa oa?aeoa?iu eaieoaeue n
caaeoeaie-aiethoaie, aieaa neiaeiue oeieieue, naia iia ai?acaei ecyuiaa
aei?e/aneie eieiiiu. A ia?eiae a?oaeee ooaa?aeaeaaony neioac a?oeoaeoo?u
e neoeueioo?u — o?aiu nia?oaee oe?aoathony ?aeueaoaie, aioo?e noaayony
noaooe aiaia, eioi?ui iinayuaiu o?aiu.

A?a/aneay ea?aieea yiioe a?oaeee ii?aaeaao aiaaonoaii e ?aciiia?aceai
oi?i, e?anioie aeeaiieniiai ioi?ieaiey. Ieiei 700a. aei i. y. aii/a?u ec
Ei?eioa i?eaeoiaee /a?iioeao?ioth oaoieeo ?iniene ninoaeia, a eioi?ie
iaaeaco?iaaiiay e?aniay aeeia ?ane?aoeaaeanue a /a?iue oeaao e
?anienuaaeanue ieoieiae/aneeie eee aaoaeueiuie noeaiaie. Ieiei 530 a.
aei i. y. aoeineea aii/a?u i?aaeeiaeeee i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiue i?ioeann
e nicaeaee aieaa neiaeioth ii ecaioiaeaieth e?aniioeao?ioth ea?aieeo,
?iniene eioi?ie ioee/aeenue aieaa ouaoaeueiie i?i?eniaeie e ?ac?aaioeie
aeaoaeae, e aooe/aneea /a?iioeao?iua e aieaa iicaeiea e?aniioeao?iua
aacu n ecia?aaeaieai noeai iauaeaiiie aeecie ethaeae.

Naiaia?aciay a?oae/aneay eoeueoo?a caeiaeeea iniiao aeey ?anoeaaoa
eoeueoo?u eeanne/aneie, nua?aaoae noieue cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee
ie?iaie oeeaeeecaoeee.

3. «Cieioie aae» Aoei. Oaaeaa?u ae?aaiaa?a/aneie eeoa?aoo?u. Aeeae,
Yoee, Nioiee, A?enoioai

Eeanne/aneee ia?eiae (480—323 aei i. y.) iiae?acaeaeyaony ia yiioo
?anoeaaoa (O a. aei i. y.) e yiioo e?ecena iieena (IO a. aei i. y.)

?oaaaeii a enoi?ee Ae?aaiae A?aoeee noaee a?aei-ia?neaeneea aieiu
(500—449 aei i. y.). Iiaaaea a?aeia, ieii/aoaeueiia ioi?ieaiea
eeanne/aneiai ?aaiaeaaeaiey, ?acaeoea iieeniie aeaiie?aoee
niinianoaiaaee iiaeuaio yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie aeecie A?aoeee a O
a. aei i. y. e ?anoeaaoo a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u, oeaio?ii eioi?ie noaee
Aoeiu, iniaaiii ai a?aiy i?aaeaiey Ia?eeea (ie. 49 5—429 aei i. y.)

A eeanne/aneee ia?eiae oeaeueth ainieoaiey a?aaeaeaieia noaei aai
oece/aneia e aeooiaiia niaa?oainoai. A nenoaio ia?aciaaiey aoiaeeee
aeiianoeea, iocuea, oaioeu, /oaiea, ienueii. Aieueooth ?ieue a ?acaeoee
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey nua?aee nioenou — no?ainoaothuea
oeeiniou, eioi?ua ca ieaoo iao/aee aeaeathueo a?aiiaoeea, iaoaiaoe/aneei
aeenoeeieeiai, ?eoi?eea, aeeaeaeoeea e i?. Nioenou n/eoaee, /oi enoei
iiaeao auoue noieueei aea, neieueei e ethaeae, e iniaaiii neaaeeenue
naiei oiaieai oaaaeaeaoue e aeieacuaaoue.

A yoio ia?eiae aeee iaeei ec ?iaeiia/aeueieeia aeeaeaeoeee eae iaoiaea
iouneaiey enoeiu aaeeeee ioae?aoe Nie?ao (470—399 aei i. y.). Ii
ooaa?aeaeae, /oi nouanoaotho aaniethoiua enoeiu, aaniethoiua yoe/aneea
oeaiiinoe, ii eie aeaaeaao oieueei aia. Ia eioa?anoynue o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
oeeinioneeie i?iaeaiaie, ana aieiaiea Nie?ao oaeaeyao /aeiaaeo — aai
i?e?iaea, aiciiaeiinoyi, ainieoaieth. Iniiaie /aeiaa/aneiai
nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey ii n/eoaao ?acoi. Enoeio, ii iiaieth Nie?aoa,
iiaeii iiciaoue a nii?a n iiiiuueth iaaiaeyueo aii?inia.

A ?acaeoee i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?e?iaea aieueooth ?ieue nua?ae Aeaiie?eo
(460— oia? a aeoaieie noa?inoe), eioi?ue aaae iiiyoea aoiiia —
iaaeaeeiuo /anoeoe, iaoa?ee. Aoiiu ?acee/iuo oae ioee/athony oi?iie e
?acia?ii, eiaaea iaeeiaeiaua aoiiu ano?a/athony, ia?acothony oaea. Ii
iiaieth Aeaiie?eoa, iao yaeaiee aac i?e/eiu: i?e?iaea e enoi?ey ia
eiatho oeaee, ii ana yaeaiey iaoneiaeaiu. Iaoa?ey aa/ia, aa
aicieeiiaaiea ia ioaeaeaaony a iauyniaiee — iauyniyoue iaaei oieueei
eciaiaiey, a yoi aiciiaeii aac aa?u a aiaia.

A eeanne/aneoth yiioo iaoea aua oanii naycaia n iaoo?oeeinioeae, ii n
oaaee/aieai iauaia ciaiee iaeioi?ua iai?aaeaiey ia/eiatho ioi?ieyoueny
eae naiinoiyoaeueiua aeenoeeieeiu. Iai?eia?, a V a. aei i. y.
iaaethaeaaony i?ia?ann a iaaeeoeeia, naycaiiue n eiaiai Aeiiie?aoa (ie.
460 — ie. 370 aei i. y.). Aieacie ii iauyniyao aiieia ?aaeueiuie
i?e/eiaie, ia caaenyueie io aiaeanoaaiiuo nee. Ea/eoue eaaeaeiai
/aeiaaea neaaeoao a caaeneiinoe io aai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae,
iiaeeecoy neeu i?aaiecia n iiiiuueth aeeaou, i?aaeeueiiai ooiaea,
anoanoaaiiuo oeaeeoaeueiuo n?aaenoa. Aeiiie?ao n/eoae, /oi a?a/ aeieaeai
niaethaeaoue iniaua yoe/aneea ii?iu, i?aaeaea anaai ia a?aaeeoue
iaoeeaioo.

A eeoa?aoo?a O a. aei i. y. iniiaiuie aeai?aie noaee o?aaaaeey e
eiiaaeey. Oai?oeii eeanne/aneie a?a/aneie o?aaaaeee yaeyaony Ynoee
(525—456 aei i. y.). Ii iaeeaee ae?aio, aaaaey a iaa aoi?iai aeoa?a,
naeaeae oaao?aeueiia aeaenoaea aieaa aeeiaie/iui, eioa?aniui, e?iia
oiai, n aai eiaiai naycaii i?eiaiaiea aeaei?aoeee, ianie. Iaeei ec
iniiaiuo iioeaia oai?/anoaa Ynoeea — i?ineaaeaiea a?aaeaeaineeo
aeia?iaeaoaeae, iao?eioecia, iniaaiii oa?aeoa?ia a yoii ioiioaiee
o?aaaaeey «I?iiaoae i?eeiaaiiue».

Aua iaeia aaaeiay oaia Ynoeea — eaeay aiciacaeey e oaeoi? noaeueau,
eo/oa anaai au?aaeaiiua a o?eeiaee «I?anoay».

Oaia iaioa?aoeiie noaeueau caieiaao aieueoia ianoi e a oai?/anoaa
ae?oaiai ciaiaieoiai a?a/aneiai o?aaeea — Nioieea (ie.496—406 aei i.
y.). Iieacuaay ai?ueao naiaiaeiie /aeiaa/aneie aiee i?ioea
iani?aaaaeeeainoe neaiiai ?iea, Nioiee iiae/a?eeaaao aanneeea /aeiaaea,
iaecaaaeiinoue oaioiaaiiie aio o/anoe. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiu o?aaaaeee
Nioieea i eaaaiaea?iii oea?a Yaeeia.

Nioieeo i?eienuaatho neiaa:

ss ecia?aaeath ethaeae oaeeie, eaeeie ei iaaeeaaeeo auoue, a Aa?eieae
ecia?aaeaao eo oaeeie, eaeea iie anoue.

Oai?oeii ineoieiae/aneie ae?aiu aue Aa?eieae (485/484 eee 480—406 aei i.
y.). Iniiaiie eiioeeeo a aai i?iecaaaeaieyo — ai?ueaa ?annoaeea e
no?anoae, eioi?ua oae aea iaioa?aoeii, eae e noaeueaa, i?eaiaeyo
/aeiaaea e aeaaee. Iniaaiii auaeaeythony n?aaee o?aaaaeee Aa?eieaea
«Iaaeay> e «Oaae?a».

Aaeeeieaiiui eiiaaeeia?aoii aue A?enoioai (ie. 445 — ie. 386),
i?eaeaaoee eiiaaeee iieeoe/aneoth ino?ioo e ceiaiaeiaaiinoue. A aai
oai?/anoaa (eiiaaeee «Ie?», «Anaaeieee», «Eeneno?aoa» e ae?.)
io?aceeenue iieeoe/aneea acaeyaeu aooe/aneiai e?anoueyinoaa. A?enoioai
aue ai?y/ei noi?iiieeii aeaiie?aoee, i?eaa?aeaioeai o?aaeeoeeiiiuo
iieeniuo eaeaaeia, iiyoiio a aai eiiaaeeyo /anoi auniaeaathony nioenou e
Nie?ao eae noi?iiieee eiaeeaeaeoaeecia, i?ioeai?a/auaai eieeaeoeaenoneie
ii?aee.

Any aeeciue aoeineeo a?aaeaeai a V a. aei i. y. auea naycaia n
eieeaeoeaiuie eioa?anaie, i?ioiaeeea a iinoiyiiii iauaiee. Aieueoeinoai
a?aaeaeai — ioae/ei — i?eieiaei o/anoea a ?aaioa ia?iaeiiai nia?aiey,
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey, noaeia. Iaiaei a?aiaie i?iaiaeeeinue a aeiianeyo e
iaeano?ao, aaea caieiaeenue oece/aneeie o?aie?iaeaie. A aeiianeyo, e?iia
oiai, aaee aanaaeu nioenou, Nie?ao, aicieeaee iieeoe/aneea e oeeinioneea
nii?u. Iniaui ianoii iauaiey aue ?uiie, aaea, aeaeay iieoiee,
iaiaieaaeenue iiainoyie. Aeiaieueii /anoi ono?aeaaeenue naiiineiiu —
ae?oaeaneea ie?ooee, ia eioi?uo iaee ianie, eiiaaea ninoycaeenue a
e?anii?a/ee, iiycee, aaee oeeinioneea nii?u. O/anoaiaaee a neiiineiiao
oieueei ioae/eiu, ii ia?aaeei aeey ?acaea/aiey ie?othueo i?eaeaoaeenue
oeaeoenoee, ae?oaea iocueaiou, aaoa?u. Iianaaeiaaiay iaeaaeaea aoeiyi
auea ne?iiiie, ieua — aeiaieueii neoaeiie: a iniiaiii iaiue, ?uaa,
y/iaiiua eaiaoee, ieee iau/ii ?acaaaeaiiia aeii, aiaeo, iieiei.

Aieueoie eioa?an a?aaeaeai aucuaaea enoi?ey ?iaeiiai iieena. A?a/aneay
enoi?eia?aoey V a. aei i. y. ao?ii ?acaeaaaony e aiineaaenoaee
noaiiaeony ia?acoeii aeey iiae?aaeaiey. Aua ae?aaiea «iooeii enoi?ee»
iacuaaee Aa?iaeioa (ie. 484—425 aei i. y.). A ioee/ea io eiaia?aoia
(enoi?eeia a?oae/aneiai ia?eiaea), o eioi?uo ionoonoaiaaea /aoei
au?aaeaiiay iniiaiay eaeay iiaanoaiaaiey, ii iaienae caeii/aiiia,
i?ae?anii eceiaeaiiia i?iecaaaeaiea — «Enoi?eth», iniiaiui nthaeaoii
eioi?ie auee a?aei-ia?neaeneea aieiu.

Aaee/aeoee enoi?ee aioe/iinoe — Ooeeaeeae (460—396 aei i. y.) a naiae
«Enoi?ee Iaeiiiiianneie aieiu» aia?aua i?eiaiee iao/ii e?eoe/aneee
iaoiae, iiiuoaeny ?ane?uoue i?e/eiiua nayce niauoee e oai naiui
niinianoaiaae ?inoo iieeoe/aneeo ciaiee.

Aeaaiie caaea/ae eneonnoaa V a. aei i. y. auei i?aaaeeaia ecia?aaeaiea
/aeiaaea, neeueiiai, yia?ae/iiai, iieiiai aeinoieinoaa e ?aaiiaaney
aeooaaiuo nee — iiaaaeeoaey a ia?neaeneeo aieiao, naiaiaeiiai
a?aaeaeaieia iieena, a eioi?ii i?aanoaaiiay e?anioa iaioaeaeeia io
oece/aneie.

A yoi a?aiy aeinoeaaao ?anoeaaoa ?aaeenoe/aneay neoeueioo?a,
auiieiyaoayny a iniiaiii ec i?aii?a, eioi?ue, eae e a a?oae/aneoth
yiioo, ?ane?aoeaaee, e a?iicu. Iiioiaioaeueiinoue, no?aieaiea e
aa?iiiee, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe, nicaeaieth eaeaaeueiuo ia?acia aiaia e
ethaeae ioee/atho oai?/anoai aaeeeeo neoeueioi?ia V a. aei i. y.: Oeaeey
(na?aaeeia O a. aei i. y.) noaooe «Aoeia-aieoaeueieoea»,
«Aoeia-Ia?oaiin» aeey Ia?oaiiia a Aoeiao, «Caan» — aeey o?aia a Ieeiiee;
Ie?iia (O a. aei i. y.) — ciaiaieoue «Aeeneiaie» Iieeeeaoa (2-y iie. V
a. aeii. y.) — noaooy «Aa?a», auiieiaiiay ec cieioa e neiiiaie einoe,
«Aei?eoi?» , «Eiiueaiinaoe», «?aiaiay aiaciiea».

N?aaee a?a/aneeo aeeaiienoeaa V a. aei i. y. neaaeoao ioiaoeoue
Iieeaiioa (1-y iie. V a. aei i. y.) e Aiieeiaei?a (2-y iie. V a. aei i.
y.), eioi?iio i?eienuaaaony ioe?uoea ea?u naaoioaie, oiaiea aeaaaoue
ia?niaeoeao. Eo ea?oeiu aei ian, e niaeaeaieth, ia aeioee, e iniiaiui
iaiyoieeii aeeaiiene yoiai ia?eiaea aeey ian inoaaony i?ae?aniay aaciaay
?inienue, i?iaeieaeaaoay ?aaeenoe/aneea o?aaeeoeee a?oae/aneie yiioe.

V a. aei i. y. iciaiaiiaaeny aaeeeieaiiuie a?oeoaeoo?iuie iino?ieeaie a
?aciuo eiioeao A?aoeee. A yoi a?aiy nicaeathony iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua
eiiieaenu, iinea ?ac?ooaiee ai a?aiy a?aei-ia?neaeneeo aiei
ainnoaiaaeeaathony ai?iaea e ioaeaeueiua iaiyoieee. A eeanne/aneee
ia?eiae ieii/aoaeueii ioi?ieeenue aei?e/aneee e eiie/aneee i?aea?u, e
iiyaeyaony iiaue, aieaa ia?yaeiue i?aea? — ei?eioneee, aeey eioi?iai
oa?aeoa?ia eaieoaeue eieiiiu, oe?aoaiiay eenoaie e caaeoeaie. Iniiaiui
oeiii iauanoaaiiiai caeaiey ii-i?aaeiaio inoaaony o?ai. A ia?aie
iieiaeia V a. aei i. y. auee nicaeaiu iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiua
i?iecaaaeaiey aei?eeneiai noeey: aaee/anoaaiiua o?aiu a ai?iaea
Iinaeaeiiey (THaeiay Eoaeey), o?ai Caana a Ieeiiee. Iniaia ianoi a
enoi?ee aioe/iie a?oeoaeoo?u caieiaao eiiieaen nii?oaeaiee ia Aoeineii
Ae?iiiea. ?ac?ooaiiue ia?naie a 480 a. aei i. y., ii caiiai
iono?aeaaaony ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai V a. aei i. y. iiae iauei
ooaeiaeanoaaiiui iaaethaeaieai neoeueioi?a Oeaeey. A no?ieoaeuenoaa
i?eieiaee o/anoea auaeathueany ciae/ea oiai a?aiaie: Eeoei, Eaeeee?ao,
Iianeee e ae?. Ainaiaeue Ae?iiiey n/eoaaony aa?oeiie ae?aaiaa?a/aneie
a?oeoaeoo?u, neiaieii yiioe iaeaunoaai ?anoeaaoa e iiaouanoaa Aoei. Ii
aeeth/ae ?yae nii?oaeaiee — i?iieeae (ia?aaeiua ai?ioa), o?ai Ieee
Aioa?in (Aane?ueie Iiaaaeu). Caeanue aea aicauoaeny e aeaaiue o?ai Aoei
Ia?oaiii. I?ae?anii iaeaeaiiua i?iii?oeee, oiieay eaiea a?oeoaeoo?iuo
aeaoaeae, aaeeeieaiiia ni/aoaiea a?oeoaeoo?u e neoeueioo?iiai ioi?ieaiey
aeaeatho Ia?oaiii iaeiei ec oaaeaa?ia ie?iaie a?oeoaeoo?u.

Iaaeaeaei io Ia?oaiiia aue iino?iai a eiie/aneii noeea ae?oaie
aaeeeieaiiue o?ai Aoeineiai Ae?iiiey — Y?aooaeii (421—406 aei i. y.) ni
ciaiaieoui ii?oeeii ea?eaoeae.

Ia?aua i?eciaee e?ecena iieena i?iyaeeenue oaea a aiaeu Iaeiiiiianneie
aieiu (431—404 aei i. y.) iaaeaeo Aoeiaie e Nia?oie ca ainiiaenoai a
A?aoeee. E?ecen a?a/aneiai iieena aue caeiiiia?iui yaeaieai. ?acaeoea
oiaa?ii-aeaiaaeiuo ioiioaiee a A?aoeee i?eaiaeeei e ?ani?ino?aiaieth
/anoiie nianoaaiiinoe ia caieth, auoaniyaoae aioe/ioth oi?io
nianoaaiiinoe — yeiiiie/aneoth iniiao ai?iaea-ainoaea?noaa. A nayce a
e?ecenii eaeaieiaey iieena eae eieeaeoeaa a?aaeaeai oo?a/eaaao naia
cia/aiea. Ana aieueoa ?acaeaaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeeci, no?aieaiea i?aaeaea
anaai e ee/iiio aeaaiiieo/eth, a ia e iauanoaaiiiio aeaao, iinoaiaiii
en/acaao aeoo iao?eioecia, nua?aaoee a naia a?aiy aieueooth ?ieue a
iiaaaea iaae ia?naie. aeinoaoi/ii oa?aeoa?ii, /oi aianoi a?aaeaeaineiai
iiie/aiey iiyaeythony iaaiiua aienea, aioiaua neoaeeoue ethaiio, eoi
aieueoa caieaoeo.

Iieeoe/aneee e?ecen, oiaaeie iauanoaaiiie aeecie a a?a/aneeo iieenao IV
a. aei i. y. aaee e oiio, /oi ethaee ana neeueiaa nin?aaeioi/eaaeenue ia
nianoaaiiuo aeaeaieyo e ioaeaeao, eneaee ee/iiai n/anouey a nica?oeaiee,
naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiee. Ia neo/aeii a aeaoo neiaeeaoeony a yoi a?aiy
oeeinioneeo oeieao — eeie/aneie e aaaeiie/aneie — ia ia?aii ieaia noiyo
yoe/aneea i?iaeaiu, iienee n/anouey. Aeaaiuie i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
eeie/aneie oeieu auee Aioenoai (ie. 444—366 aei i. y.) e Aeeiaai
Neiiineee (ie. 412—323 aei i. y.). Ii eo iiaieth, eiia/iay oeaeue
/aeiaa/aneeo ono?aieaiee — aeia?iaeaoaeue, iia niaiaaeaao ni n/anoueai e
caeeth/aaony a oiaiee ecaaaaoue cea e aeiaieuenoaiaaoueny iaeui, /oi
iaania/eaaao iacaaeneiinoue. Iaeiaei iacaaeneiinoue o eeieeia icia/aea e
io?eoeaiea eoeueoo?u, naiuee, eiouanoaa, ainoaea?noaa, iauanoaaiiuo
onoaiiaeaiee. I/aiue oa?aeoa?ia oeao?a Aeeiaaia, eioi?ue aae ieuaineee
ia?ac aeecie, i?ac?eoaeueii ioiineeny e eoeueoo?a, n/eoae naay
a?aaeaeaieiii ie?a (einiiiieeoii) e o?aaiaae «ia?aioeaiee oeaiiinoae».

Aaaeiienou, iniiaiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?uo aue A?enoeii (ie. 435— 355
aei i. y.), n/eoaee, /oi enoeia iaiiciaaaaia, iiyoiio eaaeaeue /aeiaae
aeieaeai no?aieoueny e oiio iaiiiaiio, /oi aio aeinooiii, — e
oaeiaieuenoaeth e aeieaeai ai anai ?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny nianoaaiiuie
iuouaieyie.

A yiioo e?ecena iieena aeeee aeaa auaeathueony aioe/iuo oeeinioa —
Ieaoii e A?enoioaeue, ieacaaoea a?iiaaeiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eae
oeeinioey, oae e o?enoeaineie oaieiaee. Ieaoii (427—347 aei i. y.) aue
o/aieeai Nie?aoa, a iinea nia?oe o/eoaey iniiaae a Aoeiao nianoaaiioth
oeieo — Aeaaeaieth. Ii aai iiaieth, iiaeii ociaoue enoeio i oii, /oi
i?ienoiaeeo a ainoaea?noaa e a i?e?iaea, i?e/ai yoi ciaiea ia iniaia o
eaaeaeiai /aeiaaea, a aaeeiia e iauaa aeey anao ethaeae. *oiau iieo/eoue
aai, ioaeii iiciaoue oae iacuaaaiue ie? eaeae. Ianoiyuee ie?, i?e?iaea,
ana aeaeeiua aaue — eeoue eiiee eee io?aaeaiey ie?a eaeae — iaaeaeeiiai
e nouanoaothuaai aaea-oi a iaaecaacaeiii i?ino?ainoaa. Oaeaeyy aieueoia
aieiaiea i?iaeaia acaeiiioiioaiee iauanoaa e ee/iinoe, Ieaoii i?aaeeaaae
?aoi?ie?iaaoue eeiieaoeeny e oiaaeeo iieen. Iniiaiie eaeaae aai o/aiey i
ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony ni?aaaaeeeainoue, nicaeaiea eaeaaeueiiai
iieeoe/aneiai no?iy. Ainoaea?noai Ieaoiia ninoieo ec nineiaee i?aaeoaeae
(oeeinioia), aieiia e oae iacuaaaiiai o?aoueaai nineiaey, eoaea aoiaeyo
e?anoueyia, ?aianeaiieee, oi?aiaoeu y i?. Eaaeaeia nineiaea aeieaeii
caieiaoueny naiei aeaeii e a niaa?oainoaa aeaaeaoue ei. Ni?aaaaeeeaue
ainoaea?noaaiiue no?ie nicaeaaony a ?acoeueoaoa aa?iiie/iith ni/aoaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe nineiaee e eo aeia?iaeaoaeae.

O/aieea Ieaoiia — A?enoioaey (384—322 aei i. y.) ii i?aao iacuaatho
yioeeeeiiaaeenoii. Aeioaaeoea aei ian aai i?iecaaaeaiey iinayuaiu naiui
?aciui iaoeai: iieeoeea, aeieiaee, oeceea, iaoaieea, iaoaiaoeea,
aioaieea e ae?. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia A?enoioaey ieacaee ia oieueei
Ieaoii, ii e i?aaenoaaeoaee iaoo?oeeinioee, iniaaiii Aeaiie?eo.
Aeinoeaeaiey i?aaeiae oeeinioee A?enoioaeue oaeoaee, e?eoe/anee
ia?a?aaioae e nenoaiaoece?iaae a naiae oeeinioneie nenoaia. Aaaeiui
iiiaioii a o/aiee A?enoioaey yaeyaony acaeiiioiioaiea oi?iu e iaoa?ee.
I?ioeann ?acaeoey, ii aai iiaieth, au?aaeaaony a no?aieaiee iaoa?ee e
noaiiaeaieth, ioi?ieaieth. Oi?ia caeiaeaia a eaaeaeii nouanoaa e
i?aaeii?aaeaeyao aai ?acaeoea, iia iaioaeaeeia io iaoa?ee, i?eaeaao ae
ii?aaeaeaiiinoue. A?enoioaeue oaeaea ?ac?aaaouaae o/aiea i i?e?iaea
iiiyoey, niioiioaiee aai n i?aaeiaoii, i iaoiaeao iuoeaiey, i eiaeea.
Eae e Ieaoii, A?enoioaeue niciaaae, /oi /aeiaae iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoue naay
oieueei a iauanoaa.

O/aiea A?enoioaey, a eioi?ii ii iuoaeny naycaoue neeueiua noi?iiu
acaeyaeia Aeaiie?eoa e Ieaoiia, eiaei iineaaeiaaoaeae e
iaoa?eaeenoe/aneiai, e iauaeoeaii-eaeaaeenoe/aneiai iai?aaeaiee.

Aieueooth ?ieue A?enoioaeue nua?ae a ?acaeoee a?a/aneie nenoaiu
ia?aciaaiey, iniiaiie caaea/ae eioi?iai n/eoae iao/eoue /aeiaaea
iuneeoue, aeaoue ooiaeaiaioaeueiua ciaiey a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo iaoee e
aeecie. Iiae aeeyieai A?enoioaey a IV a. aei i. y. ieii/aoaeueii
neiaeeeanue no?ieiay nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, nio?aieaoay naia cia/aiea aei
eiioea enoi?ee Ae?aaiaai ie?a. Ia ia?aii, ia/aeueiii, yoaia iao/aiey
aeaaaeenue iaauee ienueia, /oaiey, n/aoa, i?iaiaeeeenue o?iee aeiianoeee
e iocuee. Ia aoi?ii yoaia eco/aeenue a?aiiaoeea, ?eoi?eea, iaoaiaoeea,
caiyoey nii?oii e iocueie i?iaiaeeeenue ia aieaa aunieii o?iaia.
O?aouey, aunoay, nooiaiue caaa?oaea o/aaiue i?ioeann, ia yoii yoaia
eco/aeenue ?eoi?eea e iniaaiii oeeinioey.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. «Eoeueoo?ieiaey. Enoi?ey ie?iaie eoeueoo?u» Iiae ?aaeaeoeeae
i?ioanni?a A.I.Ia?eiaie. Iineaa 2001a.

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