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Ecia?aoey (io a?a/. ???? — ?aaiue e a?a/. ?????— ienaiea) — oi/iia
aini?iecaaaeaiea eee oaeneieee?iaaiea eaeeo au oi ie auei ienueiai, a
oaeaea eieeaeoeey nieieia n iiaeeeiiuo ienai, ?oeiienae e iiaeienae
ciaiaieouo ethaeae.

A Ae?aaiae ?one neiaa ecia?aoey e «ecia?ao» eniieueciaaeenue a cia/aiee
neia «aeeaiienue» e «aeeaiienaoe», eeai aea «eeiiiienaiea» e
«eeiiiienaoe».

Ei?ie ae?aaia?onneie eeiiiiene.

Ia?iiai nae/an eioa?an e ae?aaia?onneie aeeaiiene a iaoae no?aia, e
ia iaiaa ia?iiiu o?oaeiinoe aa aini?eyoey o oao, eoi ia?auaaony e iae
naaiaeiy. Eo eniuouaath i?aeoe/anee ana – e iiae?inoee, e ac?ineua,
i?e/ai aeaaea ethaee, a inoaeueiii oi?ioi ia?aciaaiiua, oioy a
Ae?aaiae ?one aa aeeaiienue auea aeinooiia anai. Aeaei a oii,
/oi ei?aiyony yoe o?oaeiinoe ia i?inoi a iaaeinoaoea ciaiee o
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea, i?e/eia eo ai?acaei oe?a: iia a
ae?aiaoe/aneie noaeueaa naiiai ae?aaia?onneiai eneonnoaa, a
ae?aiao iaoae enoi?ee.

O?enoeainoao ia ?one /ooue aieaa ouny/e eao e oaeea aea ae?aaiea
ei?ie eiaao eneonnoai eeiiiiene. Eeiia (io a?a/aneiai neiaa,
iaicia/athuaai “ia?ac”, “ecia?aaeaiea”) aicieeea aei ca?iaeaeaiey
ae?aaia?onneie eoeueoo?u e iieo/eei oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ai anao
i?aaineaaiuo no?aiao. Eeiiu ia ?one iiyaeeenue a ?acoeueoaoa
ienneiia?neie aeayoaeueiinoe aecaioeeneie Oea?eae a oio ia?eiae,
eiaaea cia/aiea oea?eiaiiai eneonnoaa ia?aaeeaaeinue n iniaaiiie neeie,
/oi yaeeinue aeey ?onneiai oea?eiaiiai eneonnoaa neeueiui aioo?aiiei
iiaoaeaeaieai, yoi oi, /oi ?onue I?eiyea o?enoeainoai eiaiii a
yiioo aic?iaeaeaiey aeooiaiie aeecie a naiie Aecaioee, yiioo aa
?anoeaaoa. A yoio ia?eiae ieaaea a Aa?iia oea?eiaiia eneonnoai ia auei
oae ?acaeoi, eae a Aecaioee. E a yoi-oi a?aiy iiaiia?auaiiay ?onue
iieo/eea n?aaee i?i/eo eeii, eae ia?acaoe i?aaineaaiiai eneonnoaa,
iai?aacieaeaiiue oaaeaa? – eeiio Aiaiiaoa?e, iieo/eaooth
aiineaaenoaee iaeiaiiaaiea Aeaaeeie?neie. AEeaiienue iiyaeeanue a ?innee
aua a O aaea, aianoa n o?enoeainoaii. Oao eeii, eioi?ua auee caaacaiu e
i?iaeieaeaee caaiceoueny ec Aecaioee, ia oaaoaei. Noaee aicieeaoue e
nianoaaiiua eeiiiieniua ianoa?neea. Ia ia?auo ii?ao a ieo i?inoi
eiie?iaaee a?a/aneea eeiiu, iioii a ?aaioo ianoa?ia ia/aei i?iieeaoue e
iiaia ea/anoai.

Ciaeii ianooiathuae c?aeinoe noaei iiyaeaiea ?aciuo ianoiuo oeie eeiiiie
aeeaiiene. Oaea a XII aaea ca?iaeeeanue eioa?aniay e neeueiay
iiaai?iaeneay oeiea, caoai – ineianeay. Iioii – aeaaeeie?i-nocaeaeueneay
(a i?e iae iniaia iieiaeaiea caiyea y?ineaaneay). Naie /a?ou i?eia?aoaea
eeiiiienue ?onneiai Naaa?a. Iaeiiaoe, a XIV aaea ia/aeny iiaeuai oeieu
iineianeie.

*a?ac ecia?aceoaeueiia eneonnoai aioe/iay aa?iiiey e /oanoai ia?u
noaiiayony aeinoiyieai ?onneiai oea?eiaiiai eneonnoaa, aoiaeyo a aai
aeeaoth oeaiue. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue e oi, /oi aeey auno?iai
inaiaiey aecaioeeneiai ianeaaeey ia ?one eiaeenue aeaaii?eyoiua
i?aaeiinueee e, iiaeii neacaoue, oaea iiaeaioiaeaiiay ii/aa.
Iineaaeiea enneaaeiaaiey iicaieytho ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi ycu/aneay
?onue eiaea auniei?acaeooth ooaeiaeanoaaiioth eoeueoo?o. Ana yoi
niinianoaiaaei oiio, /oi nio?oaeie/anoai ?onneeo ianoa?ia n
aecaioeeneei e auei eneeth/eoaeueii ieiaeioai?iui. Iiaiia?auaiiue
ia?iae ieacaeny niiniaiui aini?eiyoue aecaioeeneia ianeaaeea,
eioi?ia ieaaea ia iaoei noieue aeaaii?eyoiie ii/au e ieaaea ia
aeaei oaeiai ?acoeueoaoa, eae ia ?one.

N aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe neiai “Eeiia” oiio?aaeyaony aeey
ioaeaeueiuo ecia?aaeaiee, eae i?aaeei iaienaiiuo ia aeinea.
I?e/eia yoiai yaeaiey i/aaeaeia. Aea?aai neoaeeei o ian
iniiaiui no?ieoaeueiui iaoa?eaeii. Iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai
?onneeo oea?eaae auee aea?aayiiuie, iiyoiio ia oieueei iicaeea, ii e
o?anea (aeeaiiene ii naaaeae nu?ie oooeaoo?ea) ia noaeaeaii auei
noaoue a Ae?aaiae ?one iaua?ani?ino?aiaiiui oa?ainoaii o?aiiaiai
eioa?uea?a. Naiae aeaei?aoeaiinoueth, oaeianoaii ?aciauaiey a
o?aia, y?einoueth e i?i/iinoueth naieo e?anie eeiiu, iaienaiiua ia
aeineao (niniiauo e eeiiauo, iie?uouo aeaaano?iaui a?oioii –
eaaeanii), eae iaeuecy eo/oa iiaeoiaeeee aeey oa?ainoaa ?onneeo
aea?aayiiuo oea?eaae. Iaaea?ii auei ioia/aii, /oi a Ae?aaiae ?one
eeiia yaeeanue oaeie aea eeanne/aneie oi?iie ecia?aceoaeueiiai
eneonnoaa, eae a Aaeioa – ?aeueao, a Yeeaaea – neoeueioo?a, a a
Aecaioee – iicaeea.

Ae?aaia?onneay aeeaiienue – aeeaiienue o?enoeaineie ?one – ea?aea a
aeecie iauanoaa i/aiue aaaeioth e nianai eioth ?ieue, /ai aeeaiienue
nia?aiaiiay, e yoie ?ieueth aue ii?aaeaeai aa oa?aeoa?. ?onue i?eiyea
e?auaiea io Aecaioee e aianoa n iei oianeaaeiaaea i?aaenoaaeaiea i oii,
/oi caaea/a aeeaiiene – “aiieioeoue neiai” aiieioeoue a ia?acu
o?enoeaineia aa?io/aiea. Iiyoiio a iniiaa ae?aaia?onneie aeeaiiene
eaaeeo aaeeeia o?enoeaineia “neiai”. I?aaeaea anaai yoi Nayuaiiia
Ienaiea, Aeaeey (“Aeaeey” ii-a?a/anee – eieae) – eieae,
nicaeaiiua, niaeanii o?enoeaineiio aa?io/aieth, ii aaeioiiaaieth Nayoiai
Aeooa.

Aiieioeoue neiai, yoo a?aiaeeicioth eeoa?aoo?o, ioaeii auei eae iiaeii
yniaa- aaaeue yoi aiieiuaiea aeieaeii auei i?eaeeceoue /aeiaaea e enoeia
yoiai neiaa, e aeoaeia oiai aa?io/aiey, eioi?ia ii eniiaaaeiaae.
Eneonnoai aecaioeeneiai, i?aaineaaiiai ie?a – anao no?ai,
aoiaeyueo a noa?o eoeueoo?iiai e aa?ieniiaaaeiiai aeeyiey
Aecaioee, – ?ac?aoeei yoo caaea/o, au?aaioaa aeoaiei
naiaia?acioth niaieoiiinoue i?eaiia, nicaeaa iaaeaeaiioth ?aiaa e
ieeiaaea aieueoa ia iiaoi?eaoothny ooaeiaeanoaaiioth nenoaio, eioi?ay
iicaieeea iaiau/aeii iieii e ynii aiieioeoue o?enoeaineia neiai a
aeeaiieniue ia?ac. A oa/aiea aeieaeo aaeia ae?aaia?onneay aeeaiienue
ianea ethaeyi, iaiau/aeii y?ei e iieii aiieiuay eo a ia?acu, aeooiaiua
enoeiu o?enoeainoaa. Eiaiii a aeoaieii ?ane?uoee yoeo enoei
aeeaiienue aecaioeeneiai ie?a, a oii /enea e aeeaiienue Ae?aaiae
?one, ia?aoaea iaiau/aeioth, ia aeaeaiioth, iaiiaoi?eioth e?anioo.

Aiai?y i ?onneie eeiia, iaaiciiaeii ia oiiiyiooue eiaie Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa.
Aai eiy auei nio?aiaii ia?iaeiie iaiyoueth. N iei /anoi naycuaaee
?aciia?aiaiiua i?iecaaaeaiey, eiaaea oioaee iiae/a?eiooue eo
iacao?yaeiia enoi?e/aneia eee ooaeiaeanoaaiiia cia/aiea. A?aiy aeecie
Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa niaiaaeaao n ia?aeiiiui iiiaioii a inaiaiaeeoaeueiie
ai?ueaa ?onneiai ia?iaea i?ioea oaoa?i-iiiaieueneiai eaa. Oai?/anoai
i?ineaaeaiiiai eeiiiienoea ciaiaioao aaaeioth aaoo a enoi?ee ?onneiai
eneonnoaa. N aai eiaiai naycaii aicieeiiaaiea ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai
iai?aaeaiey, ia iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey ii?aaeaeeaoaai ?acaeoea ?onneie
aeeaiiene.

Aiae?ae ?oaeaa eeiiiienaoe, i?aiiaeiaiue. Nia?aa aue iineooieeii o
i?aiiaeiaiiai Ieeiia ?aaeiiaaeneiai, a iioii eiieii a
Niani-Aiae?iieeiaii iiianou?a a Iineaa. Aiae?ae — iiiaoaneia eiy;
ie?neia eiy iaecaanoii (nei?aa anaai, ii oiaaeaoiae o?aaeeoeee, iii
oiaea ia/eiaeinue ia A). Nio?aieeanue eeiia, iiaeienaiiay «Aiae?ae
Eaaiia nui ?oae?a»; iia iicaeiyy e iiaeienue yaii iiaeaeaeueiay, ii,
aiciiaeii, yaeyaony einaaiiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii oiai, /oi iooea
ooaeiaeieea aeaenoaeoaeueii caaee Eaaiii. Aeaoa aai ?iaeaeaiey
onoaiaaeeaaaony aanueia i?eaeeceoaeueii, ii einaaiiui aeaiiui. N?aaee
oaeeo aeaiiuo – aeaoa nia?oe: 29 yiaa?y 1430 aiaea. Aeaoa oi/iay, iia
auea auna/aia ia ieeoa eeaaeaeua Niani-Aiae?iieeiaa iiianou?y. I?aaaea,
ieeoa aeaaii oo?a/aia, ii iaaeienue auea neiie?iaaia iaaeaaeiui
/aeiaaeii e ae iiaeii aeiaa?youe. A oae eae ecaanoii, /oi ooaeiaeiee
oia? a i?aeeiiiii aic?anoa, oi iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi iiyaeeny ii
ia naao a i?iiaaeooea iaaeaeo 1360 e 1370 aiaeaie.

?iaeeeny ii, i/aaeaeii, a n?aaeiae iieina ?innee, e aa?iyoiaa anaai a
Iineianeii eiyaeanoaa. Oiaaea ethaee ia auee neeiiiu e ia?aiaia iano e
aeaeaee yoi eeoue a e?aeieo ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Oai aieaa ethaee i?inoua,
a aai oaieeey iicaieyao i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi ii i?ienoiaeee ec
?aianeaiieeia: ?oaaeue – yoi eino?oiaio aeey iaeaoee eiae.

E aeaeo oiaaea ia/eiaee i?eo/aoue i/aiue ?aii. Iiae?inoeii eee thiioae,
oi anoue a 1370-o eee 1380-o aiaeao, ii noae iao/aoueny eeiiiieniiio
?aianeo. Aaea, o eiai – iaecaanoii. Ie/aai ia ecaanoii e i?i ia/aei aai
?aaiou – aaea, eiaaea, n eai…

Naiua ?aiiea naaaeaiey i ooaeiaeieea ainoiaeyo e Iineianeie O?ieoeeie
eaoiiene. N?aaee niauoee 1405 aiaea, niiauaaony, /oi “oie aea aaniu
ii/aoa iiaeienuaaoe oea?eiaue eaiaiioth nayoia Aeaaiaauaiea ia eiycy
aaeeeiai aeai?a… a ianoa?u ayoo Oaioai eeiiiee a?a/ei, aea I?ioi?
noa?aoe n Ai?iaeoea, aea /a?iaoe Aiae?ae ?oaeaa”. Oiiieiaieai eiaie
ianoa?a iineaaeiei, niaeanii oiaaeaoiae o?aaeeoeee, icia/aei, /oi ii
yaeyaony ieaaeoei a a?oaee. Ii aianoa n oai o/anoea a ii/aoiii caeaca ii
oe?aoaieth aeiiiaie oea?eae Aaneeey Aeieo?eaae/a, noa?oaai nuia Aeieo?ey
Aeiineiai, ia?yaeo ni ciaiaieoui oiaaea ia ?one Oaioaiii A?aeii
oa?aeoa?ecoao Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa eae oaea aeinoaoi/ii i?eciaiiiai,
aaoi?eoaoiiai aaoi?a. A ae?aaiai aeeoee i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey
?aaeiiaaeneiai, ninoaaeaiiii o/aieeii aai Aieoaieai, oe?aoaiiii
iiiai/eneaiiuie ieieaoth?aie (nienie XVI a.), Aiae?ae ?oaeaa ecia?aaeai
a o?ao aeaeao: neaeyuei ia iiaeiinoeao e ieoouei ia noaia o?aia ia?ac
Ia?oeioai?aiiiai Niana; i?eoiaeyuei e iiaiiino?iaiiie a eaa?a eaiaiiie
oea?eae e iia?aaaaiui eaa?neie a?aoeae.

Neaaeothuaa niiauaiea O?ieoeeie eaoiiene ioiineony e 1408 aiaeo: 25 iay
“ia/aeny iiaeienuaaoe oea?eiaue eaiaiioth aaeeeoth niai?ioth nayoay
Aiai?iaeeoea eaea ai Aeaaeeie?a iiaaeaieai eiycy Aaeeeiai a ianoa?u
Aeaieei eeiiiee aea Aiae?ae ?oaeaa”. Oiiieiaaiue caeanue Aeaieee –
“niae?oa” Aiae?ay, aieaa ecaanoiue iiae eiaiai Aeaieeea *a?iiai, oiaa?eu
a iineaaeothueo ?aaioao. Iiae aai ?oeiaiaenoaii auei ?anienaii iiiai
o?aiia, a oae aea ia?eniaai oeaeue ?yae aeaenoniuo, i?acaeie/iuo e
i?i?i/aneeo eeii.

I?iecaaaeaiey Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa i?eiaaeeaaeao e aunoei aeinoeaeaieyi
?onneiai e ie?iaiai aeooiaiiai eneonnoaa, aiieioeaoaai aicauoaiiia
iiieiaiea aeooiaiie e?aniou e i?aanoaaiiie neeu /aeiaaea Na. ?one. Yoe
ea/anoaa i?enoue eeiiai Caaieai?iaeneiai /eia (“Nian”, “Aiinoie Iaaae”
(iaoiaeeony a ?onneii iocaa), “A?oaiaae Ieoaee”, ana — ?oaaae XIV-XV
aa.), aaea eaeiie/iua ieaaiua eiioo?u, oe?ieay iaia?a ienueia aeecee
i?eaiai iiioiaioaeueiie aeeaiiene.

Aeey ainnicaeaiey oai?/aneiai iaeeea ?oaeaaa i/aiue aaaeiu naaaeaiey,
niiauaiiua a 1478 aiaeo Eineoo Aieioeeiio auaoei eaoiaiii O?ieoeeiai
Na?aeaaa iiianou?y noa?oeai Nie?eaeiiii. Ii neiaai Nie?eaeiia,
oaeeaeoaeueiua e i?ineaaeaiiua eeiiiienoeu Aeaieee e o/aiee aai Aiae?ae,
eiiee Aiae?iieeiaa iiianou?y, ioee/aeenue oaeeie aeia?iaeaoaeyie, /oi
oaeinoieeenue iaiau/iuo aea?iaaiee e ianoieueei i?aoniaee a
niaa?oainoaiaaiee, /oi ia iaoiaeeee a?aiaie aeey ie?neeo aeae.

Yoe naeaeaoaeuenoaa aeatho io/aoeeaia i?aaenoaaeaiea i aunieie ioeaiea
oai?/anoaa ?oaeaaa aai nia?aiaiieeaie, iicaieytho aeoaaea i?iieeiooue a
ia?aciue no?ie aai i?iecaaaeaiee e iinoeaiooue nouanoaaiiua iniaaiiinoe
aai aeeaiieniiai iaoiaea. Ii /oiau aa?ii iiiyoue niune i?eaaaeaiiuo
auneacuaaiee, iaiaoiaeeii iiciaeiieoueny n iaeioi?uie i?aaenoaaeaieyie
aecaioeeneie ienoeee, iieo/eaoeie oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea n?aaee
iineaaeiaaoaeae Na?aey ?aaeiiaaeneiai. Niaeanii yoei i?aaenoaaeaieyi,
aeey oiai, /oiau aeinoiaa?ii ioia?aaeaoue iauaeou oinoaaiiiai
nica?oeaiey, aianoi yiie?e/aneee “oaiae aauae” iieacuaaoue iiaeeeiioth
eo i?e?iaeo, aeeaiienaoe aeieaeai aue noaoue nica?oeaoaeai, anee oieueei
ii ia aeaeae inoaaaoueny ?aianeaiieeii, eiie?othuei /oaeea ia?acoeu. Aio
i?aaenoiyei aa?iooue oo?a/aiiia anoanoaaiiia ninoiyiea – aa?iiieth
/oanoa, yniinoue e /enoioo oia. Niaa?oainoaoynue, oi i?eia?aoae
niiniaiinoue aini?eieiaoue “iaaauanoaaiiue” naao. Ii aiaeiaee n
oece/aneei naaoii, aac eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii aeaeaoue ie?oaeathuee ie?,
oinoaaiiue naao – ciaiey e ioae?inoe – inaauae enoeiioth i?e?iaeo,
ia?aiia?acu anao i?aaeiaoia e yaeaiee. Eioaineaiinoue i?iyaeaiey yoiai
naaoa e yniinoue oiic?aiey noaaeeenue a i?yioth caaeneiinoue io noaiaie
i?aanoaaiiie /enoiou nica?oeaoaey. AEeaiienoeo, aieaa /ai eiio-eeai
ae?oaiio, o?aaiaaeinue i/enoeoue “i/e oia”, cani?aiiua iaiai/eauie
/oanoaaiiuie “iiiuneaie”, iioiio /oi, eae ooaa?aeaeae Aaneeee
Eana?eeneee, “enoeiiay e?anioa nica?oeaaony oieueei eiathueie i/euaiiue
oi”. A aeinoeaeaiee i?aanoaaiiie /enoiou iniaay ?ieue ioaiaeeeanue
aeia?iaeaoaee nie?aiey. Ia neo/aeii a enoi/ieeao e eiaie ?oaeaaa /anoi
i?eeaaaaony yieoao “nie?aiiue”. Enaae Ne?ei iacuaae nie?aiea
“oaeinoaaiiie neeie”, eioi?ie aeaaeatho eeoue “niaa?oaiiua”; eiaiii
nie?aiea aeaao anaaaaeaiea e aeaeaao aeinooiiui ethaia nica?oeaiea.
Aunoei, iaeaieaa o?oaeiiaeinoeaeeiui ii n/eoae nica?oeaiea O?ieoeu.

A 1405 niaianoii n Oaioaiii A?aeii e I?ioi?ii n Ai?iaeoea ?anienae
Aeaaiaauaineee niai? Iineianeiai E?aiey (o?anee ia nio?aieeenue), a a
1408 n Aeaieeeii *??iui e ae?. ianoa?aie — Oniaineee niai? ai Aeaaeeie?a
(?inienue nio?aieeanue /anoe/ii) e nicaeae eeiiu aeey aai
iiioiaioaeueiiai o?aouy?oniiai eeiiinoana, noaaoaai aaaeiui yoaiii
oi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu aunieiai ?onneiai eeiiinoana.

Ec o?anie ?oaeaaa a Oniaineii niai?a iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueia eiiiiceoeey
“No?aoiue noae”, aaea o?aaeeoeeiiii a?iciay noeaia i?aa?aoeeanue a
naaoeue i?acaeiee oi?aeanoaa Aiaeanoaaiiie ni?aaaaeeeainoe. ?aaiou
Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa ai Aeaaeeie?a naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi e oiio a?aiaie ii
aue c?aeui ianoa?ii, noiyaoei ai aeaaa nicaeaiiie ei oeieu aeeaiiene.

A 1425 — 1427 ?oaeaa niaianoii n Aeaieeeii *??iui e ae?. ianoa?aie
?anienae O?ieoeeee niai? O?ieoea-Na?aeaaa iiianou?y e nicaeae eeiiu aai
eeiiinoana. A?aiy, eiaaea ia ?one iac?aaaee iiaua iaaeaeioniaiua aieiu e
aa?iiie/aneee eaeaae /aeiaaea, neiaeeaoeeny a i?aaeoanoaothuee ia?eiae,
ia iaoiaeee iii?u a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, neacaeinue e ia oai?/anoaa
?oaeaaa. Eiei?eo iicaeieo eeii aieaa noi?a/ai; a iaeioi?uo eeiiao
oneeeaaaony aeaei?aoeaiia ia/aei, a ae?oaeo i?iyaeythony a?oae/aneea
oaiaeaioeee. Iaeioi?ua enoi/ieee iacuaatho ?inienue Nianneiai niai?a
Aiae?iieeiaa iiianou?y (ie. 1427) iineaaeiae ?aaioie ?oaeaaa. Aio
i?eienuaaaony oaeaea ?yae ?aaio, i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue eioi?uo eenoe ?oaeaaa
oi/ii ia aeieacaia: o?anee Oniaineiai niai?a ia “Ai?iaeea” a
Caaieai?iaea (e. XIV — i. XV a.), eeiiu — “Aeaaeeie?neay Aiaiiaoa?ue”
(ie. 1409, Oniaineee niai?, Aeaaeeie?), “Nian a neeao” (1408), /anoue
eeii i?acaeie/iiai /eia (“Aeaaiaauaiea”, “?iaeaeanoai O?enoiai”,
“N?aoaiea”, “E?auaiea”, “Aine?aoaiea Eaca?y”, “I?aia?aaeaiea”, “Aoiae a
Ea?onaeei” — ana ie. 1399) Aeaaiaauaineiai niai?a Iineianeiai E?aiey,
/anoue ieieaoth? “Aaaiaaeey O?enoiaa”.

Aeaaeeie?neee Oniaineee niai?, oiiieiaaiue a eaoiiene, ae?aaiaeoee
iaiyoiee aeiiiiaieueneie ii?u, aicaaaeaiiue ai aoi?ie iieiaeia XII aaea
i?e eiycueyo Aiae?aa Aiaiethaneii e Anaaieiaea Aieueoia Aiacaei, aue
eaoaae?aeueiui niai?ii ieo?iiieeoa. ?aci?aiiue e auaeaeaiiue i?aeuineeie
caaiaaaoaeyie o?ai ioaeaeaeny a ainnoaiiaeaiee. Iineianeee eiycue
Aaneeee Aeieo?eaae/, i?aaenoaaeoaeue aaoae aeaaeeie?neeo eiycae,
iioiieia Iiiiiaoia, i?aaei?eieiae iaiiaeaiea Oniaineiai niai?a a ia/aea
XV aaea eae iaeee caeiiiia?iue e iaiaoiaeeiue aeo, naycaiiue n
aic?iaeaeaieai iinea iiaaaeu ia Eoeeeianeii iiea aeooiaiie e eoeueoo?iie
o?aaeeoeee ?one, yiioe iaoeeiiaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe. Io ?aaio A.?oaeaaa
e Ae.*a?iiai a Oniaineii niai?a aei iaoeo aeiae aeioee eeiiu eeiiinoana,
ninoaaeyaoea aaeeiue ainaiaeue n o?aneaie, /anoe/ii nio?aieaoeieny ia
noaiao o?aia.

Neaaeothuae aaaeiaeoae ?aaioie A.?oaeaaa yaeeny oae iacuaaaiue
Caaieai?iaeneee /ei (iaaeaeo 1408 e 1422 aa.), iaeei ec naiuo i?ae?aniuo
eeiiiuo ainaiaeae ?oaeaaneie aeeaiiene. *ei ninoieo ec o?ao iiyniuo
eeii: Niana, a?oaiaaea Ieoaeea e aiinoiea Iaaea. Iie i?ienoiaeyo ec
iiaeiineiaiiai Caaieai?iaea, a i?ioeii oeaio?aeueiiai oaeaeueiiai
eiyaeanoaa. O?e aieueoaia?iua eeiiu, aa?iyoii, eiaaea-oi aoiaeeee a
naieoeao?iue aeaenon. A niioaaonoaee ni neiaeeaoaeny o?aaeeoeeae ii
noi?iiai io Niana ?aniieaaaeenue Aiaiiaoa?ue e Eiaii I?aaeoa/a, ni?aaa
eeiia a?oaiaaea Ieoaeea niioaaonoaiaaea eeiia a?oaiaaea Aaa?eeea, a a
ia?a n eeiiie aiinoiea Iaaea aeieaeia auea auoue neaaa eeiia aiinoiea
Iao?a. Nio?aieaoeany eeiiu auee iaia?oaeaiu ?anoaa?aoi?ii A. *e?eeiaui a
1918 aiaeo a ae?iayiii na?aa aeec Oniaineiai niai?a ia Ai?iaeea, aaea
?aniieaaaeny eiyaeaneee o?ai TH?ey Caaieai?iaeneiai, aoi?iai nuia
Aeieo?ey Aeiineiai.

Caaieai?iaeneee /ei niaaeeiee a naaa aunieea aeeaiieniua aeinoieinoaa n
aeoaeiie ia?aciiai niaea?aeaiey. Iyaeea caaeooaaiua eioiiaoeee, “oeoee”
naao aai eiei?eoa oaeeaeoaeueiui ia?acii ia?aeeeeathony n iiyoe/aneei
iano?iaieai iaecaaea caaieai?iaeneeo ie?anoiinoae. A caaieai?iaeneii
/eia ?oaeaa aunooiaao eae neiaeeaoeeny ianoa?, aeinoeaoee aa?oei ia oii
iooe, aaaeiui yoaiii eioi?iai auea aeeaiienue 1408 aiaea a Oniaineii
niai?a ai Aeaaeeie?a. Eniieuecoy aiciiaeiinoe iiyniiai ecia?aaeaiey, eae
au i?eaeeaeathuaai oe?oiiaiiua eeee e c?eoaeth, ooaeiaeiee ?ann/eouaaao
ia aeeeoaeueiia nica?oeaiea, aieiaoaeueiia aaeyaeuaaiea, niaanaaeiaaiea.

A aeaaaeoeaouo aiaeao XV aaea a?oaeue ianoa?ia, aicaeaaeyaiay Aiae?aai
?oaeaaui e Aeaieeeii *a?iui, oe?aneea eeiiaie O?ieoeeee niai? a
iiianou?a i?aiiaeiaiiai Na?aey, aicaaaeaiiue iaae aai a?iaii.

Neaaeothuae a?aiaeeiciie ?aaioie A.?oaeaaa auei nicaeaiea a 1427-1430
aa. ?iniene Nianneiai niai?a Niani-Aiae?iiieeiaa iiianou?y a Iineaa. Yoi
auea aai iineaaeiyy ?aaioa 29 yiaa?y 1430 a. ii neii/aeny e aue iia?aaai
a yoii aea iiianou?a.

A e. XIV — i. XV a. ?oaeaa nicaeae naie oaaeaa? — eeiio “O?ieoea”
(iaoiaeeony a Ainoaea?noaaiiie O?aoueyeianeie aaea?aa, ia nthaeao
“ainoai?eeinoai Aa?aaia”. O?aaeeoeeiiiue aeaeaeneee nthaeao ii iaiieiee
aeoaieei iiyoe/aneei e oeeinioneei niaea?aeaieai. Eeiia «O?ieoea»
Aiae?ay ?oae?aa – aa?oeia ?onneiai eeiiiieniiai oai?/anoaa, a ii iiaieth
iaeioi?uo niaoeeaeenoia ae iao ?aaiuo e ai an?i ie?iaii ecia?aceoaeueiii
eneonnoaa. Oae eee eia/a, a? ooaeiaeanoaaiiia cia/aiea iainii?eii. *oi
aea eanaaony niaea?aeaiey, oi, iiaeaeoe, iao eeiiu aieaa caaaaei/iie.

O?ieoea Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa.

N/eoatho, /oi niaea?aeaiea eeiiu niioaaonoaoao iaeaieaa o?aaeeoeeiiiiio
a OV aaea oieeiaaieth: niaeanii Aeaeee /Auo. ae.18/ A aeoa?aaa Iai?a
aeee noa?ue ei/aaiee Aa?aai n aeaiith naiath Na??ie, eioi?iai iinaoeee
o?e no?aiieea e i?aaeneacaee aio, /oi noaiao ii ?iaeiia/aeueieeii
oeaeiai ia?iaea. Aa?aai e aeaia aai auee a aiaeao i?aeeiiiuo, e oaea ia
iiaei o ieo auoue iioiinoaa. E aio iaeiaaeaeu, eiaaea neaeae ii ia
ii?iaa naiaai aeiia a Iai?eeneie aeoa?aaa, a iieoaeaiiue ciie yaeeny aio
nai Aia. Iaaeaeeiia, iaiinoeaeeiia, ia eiathuaa ia?aca aiaeanoai aeey
iauaiey n /aeiaaeii, i?eiyaoaa aeae o??o iooieeia. O?e ioaea a
iaeaaeaeao iooieeia iiaeioee e oao?o ainoai?eeiiiai noa?oea. Ii
i?eaeanee eo ca o?aiaco. O?e ioaea yaeeenue, /oiau i?eianoe ia?iiiie
aaaeiinoe aanoue. Iie ecia?aaeaiu n e?ueueyie a aeaea aiaaeia (neiai
aiaae a ia?aaiaea n a?a/aneiai – aanoiee). E aanoue yoa i aeiaiai?a, i
caaaoa Aiaa n /aeiaaeaie.

Aiae?ae ?oae?a a naiae ciaiaieoie eeiia «O?ieoea» eniieueciaae yoio
aeaeaeneee nthaeao, ii a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo, aieaa ae?aaieo eeii, niune
aeiaeee eiie. Caeanue ionoonoaotho ia ea?oeia aeaaiua aa?ie ieoa Aa?aai
e Na??a, e eioi?ui i?eoee no?aiieee. Ia aei?oae?aneeo eeiiao n nthaeaoii
o?ieoeu aacaea i?enoonoaotho Aa?aai e Na??a.

?oae?a aea ioeacaeny io eo ecia?aaeaiey. Ii/aio? A oii niauoee n
aiaeanoaii ano?aoeeenue oieueei yoe aeaa /aeiaaea e aio ?oae?a
i?aaeeaaaao ano?aoeoueny n Aiaii iai, c?eoaeyi ea?oeiu. Aia i?eo?e e
iai, ia?auaaony e iai, n iaie iaaiaa?eaaao caaao. ?oae?a ae?aaithth
aaooicaaaoioth ioae?inoue i?eaeeaeaao e nia?aiaiiinoe.

Ionoonoaea Aa?aaia e Na??u a oi a?aiy auei ionooieaieai io eaiiia.
?oae?a ioio?e io iaai, /oiau i?eaeeceoue niauoey aaooiai caaaoa e
niauoeyi iiaiai caaaoa, a iiaue caaao – e nia?aiaiiinoe. Eaeia aea ii,
yoio caaao Aiaa n /aeiaaeii? Eaeea aeaaiua eaeae ian?o iai aeooiaeaeaoe
Aiae?ae ?oae?a n iiiiuueth naieo aiaaeia ia eeiia?…………………..

A eeiia ?oaeaaa, nicaeaiiie aeey aeeeoaeueiiai nica?oeaiey, iao ie
aeaeaeaiey, ie aeaenoaey. A iieiii iie/aiee ainnaaeatho ia iaaunieeo
naaeaeeuao o?e aiaaea. Eo aieiau neaaea neeiiaiu, eo acaeyae ono?aieai a
aaneiia/iinoue. Eaaeaeue ec ieo iia?oaeai a naie aeoiu, ii a oi aea
a?aiy ana iie aunooiatho iineoaeyie aaeeiiai ia?aaeeaaiey – nie?aiey. Ia
eeiia ecia?aae?i Aia Ioaoe, Aia Nui e Aia Aeoo Nayoie a oio iiiaio,
eiaaea ?aoaaony aii?in aeecie eee nia?oe /aeiaa/anoaa. Oeaio?aeueiue
aiaae oeacuaaao ia /aoo, Ii ?aoaao aiieioeoueny a /aeiaaea, /oiau eaeoe
ia Caieth ?aaee nianaiey ethaeae. Eiiiiceoeeiiiui oeaio?ii eeiiu
yaeyaony /aoa n aieiaie aea?oaaiiiai oaeueoea. Iineieueeo oaeaoe anoue
aaooicaaaoiue i?iia?ac iiaicaaaoiiai aaioea, iinoieueeo /aoo neaaeoao
?anniao?eaaoue eae neiaie aaoa?enoee. Aua ia?ac /aoe ia?acoaony
aioo?aiieie eiioo?aie oeao? aeaoo e?aeieo aiaaeia, a ia? eae au iiiau?i
oeaio?aeueiue aiaae – a aeaiiii neo/aa aea?oaa ii, a ia aeeaioiia a
yaiie /aoa. Iauaiea aiaaeia aaciieaii, iii oieueei iuneaiiia: neeiiaiea
e naiioaeoaeaiiue acaeyae oeaio?aeueiiai aiaaea eae au aiooaao i?aaiio
iuneue i iaiaoiaeeiinoe aea?oau. Aaeaa i?eiaoiia aeaeaeaiea aeac (eaaiai
aiaaea (io c?eoaey) aaa?o aea?o iiiyoue, /oi ii aini?eiye iiaaeaiea e
?aciuoeyao i i?i. Iiei?ii e caaeoi/eai neeiiaiea o?aoueaai aiaaea a
noi?iio n?aaeiaai. A aai iaeeea io?aaeaiu ie?, oeoeia e niieienoaea. Ii
aeoo-ooaoeoaeue. A no?aaeaieyo aai iaaeaaeaea.

?oee n?aaeiaai e eaaiai aiaaea aeaaineiaeytho /aoo. Yoe aeaa aeanoa
aeatho eeth/ e ?ane?uoeth neiaeiie neiaieeee eiiiiceoeee. N?aaeiee ec
aiaaeia, O?enoin auaeaeai au?aceoaeueiui eiio?anoii oeaaoia,
io?io?ii-e?aniue (aeoiaaue, aaa?yiue) – ciae oea?neiai aaee/ey, eioi?ui
iaea/ai O?enoin – Oea?ue Iaaaniue e aieoaiai (oeaao iaaa) /oi oeacuaaao
ia aai aiaeanoaaiioth nouiinoue, i?eano?iaaiiui ecuneaiiui ni/aoaieai
cieioenouo io? (eeaa ia i?aaii ?oeaaa e e?ueuey). A caaeoi/eaie
nin?aaeioi/aiiinoe, neeiiea naith aieiao aeaai, ii aeaaineiaeyao /aoo,
ecuyaeyy oai naiui aioiaiinoue i?eiyoue ia naay aea?oao ca eneoieaiea
a?aoia /aeiaa/aneeo. Yoio aiaae eae au iuneaiii e aeanoaie aiai?eo
eaaiio: «ss eniueth yoo /aoo no?aaeaiee aei aeia, e ioaeai aeeciue naith
a aea?oao (a /aoa eaaeeo aieiaa aea?oaaiiiai aeeaioiiai), oae eae
ethaeth ethaeae (iaeueoeu neiaeaiu a neiaie ethaae), naiei aeayieai
iao/o eo no?aieoueny e aunoei eaeaaeai (neiaieii aunoeo ono?aieaiee
yaeyaony aa?oeia ai?u, ia eioi?oth oeacuaaao aai aeace), /ai iie
caneoaeao aa/ioth aeeciue (neiaie aa/iinoe, ?ay – aea?aai, eioi?ia
iaoiaeeony ca aai nieiie). Ia yoio iiaeaea aai aaeioiiaeyao Aia-Ioaoe
(eaaue aiaae), eeoei eioi?iai au?aaeaao aeoaieoth ia/aeue. Aeoo nayoie
(i?aaue aiaae) i?enoonoaoao eae aa/ii thiia e aaeioiiaaiiia ia/aei, eae
ooaoeoaeue. Oaeei ia?acii, caeanue i?aaenoaaeai aeo aaee/aeoae, ii
o/aieth o?enoeaineie oea?eae, aea?oau ethaae (ioaoe ia?aeaao, naiaai
nuia ia eneoieoaeueioth aea?oao ca ie?). Ii yoei ooaeiaeiee ia
ia?aie/eaaaony. Ii caia/aoeaaaao iaeiia?aiaiii e aeo aaee/aeoaai
iineooaiey – ecuyaeaiea nuiii aioiaiinoe ia no?aaeaiea e i?eianaiea naay
a aea?oao ie?o. ?oaeaa i?aoai?yao caeanue o?aaeeoeeiiiue
eeiiia?aoe/aneee oei a aeoai/aeoee neiaie, eioi?ue canoaaeyao ian
niaa?oaiii ii-iiaiio aini?eieiaoue yoo noa?oth oaio.

Eae ai anyeii aaieaeueiii ooaeiaeanoaaiiii i?iecaaaeaiee, a ?oaeaaneie
“O?ieoea” ana iiae/eiaii iniiaiiio caiuneo – e eiiiiceoeey, e eeiaeiue
?eoi, e oeaao. N eo iiiiuueth ?oaeaa aeinoeaaao oiai aia/aoeaiey oeoie
oie?ioai?aiiinoe, eioi?ia aai eeiia ii?iaeaeaao o ethaiai
iai?aaeoaaaeaeaiiiai c?eoaey. A iae anoue /oi-oi oniieaeaathuaa,
eaneiaia, ?aniieaaathuaa e aeeeoaeueiiio e i?enoaeueiiio nica?oeaieth.
Yoi i?iecaaaeaiea canoaaeyao oneeaiii ?aaioaoue iaoo oaioaceth, iia
aucuaaao nioie iiyoe/aneeo e iocueaeueiuo annioeeaoeee, eioi?ua,
iaiecuaaynue iaeia ia ae?oaoth, aaneiia/ii iaiaauatho i?ioeann
ynoaoe/aneiai aini?eyoey. Eiaaea ea?oeia oaeaioeeaa, iia iaycaoaeueii
ian?o aeoaieee aioo?aiiee niune. A? ninoiyiea e iano?ie ia?aaeathony
c?eoaeth, aucuaatho ii?aaeae?iiua yiioeee. Iiniio?eoa ia yoeo o??o
aiaaeia: anee au i?eoee e iei n ai?ai – iie ni/oanoaotho aai,
oniieaeaatho, ooaoatho; anee n ?aaeinoueth – iiniio?eoa, iie ?aaeothony,
e any eeiia a yoie ?aaeinoe naaoeony cieioii e aieoaeciie; anee a aeooa
aaoae aicauoaiiia /oanoai ethaae – eeiia au? aieueoa aicauoaao yoo
ethaiaue aei iacaiiie. Oaaeaa?, eae au an? eo/oaa ec aeooe aaoae au?
aieaa iaeaai?aaeeaaao, e aeaeaao yoi aac iaayc/eainoe e yiaoaaea. Iinea
nii?eeiniiaaiey n ?oaeaaneei oai?aieai c?eoaeue ooiaeeo aioo?aiia
iaiaauaiiui, /oi eeoiee ?ac aiai?eo i aai eneeth/eoaeueiuo
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aeinoieinoaao.

Eiaaea ia/eiaaoue aniao?eaaoueny a ?oaeaaneoth eeiio, oi a iae, i?aaeaea
anaai, ii?aaeaao iaiau/aeiay iaeooioai?aiiinoue aiaaeia. A ieo anoue
oaeay iaaeiinoue e o?aiaoiinoue, /oi iaaiciiaeii ia iiaeaeaoueny eo
i/a?iaaieth. Yoi naiua iiyoe/aneea ia?acu anaai ae?aaia?onneiai
eneonnoaa. Oaea aiaaeia no?ieiua, eaaeea, eae au iaaaniiua. Ia aiaaeao
i?inoua a?a/aneea oeoiiu, iiaa?o eioi?uo iaa?ioaiu ieniaaeathuea
naiaiaeiuie neeaaeeaie aeiaoee. Yoe iaeayiey i?e anae naiae eeiaeiie
noeeecaoeee ana aea aeatho ii/oanoaiaaoue c?eoaeth e?anioo
ne?uaathuaainy ca ieie iieiaeiai aeaeiai oaea. Oeao?u aiaaeia ianeieueei
?anoe?ythony a na?aaeeia, eia/a aiai?y, iie no?iyony ii noieue
ecethaeaiiiio ?oaeaaui ?iiaieaeaeueiiio i?eioeeio: iie noaeathony eaa?oo
e eieco. Oai naiui iie i?eia?aoatho ecoieoaeueioth eaaeinoue. A eo iicao
e aeanoao ia /oanoaoaony ieeaeie oyaeaeiaaniinoe. Aeaaiaea?y
i?aoaaee/aiiie iuoiinoe i?e/anie eeoea eaaeoony iniaaiii o?oieeie.
Eaaeaeue ec aiaaeia iia?oaeai a naay. Iie ia naycaiu acaeyaeaie ie ae?oa
n ae?oaii, ie ni c?eoaeai. Eaaeay a?aoeey eo iic oae naea?aeaiia, eae
aoaeoi iaeaeoaa eieaaaiea iiaeao ?anieaneaoue oo aioo?aiithth
ae?aaioeaiioth iano?iaiiinoue, n/anoeeauie iaeaaeaoaeyie eioi?ie iie
yaeythony. N?aaee anao nicaeaiee ae?aaia?onneeo ooaeiaeieeia ?oaeaaneea
aiaaeu i?aaenoaaeythony naiuie aanieioiuie. Ii a ieo iao e oaie
aneaoecia. Oaeaniia ia/aei ia i?eiineony a aea?oao aeooiaiiio, iii
oeaeeeii n iei neeaaaony. Yoi e anoue i?e/eia oiai, ii/aio i?e acaeyaea
ia ?oaeaaneeo aiaaeia oae /anoi aniiieiathony ia?acu eeanne/aneiai
a?a/aneiai eneonnoaa.

Aeey i?iecaaaeaiee n?aaeiaaaeiaiai eneonnoaa oeie/ia neiaiee/iinoue
caiunea. ?oaeaaneay eeiia ia i?aaenoaaeyao a aeaiiii ioiioaiee
eneeth/aiey. E a iae iiiaiou neiaiee/aneiai ii?yaeea ea?atho iaiaeoth
?ieue, i?e/ai neiaiee/aneay o?aeoiaea ?ani?ino?aiyaony oaeaea ia
aoi?inoaiaiiua aeaoaee eeiiu-ia caeaiea, aeoa Iai?eeneee e neaeo. Yoe
o?e yeaiaioa eiiiiceoeee ie/aai ia aiinyo a oa?aeoa?enoeeo eiie?aoiie
n?aaeu. Iie aa ia ooi/iytho, a, iaiai?io, niaeaenoaotho aia/aoeaieth
aiaa?aiaiiinoe e aiai?ino?ainoaaiiinoe. Aea?aai – yoi ia noieueei aeoa
Iai?eeneee, neieueei ae?aai aeecie, ae?aai aa/iinoe. Naaoica?iua iaeaou
– yoi ia oieueei aeii Aa?aaia, ii e neiaie O?enoa-Aeiiino?ieoaey e
neiaie aaciieaey, oi anoue niaa?oaiiiai iineooaiey aiea iooea. Ai?a –
yoi ia?ac “ainoeuaiey aeooa” (eiaiii oae iia iau/ii o?aeooaony a Aeaeee
e Aaaiaaeee).

“O?ieoea” ?ann/eoaia ia aeaeueithth e aeeaeithth oi/ee c?aiey, eaaeaeay
ec eioi?uo ii-?aciiio ?ane?uaaao aiaaonoai iooaieia, ae?ooicioth ?aaioo
eenoe. Aa?iiiey anao yeaiaioia oi?iu yaeyaony ooaeiaeanoaaiiui
au?aaeaieai iniiaiie eaeae “O?ieoeu” — naiiiiaea?oaiaaiey eae
auni/aeoaai ninoiyiey aeooa, niceaeathuaai aa?iiieth ie?a e aeecie.

Enneaaeiaaoaee iiae/a?eeaatho neiaiee/aneia einiieiae/aneia cia/aiea
eiiiiceoeeiiiiai e?oaa, a eioi?ue eaeiie/ii e anoanoaaiii aienuaaaony
ecia?aaeaiea. A e?oaa aeaeyo io?aaeaiea eaeae Anaeaiiie, ie?a,
aaeeinoaa, iauaiethuaai niaith iiiaeanoaaiiinue, einiin.

Iiaeii auei au aac o?oaea i?iaeieaeeoue oieeiaaiea neiaiee/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey ?oaeaaneie eeiiu. Iaeiaei neacaiiiai aiieia aeinoaoi/ii,
/oiau oynieoue eneeth/eoaeueioth neiaeiinoue aa eaeaeiuo enoieia.

Ia nia?aiaiiiai c?eoaey, oioy ii e iaciaeii ni anaie oiieinoyie
n?aaeiaaaeiaiai aiaineiaey, ?oaeaaneay eeiia ana aea i?iecaiaeeo
iaio?aceiia aia/aoeaiea. *ai yoi iauynieoue? Eiia/ii, oai, /oi a
?oaeaaneie “O?ieoea” neiaieeci /enoi oea?eiaiiai oeia ia?a?anoaao a
ia/oi ianiecia?eii aieaa cia/eoaeueiia – a neiaie /aeiaa/aneie ethaae e
ae?oaeau. Aio ii/aio eeiia eniieiaia oaeie iaoayaeaaiie naaaeanoe. Aa
eaeaeiia niaea?aeaiea ai?acaei aeoaaea, /ai i?inoay niaieoiiinoue
oea?eiaiuo neiaieia.

“I?aiiaeiaiue ioaoe Aiae?ae ?oaeaa, iiiaea nayoua eeiiu iaienae, ana
/oaeioai?iua”. Iiieii iacaaiiuo ?aaio, oeaeue ?yae ianio?aieaoeony iuia
eeii oiiieiaaony a ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeao. Ianeieueei aeioaaeoeo aei ian
iaiyoieeia naycuaaao n eiaiai ?oaeaaa onoiia i?aaeaiea. Iaeiiaoe, a
?yaea i?iecaaaeaiee aaoi?noai ?oaeaaa onoaiaaeeaaaony ii noeeenoe/aneei
aiaeiaeyi. Ii aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea i?e/anoiinoue ?oaeaaa e
?aaioa iaae iaiyoieeii aeieoiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaia – oae ianoieo
aeaei n eeiiaie ec aeaaeeie?neiai Oniaineiai niai?a, – auaeaeeoue
i?eiaaeeaaeauea aai ?oea i?iecaaaeaiey /?acau/aeii o?oaeii, iineieueeo
nicaeaaaeenue iie niaianoii aieueoie a?oiiie ianoa?ia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa e Aeaieeea *a?iiai, eioi?ue, ii neiaai aaoi?a “Neacaiey
i nayouo eeiiiienoeao”, “iiiaea n iei eeiiu /oaeiua iaienae”.

Aiae?ath ?oaeaao oaeaeinue iaiieieoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua ia?acu iiaui
niaea?aeaieai, niioiany aai n aeaaiaeoeie eaeayie a?aiaie: iauaaeeiaieai
?onneeo caiaeue a aaeeiia ainoaea?noai e anaiauei ie?ii e niaeaneai.

Yiioa ?oaeaaa auea yiioie aic?iaeaeaiey aa?u a /aeiaaea, a aai
i?aanoaaiiua neeu, a aai niiniaiinoue e naiiiiaea?oaiaaieth ai eiy
aunieeo eaeaaeia.

N 1959 a Aiae?iieeiaii iiianou?a aeaenoaoao Iocae eiaie Aiae?ay ?oaeaaa,
aeaiiino?e?othuee eneonnoai aai yiioe.

Eneonnoaiaaae I.A. Aeiaoia ienae: “Eneonnoai ?oaeaaa – yoi i?aaeaea
anaai eneonnoai aieueoeo iuneae, aeoaieeo /oanoa, naeaoia ?aieaie
eaeiie/iuo ia?acia-neiaieia, eneonnoai aieueoiai aeooiaiiai
niaea?aeaiey”, “Aiae?ae ?oaeaa aic?iaeee aioe/iua i?eioeeiu eiiiiceoeee,
?eoia, i?iii?oeee, aa?iiiee, iie?aynue a iniiaiii ia naith
ooaeiaeanoaaiioth eiooeoeeth”.

Aieueoay ?aaioa ii ?anoaa?aoeee aai i?iecaaaeaiee e ooi/iaieth aai
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie aeia?aoee, i?iaeaeaiiay a XX a., i?eaaea e e
ia?aciaaieth ?iiaioe/aneie «?oaeaaneie eaaaiaeu», ecaeaeathuae
aa?iece?iaaiioth oeao?o ooaeiaeieea ec aiiieiii-aneaoe/aneie,
iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiie n?aaeu n?aaeiaaaeiaiai oai?/anoaa.

Ianoii/oeiue eae nayoie n XVI a., Aiae?ae ?oaeaa a iaoa a?aiy aioae e a
/enei iaua?inneeneeo nayouo: eaiiiece?iaai ?onneie i?aaineaaiie
oea?eiaueth a 1988; oea?eiaue ioia/aao aai iaiyoue 4 ethey (17 ethey
i.no.).

Iiaeaiaey eoia aeaiiiio enneaaeiaaieth. neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia
i?ioyaeaiee anae enoi?ee o?enoeainoaa eeiiu neoaeeee neiaieii aa?u
ethaeae a Aiaa e aai iiiiuue ei. Eeiiu aa?aaee: eo io?aiyee io ycu/ieeia
e, iicaeiaa, io oea?ae-eeiiiai?oeaa. Eeiia – yoi ia i?inoi ea?oeia n
ecia?aaeaieai oao, eiio iieeiiythony aa?othuea, ii e naiaia?aciue
ineoieiae/aneee iieacaoaeue aeooiaiie aeecie e ia?aaeeaaiee ia?iaea oiai
ia?eiaea, eiaaea iia auea iaienaia.

Aeooiaiua iiaeuaiu e niaaeu y?ei io?aceeenue a ?onneie eeiiiiene XV-XVII
aaeia, eiaaea ?onue inaiaiaeeeanue io oaoa?neiai eaa. Oiaaea ?onneea
eeiiiienoeu, iiaa?ea a neeu naiaai ia?iaea, inaiaiaeeeenue io a?a/aneiai
aeaaeaiey e eeee nayouo noaee ?onneeie. Anoanoaaiii nai Aiae?ae ?oaeaa
aian i/aiue cia/eoaeueiue aeeaae a i?ioeanna yoiai i?aia?aciaaiey.
Ioaeaaay ana naiaiaeiia a?aiy eco/aieth ianeaaeey aecaioeeneie e ?onneie
eeiiiiene, ?oaeaa ioae?ae eo/oaa e oai?/anee ia?ainiuneeaae oaeaeaiiia,
iniiauaaynue ia nianoaaiiii iiuoa. Ionthaea – naaaeanoue e
iaiin?aaenoaaiiinoue nicaeaiiuo ei ia?acia. N i?eoiaeii ?oaeaaa
iineianeay aeeaiienue ieii/aoaeueii inaiaiaeeeanue io aecaioeeneeo
aeeyiee.

Eeiiiienue – yoi neiaeiia eneonnoai, a eioi?ii ana eiaao iniaue niune:
oeaaoa e?anie, no?iaiea o?aiia, aeanou e iieiaeaiey nayouo ii ioiioaieth
ae?oa e ae?oao.

Ia niio?y ia iiiai/eneaiiua aiiaiey e oie/oiaeaiea eeii, /anoue ec ieo
ana aea aeioea aei ian e yaeyao niaie enoi?e/aneoth e aeooiaioth
oeaiiinoue.

Nnueee ia enoi/ieee eioi?iaoeee:

http://www.bibliotekar.ru/rusRublev/index.htm

http://www.nesusvet.narod.ru/

http://www.ref.net.ua/work/det-9391.html

http://www.rublev.org.ru/index2.html

http://www.ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/

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