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Историческое представление о культуре

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?AOA?AO

Ii Eoeueoo?ieiaee

ENOI?E*ANEIA ?ACAEOEA I?AAeNOAAEAIEE I EOEUeOO?A

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi eoeueoo?ieiaey – yoi iieiaeay iaoea, iaoiaeyuayny a
noaaeee noaiiaeaiey, iia iia?e?oao aiaaoaeoei oaeoe/aneei iaoa?eaeii a
iaeanoe enoi?ee e oai?ee eoeueoo?u, iaeiieaiiui iiiaiaaeiaie aa?iiaeneie
o?aaeeoeeae aiaeeca eoeueoo?u. Nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?ieiaey ia i?inoi
naiaeeo aiaaeeii yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey, ii oaeaea aiaeece?oao e ?acaeaaao
eo, iie?aynue ia i?aaeuaeouea oai?ee e aeiioacu. Iiyoiio caeanue aaaeii
i?ineaaeeoue eiaeeo aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiuo oaiaeaioeee
enneaaeiaaiey eoeueoo?u, aeeth/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iaeai a e?oa
eioa?ania eoeueoo?ieiae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iaiaoiaeeiinoe enneaaeiaaiey
enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey i?aaenoaaeaiee i eoeueoo?a.

Aioe/iua i?aaenoaaeaiey i eoeueoo?a. Iiyaeaiea iiiyoey “eoeueoo?a”
ioiinyo e ?eineie aioe/iinoe, e ?aaioa Oeeoea?iia “Ooneoeaineea aanaaeu”
(45 a. aei i.y.). A iai iiae/a?eeaaaony ioee/ea /aeiaa/aneie
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe io aeieiae/aneeo oi?i aeecie. Iiyoiio eoeueoo?a
iiieiaaony i?aaeaea anaai eae aicaeaeuaaiea, ia?aaioea, ooiae. Ii
iauaeoii oaeiai ooiaea iiaeao auoue ia oieueei caiey (eae n/eoaeinue aei
neo ii?), ii e nai /aeiaae. Oeeoea?ii n/eoae, /oi aeoo, ?acoi /aeiaaea
iaiaoiaeeii aicaeaeuaaoue oae aea, eae e?anoueyiei aicaeaeuaaao caieth.
Eiaiii “ia?aaioea ?acoia”, ?acaeoea iuneeoaeueiuo niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea
anoue enoeiiia i?ecaaiea naiaiaeiiai a?aaeaeaieia, a ioee/ea io ?aaia e
iecoeo nineiaee, oaeaeii eioi?uo yaeyaony oece/aneee o?oae, ia?aaioea
caiee.

Aaaeiui aniaeoii oeeoea?iiianeiai iiieiaiey eoeueoo?u auei iniciaiea aa
eae eaeaaeueiiai aaeeinoaa ee/iinoe e ainoaea?noaa. Enoi?e/aneei
ii?aaaeaieai e niuneii eoeueoo?u ii n/eoae ainieoaiea a /aeiaaea
niiniaiinoe auoue eaeaaeueiui a?aaeaeaieiii, /aoei iniciathuei naie
aeiea ii ioiioaieth e iauanoao.

Yoe i?aaenoaaeaiey Oeeoea?iia e ae?oaeo aioe/iuo iuneeoaeae oeaeeeii
iaoiaeyony a ?onea o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aioe/iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i eoeueoo?a,
ainoiaeyueo aua ei a?aiaiai ia?aciaaiey ae?aaiaa?a/aneeo iieenia, ii
iieo/eaoeo naia oai?aoe/aneia iniuneaiea eeoue a yeeeienoe/anee-?eineea
a?aiaia.

Aioe/iia iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u – aoiaienoe/ii, a aai iniiaa eaaeeo eaeaae
/aeiaaea (aeey aioe/iinoe – yoi /aeiaae-a?aaeaeaiei, /aeiaae-aiei,
/aeiaae, niiniaiue ianeaaeaeaoueny i?ae?aniui). Aeinoeaeaiea yoiai
eaeaaea e auei oeaeueth eoeueoo?u. Iiyoiio eoeueoo?a iiieiaeanue eae
ii?aaeaeaiiua ii?aeueiua ii?iu, a oaeaea eae oa?aeoa? onaiaiey yoeo ii?i
(eoeueoo?iuo oeaiiinoae).

A neeo oaeeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?aui cia/aieai oa?ieia “eoeueoo?a” noaei
ioiaeaeanoaeaiea aai n ainieoaieai e ia?aciaaieai, niiniaiuie ?acaeoue a
/aeiaaea ?acoiioth niiniaiinoue noaeaeaiee e ynoaoe/aneia /oanoai
i?ae?aniiai, /oi iicaieyei aio ia?anoe /oanoai ia?u e ni?aaaaeeeainoe a
aeaeao a?aaeaeaineeo e /anoiuo.

Ae?aaiei a?aeai i?aaenoaaeyeinue, /oi naie aiae noiyee ia no?aaea yoeo
ii?yaeeia, iiyoiio a iiiyoea “eoeueoo?a” aoiaeeei e aeaai/anoea,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/anoey a ?aeeaeiciii eoeueoa, a iieeiiaiee aiaai.

Iineieueeo aioe/iue /aeiaae aua ia oa?ye naiaai aaeeinoaa n i?e?iaeie,
aio auei i?enoua /aoeia iniciaiea einie/aneiai ii?yaeea, aini?eieiaaiiai
ei eae caeii. Eoeueoo?iue /aeiaae aini?eieiae naith aeeciue a iieena eae
anoanoaaiiia i?iaeieaeaiea yoiai i?e?iaeiiai ii?yaeea. Oaeia iieiaeaiea
aeae eacaeinue aio iacuaeaiui e iiaeaea?aeeaaeinue oeeeee/aneei
ia?aaeeaaieai a?aiaie, naienoaaiiui aioe/iinoe. Aeey a?aeia auei aeecei
iiiyoea aa/iinoe, a enoi?ee iie aeaeaee iinoiyiiia iiaoi?aiea,
aini?iecaaaeaiea iaueo caeiiia, aia caaeneiinoe io niaoeeoeee iauanoaa,
/oi i?eaiaeeei e oeeeee/aneie noaia ?acaeoey enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u
(cieioie aae – na?aa?yiue – iaaeiue – aeaeaciue). Cieioie aae a oaeie
iiaeaee iaoiaeeeny a i?ioeii, iiyoiio aeey aioe/iiai ie?iaicc?aiey
oa?aeoa?ia ia?auaiiinoue a i?ioeia, n/eoathuaany eaeaaeii, nia?aiaiiua
aea ninoiyiey enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u – eeoue ii?aaeaeaiiua noaiaie
ioeeiiaiey io iaai. Iaeneiaeueiia ioeeiiaiea aeaeaciiai aaea aeieaeii
i?eaanoe e e?eceno eoeueoo?u, eioi?ue /a?ac iio?ynaiey e eaoaeeeciu
aa?iao iauanoai a cieioie aae, iinea /aai ia/iaony iiaue oeeee ?acaeoey.

I?aaenoaaeaiey i eoeueoo?a a N?aaeiea aaea. N?aaeiaaaeiauea, io?eoeay
ycu/aneia ioiioaiea e ie?o, oai ia iaiaa nio?aieei iniiaiua aeinoeaeaiey
aioe/iie eoeueoo?u. Iaeiaei iieeoaecio (iiiaiaiaeeth) aioe/iinoe iii
i?ioeaiiinoaaeei iiiioaeci (aaeeiiaiaeea), iaoo?aeecio (eioa?ano e
i?aaeiaoiiio ie?o) – aeooiaiinoue, aaaeiiecio (no?aieaieth e
oaeiaieuenoaeyi) – aneaoe/aneee eaeaae, iiciaieth /a?ac iaaethaeaiea e
eiaeeo – eieaeiia ciaiea, iie?athuaany ia Aeaeeth e aa oieeiaaiey. Anee
a iniiaa aioe/iie eoeueoo?u eaaeaei i?eciaiea oieaa?naeueiiai
einie/aneiai caeiia, iaania/eaaaoaai noaaeeueiinoue ie?iaiai ii?yaeea,
oi n?aaeiaaaeiauea, iioa?ya yoo oaa?aiiinoue, oeaeeeii ia?aoeeinue e
Aiao, i?eciaa aai oai?oeii ie?a, aaeeinoaaiiie iiaeeeiiie
?aaeueiinoueth, ioeacaaoenue io aioe/iiai aaeeinoaa i?e?iaeu e aiaia.
Niune ie?a ioiuia caeeth/aeny oieueei a Aiaa, a nai ie? aeaeaeny
ia?iiiui o?aieeeuai neiaieia (ana i?aaeiaou e yaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiiai
ie?a auee eeoue ienueiaiaie a aiaeanoaaiiie eieaa i?e?iaeu). Oaeei
ia?acii, aia?aua iiyaeyaony i?aaenoaaeaiea i yaeaieyo eoeueoo?u eae i
oaenoao, eioi?ia aoaeao aeoeaii ?acaeaaoueny a XX aaea.

Caaea/ae /aeiaaea auei iiiyoue e i?i/anoue yoo eieao. Iiyoiio eoeueoo?a
aiiaue i?aaenoaea ia?aae iei eae iaiaoiaeeiinoue “aicaeaeuaaiey”
nianoaaiiuo niiniaiinoae. Ii aeaaiie oeaeueth oi?ie?iaaiey niiniaiinoae
auei ia “aicaeaeuaaiea” ?acoia, a ainieoaiea iio?aaiinoe eneaoue
aiaoithth iiaeaea?aeeo a aeecie, no?aieaiea iia?aoueny ia eiai-ieaoaeue,
iieo/eoue iiiiuue, iaiaoiaeeioth a neeo neaainoe e ianiaa?oainoaa naiiai
/aeiaaea.

Oiaaea ioe?ueenue iiaua ecia?aiey /aeiaaea: aa?a, iaaeaaeaea, ethaiaue,
a eioi?uo ii noae /a?iaoue neeu aeey aeecie. Oae iiyaeeinue iiaia
iiieiaiea oeaee /aeiaa/aneie aeecie – ia iiciaiea naiiai naay, a
iiciaiea Aiaa, iniciaiea oiai aeooiaiiai ?iaenoaa, a eioi?ii ii
iaoiaeeony n iei. Eoeueoo?a aea ia/eiaao iniciaaaoueny ia eae ainieoaiea
ia?u aa?iiiee e ii?yaeea, a eae i?aiaeieaiea ia?aie/aiiinoe, eae
eoeueoeae?iaaiea iaen/a?iaaiinoe aacaeiiiie ee/iinoe, eae aa iinoiyiiia
aeooiaiia niaa?oainoaiaaiea.

Ioeacuaaaony n?aaeiaaaeiauea e io oeeeee/aneiai i?aaenoaaeaiey i
a?aiaie, iniiaaiiiai ia eaeaa aa/iinoe. E?oiiaeoee n?aaeiaaaeiaue
iuneeoaeue Aaaonoei Aeaaeaiiue aaiaeeo iiiyoea “no?aeu a?aiaie”,
aeaeaeaiey enoi?ee io ia/aea e eiioeo, /oi ?ac?uaaao a?aiaiiie e?oa
aioe/iinoe. Ioiuia i?eciaaony, /oi enoi?ey e eoeueoo?a eiatho niune,
aeaiiue ei Aiaii e aeinooiiue /aeiaa/aneiio iiieiaieth. Oaeaea
iiyaeyaony eaeay enoi?e/aneiai i?ia?anna, oneiaeiaiey eoeueoo?u,
?acaeoey aa io iecoeo oi?i e aunoei. E?eoa?eai i?ia?anna noaiiaeeinue
niioaaonoaea eoeueoo?u aunoei ii?aeueiui oeaiiinoyi. Eoeueoo?a ethaiai
ia?iaea ioeaieaaeanue oaeaea n yoie oi/ee c?aiey (niioaaonoaea aa
o?enoeaineei ii?aeueiui oeaiiinoyi, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue oieaa?naeueiuie),
/oi i?eaaei e ?iaeaeaieth aa?iiioeaio?ecia.

?acaeoea i?aaenoaaeaiee i eoeueoo?a a yiioo Aic?iaeaeaiey e Iiaia a?aiy.
Yiioa Aic?iaeaeaiey noaiiaeony iiaui yoaiii ?acaeoey enoi?e/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee i eoeueoo?a. Aic?iaeaeaiea naycaii n iiaui ioe?uoeai
aioe/iinoe, aa eaeaaeia e oeaiiinoae, e i?aaeaea anaai ioiioaiey e
/aeiaaeo eae e aa?iiie/ii ?acaeoie ee/iinoe. Eiaiii Aic?iaeaeaiea coaei
yiioie ?iaeaeaiey cia?aiaiiiai aoiaiecia – aa?u a neeu /aeiaaea, a oi,
/oi /aeiaae – oaeie aea oai?aoe, eae e Aia. Ii nai oai?eo eoeueoo?o, e a
yoii ii ?aaai Aiao. A yoii caeeth/aeinue ciaiaieoia ioe?uoea /aeiaaea
yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey.

Oae ?iaeaeaeinue iiaia iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u eae /enoi /aeiaa/aneiai ie?a,
ioee/iiai io ie?a i?e?iaeu( /anoueth eioi?iai auea eoeueoo?a a
aioe/iinoe) e aiaeanoaaiiiai ie?a (e iiieiaieth eioi?iai no?aieeanue
eoeueoo?a N?aaeiaaaeiauey). Oae iiyaeeinue iniciaiea oiai oaeoa, /oi
eoeueoo?a – nouiinoiay oa?aeoa?enoeea /aeiaaea.

Oaeaea Aic?iaeaeaiea aiiaue aica?auaaony e ?aoeeiiaeecio, e i?eciaieth
oaeoa aeooiaiie naiinoiyoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Ioiuia /aeiaae noaeeo i
ie?a ia iniiaaiee nianoaaiiiai iiieiaiey e ?acoiaiey. Ie? oaeia, eaeei
ii aai iuneeo, aini?eieiaao, iiciaao. Ie? aeai /aeiaaeo ianoieueei,
ianeieueei ii aeiaa?yao iieacaieyi e naeaeaoaeuenoaai naiaai ?acoia.
Eiaiii ?acoi iicaieyao /aeiaaeo aeaenoaiaaoue ia eae i?e?iaeiiio oaeo e
ia eae ia?eiiaoea a ?oeao Aiaa, ii eae naiinoiyoaeueiiio nouanoao,
iaaeae?iiiio niciaieai e aieae. Iiyoiio ?acoi noaiiaeony aeaaiie
oeaiiinoueth eoeueoo?u, oeaeueth ainieoaiey e ia?aciaaiey /aeiaaea.

Eoeueo /aeiaaea aucaae aeoaieee eioa?an e enoi?ee, eioi?ay aeieaeia auea
ioaaoeoue ia aii?in, eai aue e eai aeieaeai noaoue /aeiaae. Yoi i?eaaei
e niaaeeiaieth aic?iaeaeaiiiai aioe/iiai eioa?ana e /aeiaaeo n
o?enoeaineie n?aaeiaaaeiaie eeiaa?iie iiaeaeueth enoi?ee, /oi iineoaeeei
iniiaaieai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiiai iao/iiai i?eioeeia enoi?ecia.

Caneoaa i?eiaiaiey enoi?e/aneiai iaoiaea e enneaaeiaaieth ?acaeoey
iauanoaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo eoaeueyineiio iuneeoaeth Aeaeaiaaooenoa Aeei. A
naiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiii o?oaea «Iniiaaiey iiaie iaoee iaoeee» (1725) ii
ioia/ae, /oi oeeiniou aei neo ii? enneaaeiaaee i?e?iaeo, eioi?ay ia
nicaeaia /aeiaaeii, e i?aiaa?aaaee «ie?ii iaoeee», enoi?e/aneei ie?ii.
Aeei aeaeae naith caaea/o a oii, /oiau ainiieieoue yoio i?iaae, ?ane?ua
iniiau iauae i?e?iaeu anao ia?iaeia iooai ?anniio?aiey eo enoi?ee. A
naiae eieaa Aeei aia?aua a iiaia a?aiy iiiuoaeny iauaeoeaii iiaeieoe e
i?aaenoaaeoaeyi eiuo eoeueoo?. Aaaeue aioe/iue ie? aeaeae a ieo oieueei
aa?aa?ia, a n?aaeiaaaeiauea ioeaieaaei eo n oi/ee c?aiey niioaaonoaey
eoeueoo? yoeo ia?iaeia o?enoeaineei oeaiiinoyi. Aeei ia?aue iaia?oaeee
ianiaa?oainoai aa?iiaeneie oeeaeeecaoeee, noae i?iaiaeeoue
enoi?eei-n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec, iienuaaoue iaoeeiiaeueiua ineoieiaee,
?aoaoue i?iaeaiu aeeoeueoo?aoeee e anneieeyoeee. I?e yoii ii enoiaeee ec
eaeae, /oi eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a naiioeaiia e eco/aoue a? iiaeii oieueei n
oi/ee c?aiey a? nianoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae.

Aianoa n oai Aeei n/eoae, /oi nouanoaotho iauea ia?aiao?u e i?eioeeiu
?acaeoey eoeueoo?u, eioi?ua aeaeatho aiciiaeiui niiinoaaeaiea ?aciuo
eoeueoo?. Aeey iaai yoi eeanniaua no?oeoo?u, oa?aeoa? o?oaea e oi?ia aai
i?aaiecaoeee, no?oeoo?a aeanoe, ycue.

A iniiaa eoeueoo?u eaaeeo ai?ueaa eeannia, nineiaee e nioeeaeueiuo
a?oii, eioi?ay eeai oe?aieyao eoeueoo?o, eeai i?eaiaeeo aa e aeaaee.
Eoeueoo?a n?iaeie aeeaiio i?aaiecio, e a nai?i ?acaeoee iia i?ioiaeeo
/a?ac ii?aaeae?iiua yoaiu.

1. Aae aiaia – yoi cieioie aae, a yoi a?aiy aeanoiua no?oeoo?u ia
i?ioeainoiyo iannai, iao eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo aeanoueth e oaie, iaae eai
aeanoaotho. Au? iao ?acaeoey oaoieee, ainiiaenoaoao ieoieiaey, ana
aiai?yo ia aaeeiii iaua/aeiaa/aneii ycuea. Ethaee iiea iaiaeanoaeytho
aanoue ie?, aiia?aaeaiee e oaioacey aeiieie?otho a niciaiee ethaeae, yoi
i?eaiaeeo e iiyoe/aneiio, oai?/aneiio aini?eyoeth ie?a. Io oie yiioe iai
a ianeaaenoai aeinoaeenue ieou – enoi?ee ia?auo ia?iaeia.

2. Yiioa aa?iaa – na?aa?yiue – ia/eiaaony aeaaiaea?y ia?aoiaeo e
inaaeeinoe. Auaeaeythony ioaeaeueiua naiuee, i?e/ai iaia?aie/aiiay
aeanoue iooea a naiuea (iia niaiyao oaie?aoe/aneia i?aaeaiea yiioe
aiaia) ?ani?ino?aiyaony e ia aoiaeyueo a ninoaa naiuee ethaeae, e ia
neoa. Iooeu naiae iinoaiaiii ia?aoeeenue a aeaeaeneeo iao?ea?oia, a
?eineeo iao?eoeeaa, ?yaeiaua /eaiu naiuee – a ieaaaaa. Yoi yiioa
a?enoie?aoe/aneiai i?aaeaiey, ia?anoaiey ?aeeaeiciuo eiioeeeoia,
i?ia?anna oaoieee e ecia?aoaoaeuenoaa.

A oi aea a?aiy ia/aeanue eoeueoo?iay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii
naycaiiay n ?aniaaeii aaeeiiai ycuea, /oi i?eaaei e oneiaeiaieth
iaaeeoeueoo?iuo eiioaeoia. Auaeaeythony neeueiua e neaaua eoeueoo?u.
Neaainoue eoeueoo? naycaia- n i?e?iaeiie eciee?iaaiiinoueth,
oaeaeaiiinoueth io oi?aiauo iooae, noaeioiaeiuo ?ae, iaaeinoaoi/iie
/eneaiiinoueth ianaeaiey, a?aaeaeaaiui ie?oaeaieai. Yoe eoeueoo?u aeaeao
eeai iiae/eiaiea, eeai anneieeyoeey aieaa neeueiie eoeueoo?ie.

3. Aae ethaeae – aeaeaciue aae, yiioa c?aeinoe, niciaoaeueiinoe
/aeiaa/anoaa. Caeanue ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie ia/eiatho
?aaoee?iaaoueny niaanoueth, aeieaii e ?acoiii, i?eoaaeoei ia niaio
einoeieoo, aanniciaoaeueiui aeaenoaeyi. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iie noaiiayony
aieaa aoiaiiuie, ooaa?aeaeaaony aeaiie?aoey eae oi?ia i?aaeaiey,
iniiaaiiay ia i?eciaiee a?aaeaeaineiai e iieeoe/aneiai ?aaainoaa. A yoio
ia?eiae i?aiaeieaaaaony iaoeeiiaeueiay ia?aie/aiiinoue e /aeiaa/anoai
ia/eiaao nouanoaiaaoue eae aaeeiia oeaeia. Eae?o aeeooa?aioeeaoeey
?aeeaee, eioi?ua caiaiythony iaoeie, a n iae naycaii auno?ia ?acaeoea
oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, oi?aiaee, iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo iaiaiia. Ii
iai?ioiie noi?iiie yoie yiioe noaiiaeony eoeueoo?iue e?ecen, eioi?ue
aucaai oai, /oi ianna iaaeinoaoi/ii eoeueoo?iuo ethaeae ia iiaeao
i?aaeoue, i?eaioe?oynue ia aunoea oeaiiinoe. E oiaaea aianoi
au?aaieaaiey iu aeaeei nioeeaeueioth ai?ueao o?oaeyueony, aieiu. Aeaaea
ycue noaiiaeony ia oi?iie eoeueoo?iie eaeaioeoeeaoeee, a oaeoi?ii
?aciauaiey ethaeae.

Iiyoiio aunoee aceao eoeueoo?u iaeiia?aiaiii noaiiaeony aa eiioeii. Aeei
i?iaiice?oao o?e auoiaea ec yoie neooaoeee: caoaao aeanoe iaeiei eeoeii,
eioi?ia aeaaiaea?y neea i?oaeey aa?ao ia naay caaioo ia iauanoaaiiii
aeaaa (Aaaono o ?eieyi); caaiaaaiea enii?/aiiiai ia?iaea eo/oeie
ia?iaeaie (oae i?iecioei n A?aoeeae, a caoai e n ?eiii); iieiia
?aceiaeaiea ainoaea?noaa, eiaaea a?aaeaeaineea aieiu e aia?oey
i?aa?auatho ai?iaea a ?acaaeeiu, ianooiaao «aoi?ia aa?aa?noai» (yoi
iooue ainoi/iuo ia?iaeia).

Yoe o?e yiioe /aeiaa/aneiai ?acaeoey naienoaaiiu ia oieueei enoi?ee
/aeiaa/anoaa aiiaua ii e enoi?ee ethaiai ioaeaeueiiai ia?iaea. Oae,
nia?aiaiiua Aeei aa?iiaeneea ainoaea?noaa aeeaoo a iineaaeiae yiioa,
?inney e ssiiiey – a yiioa aa?iaa, ?yae ia?iaeia thaa e naaa?a – a yiioa
aiaia.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae eaaeaony, /oi a iniiaa ia?eiaeecaoeee /aeiaa/aneie
enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u o Aeei eaaeeo eaeay iauanoaaiiiai e?oaiai?ioa. Ii
aiai?eoue ia aaniethoiie iiaoi?yaiinoe a enoi?ee, i iieiii niioaaonoaee
eiioeaioeee Aeei aioe/iie oeeeee/aneie iiaeaee enoi?ee iaeuecy. Anoue
eeoue /anoe/iay iiaoi?yaiinoue, e Aeei aiai?eo i niaiaaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo
/a?o ?acee/iuo yiio ia oie eee eiie noaaeee ?acaeoey ia?iaea.
A?aoe/aneei au?aaeaieai yoiai i?ioeanna iiaeao neoaeeoue niaaeeiaiea
e?oaa e (aioe/iie iiaeaee) n i?yiie (n?aaeiaaaeiaie iiaeaeueth), /oi
aea?o neionieaeo.

Au? iaeiie aaaeiie eaeaae, auaeaeiooie Aeei, auei i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi
eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a cae?aieyao naay a ycuea, eioi?ue nicaea?o naie ia?ac
ie?a, aeeoioee?oao iniaaiiinoe ineoe/aneeo ?aaeoeee, naienoaaiiuo
eaaeaeiio ia?iaeo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiaeec ycuea, ineoioeiia
iaeiia?aiaiii yaeyaony iaoiaeii aiaeeca eoeueoo?, eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoe
eoeueoo?iie anneieeyoeee e eioaa?aoeee.

Eiioeaioeey Aeei nua?aea i/aiue aaaeioth ?ieue a noaiiaeaiee
eoeueoo?ieiaee, noaa, ii nouanoao, ia?aui oai?aoe/aneei enneaaeiaaieai
i?iaeai eoeueoo?u, aei neo ii? iaoiaeeaoeony ia aoi?ii ieaia a o?oaeao
i?aaeoanoaothueo iuneeoaeae. N Aeei neeaaeuaaaony e eeanne/aneia
iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u eA ?acaeoey /aeiaaea – ?acoiiiai nouanoaa. Eoeueoo?a
noaea iiieiaoueny eae a?aieoea, ioaeaeythuay /aeiaaea io inoaeueiiai
ie?a i?e?iaeu. Ii a?aieoea yoa ia noaia, aeiee?othuay /aeiaaea a iieiie
ecieyoeee, a iooue, eioi?ue /aeiaaeo iaaei i?ieoe, /oiau noaoue
iiaeeeiii ?acoiiui, eai ?acoi iiieiaaony oieueei eae /enoi /aeiaa/aneia
ea/anoai.

Ii, oniio?aa a /aeiaaea naiinoiyoaeueiuo e oai?/aneeo niceaeaoaeueiuo
nee, eeanne/aniea niciaiea aeieaeii auei oaia?ue ioaaoeoue ia aii?in,
aaea e a /ai eneaoue aeaaiue iioea /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?eaiaeyuee yoe neeu a aeaeaeaiea. Iiiuoeie ioaaoa ia yoe aii?inu noaee
iaoo?aeenoe/aneay e eaeaaeenoe/aneay iiaeaee eoeueoo?u, au?aaioaiiua
eeanne/aneei niciaieai a eiioea 18 – ia/aea 19 aaea.

Iaoo?aeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey eoeueoo?u auea i?aaenoaaeaia a o?oaeao
o?aioeocneeo e iaiaoeeeo i?inaaoeoaeae, eioi?ua ieii/aoaeueii cae?aieee
i?eioeei enoi?ecia i?eiaieoaeueii e enoi?ee e eoeueoo?a.

A oeaio?a aieiaiey o?aioeocneeo i?inaaoeoaeae aue oae iacuaaaiue «aeoo
ia?iaea», i?aaenoaaeaiiue a ?acoeueoaoao aai aeayiee, a oa?aeoa?a
iauanoaaiiue ii?yaeeia, a i?aaao e iau/ayo. I?aaaea, iie ia
eniieueciaaee oa?iei «eoeueoo?a», caiaiyy aai iiiyoeai «oeeaeeecaoeey»,
iiieiaaoeiny au? eae neiiiei eoeueoo?u. Oaeaea aeey o?aioeocneeo
i?inaaoeoaeae auei oa?aeoa?ii ioiaeaeanoaeaiea iaoeee n ainoaea?noaii, a
iauanoaa – n iieeoe/aneeie oi?iaie i?aaeaiey. N/eoaeinue, /oi iauanoai
niioaaonoaothuaa ?acoiiie i?e?iaea /aeiaaea, iai?aiaiii naeaeaao anao
ethaeae n/anoeeauie. Aeey inouanoaeaiey yoie oeaee ioaeii i?eeiaeeoue
ana neeu, eniieueciaaoue ethaua aiciiaeiinoe, a oii /enea e
ianeeuenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a (eiaiii iiyoiio eaeaieiaey o?aioeocneiai
I?inaauaiey noaea iiaeaioiaeie Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie
?aaiethoeee).?ac?aaaouaaoueny, a eoeueoo?ieiaee XX aaea, a nia?aiaiiie
iinoiiaea?ienoneie iiciaaaoaeueiie onoaiiaea.

Aiai?eo ?onni e i i?ia?anna a eoeueoo?a. Aei iaai i?ia?ann eoeueoo?u
iaecaaaeii naycuaaeny n eiee/anoaaiiui ?inoii iaoa?eaeueiiai
aeaaininoiyiey, ii ?onni naiae e?eoeeie eiioi?oa ioaa?a oaeia iiieiaiea
i?ia?anna. Iai?eaieai aeey iaai e i?ia?ann eae ea/anoaaiiia aic?anoaiea
neiaeiinoe aauae, oae eae yoi i?eaiaeeo e aua aieueoaio io/oaeaeaieth eo
io /aeiaaea, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, e io/oaeaeaieth iaaeaeo ethaeueie,
ia?ooaieth naycae iaaeaeo ieie, aeaa?aaeaoeee ii?aee e ?aeeaee. Oaeei
ia?acii, ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u yaeyaony iaaaoeaiui oaeoi?ii a aeecie
iauanoaa, eai iia ia iauaaeeiyao, a ?acuaaeeiyao ethaeae, aa ?ino
icia/aao ?acaeoea oao ea/anoa, eioi?ua aeaeatho ec /aeiaaea
anioeeaeueiia nouanoai, aa?anneaiiai eiaeeaeaeoaeenoa. Iiyoiio i?ia?anna
a eoeueoo?a i?inoi iao, eai o?aaeeoeeiiiia iiieiaiea i?ia?anna
iaecaaaeii i?eaiaeeo e e?eceno eoeueoo?u, e ?inoo aioeoeaiiino?e eae
eoiaa eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey.

I?aaeioa?aoeoue, caaea?aeaoue i?iyaeaiea yoeo iaaaoeaiuo oaeoi?ia iiaeii
n iiiiuueth i?ioeannia ainieoaiey. N/eoay, /oi /aeiaae ecia/aeueii
aeoeueoo?ai, cie ii naiae i?e?iaea, ?onni noaaeo ia?aae ainieoaoaeyie
i?iaeaio eoie?iaaiey yoiai cea. Ia niaeanai ii e n aoiaienoaie,
n/eoaaoeie /aeiaaea aaioeii oai?aiey. Aieaa oiai, aoiaieci, ii iiaieth
?onni, a?aaeai, eai aaaeao e aini?iecaiaenoao cea. Oae neeaaeuaaaony
?ai?anneaiay iiaeaeue ainieoaiey, /a?ac eioi?oth /aeiaae aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue iiiai/eneaiiuie cai?aoaie. Aaaeiaeoei ?ai?anneaiui yeaiaioii
eoeueoo?u yaeyaony ycue, /a?ac eioi?ue a ineoeeo /aeiaaea aoiaeyo yoe
cai?aou. Iiyoiio, /ai iaiueoa /aeiaae aoaeao ciaoue i oii, eae
ooieoeeiie?oao ycue, oai eo/oa, e ciaeiieoue ?aaaiea n ycueii ioaeii a
iineaaeithth i/a?aaeue. Aua aieueoee a?aae ianao iao/aiea eiino?aiiui
ycueai, oae eae iie ?ac?ooatho aioo?aiithth no?oeoo?o niciaiey,
caoeene?iaaiiua ?iaeiui ycueii cai?aou, aaaeoo e aeaiaiuneeth.

Caieiaynue i?iaeaiaie ainieoaiey, ?onni ia?aui ia?aoee aieia-1ea’ ia oi,
/oi nouanoaotho ioaeneay e aeaineay eoeueoo?u. AEaiueia ii nooe naiae
anaaaea o?aieoaeue, aini?iecaiaeeoaeue oaea ecaanoiiai, ii ia oai?aoe. A
neeo naiaai eiioi?iecia iia iiaeao iiaea?oaiaaoue ethauie i?aanoaaiiuie
i?eioeeiaie ?aaee naieo aeeceeo, e yoi, eae ooaa?aeaeaao Dycco, aiai?eo
ia ecia/aeueiie aii?aeueiinoe aeaiueiu (a ioee/ea io aii?aeueiinoe
ioae/eiu). Iiyoiio ?onni i?aaeeaaaao eneeth/eoue aeaiuei ec i?ioeannia
ainieoaiey, ioae?ay ec-iiae eo iiaee aeaoae n o?aoeaoiaai aic?anoa,
ainieouaay eo a aiaiiuo eieeaeoeaao. Eeoue iinea onaiaiey e cae?aieaiey
o ieo ii?aeueiuo ii?i, a aic?anoa o?eaeoeaoe eao, eo iiaeii iiaa
aeiioneaoue e aeaiueiai.

Ianeieueei eia/a noaaeei i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?u iaiaoeeia I?inaauaiea,
i?aaeii/eoaaoaa ioaea/aiii-oeeinioneea, oiic?eoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee
enoi?e/aneiai i?ioeanna. Aai iaei eioa?aniaaee i?iaeaiu iieeoe/aneiai
ia?aono?ienoaa iauanoaa e ainoaea?noaa, aieueoa iii caieiaeinue
i?aanoaaiiui ainieoaieai /aeiaaea. Iaiaoeeea i?inaaoeoaee oaeaea
naeaeaee enoi?eth e eoeueoo?o i?aaeiaoii naiaai enneaaeiaaiey, ii
no?aieeenue iaeoe eo iniiaaiey e i?e/eiu a ie?iaii ?acoia.

Iaeaieaa aaniiue aeeaae a, iaiaoeeoth i?inaaoeoaeueneoth eiioeaioeeth
eoeueoo?u aian Eiaaii Aiaeo?eae Aa?aea?. Ii inouanoaee ianoiyoaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea ?acee/iuo iaaa?iiaeneeo eoeueoo?. A naiae eieaa «Eaeae
oeeinioee enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa»(1784-1791) ii iiiuoaeny ainnicaeaoue
enoi?e/anee iineaaeiaaoaeueioth ea?oeio ?acaeoey eoeueoo?u/ /aeiaa/anoaa
io ia?aiauoiiai ninoiyiey e oeeaeeecaoeeyi ae?aaiaai Ainoiea, /a?ac
eoeueoo?u ae?oaeo ?aaeiiia Caiee e nia?aiaiiie aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?a.
I?e yoii Aa?aea? ioeacaeny io aa?iiioeaio?ecia (eaeae aeaaainoaa
aa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u iaae anaie ae?oaeie) a iieueco iieeoeaio?ecia
(i?eciaiea ianeieueeeo ?aaiii?aaiuo oeaio?ia ie?iaie eoeueoo?u).

Eoeueoo?a aeey Aa?aea?a – oieaa?naeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea /aeiaa/aneiai
iauanoaa, ?acaeaoayny iiae “aeeyieai aeeauo /aeiaa/aneeo: nee,
i?iaeieaeathueo niaie i?aaie/aneea neeu i?e?iaeu, eioi?ua a aeaea
aiaoieo oneiaee e oaeoi?ia aicaeaenoaotho ia eoeueoo?o. A neeo yoiai
eoeueoo?a aaeeia e i?enoua anai ia?iaeai,, ?acee/ey a eoeueoo?ao
iaoneiaeaiu eeoue ?acee/iie noaiaiueth ?acaeoey yoeo ia?iaeia. Oae
Aa?aea? /aoei noi?ioee?iaae eeanne/aneoth yaiethoeeiiioth onoaiiaeo
i?eiaieoaeueii e eoeueoo?a.

O Aa?aea?a aia?aua iiyaeyaony eiioeaioeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeooa
eoeueoo?u eae au?aaeaiey aaniethoiiai aeooa nee ?acoia, aeanoaothuaai
iaae ie?ii. Iiyoiio ?acoi ninoaaeyao nouiinoue eoeueoo?u, a aa
i?iyaeaieyie noaiiayony iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u, ?acieoea iaaeaeo
eioi?uie eeoue eiee/anoaaiiay. *ai aieueoa iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo?, oai
aieueoa i?iyaeyao naay oieaa?naeueiue ?acoi, iaoa?eaeecoynue a
iaoeeiiaeueiii oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ue neeaaeuaaaony ec niiniaia io?aaeaiey
ie?a e ?aaae?iaaiey ia yoi io?aaeaiea.

Eiie?aoiui au?aaeaieai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a yaeyaony ycue.
Iiyaeaiea ycuea auei ?aoaieai i?iaeaiu auaeeaaiey /aeiaaea a i?e?iaea,
/anoueth eioi?ie ii “yaeyeny, ii aue ieioi i?eniiniaeai e aa oneiaeyi.
Eeoue niuoeaiinoue, iauanoaaiiua nayce iaaeaeo ethaeueie, iaoaaeoea naia
au?aaeaiea a ycuea, iicaieeee /aeiaaeo i?aacieoe aeeaioiuo a ai?ueaa ca
nouanoaiaaiea. Iuneue, iauanoai e ycue noaee iniaie /aeiaa/aneie oi?iie
aeecie, ninoaaea a niaieoiiinoe /aeiaa/aneoth eoeueoo?o. Iiyoiio aiaeec
ycuea o Aa?aea?a noaiiaeony e aiaeecii eoeueoo?u, a eciaiaiey,
ei??aeoe?iaee ycuea aaaeoo e eciaiaieth anae eoeueoo?u. Aeey Aa?aea?a
nicaeaiea aaeeiiai iauaie?iaiai ycuea – iaeei ec eoiaia enoi?e/aneiai
i?ioeanna Ia?yaeo n ioie?aieai ainoaea?noaa, oi?aeanoaii naiaiaeu,
?aaainoaa a?aonoaa.

Eaeaaeenoe/aneay eiioeaioeey EOEUeOO?U. Iia o?aaeeoeeiiii naycuaaaony n
iaiaoeeie eeanne/aneie oeeinioeae, ai iiiaii nio?aieaoae naycue n
i?inaaoeoaeueneie o?aaeeoeeae XVIII aaea, ?acaeaeyy aa eaeath i
oi?aeanoaa ?acoia, ii auaiaey yoo eaeath ia ec i?e?iaeu /aeiaaea.

Niaa?oaiii iiaia iauyniaiea eoeueoo?u i?aaeeaaaao Eiiaioee Eaio,
n/eoaaoee aa niaieoiiinoueth, nenoaiie aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae. Ii Eaio
?aoeoaeueii ioeacuaaaony io i?eciaiey eoeueoo?u eae ?acoeueoaoa
aeeeoaeueiiai ?acaeoey i?e?iaeu e /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, /oi auei
oa?aeoa?ii aeey iaoo?aeenoe/aneie eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u. Eoeueoo?a ii
Eaioo -yoi noauaeoeaiay aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey, eioi?ia
naii aeieaeii aeaoue ioaao ia aii?in i aeaenoaee iaoaieciia eoeueoo?u.

Aeey oai?ee eoeueoo?u i/aiue aaaeiui auei ioe?uoea Eaioii aa
aioeiiie/iinoe, oi anoue i?ioeai?a/eainoe. Io iieieaiey e iieieaieth
/aeiaae niaa?oainoaoao naie caaeaoee. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo a ai?ueaa n naiei
niaie, nianoaaiiie eaiinoueth e i?i/eie aeo?iuie iaeeiiiinoyie. Ii
aeaaiia i?ioeai?a/ea eoeueoo?u – yoi i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo no?aieaieai e
nianoaaiiie naiaiaea e a?aieoeaie, ii?aaeaeyaiuie aeey iaa iauanoaii.
Oiaiea ii?aaeaeyoue yoo a?aieoeo yaeyaony i?eciaeii eoeueoo?iiai
/aeiaaea.

Iii i/aiue aaaeii aeey Eaioa, ii aeae aio iacaaiea eaoaai?e/aneiai
eiia-ee1Eee_- /aeiaae aeieaeai ioiineoueny e ae?oaiio /aeiaaeo oieueei
eae e oeaee e ieeiaaea eae e n?aaenoao aeey aeinoeaeaiey nianoaaiiuo
oeaeae. Iiyoiio eoeueoo?a ia iiaeao eiaoue naiae oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiea
n/anouey ioaeaeueiui /aeiaaeii, /oi iaaiciiaeii, iia aeieaeia naeaeaoue
aai aeinoieiui naiaai noaoue oneiaeai ia n/anoeeaie, a aeinoieiie
aeecie.

Oaeei ia?acii, eoeueoo?a – yoi anaaaea aioo?aiiaa aeinoiyiea /aeiaaea,
iia eiiaiaioia /aeiaaeo, eai aeaao aio oeaeue aeecie, enoiaey ec aai
aioo?aiieo iio?aaiinoae. *aeiaae aua aeieaeai niaethaeaoue aiaoiea
i?eee/ey, ii yoi i?eciae oeeaeeeciaaiiinoe, a ia eoeueoo?u (ae, a
ioee/ea io oeeeeeeciaaiiinoe, iao/eoue iaeuecy). Oai naiui Eaio aaae e
/aoei ii?aeee iiiyoey aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae eoeueoo?u.

Aiaoiyy eoeueoo?a – yoi aeinoeaeaiey oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, iaoaieci
oaeiaeaoai?aiey ianniauo ooeeeoa?iuo iio?aaiinoae, iinyuee ?ai?anneaiue
oa?aeoa?. Noauaeoaie, iaeaaeaaoeie oieueei aiaoiae eoeueoo?ie, iiaei
oi?aaeyoue. Iauanoai e ainoaea?noai caeioa?aniaaiu eiaiii a oaeie
eoeueoo?a, eioi?oth i?aaeeueiae iacuaaoue oeeaeeecaoeeae.

Nianoaaiii eoeueoo?ie yaeyaony oieueei aioo?aiiyy eoeueoo?a –
niaieoiiinoue i?aanoaaiiuo eaeaaeia e i?aanoaaiiuo aeaoa?ieiaioia
iauaie. Iia oieeaeueia, ia i?aoaiaeoao ia oieaa?naeeci, a iiae/a?eeaaao
iaiiaoi?eiinoue ee/iinoe.

Anee ooieoeeyie aiaoiae eoeueoo?u yaeythony ainieoaiea, iaeacaiea ca
i?inooiee e oaeiaeaoai?aiea i?inoaeoeo iio?aaiinoae, oi aioo?aiiyy
eoeue-iypu anaaaea naycaia n aeinoeaeaieai aioo?aiiae naiaiaeu /aeiaaea.
Iiyoiio oae aaaeiu aeey aioo?aiiae eoeueoo?u ia?acu, eiathuea
neiaiee/aneoth eiiieiaiiinoue. Enoiaey ec ieo, /aeiaae iiaeao no?ieoue
naie iio?aaiinoe ia i e >/f aeeyieai aiaoieo i?e/ei, a enoiaey ec
nianoaaiiiai aioo?aiiaai ie?a, iothaea aea auoaeaao aua iaeia aaaeiay
ooieoeey aioo?aiiae eoeueoo?u, – ia-?iaeu/a iaeaieaa oeaiiie eioi?iaoeee
aeey i?aaeeueiie neiaiee/aneie aaeai-1EOeEE, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aicieeiiaaieth noauaeoeaiie oeaiiinoiie ea?a?oee, naiaioe/aneiai iiey
eoeueoo?u.

Aeey iau/iiai /aeiaaea aiaoiyy eoeueoo?a i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae, e
aieueoeinoai ethaeae a iae e inoaaony. Ii /aeiaa/aneia iauanoai
i?iaeooee?o-“I aeaa oeia ee/iinoae, i?eiauathueo /aeiaaea e aioo?aiiae
eoeueoo?a -1″eaio e aaiee.

Oaeaiou ia?aaeatho eoeueoo?iia ianeaaeea, aini?iecaiaeyo oaea
eiath-uiiny naiaioe/aneia iiea eoeueoo?u, ?ane?uaay a iai iiaua
cia/aiey, ii?acu, eioa?i?aoaoeee nouanoaothueo eoeueoo?iuo niuneia.

Aaiee iiaeaa?aatho niiiaieth ana onoaiiaeaiey a iauanoaa, iie ia i?inoi
aini?iecaiaeyo oaea nicaeaiiia, a nicaeatho /oi-oi iiaia, aeaaiaea?e
/aio eaeao aeaeaeaiea iauanoaa aia?aae. Aaiee, aiinyuea a enoi?eth iiiua
niuneu e cia/aiey, i/aiue ?aaeee. Aac ieo eoeueoo?a ia niiaea au
“.ouanoaiaaoue, canoua a ninoiyiee noaaiaoeee.

Eiaiii aeayoaeueiinoue aaieaa yaeyaony e?eoa?eai i?ia?anna a eoeue-iype
– /ai aieueoa iiauo niuneia nicaeaaony a eoeueoo?a, oai iia
i?ia?anneaiaa. I?ia?ann a eoeueoo?a ieeae ia naycai n aiaoiae
eoeueoo?ie, ii oeaeeeii i?eaioe?iaai ia ee/iinoue, aa i?aanoaaiiia
niaa?oainoai. *ai iaiueoa iauanoai aeaoa?ieie?oao ?acaeoea ee/iinoe, oai
auoa eoeueoypa. Oaeei ia?acii, Eaio aeaao /enoi noauaeoeaiia iiieiaiea
i?ia?anna, iicaieythuaa aiai?eoue i i?ia?anna ioaeaeueiie ee/iinoe eee
iaaieueoie a?oiiu ethaeae, ii ia ia iauai eoeueoo?iii i?ia?anna.

Ec iiieiaiey eoeueoo?u eae niaieoiiinoe aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae, aeooiaiie
iaiyoe /aeiaa/anoaa enoiaeee ecaanoiue iaiaoeeee iuneeoaeue O?eae?eo
Oeeea?, eco/aaoee i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?iaaiaca, ciaea e neiaiea a eoeueoo?a.

Oeeea? n/eoae, /oi eoeueoo?a ia/eiaeanue n ieoiiiyoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie eioi?iai auei io?aaeaiea
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a ia?acao. Ia?ac noae ia?ae/iie oi?iie io?aaeaiey
iauaeoeaiiai auoey, aai eiooeoeaiui noaaouaaieai. Aaaeiaeoei i?eciaeii
ia?aca Oeeea? n/eoae neie?aoe/iinoue (oeaeinoiinoue, ia?an/eaiaiiinoue
aini?eyoey ie?a). Yoai ieoiiiyoe/aneiai ioiioaiey e aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe e
aue, ii iiaieth Oeeea?a, a?aiaiai iiaeeeiiie eoeueoo?u.

A iniiaa eoeueoo?iaaiaca eaaeaea oo?aoa neie?aoe/iinoe.
Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey a noa?a eoeueoo?u aaea e niaoeeaeecaoeee e
i?ioanneiiaeecaoeee, eioi?ua, a naith i/a?aaeue, i?eaiaeeee e ?inoo
nioeeaeueiie iai?yaeaiiinoe e e io/oaeaeaieth. Iiyoiio aeey Oeeea?a
?acaeoea eoeueoo?u auei, ii nouanoao, eoeueoo?iie aeaa?aaeaoeeae.

?aoeoue i?iaeaio io/oaeaeaiey iiaeii, eeoue niya eoeueoo?iue e?ecen,
aa?ioaoenue e ?aianeaiie/anoao e ieoiiiyoe/aneiio neie?aoecio. A
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yoi aiciiaeii eeoue a ?aieao eneonnoaa, eioi?ia
yaeyaony ia?aciui io?aaeaieai ie?a e nii?yaeaii n ieoii, oeeinioeae,
ii?aeueth, ?aeeaeae, e a neeo yoeo ea/anoa iii aua iiaeao aeaoue
ii/oanoaiaaoue oio ainoi?a aaeeinoaa anoanoaaiiiai e i?e?iaeiiai
nouanoaiaaiey, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ai aeey ieoiiiyoe/aneiai yoaia eoeueoo?u.

Ii, iineieueeo Oeeea? n/eoae, /oi eneonnoai aeinooiii aeaeaei ia
eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo, neaaeiaaei iaeoe aio caiaieoaeue. Oaeei caiaieoaeai
iiaeao noaoue ea?a, iioiaeay ia eneonnoai, ii iaeaaeathuay oeaeui ?yaeii
aeiiieieoaeueiuo /a?o. Oae, ea?a iaooeeeoa?ia, aaaeue a ea?a, eae e a
eneonnoaa, iao ieeaeeo i?aaiaoe/aneeo oeaeae. Ea?a, eae e eneonnoai,
aanei?unoia, /aeiaae a ieo oiiaeiaeyaony ?aaaieo, eioi?ue iieiinoueth
ioe?uo ie?o e aai caeiiai, e a neeo yoiai ?aaaiie noaiiaeony eaeaaeueiui
oeiii ee/iinoe a eoeueoo?a. Ea?a, eae e eneonnoai i?aaeiieaaaao
ooaa?aeaeaiea eaiiiia iiaaaeaiey ethaeae. I?eieiay i?aaeea oie eee eiie
ea?u, ethaee noaiiayony ?aaiuie. ?aaainoai a ea?a aeaao naiaiaeo, e
/aeiaae iieo/aao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey naii?aaeecaoeee.- Aeaaiaea?y
?aaainoao a ea?a ono?aiythony ana nioeeaeueiua ninoiyiey e caeiiu,
nieiathony ana nioeeaeueiua ianee. Ea?a ioe?uaaao aiciiaeiinoue
eciaiaiey oeae^ae enoi?e/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey, oae eae oneiaey a iae
caaeathony ea?ieaie, a neaaeiaaoaeueii, iie iieo/atho aiciiaeiinoue ii
naiei i?aaeeai ia?aaeaeuaaoue ie?.

Oeeea? n?aaee aaaeiaeoeo naienoa ea?u auaeaeyao aiciiaeiinoue
ia?anioai?aiey a iae ie?a. Nia?aiaiiay aio eoeueoo?a – yoi ea?a, niinia
?aeiiaeiaoeee aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ii ii?aaeaeaiiui i?aaeeai.

Ii, iineieueeo ea?a aeey Oeeea?a – yoi eeoue caiaieoaeue iiaeeeiiie
eoeueoo?u, nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?a – yoi aua e iea/ ii oo?a/aiiiio,
ainiiieiaiea i nouanoaiaaaoae ?aiaa noaiaie naiaiaeu, i aaeeinoaa
/aeiaaea n ie?ii. Oae ?iaeaeaaony o?aaaaeey auoey /aeiaaea a nia?aiaiiie
eoeueoo?a.

A ?aieao naiae eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u Oeeea? i?aaeeiaeee oeiieiaeth
eoeueoo?, niaeanii eioi?ie auaeaeyaony aeaa eo oeia – iaeaiua e
naioeiaioaeueiua eoeueoo?u.

A iaeaiie eoeueoo?a /aeiaae nouanoaoao a aaeeinoaa i?e?iaeiiai e
eneonnoaaiiiai, ia ioai?aaeeaaaony io ie?a, a i?aauaaao a iai eae aai
/anoue. Niiniaii oeenaoeee eioi?iaoeee i ie?a yaeythony ia?acu e
neiaieu, iiciaiea ie?a eaeao ieoiiiyoe/aneei niiniaii.

A naioeiaioaeueiie eoeueoo?a /aeiaae nouanoaoao a ?aci?aaiiii ni-oiyiee
iaaeaeo i?e?iaeiui e eneonnoaaiiui, iaaeaeo i?ioeueoee e aoaeouei.
Io/oaeaeaiiia auoea /aeiaaea io?aaeaaony a neiaa e a ?aoeaenea-thi
niiniaa iiciaiey ie?a.

Aeey iaeaiie eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ii aeiieie?iaaiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoe,
aeey naioeiaioaeueiie – anaiauaai, eaeaaeueiiai.

A iaeaiie eoeueoo?a cia/eii ianoiyuaa, a naioeiaioaeueiie – i?ioeia e
aoaeouaa, /oi nicaeaao yooaeo iinoaeueae?othuaai niciaiey, ia
oaeiaeaoai?aiiiai oai, /oi anoue, e niioiinyuaai ianoiyuaa eeai n
oo?a/aiiui, eeai n aua ia ianooieaoei. Yoi aaaeao e ianaiiaeinoaoi/ii-ee
naioeiaioaeueiie eoeueoo?u, iinoiyiii n?aaieaathuae naay n /ai-oi
ae?oaei, e oo?aoa yoie eoeueoo?ie onoie/eainoe ec-ca ieaaee?iaaiey
nai-:)e iniainoe. Iai?ioea, iaeaiay eoeueoo?a aiieia naiiaeinoaoi/ia e a
;;eeo yoiai iaeaaeaao iiauoaiiie noaaeeueiinoueth.

Iniiaiie oi?iie ?aaeecaoeee iaeaiie eoeueoo?u yaeythony ?aeeaey e
eneonnoai, naioeiaioaeueiie eoeueoo?u – iaoea e oeeinioey.

Eaaeaeiio oeio eoeueoo?u niioaaonoaoao naie oei ee/iinoe. Oae, aeey
iaeaiie eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ai /aeiaae ea?athuee, aini?iecaiaeyuee e
nicaeathuee aa. Aeey iaai naienoaaiia ioe?uoinoue ie?o, iaooeeeoa?iia
ioiioaiea e iaio, annioeeaoeaiay, ia?aciay oi?ia aai iiciaiey,
iniciaiiay naiiaeaoa?ieiaoeey, aieueoie oai?/aneee iioaioeeae.

Naioeiaioaeueiay eoeueoo?a aeaao eiie oei /aeiaaea – cae?uoiai aeey
ie?a, oae eae ie? aini?eieiaaony eae oa?iaeathuee, ioaathuee e a neeo
yoiai ioaeaeathueeny a ia?aaeaeea. Aeey /aeiaaea naioeiaioaeueiie
eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?ai aio?iiioeaio?eci, ianaiiaeinoaoi/iinoue – a neeo
i?aauaaiey a yoii ie?a a ?aci?aaiiii ninoiyiee. Ii ?acaeaaao
?annoaei/iua oi?iu ioiioaiey e ie?o, aio ii/oe iaaeinooiii oai?/anoai,
ninoiyiea “ai niciaiey o?aae/ii.

Auoiae ec yoiai i?ioeai?a/ey Oeeea? aeaeeo a nicaeaiee eoeueoo?u
o?aoueaai oeia, a eioi?ie neioace?othony eo/oea noi?iiu iaeaiie e
naioeiaioaeueiie eoeueoo?. Yoi aoaeao ana/aeiaa/aneay, aoiaienoe/aneay
eoeueoo?a, eioi?ie aoaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue iiaue oei /aeiaaea –
ananoi?iiia ?acaeoie ee/iinoe, iaoeaeaiiie ia aoaeouaa, iinoiyiii
ia?aioeaieaathuae naith eoeueoo?o, n ioe?uoui oeiii niciaiey. Iia
niiaeao aini?iec-iiaeeoue neie?aoe/aneea oi?iu iiciaiey ie?a,
caoeene?iaaiiua a aaeeinoaa ia?aciiai e ?aoeeiiaeueii-eiae/aneiai. Yoi
aoaeao oieaa?naeueiay, oo?ae/aneay ee/iinoue.

Oai?aoe/aneei caaa?oaieai eaeaaeenoe/aneie eiioeaioeee eoeueoo?u noaea
oeeinioey Aai?aa Aeeueaaeueia O?eae?eoa Aaaaey, eioi?ue ?acaeaae naith
eiioeaioeeth enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u a “Oeeinioee i?aaa” e “Oeeinioee
enoi?ee”.

Eoeueoo?a iiieiaaony Aaaaeai eae oi?ia io/oaeaeaiey aaniethoiiai aeooa,
aeeoioee?iaaiea aaniethoiie eaeae (iiaeeeiiie ?aaeueiinoe auoey, eioi?ay
?acaeaaaony nia/aea a eiaeea, caoai io/oaeaeaaony a i?e?iaeo e
aica?auaaony e naaa a oi?ia aaniethoiiai aeooa), niinia naiiiiciaiey
ianiethoiiai aeooa e naiiai /aeiaa/anoaa. Aaaeiaeoei naienoaii eoeueoo?u
yaeyaony oai?/anoai – nicaeaiea iiaiai, i?e eioi?ii iii ia oie/oiaeaao
noa?iai, nio?aiyao aai a naaa eae iiiaio naiae enoi?ee, eae naith
i?aaeiinueeo.

Aeey oai?ee eoeueoo?u aaaeiui auei iieiaeaiea Aaaaey i nayce eoeueoo?u
n /aeiaa/aneei o?oaeii. Aaaaeue enoiaeee ec oacena, /oi /aeiaae yaeyaony
iauanoaaiiui nouanoaii, aai ioee/ea io aeeaioiuo – a iaeaaeaiee ?acoiii,
a oaeaea a iiiaiia?acee iio?aaiinoae, eioi?ua ii niiniaai
oaeiaeaoai?youe n iiiiuueth n?aaenoa, nicaeaiiuo o?oaeii. Ec
iio?aaiinoae /aeiaaea ia iniiaa o?oaea aicieeaao eoeueoo?a. Aia/aea yoi
i?aeoe/aneay eoeueoo?a eae iio?aaiinoue e i?eau/ea aiiaua /ai-eeai
caieiaoueny, /oi ?acaeaaao ?annoaeie, aieiaiea, iaiyoue, i?eau/eo
ia?aie/eaaoue naay, aeenoeeieeio. A caoai iiyaeyaony oai?aoe/aneay
eoeueoo?a – iiiaiia?acea i?aaenoaaeaiee e iiciaiee, iiaeaeaeiinoue e
auno?ioa yoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee, noaaouaaiea anaiaueo ioiioaiee – ?acaeoea
?acoia.

I?eioeeieaeueiui aeinoeaeaieai Aaaaey yaeyaony iiieiaiea eoeueoo?u eae
i?ioeanna, eoiaa anaie?iie enoi?ee. ?anniao?eaay anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneee
i?ioeann eae oiae ?acaeoea ?acoia, ii i?eoiaeeo e eaeaa, /oi eaaeaeay
enoi?e/aneay yiioa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ii?aaeaeaiioth nooiaiue a
?acaeoee /aeiaa/anoaa (e a naiiiiciaiee aaniethoiiai aeooa). Iineieueeo
nouiinoueth aeooa yaeyaony naiaiaea, oi anaie?iay enoi?ey anoue i?ia?ann
a niciaiee naiaiaeu. A eaaeaeoth yiioo iineoaeai ie?iaiai aeooa, ?acoia
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?iae. Aeoo yoeo ia?iaeia, eioi?ua Aaaaeue
iacuaaao anaie?ii-enoi?e/aneei, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nooiaie niciaiey
naiaiaeu.

Aiieiuaiea aeooa, aai ?acaeoea i?ienoiaeeo iacaaeneii io aeaeaiey
ethaeae, yaeyynue iauaeoeaiui caeiiii. Aeaenoaey ethaeae, ii ioeaiea
Aaaaey, auoaeatho ec iio?aaiinoae, no?anoae, eioa?ania, eai ethaee
aeaenoaotho oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea aeaeyo ia?aae niaie oeaeue,
eioa?anothuoth ee/ii eo. Ii yoi aiana ia cia/eo, /oi enoi?ey
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?inoia noeaieaiea aeaenoaee e iinooieia ethaeae,
aanii?yaei/iia ia?ana/aiea eo eioa?ania. *a?ac yoe, eacaeinue au,
neo/aeiua iinooiee n aeaeaciie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?iyaeyao naay
?acaeaathuayny eaeay. Iiyoiio a enoi?ee iieo/athony nianai eiua
?acoeueoaou, /ai oa, e eioi?ui no?aieeenue ethaee. Ethaee aeaenoaotho a
enoi?ee ai eiy naieo oeaeae, ii a eoiaa ?acoi canoaaeyao /aeiaa/aneea
no?anoe ?aaeeciauaaoue aai nianoaaiiua oeaee e eioa?anu.

Aaaaeue iacuaaao yoi “oeo?inoueth ?acoia”. Eoeueoo?a oaeaea noaiiaeony
?acoeueoaoii yoie aeanoeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

?acaeoea eoeueoo?u naycaii n ?acaeoeai ciaiey, aai eoiaii aeieaeii
noaoue iniciaiea /aeiaaeii naiaai iiaeeeiiiai ianoa a iauaeoeaiii ie?a,
naay eae n?aaenoaa aaniethoiie eaeae e i?eiyoea yoiai iieiaeaiey.
E?eoa?eai i?ia?anna yaeyaony aaeaeaaoiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai ciaiey
enoeiiiio iieiaeaieth aeae. Noaiaiue niaa?oainoaa ciaiey aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue auaeaeeoue ?aciua oeiu eoeueoo?u. Oaeei ia?acii, ?acaeoea
eoeueoo?u noaiiaeony i?ioeannii, aeaeaeaieai io iaiaa e aieaa
aaeaeaaoiui oi?iai iiciaiey, io ?aeeaee /a?ac eneonnoai e ii?aeue e
iaoea e oeeinioee. Iaoeeiiaeueiua eoeueoo?u oaeaea ?anniao?eaathony n
oi/ee c?aiey eo niioaaonoaey iiaeeeiiiio ciaieth e iaoiaeyony a
eioa?aaea io ainoi/iuo eoeueoo? (aeaeaeeo io ciaiey enoeiu) aei
?iiaii-aa?iaineie eoeueoo?u, iaeaaeaaoae iiaeeeiiui ciaieai.

Iaieiaeci aaaaeaaneie eiioeaioeee enoi?ee e eoeueoo?u yaeeny aunoae
ioiaoeie, eoeueieiaoeeae ?aoeeiiaeenoe/aneie oaiaeaioeee I?inaauaiey,
eaeae enoi?e/aneiai iioeiecia e i?ia?anneaiiai ?acaeoey. Ii aeeciue,
iianaaeiaaiue iiuo iinoiyiii ii?iaa?aaee yoe eaeae, iaiyeny, nai ie?,
eioi?ue oaea iaaiciiaeii auei iauynieoue a ?aieao eeanne/aneie
oeeinioee. Ianooiaea iiaay yiioa, eioi?ay o?aaiaaea iiaie oeeinioee.

Eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Aiaiethaiaa A.A. Eoeueoo?a e iauanoai. – I., 1978

2. Aeei Ae. Iniiaaiey iiaie iaoee ia iauae i?e?iaea iaoeee. – I.,

1994

3. Aa?aea? E.A. Eaeae e oeeinioee enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. – I., 1977

A. Ooeu aa A. Eaio. – I., 1981

5. Aoeue/aa A. Aaaaeue. – I., 1970

6. Eoeueoo?ieiaey. – ?inoia-i/Ae., 1995

7. Aaaaeaiea a eoeueoo?ieiaeth. – I.: Aeaaein, 1995

8. ?onni AE.AE. O?aeoaou. – I., 1969

9. ?onni AE.AE. Yieeue, eee I ainieoaiee (ethaia ecaeaiea)

10. Oeeea? O. Ni/eiaiey. O. 6. – I., 1957

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