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E????ay ??? ? ?e????? ? ??:

E???? O?-E??

I?i

1.Eo??? ??i??o ???a O?-E??

2.A????? O?e-E??

3.N????a e ???? O?-E??

4.N??e ?????

1. E???a ??i?o? ???a O?-E??

E?ey ???a ???? ?ey?a ? ???? ??? ????? ??? — O?-E?? (Oe???). A V— II ?. ?
i. y. ???u ? E?? — ???a ???? e ???a — ???e ? ???a ??? ?????a. Ni ???e
?????, ??????i ? ??? ????i ??i A??e (III a. ? i. y.), ??ue i??
?????iy?ny ???i, ???e e ? ?e ?? ????y ???? ????e O?-E??. O????? ????i
O?-E?? ?eyo ? ????i ???? a ?????? n ???ey? ??? ???a: 1) ??? A?????u (III
a. ? i. y. — X a. i. y.); 2) ??? Ii????u (XI—XIV ?.); 3) ??? E?aee
(XIV—XIX ?.).

A?? A?????a – ??iyy ???a O?-E??, ???? ? ??i ?? 113 ???e. A? ???y ?y?iy –
????a ? ??a ??? Ai, ???? ?a ?ny? ?o. N???i ???eth, y? ???? ?? ??? ???,
?ae ???i a 6 ?? ? i.y. ??oe A??? ???? ?ny? ?o a ?? ???, ??? ?????ey e ??
A??e.

O??y ?? ????y ??? ?????. N???i ?????? ???????e ???? ??ae ?e ??? a ??ue
??aeu a ????e N???? – A???a. A 380 a. ? i.y. ??? I????ay ???? A?????o
???? ???i ?????? ?????a. E ??? ? ??? ? ???? ????? A??? E?? ?y ????y ??e
????i i???ey ???. A i??ae ??? ???? ??ae ???e ???ue 52 ?. ?, a ????a
???ey? ????i ?ny?? ?ny/ ???e. A?e ????u ????? (I a. i.y.) ??? e ??u,
???, ????e, ??u, ???? e ????. A?????a ????nue ???? a ??i? 1400 ?o.

E??ey A?????u – ???y ????y 113 ???e, ??? ? ???o ??? ???? ??ae a ???? ???
e ?????? ?????a. Ii ??iy?? ?????e ? ???u ????? TH?? E?? ???e e ??, ?i a
993 a. ??ae ?e ????, a ???a ????? a I?????.

E ?oy ???oth?a ????e ?????? ??? ???a ?iy??e A?????u, ??ae ? ?? ???ue ??a
???a e, ??y a ???, ??n ???y?. A????e ???e ????e ??u ??u ???a a 1820 a.,
? ??? a 1912 a. ???? ????a ???????a ???.

A?????a – y? ? ??? ??iyy ???a, ? e ?y?e ??ae. E??e ?ae ?ny? ??th?o
???atho ??????i ? ?y?i ???, ???o ? ????? ??? ???: ??? Ai e ?? ??a (??).
O?? a ???i ??? ????? ??u ????? ?????? ?????.

A?? I?????. Ia ??y??e ??? ?o I????? ?? ?????e ????? A?????u, ?a ?e eth??
????. Ai ???a ????? ????e I????? ???a ? ????. E?? a 993 a. *?u ????e
A?????o e I????? e ??? ?? i????e ???????i th??i???? ?????a, ????u ????e
??? ? ??o ???a ??-???i E?? a I?????, ???th, ?e ?e n???, ??a ??iy?, ?i
A?????o. *?u ???e ? I????? ? 1070 a., ??a ????? ???? A??y?? I, ??e??
???u, ???, ?????? ??????i ???ey, ???? I?????, ??? ?????a n ???a e ?????e
??ae??e ?????o. A 1073 a. ? ????i ??? ? ???e a A?????a, ? ???? I?????
???????? ???? i???. A?? ???ye y?o ??? ? 1293 a. I???ny ? ??? ???a I????
Na??a (?? I??????), ?eth?th?i a naay 3 ????o ??a ??e ???ueth ??a 15 ?.i.
I????? ???a ???? ?? a ??? ?????yo, ???y ??ae ??e e ??ay ????a ?ey e
????e. A ??? ???a ? ????i ???a ?????ue ??u ????e ??u.

A?? E??.

A?? E?? – ???a O?-E?? a 16-19 ??o, «A??? ??? E??, ??? ?? ????ey?y
?????i-?????. Y?o ??ae ?y ????a – ??i ?y?a. C??, a O?? C?a A?? ?ae ???i
??e? a ????? ???o ??? ???ny c? A?? A??iu. N???i ????i? ???o, C?o ???o
????ny, ??i ???y ??e ? ?????? ??, ????ny ? ??? a ?????i ?? e ???ue ????i
??e e ????th ???. Au??? ? ??a ???o iyoy? – ??u ? a ?? ??? ? ????ueny e
?y?? ???. A???? a ??a ???? ????y ????ey C?o e ?c a ?? – ?ny????e ???? n
??? ????i ???? C?a ? ???, n ??????e, ?????, ????e e ??y? ?ny/ ?????.

2. A????? O?-E??

Ae????? ?iy???e ????a ? ????? ???a y?yth?y ???? ????? ??u — ?’??. A ???a
? ????e ?o? ??? ? ??o ??? n ????, n ???o ??? e ?e ????? ????? — ????a
????ey ????? ??u. A ?o ?????u ?????? «??? ??? — ???u, ?????oth?a ??a ?
A???oth. E??y ????? ???? ??? n ????e. ??????a ???e? ?y?? e n ??ueth A??:
????y ??????o ?i ????, th?ay — ??????, ???ay — ???????a ????, ???ay —
???o. E? e a E??, ?????? ????u e ?????y ?y??? ??o?o ?? ?????i ??????
?????i ??u-???. A III a. ? i. y. ?????ue a????a ?????a ?e ???????? ??? ?
???a, ?e, ????, O????, I????, A?ay??.

E?? ??a ? ???a ??? e ??? ?i ??u — ?????? ????e, ??????e ? ????a, e ???e
n ???o ??? ??o ????. O?a???y ??? ????ey ???? ?? — ?e ????? E??e E??ue,
??aey??y ??ae ????e. E??e E??ue ????ey? ??e ????, ????? ???? ????, ???a
????ath?y ??? ??a ???. O?ay ??a, ????ay ???? ??y-??a, ?? ???? ????ey ?e
?????a i ???a A??. A ?e ????e e ??? ???? o?? ??? ? ????. I???i ????
????e ??o ???ue ??y-??a a I????e ???? ? I????? (VII a.).

A??-??a e ??a-??a ????eytho ??e ?? ?a ?? ????? ?????u O?-E??. A??-??a —
?????, ?????? ??? ??? Ai, ???a ?????ey O??ey. A ??a-??a ????y ??? ?? —
??? ??? ????e A??. Y? ????? n??? ??? ??ue ??oth ?? a ????a E??, ? ?? a
O?-E?? ?ee ????u a ?????a.

A ??a ???a A?????u ??? ??e ?i ????? — ?e ????? Ae? N??e, ???e ??????ny
?y ??ue???o ?????e A??. Ae?a N??e ??cy ???ue ???e—??? y? ??a, ?a ??th?a
? ????, a ???ey? i ????? ???.

A A?????a e I????? ?????ue ??o? ???? ???? — a ???? ???a ????? ???a.

C????a ????u ?????

I????ue A?ay??y (A?????a). I???? ????? a ???? ??e ???? ??? e ???? ??a?
??i 235 ????. I???i a I a. ? i.y. ?y ??? ???a, ????o ? ??ue ? ????y
I????a e ????o ??a ???a ???? – I?ay? (?????a ????, ? ???th?a ??a). E
??e?eth, ?????? ??? ? ?????ue, ?yo?o ???y ????i ????y ???e ??ueth ?????.

A??ay ??????????ue ????a – A?ay??y ??? – ?? ????a a 124 a. I??????y ???
? ?? 115 i, ??? ? ???u ??u ? ???atho 79 ?o?a a ??? e 106,5 i a ????.
N???i ???? A?? ??? ? ??? e, i??ay ?????????e ?????y?, ??e i?? ??? a ????
??e A?????u, a ??? ? ???a ?? O? I?u. I? ????? ??? a A?????a ?? ????a
???, ????ay ???? e ???i, a ??i e ????ue. E?? a??? ??u ? ????? ????y ??
????a, ? ? ??a ??? ??u. I?a ? ?o – E???? – ?? ????a ???i A????? e ??a-?
??y ???a ?i ???? ? ??y ??i?? A?????u ?????e ?????y?. N?ue ???e ?e ?y
????e a O?-E??, N??????, ????? ???? th??i ?iaea ???e ??u. I???e ?e ?c
???, ?????e ? ??y, ??o 4 ??a. A?????? ????i ????? ??e ????y. Oe????ay
???a ??ey, ?a ????? ?????, ?? ??????a ?y ???y e ??????? a ???? ???u ?y
?iy?e. A ???o ??a?o ?? ???-???e. E???? ??u ?? ???u ?????e, a ??a ???? ?
?y??? ?????? ???, ???e ???? ????? ?e ????o. AE?? ????y ????? ??y?e e
???? ??e, ??a ?????ee ???u n ????? ????e ????. A ????e ????y ????i ????
??e, ??ath?e 5000 ??? ??. A?????i ???e ???i Yo I??a, ????? ??e ???th
??ue ????a.

Ae??a ????? ????? ????y – A???u A??a? n ????? ???? ????, a ???e ?? ????
??c ?yae ????o ?????, ?y? ???o ? ?i, a ??ay ?? ????o a ????.

I???? Ae??????. Y?o ???? ? ??? ?? n ????? A?ay??e. Ia ?????e i???? e????
?????y ????? ???? ??a (120 i). A y?? ???a ??n?e ???e (IV a. i.y.) ??a
y?y?? ???i ? ???? ????? a ??, ???y ?? ????i O??a e E??? a A?a. I???ay
????y ??? ????? ??eo ? 12-ia??oth ???o. N?? ????ey? ??e ????e ??. A?
??u, ?eth?y ?????a a ?? ??y, ???? ???? (????u ????? ???? Ao?u) ?e ????u
? ??a, ?a ????e ??? ?????a ?e ?????? ???y. E???i, ?i a ????e ? ??a, ?a
????a ???, ??????ue N?u I???, ?a a ???e ?? ?? A??o I??? ??e ????ue. N ?o
?? ??i ???? Ae????, ????? Ae???? – «??i, ?a ??y? ?? ?????ey». Ec ??????
??o XIII a. ??i ????, ?i ???? ???, ???i ??iy???y A??, ????i a ??a. E??
i??? e ??a ???ey ?y??? ? ???a – ?????.

N?? ???e ?i ??? A?? ????y ???? ??u. N?y ? ??????ny ???? ??? 8 i a ?n?o,
y? ?? ???eyth?o ???? ???.

N?? ??? ?????? ????? – ???oe a ??a ???, ????i ???o ????a. TH?? ??u ???ay
??? – ??????e ???oe ????? ?????u. O? ?????? ??? ?????otho «?e ??????e»
????: A??, ?i Ae???o e I?? I???. Ae???a ? ?n ??u ????y ??ny?y e IX – X
?. I???u, ????eyth?a ???e ?????? ???n, a????u a ???????i ??a A?????u.

Ae??i Ai. I?i ? ?y??? ???? ????ey ?y ????a ????a ? ?? ??. I? ???i ?
???a, ?y?? ? ??? a A?? A?y (I??), ?ae ???i ??oe A??? ??? ????y. N??? a?
???? ? ??? ????e N?????, ???th ????? ????? A??, e a? ???i a ?????i ??a
A?????u. O? ?e ??? A?? A?y a I??a ? ?????ue, ? Ai – y? ??a ??? ??? ?
C??: ?i ???o – 23 ??.

O?i E????y. I????? ??? ?? ???? ???a ?? ??????a O???? ?? y?y?y ??? ????
??????i ????a O?-E?? – E????a. I????e a III a. ? i.y., ???? a?th?? a ?ay
????? ?? a ??a, ? ???e e???i A??, ?? e ????? a ??a ????u ???, ??????y a
??i ??????ii ??. E? ??atho ??????e, ??ue n????? ???u, ???th?a ??ue. Ia
??a o ??a a ?y??? a?????e ????, ?????a ???? ????i ? ??? ?????? ????eyo,
– ???a ? ??iyo o ??? ??th???? ??a. ???a ????ny VII a. N???i ???e ???a,
??ue ????i ?i ??ey Ae????o, N?ey, e ?i ??th???y, ???a ? ??? ??u, ?? ???e
N?ey ????y ? ??a.

TH?? ????ue (I????aa). Ae??? ???? y?? ?????i ??????i e???? ?????. A???a
??ey ? ?????? ????a, ?????i 4 ???e, ?????a, ????y ia ????othny ??o.
A??????y ????? 3,6 i a ??? ????y a 100 ??? ???? ????y e ????ey? ??e
???oe ???? ????? ???o ?????a. I?iy? ???ue, ?i ??oy ????? ??ey I??????
A???i, ???e ???o a ??o ??? ?????e ??? – y?i. Ii ??? ???, y? ??oy ???a,
????i a ??o i???? ????? «??.

C??a I?????? ??? I????? – ?? ? ??o ????? ???? I?i???u. N?????ny ? ???o
???e ?ia?tho i ??a? ???????? ?????.

I????? y?y?? ??????? ?????? ???i, e Oe???ue ????ey? ?a? ????? ?? e
???ithth ??th ???u. I??a ??u ???? ????e 11-???? ???. O?oy??? ??u ????
??ey – ?a, ?i ???? ? ??y???i Ei????? Aea?? (Royal Palace) I?????? n 1000
???. A??oth ??ue ???i y?? ?i??o ?e ?y ????e (31o13 i). N ??e ???u
?????ue ??ue ????, a n ??? ???. E???ay ???, ????ay ???u, ?? ???? ???e
???ueth. A??? ??? ????? ????e ????? ??e a th?-???? ?? ????.

C? I?????? ??? ???? ? ??? ????a, ????? ?????e ???, ??a e ????. N ??o ???
??uy??? ???? ?????y ???? e ??a – ?? ??? ??ey ????. TH?? ??ey ?????a
????y y? n a?iy?? ???????? ???e. E???a ??a?? ? ???? ??a ??a ??o e
E?????o ????, ?????o ???? ??i. A?a, ?????y ? ????i ??? ? ??????a
a????????ue ????. A ?? ??a ?e ????? ?o, ?? a ???e ????? ? ??? ??e???
???????i.

O?i A?? Ae??a (E??) ??o ???? ???o ??o ??a I?u. I??i?? A?? ??????i ??
???????? a Ae??a, ? th? ???a. Ii ? ??y ???? n ??????e ??? ?? ?? ????? a
E?? a ?eyo ??????. N???i ????e, A?? ???e ?? O?? (????th ??a) ??? ????ey
??? ??ey ? ???a E??, a O?? ?????e y? ??eth Aeo?, ???? ??atho ???i A??e.
O ??a ???y ??a e ????e ?? a ?? ?????i ???a. O?i I??? Ae??a (Pattini
Devale) – ????a ???a ?y??? ? ???e ???? ????a n ??? a ???n?i ??a. O?i
???? a ??ue ?ae? ????ey e ???uey I???. A??th ??ath?y ??????, ??a ??tho
??, a ??a ? ??y ??o e ???ay. A?? a ???? ?nth? ????y E????a Ae??a
(Kataragama Devale) – ?? ? ??o i??y?? ?????o ??? ???, ??y??ue ?? ??u
N??a. I???i yo? ?? a XVI a. e ???o ? ? ???o ????e. A ??? ????y ??oy n??i
??, ? ???, ?a ??a ?? a? ??oy, ???ath?y ???. A ???i i???ny ????, ???e
?????ny ? ??y Y?? I???u, a a ????i – ????y ?y ??????. O?i ??o?th?e, ???
a ?i ???yo ?????a ????.

A ??? Na.I??, ?????i a 1846 a. th?? ??a C?a A??, ????y ????e ???oth?e
??i. N??u ???yo ? ?a???i e ?????i y??o. O? ????? E????? I???i o ???uey
??, ???? ???, ???? a 1834 a. e ??an y?y?ny ?????e ?????e ????? O?-E?? a
E??.

3. N????a e ???? O?-E??

N????a O?-E??, ?e ? ?e e ?????a, ?????ue ?ae ?????? ????. N?y?e, ?iy?e e
???e A?? — ???? ??? ????? O?-E??. I????e ???n ????ey? E???e O?i, n??
????? ?? ? O?-E??. *??a ??? A?? a ????o ??o ???? a ????e ??a e ???th?y
XII ??i. I???y ? ?????ua ???u, ????? ??ue ?????u. A??? ???n ????ey? o??y
??oy, ????th?y A?? a ????e ?? ? ?????e ??? ? ??e. Y? ?? ??? ??????? a
E??. N??tho, ?i ??th ??ue??a ????e y??? ???a ???ue ?????oth ??? A??,
?ae???a ?i ??????. N??y ???? A?? ? I????? (XII a.), ??aey?yny ??ae ??? a
??? (????a ????? i???) – Y? ??y?a ???? ???? (??a iy???? ??? a ??o), ?y?i
n ???i ????y ??oy ?iy?? ???a A?? — A??u.

A?y?a ????? ????a ??????ny a ??i ?????i ???? ???a. Y? ???y ????ey N??ey
(?e N???e, ?i ??? E??ay N??). I?i ? ??e O?-E?? ????e ?a? a ??????? ?????
— ???? ?aey?e ?a ???ny ???e ????e ??? a ???o. I?? ?? ?????? a ????a ?
?o??i. E? a ????a E?? e TH?-A???? A?e ??????? ???th ???, a a ???? — ???
A??. A N??? ????ny ??????e ??, ???e e ???? ???? ???, ? ???o ??a-? ??
???u ????a ??. O??ue ?i ??aey?y ???e ???? ???.

I????e ???n ????ey? E???e O?i. *??a ??? A?? a ????o ??o ???? a ?a??? ??a
e ???th?y XII ??i. I???y ? ?????? ???u, ????? ??ue ??????. A??? ???n
????ey? ??uey ??oy, ????th?y A?? a ????e ?? ? ?????e ??ie ? ??e. Y? ??
??? ??????? a E??. N??tho, ?i ??th ????? ????e y??? ???a ???ue ?????oth
??? A??, ????? ?i ??????.

N??ey ??? ???? ?i? ????th. I????? ??u ???? ??????e ???ny? — ?a??e ????
????oe. I?u ????oe ??e e ????, ???ey ?e, ???u ?? e ??? ????u e ?????u.
ss?? ?????? ???? ???o ?????yi ?? ???th ?????ue e ??yae??ue. E???n N??ey,
?e e ??? ???u ?????u e ????? O?-Ea?e, ????ey? ??e ?????, ?????? e ?????
????, ????e ?ey?a ? ????i TH?-A???? A?e.

3. N??e ?????

1. A?a O????e “O?-E??: I??, a? ?e ?e”

2. O?? Y. O?-E??

3.I??? ????i e ????

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