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A ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iauanoao e?iia ?aoaiey iienaiiuo
auoa i?iaeai iaiaoiaeeii iiaeaioiaeoue /aeiaaea e auno?iio aini?eyoeth e
ia?aaioea aieueoeo iauaiia eioi?iaoeee, iaeaaeaieth ei nia?aiaiiuie
n?aaenoaaie, iaoiaeaie e oaoiieiaeae ?aaiou. E?iia oiai, iiaua oneiaey
?aaiou ii?iaeaeatho caaeneiinoue eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe iaeiiai /aeiaaea io
eioi?iaoeee, i?eia?aoaiiie ae?oaeie ethaeueie. Iiyoiio oaea
iaaeinoaoi/ii oiaoue naiinoiyoaeueii inaaeaaoue e iaeaieeaaoue
eioi?iaoeeth, a iaaei iao/eoueny oaeie oaoiieiaee ?aaiou n eioi?iaoeeae,
eiaaea iiaeaioaaeeaathony e i?eieiathony ?aoaiey ia iniiaa eieeaeoeaiiai
ciaiey. Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi /aeiaae aeieaeai eiaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
o?iaaiue eoeueoo?u ii ia?auaieth n eioi?iaoeeae. Aeey io?aaeaiey yoiai
oaeoa aue aaaaeai oa?iei eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a — oiaiea oeaeaiai?aaeaiii ?aaioaoue n
eioi?iaoeeae e eniieueciaaoue aeey aa iieo/aiey, ia?aaioee e ia?aaea/e
eiiiuethoa?ioth eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth, nia?aiaiiua oaoie/aneea
n?aaenoaa e iaoiaeu.

I?eaaaeai ii?aaeaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u, aeaiiia a [16]:
“Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a a oceii niunea — yoi o?iaaiue aeinoeaiooiai a
?acaeoee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauaiey ethaeae, a oaeaea oa?aeoa?enoeea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie noa?u aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, a eioi?ie iu iiaeai
ioiaoeoue noaiaiue aeinoeaiooiai, eiee/anoai e ea/anoai nicaeaiiiai,
oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey, noaiaiue i?iaiice?iaaiey aoaeouaai”.

Aeey naiaiaeiie i?eaioaoeee a eioi?iaoeeiiiii iioiea /aeiaae aeieaeai
iaeaaeaoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie eae iaeiie ec ninoaaeythueo iauae
eoeueoo?u. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a naycaia n nioeeaeueiie i?e?iaeie
/aeiaaea. Iia yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii ?aciiia?aciuo oai?/aneeo niiniaiinoae
/aeiaaea e i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothueo aniaeoao:

• a eiie?aoiuo iaaueao ii eniieueciaaieth oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa (io
oaeaoiia aei ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a e eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae);

• a niiniaiinoe eniieueciaaoue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiuethoa?ioth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth, aaciaie ninoaaeythuae eioi?ie yaeythony
iiiai/eneaiiua i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou;

• a oiaiee ecaeaeaoue eioi?iaoeeth ec ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia: eae ec
ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, oae e ec yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeyoue aa a iiiyoiii aeaea e oiaoue aa yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue;

• ai aeaaeaiee iniiaaie aiaeeoe/aneie ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

• a oiaiee ?aaioaoue n ?acee/iie eioi?iaoeeae;

• a ciaiee iniaaiiinoae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia a naiae iaeanoe
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a aae?aao a naay ciaiey ec oao iaoe, eioi?ua
niinianoaotho aa ?acaeoeth e i?eniiniaeaieth e eiie?aoiiio aeaeo
aeayoaeueiinoe (eeaa?iaoeea, eioi?iaoeea, oai?ey eioi?iaoeee,
iaoaiaoeea, oai?ey i?iaeoe?iaaiey aac aeaiiuo e ?yae ae?oaeo
aeenoeeieei). Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u yaeythony
ciaiea iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee e oiaiea aa i?eiaiyoue eae aeey
aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ooeiiuo iia?aoeee, oae e a iai?aeeia?iuo neooaoeeyo,
o?aaothueo iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai oai?/aneiai iiaeoiaea.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa iaiaoiaeeii ia/aoue iaeaaeaaaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie n aeaonoaa, nia/aea n iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiuo
ea?ooae, a caoai i?eaeaeay ia?niiaeueiue eiiiuethoa?. Aeey aunoeo
o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee nioeeaeueiui caeacii eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa
neaaeoao n/eoaoue iaania/aiea o?iaiy eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u
nooaeaioa, iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?aaiou a eiie?aoiie noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe. A
i?ioeanna i?eaeoey eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u nooaeaioo a aoca ia?yaeo n
eco/aieai oai?aoe/aneeo aeenoeeieei eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iai?aaeaiey iiiai
a?aiaie iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue eiiiuethoa?iui eioi?iaoeeiiiui
oaoiieiaeyi, yaeythueiny aaciauie ninoaaeythueie aoaeouae noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe. I?e/ai ea/anoai iao/aiey aeieaeii ii?aaeaeyoueny
noaiaiueth cae?aieaiiuo onoie/eauo iaaueia ?aaiou a n?aaea aaciauo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee i?e ?aoaiee oeiiauo caaea/ noa?u
aeayoaeueiinoe.

A eioi?iaoeeiiiii iauanoaa oeaio? oyaeanoe i?eoiaeeony ia iauanoaaiiia
i?iecaiaenoai, aaea nouanoaaiii iiauoathony o?aaiaaiey e o?iaith
iiaeaioiaee anao aai o/anoieeia. Iiyoiio a i?ia?aiia eioi?iaoecaoeee
neaaeoao iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeeoue eioi?iaoecaoeee ia?aciaaiey eae
iai?aaeaiey, naycaiiiai n i?eia?aoaieai e ?acaeoeai eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u /aeiaaea. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, noaaeo ia?aciaaiea a
iieiaeaiea “iauaeoa” eioi?iaoeee, aaea o?aaoaony oae eciaieoue
niaea?aeaiea iiaeaioiaee, /oiau iaania/eoue aoaeouaio niaoeeaeenoo ia
oieueei iauaia?aciaaoaeueiua e i?ioanneiiaeueiua ciaiey a iaeanoe
eioi?iaoeee, ii e iaiaoiaeeiue o?iaaiue eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u.
Iianaianoiia aiaae?aiea ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a ai ana noa?u
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iiaua aai aiciiaeiinoe ii i?aaiecaoeee
“ae?oaeanoaaiiie” i?ia?aiiiie n?aaeu, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iieueciaaoaey,
eniieueciaaiea oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiie nayce, iaania/eaathuae iiaua
oneiaey aeey niaianoiie ?aaiou niaoeeaeenoia, i?eiaiaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee aeey naiie ?aciiia?aciie aeayoaeueiinoe, iinoiyiii ?anoouay
iio?aaiinoue a niaoeeaeenoao, niiniaiuo aa inouanoaeyoue, noaayo ia?aae
ainoaea?noaii i?iaeaio ii ia?aniio?o anae nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee ia
nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiao. A iaoae no?aia ?aoaiea yoie
i?iaeaiu iaoiaeeony ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee, iiyoiio oeaeaniia?acii
o/anoue iiuo iaeaieaa ?acaeouo no?ai, e /eneo eioi?uo ioiinyony NOA,
ssiiiey, Aiaeey, Aa?iaiey, O?aioeey, aaea yoio i?ioeann oaea iieo/ee
cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea.

Naaiaeiy anoue ana iniiaaiey aiai?eoue i oi?ie?iaaiee iiaie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u (EE) [7], eioi?ay iiaeao noaoue yeaiaioii
iauae eoeueoo?u /aeiaa/anoaa. Aa iniiaie iiaoo noaoue ciaiey ia
eioi?iaoeeiiiie n?aaea, caeiiao aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, oiaiea
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieao. Ii iiaieth ?inneeneeo o/aiuo
[8], eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a iiea aua yaeyaony iieacaoaeai ia iauae,
a, nei?aa, i?ioanneiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u, ii ni a?aiaiai noaiao aaaeiui
oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey eaaeaeie ee/iinoe.

?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u oi?ie?oao ai anao no?aiao a?oiiu
ethaeae, eioi?ua aeooiaii iauaaeeiaiu iauiinoueth iiieiaiey oao i?iaeai,
a ?aoaiee eioi?uo iie aeeth/aiu. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a i?aaie/anee
aoiaeeo a ?aaeueioth oeaiue iauanoaaiiie aeecie, i?eaeaaay ae iiaia
ea/anoai. Iia i?eaiaeeo e eciaiaieth iiiaeo neiaeeaoeony
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e aeooiaiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee,
aiineo ea/anoaaiii iiaua /a?ou a ia?ac aeecie /aeiaaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao aieueoia eiee/anoai ii?aaeaeaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u. A aeaiiii neo/aa oeaeaniia?acii ?anniio?aoue
ii?aaeaeaiea [7], aeaiiia a aeaoo aniaeoao.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a a oe?ieii niunea – yoi niaieoiiinoue
i?eioeeiia e ?aaeueiuo iaoaieciia, iaania/eaathueo iiceoeaiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea yoie/aneeo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo?, eo niaaeeiaiea a
iauee iiuo /aeiaa/anoaa.

A oceii niunea neiaa yoi: iioeiaeueiua niiniau ia?auaiey ni ciaeaie,
aeaiiuie, eioi?iaoeeae e i?aaenoaaeaiea eo caeioa?aniaaiiiio
iio?aaeoaeth aeey ?aoaiey oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/; iaoaieciu
niaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoie/aneeo n?aae i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee; ?acaeoea nenoaiu iao/aiey, iiaeaioiaee /aeiaaea e
yooaeoeaiiio eniieueciaaieth eioi?iaoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa e eioi?iaoeee.

Iaeaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie – yoi iooue oieaa?naeecaoeee
ea/anoa /aeiaaea, eioi?ue niinianoaoao ?aaeueiiio iiieiaieth /aeiaaeii
naiiai naay, naiaai ianoa e naiae ?iee. Aieueooth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u ea?aao ia?aciaaiea, eioi?ia aeieaeii
oi?ie?iaaoue iiaiai niaoeeaeenoa eioi?iaoeeiiiiai niiauanoaa. O yoiai
niaoeeaeenoa iaiaoiaeeii au?aaaouaaoue neaaeothuea iaauee e oiaiey:
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee eioi?iaoeee; auaeaeaiey cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee;
au?aaioee e?eoa?eaa ioeaiee eioi?iaoeee; i?iecaiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth e
eniieueciaaoue aa.

Enoi?ey eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u ian/eouaaao ouny/aeaoey [9]. Oi/eie
ion/aoa aa enoi?ee eiae/ii i?eciaoue iiiaio niaiu oi?iaeueiiai ioiioaiey
e neaiaeo neooaoeee, eioi?ia auei naienoaaiii aeeaioiiio ie?o, ia
niaea?aeaoaeueiia, naienoaaiiia eneeth/eoaeueii /aeiaaeo. Iaiai
niaea?aeaoaeueiuie aaeeieoeaie iineoaeee iniiaie ?acaeoey ycuea. Aei
iiyaeaiey ienueiaiiinoe noaiiaeaiea ycuea aucaaei e aeecie iaoe?ioth
aaiio aa?aaeueiuo iaoiaeee, ii?iaeeei eoeueoo?o ia?auaiey ni niuneii e
oaenoii. Ienueiaiiue yoai eiioeaio?e?iaaeny aie?oa oaenoa, aia?aaoaai a
naay ana iiiaiia?acea onoiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u.

Eioi?iaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o /aeiaa/anoaa a ?aciia a?aiy iio?ynaee
eioi?iaoeeiiiua e?ecenu. Iaeei ec iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e?ecenia i?eaae e iiyaeaieth ienueiaiiinoe. Onoiua
iaoiaeeee nio?aiaiey ciaiey ia iaania/eaaee iieiie nio?aiiinoe ?anooueo
iauaiia eioi?iaoeee e oeenaoeee eioi?iaoeee ia iaoa?eaeueiii iineoaea,
/oi ii?iaeeei iiaue ia?eiae eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u – aeieoiaioiue. A
aa ninoaa aioea eoeueoo?a iauaiey n aeieoiaioaie: ecaea/aiey
oeene?iaaiiiai ciaiey, eiaee?iaaiey e oeenaoeee eioi?iaoeee;
aeieoiaioia?aoe/aneiai iienea. Iia?e?iaaiea eioi?iaoeeae noaei eaa/a,
i?aoa?iae eciaiaiey ia?ac iuoeaiey, ii onoiua oi?iu eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u ia oieueei ia oo?aoeee naiaai cia/aiey, ii e iaiaaoeeenue
nenoaiie acaeiinaycae n ienueiaiiuie.

I/a?aaeiie eioi?iaoeeiiiue e?ecen aucaae e aeecie eiiiuethoa?iue
oaoiieiaee, iiaeeoeoee?iaaaoea iineoaeue eioi?iaoeee e
aaoiiaoece?iaaaoea iaeioi?ua eioi?iaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu.

Nia?aiaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a aia?aea a naay ana naie
i?aaeoanoaothuea oi?iu e niaaeeieea eo a aaeeiia n?aaenoai. Eae iniaue
aniaeo nioeeaeueiie aeecie iia aunooiaao a ea/anoaa i?aaeiaoa, n?aaenoaa
e ?acoeueoaoa nioeeaeueiie aeoeaiinoe [10], io?aaeaao oa?aeoa? e
o?iaaiue i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae. Yoi ?acoeueoao
aeayoaeueiinoe noauaeoa e i?ioeann nio?aiaiey nicaeaiiiai,
?ani?ino?aiaiey e iio?aaeaiey iauaeoia eoeueoo?u.

Eae ioia/aaony a ?aaioa [11], a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nicaeaaony aaca aeey
oi?ie?iaaiey i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo eaoaai?eae eiaeeaeaeia,
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony iiae aeeyieai
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee e io?aaeaao iiaua nayce e ioiioaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, e eaoaai?eae eiaeeaeaeia, eioi?iaoeeiiiay
eoeueoo?a eioi?uo ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iiaeoiaeaie. Yoi
nicaeaao ?aciua o?iaie aa ea/anoaa i?e iaeeiaeiauo cao?aoao nee e
a?aiaie, aea/ao iauaeoeaioth iani?aaaaeeeainoue, /oi naycaii ni
nieaeaieai aiciiaeiinoae oai?/aneiai i?iyaeaiey iaeieo noauaeoia ii
n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie.

I?aaenoaaeyy niaie aaaeiaeoee naaiaio eoeueoo?u yiioe eioi?iaoecaoeee,
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, aianoa n oai, eae au i?iiecuaaao ana
inoaeueiua eoeueoo?iua o?aaiaiou, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eioi?uo a iaoa a?aiy
iaaiciiaeii aia caaeneiinoe io eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u. Yoei e
ii?aaeaeyaony aaaeiinoue aiaeeca eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u. “Ec yoiai
neaaeoao, – ieoao A.E.?aeeoia, – /oi aii?in ia eioi?iaoecaoeee eoeueoo?u
eiaao ia “inoaoi/iue”, ii ooiaeaiaioaeueiue oa?aeoa?. Caeanue
caaycuaathony a iaeei ocae eoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu nicaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eiaeono?eaeueiiai iauanoaa e i?eioeeieaeueii iiaie
oaoiieiae/aneie aacu aai aeooiaiie e nioeeaeueiie iiaea?iecaoeee” (83,
15). *oi aea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a?

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi iaeiicia/iiai ii?aaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u aua ia nouanoaoao. A iaeiii neo/aa iia ii?aaeaeyaony eae
eioi?iaoeeiiiua ea/anoaa ee/iinoe (Aio?uoaa I.A., Coaia TH.N.), eae
“aa?iiiecaoeey aioo?aiiaai ie?a ee/iinoe a oiaea inaiaiey anaai iauaia
nioeeaeueii cia/eiie eioi?iaoeee” (Ceiiaueaaa I.A.). A ae?oaii – eae
eioi?iaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue (Oaiaaeueaeeaaa E.A.), eae
“eioi?iaoeeiiiay aeayoaeueiinoue aeneieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, o.a.
iaoneiaeaiiay oeaiiinoyie eoeueoo?u” ( A?a/eoei A.A.). Eiiaaea
eioi?iaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o naycuaatho n ii?aaeaeaiiui o?iaiai ciaiee,
“iicaieythueo /aeiaaeo naiaiaeii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a eioi?iaoeeiiiii
i?ino?ainoaa, o/anoaiaaoue a aai oi?ie?iaaiee e niinianoaiaaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth” (Iaaeaaaeaaa A.A.)., n iiaui oeiii
iauaiey (Ieoaeeianeee A.I.). Ano?a/aaony iiieiaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u eae oa?aeoa?enoeee o?iaiy ?acaeoey iauanoaa (Ninieia O.I.).
Oaeie ?aciiaie a iiieiaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u io?aaeaao eae
o?iaaiue aa iniuneaiey a nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneie e eoeueoo?ieiae/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a, oae neiaeiinoue e ?aciiieaiiainoue yoiai oaiiiaia.

Ecaanoii, /oi i?e aiaeeca neiaeiuo oaiiiaiia i?aaiii/ii i?eiaiaiea
nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea, aeathuaai aiciiaeiinoue aeaeaoue ?acee/iua
no?oeoo?iua “n?acu” eco/aaiuo iauaeoia, auaeaeyoue aai ?acee/iua
aniaeou. I?e enneaaeiaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u, ii iaoaio iiaieth,
aiciiaeii auaeaeaiea aeaoo iniiaiuo oaeeo aniaeoia, eioi?ua a ia?aii
i?eaeeaeaiee iiaeii iacaaoue nioeeieiae/aneei e oaoiieiae/aneei. A
ia?aii neo/aa iu ?anniao?eaaai eioi?iaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o eae
nioeeieoeueoo?iue oaiiiai, ai aoi?ii – eae oaiiiai
oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneee.

Eioi?iaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o neaaeoao iiieiaoue, i?aaeaea anaai, eae
/anoue iauae eoeueoo?u, iaeei ec aaaeiaeoeo aniaeoia eoeueoo?iie
aeayoaeueiinoe aiiaua. Iia eiaao /a?ou, iauea aeey anae eoeueoo?u: aa
ia?ac?uaioth naycue n nioeeaeueiie i?e?iaeie /aeiaaea, yaeyaony
i?iaeoeoii /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?acoeueoaoii aeoeaiiai ioiioaiey
ethaeae e i?e?iaea, iauanoao e ae?oa e ae?oao. Iaeiia?aiaiii
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a aunooiaao a ea/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai e
yooaeoeaiiai oaeoi?a inaiaiey /aeiaaeii eoeueoo?iie ?aaeueiinoe, anaai
oiai eoeueoo?iiai iioaioeeaea iauanoaa, eioi?ue iaeiieei /aeiaa/anoai a
i?ioeanna naiaai iiiaiaaeiaiai enoi?e/aneiai iooe. Iiyoiio ia neaaeoao
ia?aie/eaaoue iaeanoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u eeoue
noa?ie eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee eee eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieee aiiaua. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, yoa noa?a ai?acaei aieaa oe?ieay e ioaaouaaao
i?ioeannu iao/iie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia?aciaaiey, oi?aaeaiey i?e?iaeiuie e
nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeannaie, noa?o auoa, aeinoaa e o.ae. Ii ia?a
eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa yoa noa?a ?anoe?yaony, i?ioeann aunooiaao a
ea/anoaa iauaeoeaii iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ?acaeoey iauanoaa. A yoii ieaia
iiaeii niaeaneoueny n A.E.?aeeoiaui, eioi?ue ieoao, /oi “eioi?iaoecaoeey
eoeueoo?u, o.a. yeeie?iaea anao eoeueoo?iuo i?ioeannia nia?aiaiiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaeae yaeyaony oaea ia iiaeaeaieai, a iauaeoeaiie
aioo?aiiae enoi?e/aneie iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Enoi?e/aneee i?ioeann a
oeaeii i?eia?aoaao iiaoth ea/anoaaiioth ii?aaeaeaiiinoue” (83, 28).

Iaeiaei, iiieiay eioi?iaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o eae /anoue iauae eoeueoo?u,
neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi yoa /anoue aanueia niaoeeoe/ia. Iiae
eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie iau/ii iiieiatho, i?aaeaea anaai, iaeanoue
eoeueoo?u, naycaiioth n ooieoeeiie?iaaieai eioi?iaoecaoeee a iauanoaa e
oi?ie?iaaieai eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ea/anoa ee/iinoe. Yoi, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue ciaiee, iicaieythuee /aeiaaeo naiaiaeii
i?eaioe?iaaoueny a eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?ino?ainoaa e niinianoaiaaoue
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio acaeiiaeaenoaeth. Yoi iiaue oei iuoeaiey, eioi?ue
oi?ie?oaony a ?acoeueoaoa inaiaiaeaeaiey /aeiaaea io ?ooeiiiai
eioi?iaoeeiiii-eioaeeaeooaeueiie ?aaiou. Aianoa n oai yoi – iiaue oei
iauaiey, aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue naiaiaeiiai auai?a ee/iinoe a
eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?ino?ainoaa. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eioi?iaoeeiiiay
eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioi?iaoeeiiioth aeayoaeueiinoue,
ea/anoaaiioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea a iaeanoe
iieo/aiey, ia?aaea/e, o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee. Yoi e aeaao
i?aai auaeaeeoue aeaa aniaeoa aiaeeca eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u.

A nioeeieoeueoo?iii niunea eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – yoi niaieoiiinoue
i?eioeeiia e ?aaeueiuo iaoaieciia, iaania/eaathueo iiceoeaiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea yoe/aneeo e iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo?, eo niaaeeiaiea a
iauee iiuo /aeiaa/anoaa. A yoii aniaeoa eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a
yaeyaony yeaiaioii iauae eoeueoo?u /aeiaa/anoaa, aaaeiaeoei n?aaenoaii
oi?ie?iaaiey ie?iaiai eoeueoo?iiai niiauanoaa, nicaeaiey ie?iaiai
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai i?ino?ainoaa. Iia ii?aaeaeyao o?iaaiue eioi?iaoeeiiiiai
iauaiey – i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua oi?iu naycae aac ee/iiai i?enoonoaey
eiaeeaeaeia a ?aaeeia aeeaeiaa. A yiioo eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aioiaiinoue e inaiaieth
iiaiai ia?aca aeecie ia aaca eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee, iino?iaiea
iiaie (eioi?iaoeeiiiie) ea?oeiu ie?a e ii?aaeaeaiea naiaai ianoa a yoii
auno?i eciaiythuainy ie?a. Eae /anoue iauae eoeueoo?u ee/iinoe
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a aeieaeia onaieoue yoeeo e ynoaoeeo, y?aiiiieeo
e aii?inu eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe (eae a niunea caueou eioi?iaoeee,
oae e a niunea caueou /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee).

A oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneii niunea eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – yoi
iioeiaeueiua niiniau ia?auaiey ni ciaeaie, aeaiiuie, eioi?iaoeeae e
i?aaenoaaeaiea eo caeioa?aniaaiiiio iio?aaeoaeth aeey ?aoaiey
oai?aoe/aneeo e i?aeoe/aneeo caaea/, iaoaieciu niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. A
oaeii iiieiaiee iia yaeyaony iieacaoaeai ia iauae, a nei?aa
i?ioanneiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a a oaeii aniaeoa
aae?aao a naay ciaiey iaoe, eniieueciaaiea aeinoeaeaiee eioi?uo
iaiaoiaeeiu aeey oniaoiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, e oiaiea
i?eiaiyoue yoe ciaiey a naiae i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. E iei,
i?aaeaea anaai, iiaeii ioianoe eeaa?iaoeeo, eioi?iaoeeo, iaoaiaoeeo,
oai?eth i?iaeoe?iaaiey aac aeaiiuo e ?yae ae?oaeo aeenoeeieei.
Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u a yoii aniaeoa yaeythony
ciaiea iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee e oiaiea aa i?eiaiyoue eae aeey
aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ooeiiuo iia?aoeee, oae e a iai?aeeia?iuo neooaoeeyo,
o?aaothueo ionooieaiey io noaiaea?oia e iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai oai?/aneiai
iuoeaiey. A yoii aniaeoa eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – yoi ciaiea i
niiniaao iieo/aiey, ia?aaioee, o?aiaiey, auaea/e e eniieueciaaiey
eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea oiaiea oeaeaiai?aaeaiiie ?aaiou n eioi?iaoeeae
aeey aa eniieueciaaiey a i?aeoe/aneeo oeaeyo.

I?eciaeii eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u yaeyaony ia oieueei iieo/aiea naiie
?aciiia?aciie e ?aciiea/anoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee, ii e oiaiea aua?aoue ec
ia?iiiiai ianneaa eiathuaeny eioi?iaoeee iaeaieaa aaaeioth e ioaeioth.
Anee ?aiueoa iu auee icaaea/aiu aii?inii “*oi ii/eoaoue?”, oi oaia?ue
ana /aua aicieeaao aii?in “*oi ia /eoaoue?”. Anee no?aieoueny /eoaoue
ana ii oie eee eiie i?iaeaia, oi ia inoaiaony a?aiaie aeey oiai, /oiau a
?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu aianoe naie aeeaae. “Ia ia?aue ieai naaiaeiy
auaeaeaaaony ia nai? eioi?iaoeee, – ieoao Y. Oiooea?, – a oiaiea
iouneaoue ai anae ianna aeaiiuo oi, /oi iaiaoiaeeii, aa?ii
i?iaiaeece?iaaoue ionayiiua naaaeaiey e naiaa?aiaiii aeinoaaeoue eo
ioaeiiio caeac/eeo” (105, 358). Aiea oiai, ioaeii oiaoue ia?aaioaoue
eioi?iaoeeth ioaeiui ia?acii, /oi ia iaiaa aaaeii, /ai naii niaea?aeaiea
eioi?iaoeee. “A eioi?iaoeeiiiii ie?a ethaeyi ioaeia ia oieueei naia
eioi?iaoeey, ii e oiaiea ia?aaaouaaoue e eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue aa, – ieoao
Y. Aeaenii. – Neiaeiinoe iaoaai iauanoaa – e aiciiaeiinoe “oeeo?iaiai
aaea” – iaeeaaeuaatho niioaaonoaothuea o?aaiaaiey ia ioaeaeueiuo
ethaeae. Ei ioaeii auoue eo/oa ia?aciaaiiuie, /oiau auaeeoue
yeiiiie/anee e i?aoniaoue nioeeaeueii. Ei ioaeii oaeaea eiaoue
iiaeiaathuaa i?aanoaaiiia ainieoaiea, /oiau i?eieiaoue neiaeiua ?aoaiey”
(13, 121).

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a ia naaiaeiy aua
yaeyaony a iniiaiii iieacaoaeai ia iauae eoeueoo?u a aa
nioeeioaoie/aneii aniaeoa, a i?ioanneiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u. Oiaiea
?aaioaoue n eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoieeie /anoi ni/aoaaony, a eo/oai neo/aa,
ni ciaieai eioi?iaoeee, iaoaiaoeee e aiaeeeneiai ycuea – o.a. oao
iaeanoae ciaiey, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho i?aeoe/aneia acaeiiaeaenoaea
/aeiaaea n oaoie/aneeie n?aaenoaaie iieo/aiey e auaea/e eioi?iaoeee.
Iaeiaei, ?anniao?eaay eioi?iaoeeiiioth eoeueoo?o aieaa oe?iei, neaaeoao
neacaoue, /oi iauea iaoiaeu i?aaenoaaeaiey ciaiee e oiaiee ia neaaeoao
eneaoue eeoue a ieiei eiiiuethoa?iie neooaoeee. ?aaeueiay iaeanoue
i?eiaiaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u ai?acaei oe?a, aeeaiacii aa
niaea?aeaiey ai?acaei aiaa/a.

Ioiaoei, /oi nia?aiaiiay eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a – i?iaeoeo
iiiaiaaeiaie yaiethoeee /aeiaa/anoaa, eo ciaiee e aeayoaeueiinoe. Aa
enoi?ey ia/eiaaony oiaaea, eiaaea iiiai ouny/aeaoee iacaae o ethaeae
oi?iaeueiia ioiioaiea e neaiaeo neooaoeee, naienoaaiiia aeeaioiiio ie?o,
niaieeinue ia niaea?aeaoaeueiia. *aeiaae noae iiieiaoue niaea?aeaiea
neaiaea, /oi iineoaeeei iniiaie aeey ?acaeoey niaoeeoe/aneiai n?aaenoaa
iauaiey – ycuea aia/aea a aeaea caoea, neiaa, a caoai a aeaea ae?oaeo
n?aaenoa – ienueiaiiinoe, aeieoiaioia e o.ae. i /ai o ian oaea oea
?a/ue. Nae/an /aeiaae iaeaaeaao iiiaiia?aciuie n?aaenoaaie ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee. Iaeiaei iie i?aaenoaaeytho niaie i?aaie/aneia aaeeinoai e
aianoa n oai i?iaeoeo enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey.

Ecaanoii, /oi no?oeoo?a nenoaiu anoue eoia aa ?acaeoey, o.a. oi, /oi a
?acaeoie nenoaia iaoiaeeony iaeii aicea ae?oaiai, a i?ioeanna ?acaeoey
nenoaiu iaeii aicieeei aneaae ca ae?oaei. Yoi iieiaeaiea nenoaiiiai
iiaeoiaea i?eiaieii e enneaaeiaaieth eoeueoo?u. Au?uaaoue i?iecaieueii
iaeei yeaiaio ec eiioaenoa nia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u e
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u aiiaua – cia/eo iaanoeaieaaoue au?aaiiue ec naiae
n?aaeu eoeueoo?iue a?oaoaeo, eneaceoue aai niune. Eiaaea o ian, ia
Caiaaea ethaee caieiathony nenoaiie oece/aneeo oi?aaeiaiee ii nenoaia
Eiaia, iie ia iiieiatho, /oi yoe oi?aaeiaiey eiatho naie eoeueoo?iue
oaeno a nenoaia ?aaeaea –eiaa (“oea?noaaiiie Eiae”) eae oaoieee
naiiiaeaaeaiey, oaoie/aneiai aniaeoa ecieyoeee /oanoa io aiaoieo
aeeyiee, iaeaaeaiey aeuoaieai, eiioeaio?aoeee iunee e inaiaiaeaeaiey io
oaeaniie iaiei/ee. Nenoaia Eiae iiaeao auoue iiiyoa eeoue a eiioaenoa
ae?aaiaeiaeeeneie eoeueoo?u. Yoi eanaaony ethaiai yeaiaioa ethaie
eoeueoo?u. A na?aaeeia XX aaea a ionouia Aano?aeee auei iaia?oaeaii
ieaiy aai?eaaiia, aeeaoueo aua a aeienoi?e/aneii a?aiaie. Eiaaea eo
oaiai?eee i?eaoaoue a ai?iae, iie n oaeeaeaieai e enioaii niio?aee ia
aunieea caeaiey, aaoiiiaeee, ia?ioiaeu, ?aaeeii?eaiiee e oaeaaeci?. Ii
ii-ianoiyuaio iie auee iio?ynaiu nie/eie, eioi?oth, caeo?eaay, caaeaa
iaeei ec o/aiuo. Nie/ea, i?iecaiaeyuay iaiiue, aeey ieo eiaea aieueooth
eoeueoo?ioth oeaiiinoue, /ai oaeaaeci?, eioi?ue iie ia iiieiaee.
Oaeaaeci?, ?aaeei eee ia?ioiae ia aienuaaeenue a eo eoeueoo?o.

I?aaenoaaeyy ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth i?aaie/aneia oeaeia, nia?aiaiiay
eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaao eae noaiaiue niaa?oainoaa /aeiaaea,
iauanoaa a oeaeii eee ii?aaeaeaiiie aai /anoe ii eniieueciaaieth
eioi?iaoeee ai anao aiciiaeiuo oi?iao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, i?aaenoaaeyy niaie nenoaio, eiaao
nenoaii-ia?acothuaa yae?i, eioi?ui yaeyaony eioi?iaoeeiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a naycaia n nioeeaeueiie
i?e?iaeie /aeiaaea. Iia yaeyaony i?iaeoeoii ?aciiia?aciuo oai?/aneeo
niiniaiinoae /aeiaaea e i?iyaeyaony a neaaeothueo aniaeoao:

• a eiie?aoiuo iaaueao ii eniieueciaaieth oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa (io
oaeaoiia aei ia?niiaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a e eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae);

• a niiniaiinoe eniieueciaaoue a naiae aeayoaeueiinoe eiiiuethoa?ioth
eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth, aaciaie ninoaaeythuae eioi?ie yaeythony
iiiai/eneaiiua i?ia?aiiiua i?iaeoeou;

• a oiaiee ecaeaeaoue eioi?iaoeeth ec ?acee/iuo enoi/ieeia: eae ec
ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, oae e ec yeaeo?iiiuo eiiioieeaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeyoue aa a iiiyoiii aeaea e oiaoue aa yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue;

• ai aeaaeaiee iniiaaie aiaeeoe/aneie ia?a?aaioee eioi?iaoeee;

• a oiaiee ?aaioaoue n ?acee/iie eioi?iaoeeae;

• a ciaiee iniaaiiinoae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia a naiae iaeanoe
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Yoa aeayoaeueiinoue iaania/eaaao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea e aeaeueiaeoaa
?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea iauanoaa. Eiaiii a i?ioeanna
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ethaee niaa?oainoaotho eoeueoo?o
ia?auaiey n eioi?iaoeeae, iaoiaeu aa iieo/aiey, ia?aaioee, o?aiaiey e
naiaa?aiaiiie auaea/e. Iineaaeiaa ianoiyoaeuenoai, eanathuaany
naiaa?aiaiiie auaea/e eioi?iaoeee, /?acau/aeii aaaeii. Eioi?iaoeey a
nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa auno?i noa?aao, io?aaeay onei?ythuaeny oiae
iauanoaaiiie aeecie, ?acaeoey iaoee e i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaoieee e niiniaia
iauaiey ethaeae ae?oa n ae?oaii. Naaiaeiyoiyy eioi?iaoeey, eiathuay
aieueooth oeaiiinoue, iiaeao caao?a auoue iaanoeaiaiiie. Naiaa?aiaiiay
auaea/a eioi?iaoeee iiauoaao aa aeooaeueiinoue e i?aeoe/aneoth
cia/eiinoue.

N oeaeueth iiauoaiey naiae i?aeoe/aneie cia/eiinoe e a caaeneiinoe io
niiniaia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a
aunooiaao a naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oi?iao – iao/iie, i?iiuoeaiiie,
iieeoe/aneie, ooaeiaeanoaaiiie, ia?aciaaoaeueiie e o.ae., eioi?ua, a
naith i/a?aaeue , eiatho aeaeueiaeoaa /eaiaiea. Oae, naaiaeiy a
eiiiaieyo iiaeii ano?aoeoue /aou?a ?aciiaeaeiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eoeueoo?u. Eaaeaeay aeeyao ia niinia eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?iaoeeiiiia iiaaaeaiea e io?aaeaao i?ei?eoaou ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
eiiiaiee a eniieueciaaiee eioi?iaoeee aeey aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa eee
i?aaeioa?auaiey i?iaaeia.

1. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a. A oaeeo i?aaiecaoeeyo eioi?iaoeeth
eniieuecotho i?aaeaea anaai aeey aeeyiey ia ae?oaeo. Iaiaaeaea?u
eniieuecotho eioi?iaoeeth, /oiau oi?aaeyoue iiae/eiaiiuie e aeeyoue ia
ieo. Yoa eoeueoo?a a iaeaieueoae noaiaie i?enoua aeanoei
ea?a?oece?iaaiiui eiiiaieyi, aaea eioi?iaoeey neoaeeo, i?aaeaea anaai,
aeey oi?aaeaiey e eiio?iey.

2. Eoeueoo?a acaeiiaeaenoaey. A eoeueoo?a acaeiiaeaenoaey iaiaaeaea?u e
niaoeeaeenou a aeinoaoi/iie noaiaie aeiaa?ytho ae?oa ae?oao e iioiio
iiaoo iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae, aaaeiie aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
i?ioeannia e ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe. I?yiie iaiai eioi?iaoeeae i aiciiaeiuo
n?uaao e i?iaaeao iaiaoiaeei aeey ono?aiaiey i?iaeai e aaeaioaoeee e
eciaiaieyi.

3. Eoeueoo?a enneaaeiaaiey. A eoeueoo?a enneaaeiaaiey iaiaaeaea?u e
neoaeauea no?aiyony e iiieiaieth aoaeoueo oaiaeaioeee_e iaoiaeaeaieth
eo/oaai niiniaa io?aceoue aiciiaeioth oa?ico. Caeanue ainiiaenoaothuei
eioi?iaoeeiiiui iiaaaeaieai yaeyaony i?aaeaeaeaiea. I?iaaeaea?u e
neoaeauea euoo eioi?iaoeeth, /oiau eo/oa iiieiaoue aoaeouaa e oi, eae
eciaieoue nianoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue e i?eniiniaeoueny e aoaeouei
oaiaeaioeeyi. Naaiaeiy ai iiiaeo eiiiaieyo nouanoaotho “ciiu”
enneaaeiaaoaeueneie eoeueoo?u a neoaeaao, naycaiiuo n ianeoaeeaaieai
eeeaioia, n enneaaeiaaieyie ?uiea, n oaoiieiae/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie e
?ac?aaioeaie e ni nai?ii eioi?iaoeee.

4. Iaeiiaoe, anoue eoeueoo?a ioe?uoinoe. Caeanue iaiaaeaea?u e neoaeauea
ioe?uou aeey iiaiai iiieiaiey i?e?iaeu e?ecenia e ?aaeeeaeueiuo ia?aiai,
euoo niiniau i?i?uaa e eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe. Yoe eiiiaiee niciaoaeueii
ioa?anuaatho noa?ua iiaeoiaeu e aeciano, /oiau inaiaiaeeoueny aeey
iienea iiauo ia?niaeoea e eaeae, iaauathueo nicaeaiea iiauo i?iaeoeoia e
oneoa, eioi?ua iiaee au eciaieoue oneiaey eiieo?aioeee iiauo ?uieia e
io?aneae. Iiaeiaiie eiiiaieae yaeyaony ei?ii?aoeey Microsoft, eioi?ay
iaeiia?aiaiii eiieo?e?oao ia ?uieao iieaeiiaie eioi?iaoeee, ?acaea/aiee
e i?iaeaaee aeaeaii?iaeoeoeee, /ai ?aaeeeaeueii eciaieea o?aaeeoeeiiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?iecaiaeeoaea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Eiiiaiey ia
i?inoi i?aaeaeaeeo eciaiaiey eee aaeaioe?oaony e iei, ii ia?ae?aeaaao
naio aaco eiieo?aioeee a naiuo ?aciuo io?aneyo. Iaiaei eiiiaiee
iaeaaeatho “ciiaie” eoeueoo?u ioe?uoinoe, aaea niae?atho e ia?aaaouaatho
eioi?iaoeeth, ?ac?aaaouaatho iiaua i?iaeoeou e noeaia?ee ?acaeoey
aeciana, aeiaeaathony ia?oia?neeo ioiioaiee n iio?aaeoaeyie e
iinoaaueeaie. Ii iiea /oi anoue oieueei n/eoaiiia /enei oaeeo eiiiaiee,
eae Microsoft, eioi?ua naeaeaee eoeueoo?o iiaiaaaaeaiee iaiouaieaiie
/anoueth naiae no?aoaaee.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aaie/aneee neioac
eioi?iaoeee e eoeueoo?u. Eioi?iaoeey e eoeueoo?a iiaoo auoue
i?aaenoaaeaiu eae aeaa acaeiiia?anaeathueany noa?u, a ciia eioi?uo
ia?acoaony i?ino?ainoai, iaicia/aaiia eae eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a. Yoi
eoeueoo?a acaeiiaeaenoaey /aeiaaea n eioi?iaoeeae ia o?iaia iauanoaa e
ee/iinoe.

Eioi?iaoeey e eoeueoo?a – aeaa oaiiiaia, o eioi?uo nouanoaotho iiiai
iaueo /a?o. E yoei /a?oai, i?aaeaea anaai, neaaeoao ioianoe eo
aeiaaeueiinoue, oieaa?naeueiinoue, eioi?ua au?aaeathony a iaee/ee o ieo
naycae n naiuie ?acee/iuie oi?iaie /aeiaa/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe.
Eioi?iaoeey e eoeueoo?a eae au i?iiecuaaao ?aciua niiniau /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iaania/eaay ae oaeea oa?aeoa?iua /a?ou eae oai?/aneee
oa?aeoa?, oeaeaiieaaaiea e ae?. Aeaeaa neaaeoao eiaoue aaeaeo, /oi
nouanoaiaaiea eioi?iaoeee e eoeueoo?u acaeiiiaoneaaeeaatho ae?oa ae?oaa:
eoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu ?aaeecothony /a?ac eioi?iaoeeiiiua, – e iaiai?io.
Eoeueoo?a iiaeao yooaeoeaii aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia /aeiaaea e iauanoai
eeoue /a?ac iaoaieci nai?a e ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee i iaee/iie
n?aaea, a eioi?uo iia ooieoeeiie?oao e i naiie eoeueoo?a. Aeey
eioi?iaoeee, eae e aeey eoeueoo?u oa?aeoa?iu nouanoaiaaiea a
naieioe/aneeo ciaeiauo nenoaiao. Iniiaiui i?iaeoeoii eoeueoo?u yaeythony
a?oaoaeou, eioi?ua iaeiia?aiaiii eiatho e eioi?iaoeeiiioth cia/eiinoue.
Iaeiiaoe, eioi?iaoeey e eoeueoo?a ia?acotho i?aaie/aneia aaeeinoai a
i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey. Eoeueoo?a e eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
aaeeiia iiiaiia?aciia oeaeia.

Iaeiaei yoi aaeeinoai aeeaeaeoe/anee i?ioeai?a/eai e aeeth/aao ?acee/ea.
?acee/ea iaaeaeo eioi?iaoeeae e eoeueoo?ie caeeth/aaony a niiniaao
inaiaiey ie?a. Eioi?iaoeey io?aaeaao ie? a ciaeiaie oi?ia, eiathuae
/eneaiiia cia/aiea. A?oaoaeou eoeueoo?u iiaoo aunooiaoue a aeaea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo ia?acia, i?aanoaaiiuo ii?i e ae?oaeo niaoeeoe/aneeo
eoeueoo?iuo oaiiiaiia. ?acee/iu e naie aioo?aiiea eaeae ?acaeoey: aeey
eoeueoo?u – oeeinionei-ynoaoe/aneea ii?iu, aeey eioi?iaoeee –
iao/ii-oaoie/aneea yeaiaiou.

I?ioeai?a/eaia aaeeinoai eioi?iaoeee e eoeueoo?u yaeyaony eiie?aoiui
i?iyaeaieai i?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo oaoiie?aoeae e eoeueoo?ie, eioi?ia
oa?aeoa?ii aeey nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa. “Iai?yaeaiiinoue, nouanoaothuay
iaaeaeo oaoiie?aoeae e eoeueoo?ie, – ieoao Ae. Ayee, – a ?aaiie ia?a
yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?iaeai nia?aiaiiiai iauanoaa” (2, 460).
Aeaei a oii, /oi oaoieea e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee iicaieytho
?acaeaaoue eoeueoo?o, e iie aea ii?iaeaeatho aeaa?aaeaoeeth, a ii?ie e
oie/oiaeaiea aeooiaiuo oeaiiinoae. Aicieeaao ia?aaeienaeueiay neooaoeey:
n iaeiie noi?iiu, i?ienoiaeeo oe?ieia aiaae?aiea ia?aaeiaie oaoieee e
oaoiieiaee, n ae?oaie – ino?ay e?eoeea oaoiie?aoee. Yoi ia?aaeienaeueiia
iieiaeaiea, iaeiaei, eeoue iiaeoaa?aeaeaao iaee/ea nouanoaaiiie nayce
iaaeaeo eoeueoo?ie e oaoieeie. Eo/oei ieeoeaoai?aieai yoie nayce
yaeyaony eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a. “Ia iie acaeyae, – ieoao
E.Y.?aceiaia, – XX aae ia oieueei e ia noieueei ii?iaeee eiioeeeo
iaaeaeo oaoieeie e eoeueoo?ie, neieueei oaeoaee acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
ieie, eai nia?aiaiiua oi?iu eoeueoo?u (eeii, ?aaeei, caoeicaienue, OA,
aeaeai, eiiiuethoa?u a noa?a aeinoaa e oai?/anoaa) naycaiu n oaoieeie,
au?anoatho ec oaoieee” (65, 17).

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eoeueoo?a, eae aaaeiaeoay ninoaaeythuay iauae eoeueoo?u,
eiaao aeoaiei aoiaienoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aiaaoaeoee eeaaeacue, niaea?aeauee a iaiauaiiii aeaea aanue
i?aaeoanoaothuee iiuo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe a iaeanoe iieo/aiey e
eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeee. Yoi, iaeiaei, ia icia/aao, /oi “aiaae?aiea”
nia?aiaiiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u a iauanoai i?ioiaeeo aeaaeei, aac
no/ea e caaei?eiee, aac i?aiaeieaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo o?oaeiinoae e
i?ioeai?a/ee. Iaeiei ec oaeeo o?oaeiinoae, ano?aoeaoeony iauanoaii ia
iooe iaeaaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?ie, yaeyaony iiyaeaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ia?aaainoaa.

A yiioo eioi?iaoecaoeee iauanoaa iniiaiie nioeeaeueiue aiaei?acaeae
i?ienoiaeeo ia a?aieoea iaaeaeo oaie, eoi iiaeao ?aaioaoue n
eioi?iaoeeae e iaeaaeaao ath, e oaie, eoi oaeie aiciiaeiinoueth ia
?aniieaaaao. Iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy eiiaeiia?aoaie ia?acoaony oi, /oi
iacaaee “oeeo?iaui aa?uea?ii” eee “oeeo?iaie ?ac?ua”. Eae aeaeei, naie
yoe oa?ieiu naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi iniiaiie iannea eioi?iaoeee
ethaee iui/a ana a aieueoae e aieueoae noaiaie iieo/atho /a?ac
eiiiuethoa?, oeeo?iaua ono?ienoaa. Iauanoaaiiay cia/eiinoue noauaeoa ana
aieueoa ii?aaeaeyaony noaiaiueth aai eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe, eioi?ay
aunooiaao eae aeaaiia nioeeaeueiia aiaaonoai, oaniy ia aoi?ie ieai
i?iecaiaenoai iaoa?eaeueiuo oiaa?ia e iaeaaeaiea aeaiueaaie. I?ei?eoaou
ana aieaa niauathony io nianoaaiiinoe e eaieoaeia e iao/iui ciaieyi e
eioi?iaoeee. “Aeaaiiieo/ea ethaeae, – ieoao Y.Aeaenii, – ana iaiueoa
caaeneo io oiai, /oi iie eiatho a ?oeao e ia aaieianeii n/aoa, e aieueoa
niioaaonoaoao oiio, /oi iie oiatho aeaeaoue n iiiiuueth naieo oiia. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi caaea/a iiaeaea?aeaiey ?aaainoaa, aeaaea ?aaainoaa
aiciiaeiinoae, cia/eoaeueii neiaeiaa, /ai i?inoi ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
nianoaaiiinoe” (13, 124).

I?aaeaea anaai, eioi?iaoeeiiiia ia?aaainoai aicieeaao iaaeaeo noauaeoaie
iaeiiai e oiai aea iieieaiey. Ia iaeiie e oie aea eaoaae?a o/aaiiai
caaaaeaiey aicieeaao anee ia eiioeeeo, oi nouanoaaiiia ?acee/ea iaaeaeo
/eaiaie eaoaae?u, ?aaioathueie e ia ?aaioathueie ia eiiiuethoa?a. Ia?aua
eiatho aieueooth aiciiaeiinoue a naiae iao/iie e iaaeaaiae/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, /aua aunooiatho n iao/iuie niiauaieyie, ieooo noaouee e
eieae. Ethaee, iiaouea ?aaioaoue n eioi?iaoeeae e iaeaaeathuea ath,
iieo/atho cia/eoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa. Iauanoaaiiay e iao/iay cia/eiinoue
ioiaeaeanoaeyaony n eioi?iaoeeiiiie cia/eiinoueth.

Aoi?ie o?iio aiaei?acaeaea iaaeaeo eioi?ie?iaaiiuie e ia
eioi?ie?iaaiiuie noauaeoaie i?ioiaeeo iaaeo noa?ui e iieiaeui
iieieaieyie. “Iiiaea ?iaeeoaee ia /oanoaotho naay naiaiaeii a n?aaea,
eioi?oth eo ?aaaiie iiieiaao eo/oa, /ai iie naie” – ieoao Y.Aeaenii (Oai
aea, n.142). Noa?ia iieieaiea, aieaa eiina?aaoeaiia e o?oaeii
iiaeaeathuaany eioi?iaoeeiiiie “ia?ano?ieea” ii?ie ni neainenii (ca
eioi?ui ne?uaaaony aiyciue iiaiai) ioiineony e “eiiiuethoa?iui
auaeoiueeai” e /anoi i?iyaeyao naith eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaca?aiioiinoue.
Iieiaeia iieieaiea /anoi iacuaatho “eiiiuethoa?iui iieieaieai. Iii
oaea/aiii inaaeaaao eioi?iaoeeiiioth oaoiieiaeth, oiaao aa
eniieueciaaoue a naiae o/aaa e ?aaioa, a /anu aeinoaa. A ?acoeueoaoa
thiua aeeaoo iaeiie eoeueoo?ie, a i?aiiaeaaaoaee – ae?oaie.

O?aoee o?iio eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ia?aaainoaa iaoiaeeony aioo?e ?acaeouo
no?ai, yae?ii eioi?uo noaea eiaeono?ey ciaiee. Iineieueeo o?aaeeoeeiiiua
eoeueoo?iua oeaiiinoe auoaniythony eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oeaiiinoyie
“ia/eiatho ?aciuaaoueny a?aieoeu n?aaeiaai eeanna. Ana aieueoaa /enei
ethaeae ia/eiatho aeeoue a a?aieoeao aaaeiinoe, eo eaaeeoeeaoeey
iaanoeaieaaaony n iiyaeaieai nia?aiaiiuo oaoiieiaee; a oi aea a?aiy ec
iineoaeae ciaiee e eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oaoiieiaee ia/eiaao oi?ie?iaaoueny
iiaue “i?aayuee eeann”. Yoio neie ianaeaiey, caieiathuee
ainiiaenoaothuaa iieiaeaiea a iauanoaa, nicaeaao eioi?iaoeeiiioth
n?aaeo. Ia?yaeo n yoei nouanoaoao neie ianaeaiey, eioi?ue aeaeaao
oieueei ia?aua oaae a yoii iai?aaeaiee, neie io/oaeaeaiiuo ethaeae io
iiaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie n?aaeu e, iaeiiaoe, /anoue ianaeaiey, aeoeaii
i?ioeainoiyuay iiaiaaaaeaieyi, n/eoathuay eo iauanoaaiii a?aaeiuie.
Oaeie oeeo?iaie ?aneie ianaeaiey ?acaeouo no?ai aeeyao ia eo
nioeeaeueioth no?oeoo?o eee nioeeaeueioth no?aoeoeeaoeeth.

Oeaaeai aua ia iaeei o?iio eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ia?aaainoaa – yoi
eioi?iaoeeiiiia ia?aaainoai iaaeaeo ?acaeouie e ?acaeaathueieny
no?aiaie. Nae/an anaai eeoue iaiaa 5%eiiiuethoa?ia n aeinooiii a
Eioa?iao iaoiaeyony a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao, a oi a?aiy eae 88%
iieueciaaoaeae Eioa?iao iaoiaeyony a ?acaeouo no?aiao. Iineaaenoaey
oaeiai ?ac?uaa i/aaeaeiu, iineieueeo iaaeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee ianao ca niaie caiaaeeaiea oaiiia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a ia?iiiii ?aaeiia caiiiai oa?a.

Oaeei ia?acii, eioi?iaoeeiiiia ia?aaainoai ii?iaeaeaao eiioeeeou iaaeaeo
ethaeueie iaeiiai e oiai aea iieieaiey, ethaeueie ?acee/iuo iieieaiee,
iaino?yao nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue iaaeaeo ianaeaieai ?acaeouo
no?ai e iaaeaeo ?acaeouie e ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie. Ana yoi oneeeaaao
yeiiiie/aneia ia?aaainoai iaaeaeo ioaeaeueiuie ethaeueie, neiyie
ianaeaiey e no?aiaie. “Eioi?iaoeeiiiia ia?aaainoai a yiioo oi?ie?iaaiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiiai iauanoaa, – ieoao N.A.Aiiaea?aiei, – noaiiaeony iaeiei
ec aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia aeeooa?aioeeaoeee nioeeaeueiuo a?oii, a oii
/enea, eae neaaenoaea, ii eiouanoaaiiiio i?eciaeo” ( 5, 33).

Ana aieaa aeanoeia e iaia?aoeiia ?acaeaeaiea ethaeae e iauanoaa ii
noaiaie eo o/anoey a iieo/aiee e eniieueciaaiee eioi?iaoeee i?eaiaeeo e
oiio, /oi, ia?aeeaeueii n oaiaeaioeeae aeiaaeecaoeee iinoaiaiii iaae?aao
neeo i?ioeaiiieiaeiay oaiaeaioeey – ?acaeaeaiiinoe ethaeae, ia?iaeia,
no?ai e ?aaeiiia. “Noaiiaeony i/aaeaeiui, – ieooo aaoi?u iaeiie eieae, –
/oi eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, yoe oaoiieiaee anaiauae eiiioieeaoeee e
iaiiaaiiie nayce anaai ni anai, ia?aaeienaeueiui ia?acii ianoo
/aeiaa/anoao yiioo iiiaiia?acey, aeoaieie e ieii/aoaeueiie
?acaeaeaiiinoe, ?yaeii n eioi?ie yiioa oaiaeaeueiie ?acae?iaeaiiinoe
auaeyaeeo i?acaeieeii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie e iaaeeeanniaie nieeaea?iinoe”
(81, 133). Ie?o a?iceo ?acaeaeaiea ia “eioi?iaoeeiiiia niiauanoai” e
anao inoaeueiuo. Yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe ia oieueei e caiaaeeaieth i?ia?anna
ca i?aaeaeaie ?acaeouo no?ai, ii e e iaia?aoeiie nioeeaeueiie e
oeiainiaie aeaa?aaeaoeee ionoaeuo no?ai. A naith i/a?aaeue, yoio
i?ioeann ia iiaeao ia iiaeeyoue ia eciaiaiey a aeecie ?acaeouo no?ai,
i?inoi? aeecie eioi?uo aoaeao iaieioaii noaeaoueny a?aieoeaie aaaeiinoe
e ieuaou aieueoae /anoe ianaeaiey caiee.

Anee yeno?aiiee?iaaoue oeacaiioth nia?aiaiioth oaiaeaioeeth a aieaa eee
iaiaa ioaeaeaiiia aoaeouaa, oi iieo/aaony aeiaieueii i?a/iay ea?oeia,
eioi?oth iienae, a /anoiinoe, TH.A.Oiiei. Ii ia?a yaiethoeee
/aeiaa/anoaa i?ienoiaeeo iai?a?uaiia iiauoaiea n?aaeiaai
eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?iaiy iauanoaa. Aianoa n oai, iauaa iiauoaiea
n?aaeiaai eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?iaiy iauanoaa nii?iaiaeaeaaony
iai?a?uaiie aai aeeooa?aioeeaoeeae, oi anoue ana oaaee/eaathueiny
?ac?uaii iaaeaeo eeoeaie n aunieei e ieceei eioaeeaeoii. A ?acoeueoaoa
ana aic?anoathuae aeeooa?aioeeaoeee /aeiaa/anoai ?anneieony ia a?oiiu,
cia/eoaeueii ioee/athueany ae?oa io ae?oaa ii o?iaith eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
?acaeoey.

I?ioeann aeeooa?aioeeaoeee iauanoaa i?ienoiaeeo ni ana oaaee/eaathueiny
onei?aieai. Ana yoi ia iiaeao ia iaeoe io?aaeaiey a nioeeaeueiie
no?oeoo?a iauanoaa e acaeiiioiioaieyo aai /eaiia. Eioi?iaoecaoeey
iauanoaa aace?oaony ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeoeaiinoe ioaeaeueiuo
ee/iinoae e, auaeaeyy a? ec iauae iannu ethaeae, niinianoaoao, oaeei
ia?acii, iinoaiaiiiio, ana i?ia?anne?othuaio ?anneiaieth iauanoaa.
Ioia/ay, /oi a aeaeueiaeoai a iauanoaa i?iecieaeoo aua aieaa
nouanoaaiiua ia?aiaiu, TH.A.Oiiei i?eoiaeeo e i?a/iiio auaiaeo i oii,
/oi aeoeaecaoeey eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ia?aaainoaa “a eiia/iii n/aoa iiaeao
i?eaanoe e aeaeaieth iauanoaa ia iai?eie?eiua, aioaaiienoe/aneea /anoe
eee a?oiiu” (115, 41-42). Aicieeatho aeoaieea nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey,
i?aiyonoaothuea aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth iauanoaa. “Ana ?anoe?ythuayny
aeeooa?aioeeaoeey /aeiaa/anoaa e iai?a?uaii onei?ythuaeny iao/ii-
oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann, – caeeth/aao TH.A. Oiiei, – iaaiiytho ii oaiiai
naiaai ?acaeoey yaiethoeeth nioeeaeueiuo no?oeoo? iauanoaa, e iie oaea
ia a ninoiyiee ?ac?aoeoue ia aeieaeiii o?iaia noiyuea ia?aae iei caaea/e
e aa?iiie/anee ?acaeaaoueny” (Oai aea, n.51).

Aoaeai iaaeaaony, /oi o /aeiaa/anoaa oaaoeo ?acoia aeey oiai, /oiau yoe
i?a/iua ia?niaeoeau aoaeouaai ia naueenue. Iioaioeeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe
/aeiaa/aneiai ?iaea ia caiea aeatho ?aaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue aai
aa?iiie/iiai ?acaeoey, nicaeaiey iauanoaa, aaea naiaiaeiia ?acaeoea
eaaeaeiai ec aai /eaiia aoaeao oneiaeai naiaiaeiiai ?acaeoey iauanoaa a
oeaeii. Aoaeai iaaeayoueny, /oi iiiaiaaeiaay ia/oa /aeiaa/anoai i
nicaeaiee oaeiai iauanoaa, e ia aaaeii, eae iii aoaeao iacuaaoueny –
Ai?iaeii Nieioea, iauanoaii ?acoia, eiiioieciii e eee aua eae ieaoaeue –
aoaeao ?aaeeciaaia. Iaeiieaiiue ca ouny/aeaoey ia?iiiue eoeueoo?iue
iioaioeeae iauanoaa, iieo/eaoee iiuiue noeioe naiaai aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey a oneiaeyo aeaao iniiaaiey aeey oaeie iaaeaaeaeu.

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