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Niaea?aeaiea

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Enoi?ey o?enoeainoaa ia Eoaaie

3. Ieoaeei-Aoiineay Caeoaaineay iauaaeeoaeueiay ioaeneay ionouiue

4. Enoi?ey o?aia na. ai/. Aai?aey (a. E?aniiaea?)

5. Ia?a/aiue o?aiia e oea?eaae a. E?aniiaea?a

6. Caeeth/aiea

7. Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia

1. Aaaaeaiea

Enoi?ey ?innee iaioaeaeeia io o?enoeainoaa.

?inney i?ioea n i?aaineaaeai aieaa /ai 1000-eaoiee iooue. Caueoieeii
“Aa?u e Ioa/anoaa” ecia/aeueii iacuaaei naay eaca/anoai, e iiyoiio
?yaeii n aieneiaui aoaiaiii anaaaea aue e aieneiaie nayuaiiee.

Aic?iaeaeaiea aeooiaiuo o?aaeeoeee ?onneiai ia?iaea naaiaeiy naycuaatho,
i?aaeaea anaai, n aic?iaeaeaieai i?aaineaaiie eoeueoo?u. Oieeaeueii
o?aiiaia ciae/anoai e enoi?ey Aeaoa?eiiaea?neeo o?aiia: Nayoi-O?ieoeeiai
e Aeaoa?eieineiai niai?ia, oea?eaae Nayoi-Eeueeineie e nayoiai
aaeeeiio/aieea e Iiaaaeiiinoea Aai?aey, n ia?auie eaiaiiuie iino?ieeaie
ai?iaea, oea?eiaueth ai eiy eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e “Anao nei?ayueo
?aaeinoue” e aiaiaeaeueiae, /aniaiae e caeeaaeiui eaiiai ia ianoa
oie/oiaeaiiiai Aaeiai aieneiaiai niai?a Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai, Iieeiiiiai
E?anoa n eiaiaie Ee?eeea e Iaoiaeey.

Iiiaea iiianou?e auee ?ac?ooaiu e ?aca?aaeaiu a aeaaaeoeaoua aiaeu
i?ioeiai aaea. A 1995 aiaeo ii aeaaineiaeaieth Aai nayoaeoanoaa
Iao?ea?oa Iineianeiai e anay ?one ia oa??eoi?ee E?aniiaea?neie Aia?oee a
noaieoea ?iaianeie Oeiaoaaneiai ?aeiia aue o/?aaeae?i neeo (iaeue
iiianou?ue) a iaiyoue i ia?aieeanniii iiianou?a, ?aniieaaaaoainy ia
caiea *a?iiii?neiai eaca/ueaai aienea.

Ii iaeioi?ua o?aiu nio?aieeenue e aei iaoeo aeiae, eae, iai?eia?, o?ai
Nayoiai Iioo?ey a a. Aiaia.

N 1802 ii 1879 aiae i?inouanoaiaaea i?aia?iiiay aea?aayiiay
Aine?anaineay oea?eiaue, a a 1872 a. a Aeaoa?eiiaea?a auei caeii/aii
no?ieoaeuenoai aaeieaiaiiiai Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneiai niai?a. Ooaea auea
ia?aianaia aiaaoay oea?eiaiay ooaa?ue e ?aaaeee. N yoiai a?aiaie
aeooiaiui oeaio?ii Eoaaineiai eaca/ueaai aienea e ianoii i?iaaaeaiey
naiuo oi?aeanoaaiiuo oea?aiiiee noaiiaeony Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneee Niai?
?aaiou ianoiuo a?oeoaeoi?ia, a?aoueaa *a?ieeia. Ii ii aue ?ac?ooai a
30-a aa. XX aaea.

A yiaa?a oaeouaai aiaea Ai?iaeneay aeoia E?aniiaea?a ooaa?aeeea
ioieoeeiaeueioth oeaeaaoth i?ia?aiio ia 2005 – 2007 aiaeu
“Ainnoaiiaeaiea e ?anoaa?aoeey i?aaineaaiuo o?aiia”, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?ie a oa/aiea o?ao eao aoaeoo inouanoaeyoueny ?aaiou ii ?aiiioo
o?aiia a E?aniiaea?a.

Ii i?aaeeiaeaieth ieo?iiieeoa Eneaei?a, a nienie iauaeoia, o?aaothueo
?aeiino?oeoeee a oaeouai aiaeo aeeth/aiu: Nayoi-Aicianaineee o?ai a iin.
Iaoeianeii, o?ai ?iaeaeanoaa Aiai?iaeeoeu a noaieoea Noa?iei?noineie e
Nayoi-Ieeieueneee o?ai a iinaeea Aeae?ino?ieoaeae.

Niaianoii n eiieoaoii ai?aeoiu ii aii?inai ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey,
eaca/anoaa, aaoa?aineiai aeaeaeaiey, aeaeai aiaiiineoaeaueo, iea?aoeee,
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiui e ?aeeaeiciui ioiioaieyi i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i aeeth/aiee
a nienie o?aia aaeeeiio/aieea Eiaiia-aieia. Oaeaea aoaeoo iai?aaeaiu
n?aaenoaa ia ainnoaiiaeaiea aieneiaiai niai?a aeaaiaa?iiai eiycy
Aeaenaiae?a Iaaneiai.

2. Enoi?ey o?enoeainoaa ia Eoaaie

Iaeeiineay e Aaeuaaeneay aia?oey ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae
?aniieiaeaia a oeaio?aeueiie /anoe Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca, eioi?ue n ae?aaieo
a?aiai yaeyaony eieuaaeueth o?enoeainoaa. Ia?aua naiaia o?enoeaineiai
aa?io/aiey auee caianaiu nthaea aua a I a. aeaaiaea?y aiinoieueneie
aeayoaeueiinoe Aiae?ay Ia?aicaaiiiai e Neiiia Eaiiieoa.

Ii oea?eiaiiio i?aaeaieth nayoie aiinoie Aiae?ae Ia?aicaaiiue a 40 a. io
?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa i?iiiaaaeiaae o?enoeainoai n?aaee ai?neeo ia?iaeia:
aeai, aaacaia e ceeoia. Caeanue aea i?iiiaaaeiaae e aiinoie Neiii
Eaiiieo, iiaeea eioi?iai, niaeanii oea?eiaiiai i?aaeaiey, iaoiaeeoueny a
a. Ieeiiiea (iaaeaeaei io a. Noooie), ?aniieiaeaiiii iaaeaeo Aaoaceae e
Aeaeeaaoeae. A ia/aea I a. i. y. iie i?iiiaaaeiaaee a Ieia?aeee e ia
oa??eoi?ee Eoaaie o i?e/a?iiii?neeo ceoia e ainoi?eoyi. Aieaa oiai,
niaeanii eaaaiaeai, aieueoeinoai ia?oia auee o?enoeaia. Anaai n
i?iiiaaaeueth ia Eaaeaca iiauaaee iyoue nayouo aiinoieia: Aiae?ae
Ia?aicaaiiue, Iaooae, Eoaea Oaaeaeae, i?icaaiiue Eaaeai, Aa?oieiiae e
aiinoie io naieaeanyoe Oaaeaeae.

Naaa?iue Eaaeac ecaeaaia aoiaeee a ciio aeeyiey aaeeeeo oeeaeeecaoeee
Ainoiea, e i?aaeee aaeuaia eiaee naith aiaaooth eoeueoo?o, i aunieii
o?iaia eioi?ie iicaieyao noaeeoue iaee/ea ai?iaeia e iiiao, iai?eia?, ia
oa??eoi?ee Neiaeeee. Ana yoi niinianoaiaaei oiio, /oi naiy o?enoeaineie
aa?u iaoei n?aaee ae?aaieo aaeuaneeo ieaiai aeaaiaeaoioth ii/ao.

A ia?aua aaea i. y. aaeuaneea ieaiaia eiaee oaniua oi?aiaua nayce n
Ainii?ii, Aecaioeae, Eaa?eae, Aeaaieae. *a?ac Naaa?iue Eaaeac i?ioiaeeea
o?anna “Aaeeeiai oaeeiaiai iooe”. A yiioo eiia?aoi?a THnoeieaia (525-527
aa.) iiceoeee Aecaioee ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca aua aieaa oneeeeenue. Auaoaa
Ainii?neia oea?noai noaei i?iaeioeeae ?eineie eiia?ee. Eiaiii e yoiio
a?aiaie ioiineony ia/aei ia?auaiey aaeuaia a o?enoeainoai e iiyaeaiea ia
Eaaeaca a?a/aneeo ienneiia?ia. Ainiiieiaiey i THnoeieaia iaaeieai
nio?aieeenue a aaeuaneii oieueeei?a: “A?a/aneee eiia?aoi? THnoeieai, –
aiai?eo aaeuaneee i?inaaoeoaeue O. Iiaiia, – ii neacaieth noa?oeaa –
THnoei eee THnooe, aue nithcieeii aaeuaneiai ia?iaea e aeaaea iacuaae
naay aaeuaaeneei aeoycai. N iiiiuueth i?aaeeia aaeuaia ii iaeieae a?aaia
eiia?ee. Iinea oiai THnoeieai ia?aoee ieeinoeaia aieiaiea ia aaeuaia e
noae i?eeaaaoue noa?aiey e ia?auaieth eo a o?enoeainoai. Aaeuae i?eiyee
aai aac nii?ioeaeaiey, /oi e iineoaeeei naeeaeaieth aeaoo yoeo ia?iaeia.
Eiy THnoeieaia auei a oaeii oaaaeaiee iaaeaeo aaeuaaie, /oi aeey
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey naieo neia ethaee eeyeenue thnoeieaiiaui noieii eee
o?iiii”.

Aecaioey i?eeaaaea aieueoea oneeey aeey ?ani?ino?aiaiey o?enoeainoaa ia
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca. Oaea a ia?aie iieiaeia VI a. aaeuae e aaoacu
eiaee naie aieneiineea eaoaae?u.

A 861 a. a.Oaiaoa?oo (Oaiaiue) iinaoeee neaayineea i?inaaoeoaee a?aouey
Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee. A yoi a?aiy Oaiaoa?oo aue aiieia aecaioeeneei
ai?iaeii, eiaaoei naith aieneiineoth eaoaae?o. Neeoyo ai?iaea ii?aaeaeye
eaoaae?aeueiue niai?, ie?oaeaiiue oea?eayie e iiianou?yie. Iiauaaee
Ee?eee e Iaoiaeee e ia caiea aaeuaia.

I?eii?neea aaeuae (ceoe) ecaeaaia n/eoaeenue o?enoeaiaie. A iaiyoue ia
eo e?auaiee auea aicaeaeaiooa aaceeeea a iuiaoiae no. Iiai-Ieoaeeianeie.
Aei iooaoanoaey Ee?eeea e Iaoiaeey (VIII – IX aa.) aieneii Oaiaoa?oe
iuoaeny ?ani?ino?aieoue o?enoeainoai e n?aaee caeoaaineeo aaeuaia
(eaniaia). Ii i?aaineaaiie e yoiio a?aiaie noaea eeoue ieaiaiiay ciaoue.
Eiaiii io nayuaiieeia e aieneiiia aaaeoo naia ia/aei iiiaea aeai?yineea
?iaeu *a?eanee.

O?enoeaineea nayuaiieee – oiaaie (“oaoaeaeai”) e aieneiiu (“oaoiee”),
oiiieiaaiua ai iiiaeo aaeuaneeo neacaieyo, i?eieiaee ia?u e
?ani?ino?aiaieth o?enoeainoaa a?a/aneiai ia?yaea. I?aaeaiea nio?aieei
aeaaea iacaaiea ianoa, aaea aeee ia?aue aieneii, i?eoaaeoee ec A?aoeee.
Iii iaoiaeeony iaaeaeaei io Iaeue/eea e iacuaaaony “Eanenoue eo?aai”.
Aei ian aeioee no?iee, i?ineaaeyaoea nayuaiieea, iaeoaaoaai ia “Eanenoii
eo?aaia”:

Oaoiee iao caueoiee e ainieoaoaeue,

Oaoiee iao naao.

Ii ia?eo a aicaeooa, eae caiiay ioeoea,

Iiaeieiaaony iiae iaeaea

E aeaeeo oai?yueo aaccaeiiea.

?aa?i aai – ia i?inoay einoue,

Ii einoue neiiiaay.

Ainieoaoaeue ?annoaeaeae i caeiia Aiaeeai…

E aiaaeu aanaaeiaaee n ioae?ui noa?oeai,

E aeaai?iaeiue cieioie e?ano neyao ia aai a?oaee.

A oa a?aiaia, eae aiai?yo naie /a?eanu, ia?iae ioee/aeny iaaiaeiinoueth,
oaa?aeie aa?ie, e ieeoi ia eeyeny eiaiai oai?oea, n/eoay yoi a?aoii. Ii
naeaeaoaeuenoaai ienaoaeae, eeoe, iinaoeaoeo caiee aaeuaia, iie iacuaaee
naay o?enoeaiaie, e?anoeee aeaoae ii aeinoeaeaieth eie 18 eao. Ii
oiaaeaoiaio iau/ath a oea?eiaue oiaeeee eeoue 60-eaoiea noa?oeu.
Inoaeueiua aea iieiaeua e iiaeeeua ethaee noaiiaeeenue o aoiaea. Yoi
auei naycaii n oai, /oi /a?eanu aeeee a?aaaaeii e n/eoaee iaaeiionoeiui
aoiaeeoue a o?ai, iiea ia inoaayo a?aaaae.

O. Iiaiia oae ioeaieaaao cia/aiea ia?auaiey aaeuaia a o?enoeainoai:
“Iiae aeeyieai nithca n THnoeieaiii, /a?eanneia aeooiaainoai, i?iieeoaa
a Eaaeacneea ai?u, aianei e iai ie?iethaeaua caiyoey eneonnoaaie e
i?inaauaiea. O?enoeaineay aa?a i?ioeaaoaea ia Eaaeacneeo ai?ao, aoaeo/e
iiaeaea?aeeaaaia a?a/aneei aeooiaainoaii, caiaiyaoei oauaoeo aieneiiia e
nayuaiieeia iiauie. Io ieo i?iecioee iiiaea aeai?yineea ?iaeu”.

Eoae, niaeanii ienueiaiiui e a?oaieiae/aneei enoi/ieeii oaea n IV a.
iinea eaaaeecaoeee o?enoeainoaa a ?eineie eiia?ee, iii cia/eoaeueii
oneeeaaao naie iiceoeee a /a?iiii?neeo a?a/aneeo eieiieyo e aneaae ca
yoei ia/eiaao aieaa oniaoii i?iieeaoue a n?aaeo ai?iuo ia?iaeia
Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.

Nthaea aue nineai nayoeoaeue Eiaii Ceaoiono, eioi?ue a 407 a. a a.
Eiiaiu iaaeaeaei io Noooie ia?ae naith aeaaeaiioth eii/eio. Oa??eoi?ey,
caiyoay aaeuaaie, a aeooiaiii ioiioaiee iiae/eiyeanue 4 aia?oeyi,
aieneiiu eioi?uo iacia/aeenue Aecaioeae. A Ceoee yoe aia?oeaeueiua
oeaio?u iaoiaeeeenue a Oaiaai?ee, Iao?aoa (Oaiaoa?oey), Ceoiiieena e
Ieeiiieena. A aeieoiaioao Oea?aa?aaeneiai niai?a 519 a. noieo iiaeienue
aieneiia Oaiaai?eeneiai Eiaiia, a a iaoa?eaeao Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai
niai?a ano?a/aaony eiy Ceoeeneiai aieneiia Aeaieaia. Aieueoia aeeyiea ia
i?ioeann o?enoeaiecaoeee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca a yoio ia?eiae ia/eiaao
ieacuaaoue A?ocey, eioi?ie oaeaeinue a oea?eiaiii ioiioaiee iiae/eieoue
aaeuaia. VI Anaeaineee Niai? iiae/eiee A?oceineiio Iao?ea?oaio I?anoieo
Inaoeth e *a?eaneth. A onoaaa eiia?aoi?a Eueaa Ioae?iai (849-911 aa.)
aiai?eony i nouanoaiaaiee Oiooa?aeaineie e Ieeiineie a?oeaieneiiee e
oiiieiaaony Aeaineay ieo?iiieey.

Anei?a a?a/aneia aeeyiea ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca niaiyaony aeeyieai ?onneie
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae, i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?ie
ia/aeanue n?aco iinea e?auaiey ?one. A yoi a?aiy a?a/aneea eieiiee o
Ea?/aineiai i?ieeaa iauaaeeieeenue a nithc, eiaioaiue Oaiaoa?oeae
(Oiooa?aeaiueth), n oeaio?ii ia Oaiaineii iieoino?iaa. E eiioeo X a.
a?aee onooiatho naia aeeyiea a yoii ?aaeiia ?onneei. Eiycue Inoeneaa a
1022 a. nii?oaeaao caeanue o?ai ai eiy I?anayoie Aiai?iaeeoeu, a iaiyoue
i iiaaaea iaae einiaeneei eiycai. Aianoa n iniiaaieai Oiooa?aeaineiai
?onneiai eiyaeanoaa ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca aicieeea ia?aay ?onneay aia?oey,
i?inouanoaiaaaoay ieiei noa eao. Nthaea a 1008 a. iacia/aaony ia?aue
?onneee aieneii Ieeieae. I?aiiaeiaiue Ieeii, aoaeouee eaoiai
Eeaai-Ia/a?neie iaeoaee, a Oiooa?aeaie iniiauaaao iiianou?ue, a eioi?ii
i?iaae 10 eao naiae aeecie. N?aaee eaaeacneeo ia?iaeia o?enoeainoai auei
aieaa anaai ?ani?ino?aiaii o aeaiia. Aeaineay ieo?iiieey caieiaea 61
ianoi a ninoaaa Eiinoaioeiiiieueneiai Iao?ea?oaoa aneaae ca ?onneei
ieo?iiieeoii. Ecaanoii, /oi Iaenei Eniiaaaeiee iaoiaeeeny a caoi/aiee a
aeaineie e?aiinoe Noeiai?, iuiaoiae Ooia?. I?eoiae a XIII a. iiiaieia
iio?yn aeaineoth aea?aeaao e i?eaae e oi?acaeiaieth Aeaineie ieo?iiieee.
A oi aea a?aiy ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca aic?anoaao ?ieue Ceoeenei –
Iao?aoneie aia?oee, aicaaaeaiiie a ?aia ieo?iiieee. A XIII a. ia
Naaa?iii Eaaeaca iiyaeythony aaioycoeu, eniiaaaeaaoea eaoiee/anoai. A
1346 a. caeanue i?aaiecoaony Ceoeeneay eaoiee/aneay aia?oey e
iacia/aaony aieneii – o?aioeeneaiaoe Eiaii. Iaeiaei oniaoe eaoieeeia
n?aaee ianoiiai ianaeaiey auee iacia/eoaeueiu. Aiai?y ia yoii ia?eiaea,
Oeeueoaa?aa? ienae: “Caiey /a?eania ianaeaia o?enoeaiaie,
eniiaaaeothueie a?a/aneoth aa?o”. Aua a 1396 a. ieo?iiieeo Ceoeenei –
Iao?aoneee Eineo eiae naith ?aceaeaioeeth a Iao?aoa (Oaiaie). N
i?eoiaeii ia Eaaeac oo?eia a XV a. n?aaee eaaeacneeo ia?iaeia iaiai e
ia/ii ianaaeaeaaony ionoeueiainoai. N oe?aieaieai ?onneiai ainoaea?noaa
a Iineao iaiaeiie?aoii yaeythony iineu aaeuaia n i?inueaie i iiiiue. Iie
auneacuaatho aeaeaiea ainnoaiiaeoue a naiai ia?iaea o?enoeainoai, ii
o?aae/aneea niauoey niooiiai a?aiaie a ?inneeneii ainoaea?noaa iiiaoaee
ieacaoue iiiiuue ai?neei ia?iaeai.

A 1602 a. iniiauaaaony Ano?aoaineay aia?oey, aeieaia a?aiy
?ani?ino?aiyaoay naith th?enaeeeoeeth ia i?eoiaeu Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.
Ia?aue Ano?aoaineee aieneii Oaiaeinee eiae oeooe “Ano?aoaineee e
Oa?neee” ii eiaie aeaoo aeaaiuo ai?iaeia aia?oee. N na?aaeeiu XVII a.
Oa?ee yaeyaony aeaaiui oeaio?ii i?aaineaaey ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. A 1664
a. caeanue auei oaea aeaa o?aia e iiianou?ue. Ii oeaco Iao?a I a 1723 a.
a oeooe Ano?aoaineeo i?ainayuaiiuo aiineony iaeiaiiaaiea
“Noaa?iiieueneee”. A 1745 a. a Eecey?a nicaeaaony inaoeineay aeooiaiay
eiienney, iieiaeeaoay ia/aei ienneiia?neie aeayoaeueiinoe n?aaee
eaaeacneeo ia?iaeia. A 1703 a. auea i?aaieciaaia Iicaeienei –
Iaaeaea?neay aeea?iay aia?oey e iaeiia?aiaiii oi?acaeiaia inaoeineay
aeooiaiay eiienney. Auai? Nayoaeoaai Neiiaea iae ia a?oeiaiae?eoa Aaey
(Aa?aoaoaeee – Oieaiaa), eioi?ue aue iinayuai a nai aieneiia. A 1799 a.
yoa aia?oey auea oi?acaeiaia ii i?e/eia iaei/eneaiiinoe oea?eaae, eae
neacaii a aeieeaaea Nayoaeoaai Neiiaea. E yoiio a?aiaie Iicaeieneay
aia?oey ninoiyea ec 75 oea?eaae e 73 iieeoaaiiuo aeiiia, a aa ooaoa auei
160 nayuaiieeia. N 1792 a. /a?iiii?neea eacaee ia?anaeythony Eoaaiue. Eo
aeooiaiia iei?ieaiea ii?o/aaony aieneiio Oaiaeineeneiio e
Ia?eoiieueneiio Eiao (1794 a.). A 1799 a. Eoaaiue iinaoee iiaue aieneii
Oaiaeineeneee O?enoioi?. A a 1824 a. ninoiyeinue ioe?uoea aeooiaiia
o/eeeua a Noaa?iiiea.

A 1829 a. auea ia?aciaaia Aeiineay aia?oey. Ia?aue aieneii Aoaianee
iieo/ee oeooe “Iiai/a?eanneiai e Aai?aeaaneiai”. Ana i?aaineaaiua
i?eoiaeu Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca noaee aoiaeeoue a iiae/eiaiea Aeiineie
aia?oee.

4 ai?aey 1842 a. o/?aaeaeaaony iiaay aia?oey, eiaioaiay Eaaeacneie e
*a?iiii?neie, eaoaae?aeueiui ai?iaeii eioi?ie ii?aaeaeyaony Noaa?iiieue.
Ia?aui aieneiiii Eaaeacneei noae aieneii Ea?aiey (Nieiaueaa, 1843-1849
aa.), ioee/aaoeeny aeoaieie aiaineianeie ia?aciaaiiinoueth e
iiaeaeaeie/aneie aeeciueth. Aeey ?acaeoey aiaineianeiai ia?aciaaiey 20
ethey 1846 a. auea o/?aaeaeaia Noaa?iiieueneay Aeooiaiay naieia?ey.

Ca iaiieiua 7 eao, a oa/aiea eioi?uo aieneii Ea?aiey noiye ai aeaaa
Noaa?iiieueneie aia?oee, iia aeinoeaea aieueoiai ?acaeoey, e ana
iineaaeothuea aei?aaiethoeeiiiua a?oeianou?e Eaaeacneea oee ii iooe,
i?ioi?aiiiio aieneiiii Ea?aieae. N 1863 a. i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiea oeooea
Eaaeacneiai aieneiia ia “Eaaeacneee e Aeaoa?eiiaea?neee”. E ia/aeo XX a.
Eaaeacneay aia?oey ian/eouaaea 425 oea?eaae, ec eioi?uo 113 iaoiaeeeenue
a Noaa?iiieueneie aoaa?iee, 220 – a Eoaaineie iaeanoe, 77 – a Oa?neie
iaeanoe, 15 – a *a?iiii?neii ie?oaa.

A 1885 a. Eaaeacneay aia?oey ?acaeaeyaony ia Noaa?iiieueneoth,
Aeaaeeeaaeacneoth e Noooineoth aia?oee. Ia?aui aieneiiii Noaa?iiieueneei
e Aeaoa?eiiaea?neei noae aieneii Aeaaeeie? (Iao?ia, 1886-1889 aa.). A
yoi a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo ao?iue ?ino /enea i?eoiaeia, iiianou?ae e
aeooiaiuo o/eeeu aia?oee. O/eouaay o?oaeiinoe a oi?aaeaiee iaoe?iie
aia?oeae, Nayoaeoee Neiiae a 1907 a. ioe?ue Aeneia aeea?eaonoai,
iacia/ea ooaea aieneiia Eiaiia (Eaaeoeeiai). A 1911 a. ioe?uaaaony
Aeaenaiae?ianeia aeea?eaonoai n iacia/aieai aieneiia Ieoaeea
(Einiiaeaiueyineiai).

A 1919 a. oaea ai a?aiy a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a a. Noaa?iiiea i?ioiaeeo
oea?eiaiue niai?, iaeiei ec ?aoaiee eioi?iai auei ia?aciaaiea
Aeaoa?eiiaea?neie aia?oee. A ia?eiae ?aaiethoeeiiiuo iio?ynaiee e a
aiaeu niaaoneie aeanoe I?aaineaaiay Oea?eiaue ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca
iaoiaeeony a oyaeaeii iieiaeaiee. Ec 500 aeaenoaiaaaoeo ia Eoaaie o?aiia
nio?aieeinue ieiei 40, inoaeueiua i?aaineaaiua iaueiu thoeeenue a
caeaieyo iaeii?eaiaeiuo aeey aiaineoaeaaiuo oeaeae. A 80-a aa. XX
noieaoey /enei i?aaineaaiuo i?eoiaeia Eoaaie ia i?aauoaei
ainueieaeanyoe. N na?aaeeiu 80-o aiaeia ia/eiaaony iinoaiaiiia, ii
oaa?aiiia aic?iaeaeaiea i?aaineaaiie aeecie ia Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. Ca
ia?eiae n 1985 a. ii 1994 a. /enei i?eoiaeia E?aniiaea?neie aia?oee
oaaee/eeinue ii/oe ao?ia. Aeey eiio?iey ca aeayoaeueiinoueth i?eoiaeia
nicaeathony iiaua aeaai/eiey. 28 ia?oa 1991 a. nicaeaaony Iaeeiineia
aeaai/eiea n oeaio?ii a a. Iaeeiia. A a 1992 a. Aaeuaaeneay Aaoiiiiiay
iaeanoue auea i?aia?aciaaia a ?anioaeeeo Aaeuaay. Iaeeii iieo/aao noaoon
?anioaeeeaineie noieeoeu. Ii i?aaenoaaeaieth a?oeaieneiia
E?aniiaea?neiai e Eoaaineiai Eneaei?a Nayuaiiue Neiiae 26 oaa?aey 1994
a. ia?aciaae iiaoth Iaeeiinei – A?iaae?neoth aia?oeth n oeaio?ii a a.
Iaeeiia. A ninoaa iiaiia?aciaaiiie aia?oee aioee ?anioaeeea Aaeuaay e 13
?aeiiia E?aniiaea?neiai e?ay. Oi?aaeythuei Iaeeiinei – A?iaae?neie
aia?oee aue iacia/ai a?oeaieneii Aeaenaiae? (Oeiioaaa, 1994-1995 aa.) n
oeooeii “Iaeeiineee e A?iaae?neee”. A iiaoth aia?oeth aioei 72 i?eoiaea.
N ethey 1995 a. I?ainayuaiiui Iaeeiineei e A?iaae?neei iacia/ai aieneii
Oeea?ao (Ea?aaiaeei, 1995-2000 aa.). A 1996 a. ninoiyeinue aaaeiia
niauoea a aeecie aia?oee – Aaeuaath iinaoee Nayoaeoee Iao?ea?o
Iineianeee e Anay ?one Aeaenee II . Ca a?aiy nouanoaiaaiey Iaeeiinei –
A?iaae?neie aia?oee /enei i?eoiaeia iaoeeiiii ?inei. Ia aeaeaa?ue 1998
a. Iaeeiinei – A?iaae?neay aia?oey ian/eouaaea 111 i?eoiaeia, eioi?ua
auee ?acaeaeaiu ia 7 aeaai/eiee.

?aoaieai Nayoaeoaai Iao?ea?oa e Nayuaiiiai Neiiaea ?onneie I?aaineaaiie
Oea?eae io 28 aeaeaa?y 2000 a. Iaeeiinei – A?iaae?neay aia?oey auea
i?aia?aciaaia a Iaeeiineoth e Aaeuaaeneoth. I?ainayuaiiiio iiaie aia?oee
auei ii?aaeaeaii iineoue oeooe “Iaeeiineee e Aaeuaaeneee”. Oi?aaeythuei
iiaie aia?oee aue iacia/ai Aai I?ainayuainoai I?ainayuaiiaeoee
Iaioaeaeiii.

Aai I?ainayuainoai aieneii Iaeeiineee e Aaeuaaeneee Iaioaeaeiii (a ie?o
Ieeieae Aaneeueaae/ Eooiaie) ?iaeeeny 14 yiaa?y 1955 a. a aaei?onneii
ai?iaea Iiaeeaaa, a aeoaiei aa?othuae naiuea. A 1960 a. naiuey
ia?aacaeaao ia iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoai a Iiai?inneene. AEeciaiiue
iooue Aeaaeuee Iaioaeaeiiia ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeeei iinauaiea
Nayoi-Oniaineiai o?aia a. Iiai?inneenea, aaea ii ia?aoae ia?aua o?iee
o?enoeaineiai aeaai/anoey.

Aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea Aeaaeuea Iaioaeaeiii iieo/ee a Naieo–Iaoa?ao?aneie
naieia?ee e aeaaeaiee. Iinea ieii/aiey aeaaeaiee ii ia/ae neoaeaiea a
Niieaineie aia?oee. A naaoeoth ianoaeueioth ii/ue 1986 a. auioneiee
aeaaeaiee Ieeieae Eooiaie aue ?oeiiieiaeai a nai nayuaiieea ?onneie
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae. A nei?ii a?aiaie ii aue iacia/ai a a. Aycueio
aeaai/eiiui e ianoiyoaeai Nayoi-O?ieoeeiai niai?a, eiathuaai ae?aaithth
enoi?eth. N 1990 ii 1991 a. Aeaaeuea Iaioaeaeiii aue ianoiyoaeai o?aia
Anao nei?ayueo ?aaeinoue a a. Aeaniiai?nea Niieaineie iaeanoe. Yoio
i?aaineaaiue o?ai aue ioe?uo ii aeaaineiaaieth ieo?iiieeoa Ee?eeea ia
oa??eoi?ee aoiiiie yeaeo?inoaioeee. Yoi auee ia?aua oaae ?IOe ii
ioe?uoeth o?aiia ia iiaeiaiuo iauaeoao. A 1991 a. Aeaaeuea Iaioaeaeiii
aue iacia/ai ianoiyoaeai Nayoi – Ieeieueneiai o?aia a a. Eaeeieia?aaea.
A iaa 1993 a. a a. Niieainea ii aue ?oeiiieiaeai a nai aieneiia
Aaeoeeneiai. N 1993 a. ii 2000 a. ii iaoiaeeeny a Eaeeieia?aaeneie
iaeanoe eae aeea?ee Niieaineie aia?oee n oeooeii aieneii “Aaeoeeneee”.
Niaianoii n ae?oaeie i?aaineaaiuie ianou?yie Aeaaeuea Iaioaeaeiii
ioe?uaae o?aiu, i?inaauae ia?iae, iaono?aeaae oea?eiaiua oeieu, ?aaioae
n iaaeaaiaaie e aiaiiineoaeaueie, ano?a/aeny n eiino?aiiuie
aeaeaaaoeeyie. A yiaa?a 2001 a. ca o?oaeu ii oe?aieaieth ie?a, ae?oaeau
e aeia?ininaaenoaa iaaeaeo ia?iaeaie Aeaaeuea Iaioaeaeiii I?aceaeaioii
?innee aue oaeinoiai aunieie iaa?aaeu-I?aeaia “Ae?oaeau”, eioi?ue aue
a?o/ai aeaaie aaeieieno?aoeee Eaeeieia?aaeneie iaeanoe aaeie?aeii
Aai?iaui.

A ianoiyuee iiiaio a ninoaa Iaeeiinei – Aaeuaaeneie aia?oee,
?aniieiaeaiiie ia oa??eoi?ee ?anioaeeee Aaeuaay, aoiaeyo 38 i?eoiaeia e
1 iiianou?ue. A i?eoiaeao aia?oee neoaeao 40 nayuaiieeia e 2 aeueyeiia.

3. Ieoaeei-Aoiineay Caeoaaineay iauaaeeoaeueiay ioaeneay ionouiue

Ia oa??eoi?ee Iaeeiinei – Aaeuaaeneie aia?oee ?aniieiaeai aaeeinoaaiiue
a Aaeuaaa iiianou?ue, eiathuee aaeiaoth enoi?eth – Ieoaeei – Aoiineay
Caeoaaineay iauaaeeoaeueiay ioaeneay ionouiue. Enoi?ey nayoie iaeoaee
ia/aeanue a XIX a. Iinea ieii/aiey aeeeoaeueiie e e?iaii?ieeoiie
Eaaeacneie aieiu, a Caeoaaineii e?aa noaea iaeaaeeaaoueny ie?iay
aeeciue. Eacaee no?ieee aeiia, aicaiaeeee aei?iae e iinou, aicaeaeuaaee
caieth, ?anoeee aeaoae, neoaeeee naiaio Ioa/anoao. Iaoiaeynue aaeaee io
iano naiae enoi?e/aneie ?iaeeiu, eacaee anae aeooie oyioeenue e
i?aaineaaiui nayouiyi. A iaeioi?uo noaieoeao auee iino?iaiu iaeaiueeea
o?aiu, eoaea i?eoiaeeee noaie/ieee. Aua a 1874 a. Ainoaea?ue Eiia?aoi?
Aeaenaiae? Ieeieaaae/ e auaoee a?oeianou?ue Noaa?iiieueneie aia?oee
I?ainayuaiiue Aa?iai iiaeiyee aii?in ia o/?aaeaeaiee a ioaeaeaiiii oaeo
aia?oee iiianou?y. A oii aea 1874 a. eacaee noaieoe Iaeeiineiai oacaea
(Eoaaineie iaeanoe) Aeaoianeie, Aaaaecaoneie, Oea?neie (no.
Iiainaiaiaeiay), Naaanoiiieueneie, iin. Eaiaiiiiinoneiai aicaoaeeee
ia?aae Eaaeacneei iaianoieeii oiaeaoaenoai ia ioaiaea caiaeue a
nianoaaiiinoue i?aaineaaiiai iiianou?y, eioi?ue eacaee niae?aeenue
ono?ieoue n?aaee naieo naeaiee ia ai?a Oeceaaai e aeieeia ?aee Oa?n.
I?ainayuaiiue Aa?iai iai?aaee a Iaeeiineee oacae ea?iiiiaoa ?oaeia,
noeiiiaoa Aeoaeey e iineooieea Eeueth, aeaaineiaea eo ia ianeaaeiaaiea
ianoiinoe aeey iniiaaiey i?aaineaaiie iaeoaee. Inaiueth oiai aea aiaea
noeiiiao Aeoaeee ioi?aaeeny a iaeiiie/anoai ia Nayooth ai?o Aoii.
Caeanue noeiiiao ano?aoeeny n iooeii Ia?oe?eai, iiaaaeaa aio enoi?eth ia
iniiaaiee iiianou?y a Eaaeacneeo ai?ao. Ea?iiiiao Ia?oe?ee iiaeaeae ana
naie aeooiaiua, oece/aneea neeu e iaoa?eaeueiua n?aaenoaa iai?aaeoue ia
iniiaaiea iaeoaee. A 1877 a. ea?iiiiao Ia?oe?ee i?eaoae ia Eaaeac. Ii
iiciaeiieeny n i?iaeaiaie eaca/anoaa e ia?aoeeny e I?ainayuaiiiio
Aa?iaio n i?ioaieai aeaaineiaaiey aeiaa?eoue aio nayoia aeaei. Ioaoe
Ia?oe?ee iaauae i?eeiaeeoue ana oneeey aeey nicaeaiey iiianou?y e
i?eaeaneoue a?aoeth ni Nayoie ai?u Aoii. A nii?iaiaeaeaiee aeaeaaaoeee
io eaca/anoaa ioaoe Ia?oe?ee ioi?aaeeny a ai?iae Oeoeen, aaea iie
ia?aoeeenue e Aai Auni/anoao Aaeeeiio eiycth Ieoaeeo Ieeieaaae/o,
auaoaio iaianoieeo Eaaeacneiio, n i?inueaie ia?aaeaoue a nianoaaiiinoue
i?aaineaaiiai iiianou?y o?enoa aeanyoei caiee.

Iaeoaeue auea ioe?uoa a 1877 a. e ioeoeeaeueii eiaiiaaeanue Ieoaeei –
Aoiineay Caeoaaineay ioaeneay iauaaeeoaeueiay ionouiue. “Ieoaeeianeay”
ionouiue auea iacaaia a /anoue A?oeno?aoeaa Ieoaeea, aiaeaey iaaaniuo
nee, eiy eioi?iai iinee Aaeeeee eiycue Ieoaee Ieeieaaae/. “Aoiineie” iia
iacuaaeanue iioiio, /oi ia?aua no?ieoaee iaeoaee i?eauee n ai?u Aoii,
ioeoaea i?eianee /anoeoeu nayouo iiuae a aeaaineiaaiea no?iyuaiony
iiianou?th e aaaee oai Aoiineee onoaa. “Caeoaaineie” iia iacuaaaony ii
ianoo iaoiaeaeaiey ca ?aeie Eoaaiueth, ia iaeiii ec eiia/iuo ioieoia
eaca/ueeo iinaeaiee. Ionouiue ?aniieiaeeeanue ia “a?iniaie” caiea
ai?iiai ieaoi ai?u Oeceaaai, aaea a ie?oaa ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoe
eeeiiao?ia ia auei ieeaeeo iinaeaiee. Oae ia/aeanue enoi?ey i?aaineaaiie
nayouie a Eaaeacneeo ai?ao.

28 aaaonoa 1878 a. Nayoaeoee Neiiae aeaaineiaee no?ieoaeuenoai iiianou?y
e ooaa?aeee iooea Ia?oe?ey aeaaie iaueiu. Ni Nayoie ai?u Aoii aeey
aicaaaeaiey iaeoaee ia?anaeeeenue eiiee Oniaineie eaeuee. Aeey
nii?oaeaiey iaeoaee a?aoey iieo/aea ii ieeinoe Aiaeeae aeia?iaieueiua
iiaea?oaiaaiey e aea?u. Ioaoe Ia?oe?ee iiaea?oaiaae ia no?ieoaeuenoai
ionouie e naie n?aaenoaa – 55 ouny/ ?oaeae.

A 1883 a. Nayoaeoee Neiiae ooaa?aeee ii aeaeaieth a?aoee iacaaiea
iaeoaee – “Ieoaeei – Aoiineay Caeoaaineay iauaaeeoaeueiay ionouiue”. A
no?ieoaeue aa ea?iiiiao Ia?oe?ee aue ooaa?aeaeai ianoiyoaeai iiianou?y e
aicaaaeai a nai a?oeiaiae?eoa.

E ia/aeo 80-o aiaeia XIX a. a?aoey iaeoaee ninoaaeyea 180 /aeiaae, a oii
/enea 12 ea?iiiiaoia, 3 ea?iaeueyeiia, 165 iineooieeia. Ai?ioa iiianou?y
auee ioe?uou aeey anao nineiaee e caaiee. N?aaee iiiaoia auee e aoiineea
eiiee, e aeai?yia, e eacaee, e ionoaaiua nieaeaou, iauaia e e?anoueyia.

Iinoaiaiii o?oaeaie iiianou?neie a?aoee auee aicaaaeaiu iyoue o?aiia: ai
eiy A?oeno?aoeaa Ieoaeea, ai eiy i?aiiaeiaiiai Aeaenaiae?a, Oniaineee,
I?aia?aaeaineee e O?ieoeeee. Aeey oaaeeiaiiie iieeoau eiieaie
eniieueciaaeny iiaecaiiue iiianou?ue (iaua?u), nio?aieaoeeny n
aecaioeeneeo a?aiai. A iaeoaee auee iino?iaiu “no?aiiii?eeiiue aeii”,
aieueieoea, aieaa aeaaaeoeaoe ei?ionia n eaeueyie. A iiianou?neee
eiiieaen oaeaea aoiaeeee ianoa?neea: eeiiiieniay, oiea?iay, neana?iay,
eocia/iay, iaey?iay, e?iaaeueiay, ii?oiyaeiay, naiiaeiay. E ieii/aieth
aaea a iiaeai?uea auee iino?iaiu ee?ie/iue e nu?iaa?aiiue oeaoa, ioe?uoa
oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneay oeiea. A?aoey eiaea ia?iiiia iiaeniaiia oicyenoai:
?acaiaeeee neio, caionoeee a i?oaeu ?uao, caieiaeenue i/aeiaiaenoaii. Ii
eiee/anoao ianoa?neeo iiaeii noaeeoue i ianooaaao ionouie. Eiiaaea a
o?aiaciie iiianou?y a iaaae oiio?aaeyeinue aei 300 aaaea? uae e 1200
eeeia?aii oeaaa. Aaeaaiaeii a ianoa?neeo iao/aeinue aei 20 /aeiaae.
Nayoie iaeoaee ?inoianeei iauaieiii E.A. Ai?eoaaui auea iiaea?oaiaaia
aeiiiaay oea?eiaue a E?aniiaea?a (i?e caeaiee auaoaai ie?oaeiiai noaea).
A Iaeeiia ionouiue eiaea iiaeai?uea. A a?oeaao iiianou?y nio?aieeenue
aanoeaiiua aeieoiaiou, iienuaathuea ia?iiiue iiianou?neee o?aiiaue
eiiieaen. A iaeoaee iyoue o?aiia Aiaeueeo. Noa?aeoee ii a?aiaie naiaai
iino?iaiey – ai eiy A?oeno?aoeaa Ieoaeea. “N aiaoiae noi?iiu – yoi
aeeeiiia, 13 naaeaiue, iaeiiyoaaeiia caeaiea, e?uoia ae?aiueth,
oaai/aiiia iaaieueoith aeaaie iaae aeoa?iie /anoueth. A yoii caeaiee
e?iia o?aia iiiauaaony o?aiaciay e a?aoneea eaeuee, a oaeaea eooiy n
oeaaiiaea?iae. O?ai ia aiaao ie aioo?aiiei oa?ainoaii, ie ooaa?ueth, ii
caia/aoaeai eiaiii oai, /oi i?aaenoaaeyao niaith ia?aia caeaiea iaeoaee,
eae au ia?aia aiacaeuoei, a eioi?ii ca?iaeeeinue ie?iia eii/anoai a yoie
ai?enoie e aeeeie ianoiinoe, yoi neaaia iiaeiaea oiai aaaiaaeueneiai
ai?/e/iiai ca?ia, eioi?ia auei iinayii ethaiaueth e iieeoaie ne?iiiiai
eiiea, aeaaiaeaoueth Aiaeueae a ei?ioeia a?aiy aic?inei a aaoaenoia
aea?aai e noaei iiiaiethaeiith e aeaaiono?iaiiith iaeoaeueth. Aaeaeo
ne?iiiinoe yoiai caeaiey oaea iuia ninoaaeai ia niaio aio ieai iiaiai
a?aiaeeiciiai o?aia Aiaeey.

Aoi?ie iiianou?neee o?ai ai eiy i?aiiaeiaiiai Aeaenaiae?a,
ia?aiia/aeueieea iaeoaee iaonuiathueo, ono?iai ai aoi?ii yoaaea iaae
iiiauaieai ianoiyoaey. Inayuai 25 iay 1882 a. Aiaineoaeaiey a iai
niaa?oathony eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea a iaeoaee iao iaeiiieeia. Yoio o?ai
iino?iai a oi?ia /aou?aooaieueieea: a aeeeio 18 a?oei e a oe?eio – 8
a?oei. Eeiiinoan e aeeaiienue – ?aaiou iaeoaee – aeaaieaiiu, ii ne?iiiu.

Aeaaiaeoee iiea, aei iino?iaiey niai?iiai, a iaeoaee o?ai – ai eiy
Oniaiey Aiaiiaoa?e. Caeaieai eaiaiiue a ?onnei-aecaioeeneii noeea.
Caiaaeiay /anoue o?aia iaianaia n 3-o noi?ii iaoe?iuie ei?eaei?aie,
cia/eoaeueii oaaee/eaathueie aianoeoaeueiinoue o?aia, a eiai, a iauai,
aianoa n oi?aie iiiauaaony 2000 aiaiiieueoeaa. Ieii/aia iino?ieea a 1885
a., inayuai 20 ieoya?y oiai aea aiaea. Aeoa?ue o?aia i?aaenoaaeyao oo
iniaaiiinoue, /oi ?acaeaeyaony ia 3 /anoe: nianoaaiii aeoa?ue, iiiauaiea
aeey aea?oaaiieea e ni?aaa-?ecieoea.

Aeaaieaiiue, a no?iai aecaioeeneii aeona, eeiiinoan eniieiai o?oaeaie
a?aoee iaeoaee. Ianeieueei eeii Aoiineiai ienueia, i?eneaiiuo ni Nayoie
ai?u Aoii a aeaaineiaaiea, e iioiio, iniaaiii /oeiuo. A /enea nayuaiiuo
i?aaeiaoia o?aia eiaaony aeaaineiaaiiue aea? a Aica, ii/eaathuaai
Naieo-Iaoa?ao?aneiai Ieo?iiieeoa Eneaei?a, – Eeiia Oniaiey Aiaiiaoa?e a
n?aa?iiiceauaiiie ?eca, n nianoaaiii?o/iith iiaeienueth ia ia?aoiie
noi?iia: “A aea? e aeaaineiaaiea Ieoaeeiai – Aoiineie caeoaaineie
ionouie”. Aaeaiaaeaeueii ii iiiaaeaeueieeai e n?aaeai ia?aae iath
naa?oathony a?aoeae oi?aeanoaaiiua iieaaiu. O?ai niaaaeai aanueia
oeaiiie e aeaaieaiiie ooaa?ueth e oe?aoai iiiai/eneaiiuie
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie aeia?ioioiuo aeaoaeae. Aaee/aeooth nayouith o?aia,
i?aaeiao iniaiai ii/eoaiey, i?eaeaeathuee iniaaiii a iaeoaeue
iaeiiieeia, ninoaaeytho /anoeoeu AEeaioai?yuaai E?anoa Ainiiaeiy e
/anoeoeu iiuae 36 oaiaeieeia Aiaeueeo, aeaaiaiaaeii o?aiyueany a iniauo
ae?aaioeaiiuo eia/aaao ia i?anoiea yoiai o?aia. Yoa nayouiy, eae aeaneo
naeaeaoaeuenoai ianoiyoaey iiianou?y n a?aoeae, iiaea?oaiaaia iaeoaee
“ai eniieiaiea aeaai/anoeaiai aeaeaiey no?ieoaey Caeoaaineie
Ieoaeeianeie ionouie Ia?oe?ey io ?onneiai ia Aoiia iiianou?y ai eiy na.
aaeeeiio/aieea e Oeaeeoaey Iaioaeaeiiia a aeaaineiaaiea”. Eaaeaeay
ioaeaeueiay /anoeoea iaoeaiiuo inoaieia oaiaeieeia Aiaeueeo iieieony a
ioaeaeueiii eia/aaeoea, eiathuai oi?io caacaeu n yiaee?iaaiiith ia
aa?oiae aeinea iaaeienueth, eaeiio oaiaeieeo iia i?eiaaeeaaeeo.

A onoaiiaeaiiia a?aiy eia/aae n iiuaie ia?aiinyony nayuaiieeaie n
i?anoiea e iieaaathony ia aiaeia iin?aaee o?aia aeey aeaaiaiaaeiiai
/anoaiaaiey e iieeiiaiey iieyueieny. *anoeoeu iiuae na. aaeeeiio/aieea
Aai?aey Iiaaaeiiinoea, /oeiiai, eae ecaanoii, e ionoeueiaiaie,
i?eaeaeatho a iaeoaeue e Oniaineee o?ai ionoeueiai ec aeeaeaeoeo eo
iinaeaiee.

E iiuai na. aaeeeiio/aieea Oa?eaiiey, /oeiiai eae iie?iaeoaey
neioiaiaenoaa, n iniaaiiui ona?aeeai i?eoaeatho iiiai/eneaiiua ai?oeu,
caieiathueany ?acaaaeaieai neioa, aeathuaai aeaaininoiyiea e?ay,
iniaaiii ai a?aiaia iiaaeueiuo caaieaaaiee e iaaeaaea, iaiinyueo
nouanoaaiiue a?aae ianaeaieth.

Iiaiono?iaiiue o?ai ai eiy Nayoie AEeaiia/aeueiie O?ieoeu n o?aiaciith.
Caeaiea o?aiaciie n iiaui o?aiii ono?iaii ia ioeina, n ae?oaie noi?iiu
aeaooyoaaeiia, ec eaiiy, noaiu iooooeaoo?aiu e iiaaeaiu. N aiaoiae
noi?iiu caeaiea aanueia aaee/anoaaiiia. O?ai oaai/ai e?aneaui eoiieii n
auciei/aiiui e?anoii, ai anai caeaiee iieu iicae/iua, noaiu e naiaeu
oe?aoaiu aeeaiienueth e aeaeaeneeie ea?oeiaie. Aeeeia anaai caeaiey – 93
a?oeia. A aa?oiai yoaaea iiiauaaony o?ai e o?aiaciay ia?aai?iaeeith. A
ieaeiai yoaaea ono?iaiu iiaeaae aeey i?iaeoeoia e ia/ue aeey ioiieaiey
caeaiey, a a iniaie i?eno?ieea – eaeuee e iiae ieie oeaaiiaea?iy. Iiae
anai caeaieai ono?iaiu i?ae?aniua iiaeaaeu aeey o?aiaiey i?eiania,
i?iaeoeoia e ae?oaeo i?aaeiaoia. Oea?eiaue ?ann/eoaia ia 1200 iieyueony
e ianoaaeaia o?oaeaie, caaioaie e eneonnoaii eiieia iaeoaee. A o?ai
aaaeoo 3 iii?iua eanoieoeu /a?ac iaoe?ioth iaia?oue.

Ia aa?oeia ai?u Oaai? ieai/eaaaony iino?ieeith o?ai ai eiy I?aia?aaeaiey
Ainiiaeiy. Iacaaiiay ai?a aicauoaaony iaae iiianou?neith ianoiinoueth
ii/oe ia 1000 oooia, a iiaeuai ia iaa oae cao?oaeieoaeai, /oi aeaaea
iaoeii iiaeiyoueny o?oaeii, eieaniie aea iooue e nianai iaaiciiaeai aue
aia/aea. No?ieoaeueiue iaoa?eae aeey o?aia Aiaeey aue aeinoaaeai ooaea
ii/oe eneeth/eoaeueii ?oeaie ona?aenoaothuae a?aoee e iinaoeoaeae
iaeoaee. Iuia ia aeanyoee aa?no aie?oa aeaeai aaeeeieaiiue o?ai,
neythuee naieie cieiouie e?anoaie. Ooo aea, ieiei o?aia, ia ai?a ono?iai
aeii aeey iiiaoanoaothuae a?aoee e i?eaiiue iieie aeey iinaoeoaeae.

Iino?ieea o?aia ia/aoa 20 ia?oa 1886 a. e e 1902 a. auea ieii/aia.
Oea?eiaue a aecaioeeneii noeea. Aanueia e?aneaay, neiaeaia ec oanaiiiai
ianoiiai eaiiy, iieu aaoiiiua. O?ai aeiaieueii iaoe?iue ia 500-600
i?eoiaeai e i?e iai aunieay eieieieueiy; a o?aia i/aiue iiiai noaiiie
aeeaiiene.

?anii?yaeaieai Ia?oe?ey iooue ia ai?o Oaai? iuia cia/eoaeueii iaeaa/ai
ono?iaieai i?ae?aniuo iiaeuaiiuo aei?iaeae. Iaiiiai naaa?iaa ai?u Oaai?
aicauoaaony ae?oaay, iaiueoay ai?a Ino?ao ( iacaaiiay Aoii). Ia iae
i?aae iieiaeaii iino?ieoue o?ai ai eiy anao i?aiiaeiaiuo Aoiineeo. Aeey
yoiai o?aia iaia/aii ianoi e i?eaioiaeai no?ieoaeueiue iaoa?eae. Ai?a
Aoii ie?oaeaia eaiaiiuie neaeaie, aeathueie iaeeueiue no?ieoaeueiue
iaoa?eae, ii aanueia cao?oaeieoaeai i?ioiae ia ai?o e oieueei aeaaiaea?y
?anii?yaeeoaeueiinoe Ia?oe?ey e ona?aeeth a?aoee, iuia ooaea ono?iaiu
aeiaieueii oaeiaiua iooe ia oieueei aeey iaoaoiaeia, ii e aeey
yeeiaaeiie acaeu. Oieueei a yoie ianoiinoe aiaeu nianai iao e aa ioaeii
aeinoaaeyoue ca iiiai aa?no ec nai?iiai aannaeia”.

Enoi?e/aneea enoi/ieee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi e 1917 a. nayoay iaeoaeue
i?aaenoaaeyea niaie iiuiue iaeiiie/aneee oeaio? Eaaeaca. Yoi aue
ioaeneie iiianou?ue, eioi?ue ii /eneo iaeiiieeia iiaeii auei ioianoe ia
aoi?ia ianoi iinea O?ieoea – Na?aeaaie Eaa?u. Iiianou?neee eiiieaen
niaea?aeaeny o?oaeaie a?aoee, iiae /ooeei ?oeiaiaenoaii a?oeiaiae?eoa
Ia?oe?ey.

AEeciaiiue iooue a?oeiaiae?eoa Ia?oe?ey – y?eee i?eia? aanei?unoiiai
neoaeaiey I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae e Ioa/anoao. A ia/aea 19 a. a Oa?niia, a
naiuea ninoiyoaeueiiai iauaieia Aaneeey Ino?iaiai ?iaeeeny nui Ia?oei.
Iaeaiueeee Ia?oei iao/aeny aeiia. Caoai iaaiaeiue ioaoe iineae thiioo
caaa?oeoue ia?aciaaiea a oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneoth oeieo. Nionoy aeaa aiaea
?iaeeoaee ioi?aaeee Ia?oeia e oaoooea aeey iao/aiey oi?aiaiio aeaeo. Ii
auno?i onaiee o?iee oi?aiaiai ?aianea e niae?aeny ioe?uoue naia aeaei.
Iaiaeeaeaiii Ia?oei caaieae e aeaa aiaea aue i?eeiaai e iinoaee.
Aaeeinoaaiiui ooaoaieai aeey iaai noaee eieae aeooiaii – i?aanoaaiiiai
niaea?aeaiey, aeeoey nayouo, nayoiioa/aneay eeoa?aoo?a. ?aciuoeyy i
i?e/eiao naiaai oyaeeiai iaaeoaa, thiioa i?eoae e iniciaieth oiai, /oi
enoeaeeoue aai iiaeao oieueei Ainiiaeue. Ia?oei noae iieeoueny I?anayoie
Aiai?iaeeoea, /oiau iia canooieeanue ca iaai ia?aae Ainiiaeii, iaauay a
iieeoaao a neo/aa aucaei?iaeaiey iinayoeoue naith aeeciue neoaeaieth
Aiao a eii/aneii caaiee. Ia?oei anei?a aucaei?iaae e caiyeny oi?aiaeae.
Ainaiue eao ii o?oaeeeny a aeiia aiaaoiai eoioea. Aeaey ona?aeea e
oaeaio iieiaeiai /aeiaaea, i?aaei?eei/eaue oicyei iiaeaeae aeaieoue aai
ia naiae aaeeinoaaiiie aei/a?e. Aioiaynue e naaaeueaa, Ia?oei ?aoee
niaa?oeoue iaeiiie/anoai a Eeaa. Ia eniiaaaee Ia?oei ?anneacae
nayuaiieeo i naiai iaauaiee Aiao, e oio iiniaaoiaae aio auiieieoue iaao.
Acaieiiaaiiue Ia?oei aa?ioeny aeiiie e ?anneacae iai anai
?iaenoaaiieeai. Iie oaiai?eee aai ioeiaeeoue i?eiyoea ?aoaiey ia iaeei
aiae. Ia?oei anei?a aiiaue oyaeaei caaieae. Iinea ona?aeiuo iieeoa
aieaciue inoaaeea Ia?oeia. Auiieiyy iaauaiea, ii noae iineooieeii
Eeaai-Ia/a?neie Eaa?u. A 1857 a., /a?ac aiae iinea ia/aea eniuoaiey,
Ia?oei iinaeeeny ia ai?a Aoii. Caeanue ii i?eia?ae eaeueth, ioiinyuothny
e Noaa?iieeeoneiio iiianou?th. A 1864 a. ii ia?anaeyaony a Aeooianeee
Iao?iiaaeianeee iiianou?ue, aaea /a?ac aiae aue iino?eaeai a iiiaoanoai
iiae eiaiai Ia?oe?ee. Ona?aeiia neoaeaiea Aiao i?eaaei Ia?oe?ey a
*a?ieaianeee a?oea?aeneee aeii, aaea ii ca aeaai/anoea aue aicaaaeai a
nai ea?iiiiaoa. A 1876 a., iii?inea aeaaineiaaiey ia ioione, ioaoe
Ia?oe?ee aianoa n a?aoeae ec oanoe eiieia i?eauee ia Aoii. Caeanue
iiiaoe i?eia?aee Oniaineoth eaeueth, i?eienaiioth Eioeiioaeneiio
a?a/aneiio iiianou?th. Ec ioionea ioaoe Ia?oe?ee a *a?ieaia ia aa?ioeny.
Ii i?eiye ?aoaiea inoaoueny a iiianou?a, ii ieacaeny ia Naaa?i –
Caiaaeiii Eaaeaca.

O?oaeaie e iieeoaaie a?oeiaiae?eoa Ia?oe?ey auea aicaaaeaia Ieoaeei –
Aoiineay Caeoaaineay iauaaeeoaeueiay ionouiue, eioi?ay noaea aeaaiui
aeaeii aai aeecie. Aoaeie iaeoaee, caaioa i i?ioeaaoaiee iiianou?y
o?aaiaaee io ianoiyoaey niaa?oaoue iiiai ?acee/iuo iiacaeie. Iaeia ec
oaeeo iiacaeie ieii/eeanue aeey iaai o?aae/anee. 21 yiaa?y 1917 a. ioaoe
Ia?oe?ee aica?auaeny ec Noaa?iiiey ii aeooie aei?iaa. Iaiaeeaeaiii aai
iiaiceo ie?oaeeea noay aieeia. Enioaaiiua eioaaee iiianee, iiaicea
nuaoaea n aei?iae e ?acaeeanue i aea?aauey. A?oeiaiae?eo aue iioi?iiai
ia oa??eoi?ee iiianou?y. Aeey oaaeiaa/aiey iaiyoe i naiai ianoiyoaea
nayoay a?aoey onoaiiaeea iaaea?iaioth ieeoo.

Iinea aeaaee ianoiyoaey iaeoaee, o?aae/aneay noaeueaa anei?a iinoeaea e
nai iiianou?ue. Iinea ?aaiethoeee a 1920 a. caiee, naeueneioicyenoaaiiue
eiaaioa?ue, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua iiiauaiey e iai?oaeiaaiea auee o iiianou?y
eiioeneiaaiu. A 1926 a. ia oa??eoi?ee iiianou?y aue ia?aciaai
I?ionithciue aeii ioaeuoa AIO, a a 1927 a. a noaiao iiianou?y
?acianoeeanue eiiioia “Aeaaeeeai”. Ianiio?y ia ?aaiethoeeiiiua
iio?ynaiey, eii/aneay aeeciue a iiianou?a i?iaeieaeaeanue, e eeoue a
1928 a. iiianou?ue aue cae?uo, a iiiaoe ?aniouaiu. A iionoaaoai
iiianou?a ii oeaco Niaaoneie aeanoe aue ia?aciaai Aeii eiaaeeaeia,
iaeoaoaee eioi?iai auee ?anno?aeyiu oaoenoaie a ia?eiae ieeoiaoeee
Eaaeaca. Iinea inaiaiaeaeaiey Aaeuaae io aeoea?ianeeo caoaao/eeia ia
oa??eoi?ee iiianou?y a 1944 a. ?aniieiaeeeanue aeaoneay eieiiey. A a
nei?ii a?aiaie, a 1946 a., aaee/aaua noaiu o?aiia iaeoaee, o?aieaoea
aaeiaoth enoi?eth, auee aci?aaiu. A ca oai auea ?aci?aia e iiaeea
ianoiyoaey iaeoaee. AEeoaeueieoea iinaeea, Oaoueyia No?aaeiaaa, aa?aaeii
nia?aea inoaiee a?oeiaiae?eoa Ia?oe?ey e ia?acaoi?iieea eo ia iinaeeiaii
eeaaeaeua. Iinea ?anoi?ie?iaaiey aeaoneie eieiiee inoaaoeany
iiianou?neea no?iaiey ia?aoee a aaaeaiea Eaiaiiiiinoneiai ieiaeiniaoica.
A a 1972 a. inoaiee caeaiee e oa??eoi?ey auee ia?aaeaiu a E?aniiaea?neee
e?aaaie eiieoao ii oo?ecio, e oai auea ia?aciaaia oo?aaca “?iiaioeea”. A
90-a aiaeu yoi AI “?iiaioeea – oo?”. A ai?aea 2001 a. niaeaneoaeueiay
eiienney aaeieieno?aoeee i?aceaeaioa ?anioaeeee Aaeuaay e Iaeeiinei –
Aaeuaaeneiai aia?oeaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey ia/aea ?ac?aaaouaaoue aeieoiaiou
i ia?aaea/a /anoe oa??eoi?ee iiianou?y ?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae.
Ieii/aoaeueii aii?in i ia?aaea/a anaai iiianou?neiai eiiieaena
I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae aue ?aoai a 2003 a.

6 naioya?y 2001 a. aieneiiii Iaeeiineei e Aaeuaaeneei Iaioaeaeiiiii
ianoiyoaeai iiianou?y iacia/ai ea?iiiiao Ia?oe?ee (Iyioei), eioi?ue
aianoa n iiianou?neie a?aoeae aic?iaeaeaao o?aaeeoeee nayoie iaeoaee.
I?aaineaaiua iiianou?e anaaaea ioee/aeenue no?iainoueth aiaineoaeaiee e
iniaui iieeoaaiiui iano?iai. Ia?acoeii iiiaoaneiai neoaeaiey ai ana
a?aiaia yaeyeanue Nayoay ai?a Aoii, aeaaiaea?y aa?iinoe oea?eiaiiio
onoaao e i?aaeaieyi.

Nayoi – Ieoaeei – Aoiineay ionouiue, eioi?ay naiei iniiaaieai iaycaia
a?oeiaiae?eoo Ia?oe?eth e iiiaoai, i?eauaoei n iei ni Nayoie ai?u Aoii,
a naiai aoi?ii ?iaeaeaiee nio?aieea aa?iinoue ae?aaiei o?aaeeoeeyi.

Ii aeaaineiaaieth Aai I?ainayuainoaa I?ainayuaiiaeoaai Iaioaeaeiiia,
aieneiia Iaeeiineiai e Aaeuaaeneiai a?aoey iaeoaee aeeaao e niaa?oaao
aiaineoaeaiey a niioaaonoaee n Aoiineei onoaaii. Iiiaoaneea iaeaaeaeu
eiatho naie iniaaiiinoe. Oae, neoouey – oeeeeiae?e/aneie, a ia
oeaiiaeaeiie oi?iu; iaiaoea (eoeieue) iaa?anuaaaony iiaa?o neoouee, a ia
i?ee?aieaia e iae; nayuaiieee, ca eneeth/aieai ianoiyoaey e i/a?aaeiiai
neoaeauaai ea?iiiiaoa, ia iinyo iaia?niiai e?anoa. Naie ioee/ey anoue e
ai aioo?aiiai oa?ainoaa o?aia: eiathony noaneaeee (oi?iu) – iniaua
naaeaeeua, aaea iiiaoe iaoiaeyony ai a?aiy aiaineoaeaiey; i?acaeie/iay
eeiia ?aniieaaaaony ni?aaa a i?ineeieoa?ee (aiaeia), iniai ono?iaiiii
ianoa aeey eeii. Ai ana aeaoiaaeanyoua e Aaeeeea, a oaeaea i?anoieueiua
i?acaeieee iiianou?y niaa?oathony anaiiuiua aaeaiey, aeeyueany, eae
i?aaeei, 8 /ania. Ii aine?aniui e i?acaeie/iui aeiyi a iiianou?a
niaa?oaaony /ei i Iaiaaee (n a?a/. “Ananayoay”). O?aiaca, yaeythuayny
niaeanii onoaao i?iaeieaeaieai aiaineoaeaiey, n aiinoieueneeo a?aiai
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iniaaiiuie iieeoaineiaeyie e aiciioaieai oeaaa –
Iaiaaee (iniaie i?inoi?u) a /anoue I?aaeaaineiaaiiie Aeaaeu/eoeu iaoae
Aiai?iaeeoeu. Iinea niaa?oaiey Aiaeanoaaiiie Eeoo?aee a?aoey iaeoaee
eaeao a o?aiacioth. Ca iae iiae iaiea i?acaeie/iiai o?iia?y neaaeoao
ianoiyoaeue a i?acaeie/iie iaioee. Ii caaa?oaiee o?aiacu n iniauie
iieeoaineiaeyie niaa?oaaony aiciioaiea Iaiaaee, eioi?ay ?acaeaaony
a?aoee aeey aeooaiey. Caoai ana i?enoonoaothuea iiaeoiaeyo iiae
aeaaineiaaiea ianoiyoaey, a oi a?aiy eae iiiiia?ue niaa?oaao eaaeaeaiea
i?acaeie/iie eaoeeae (?o/iie eaaeeeueieoeae). Ii aica?auaiee a o?ai
niaa?oaaony ioiono /eia Iaiaaee. Aeey nicuaa ia iieeoao, iiieii
iauai?eiyouo eieieieia, eniieuecoaony aea?aayiiia aeei.

Naaiaeiy iiianou?ue ianaeytho 10 /aeiaae, ia?aae eioi?uie noieo oeaeue
aa?iooue Ieoaeei – Aoiineie ionouie cia/aiea aeooiaiiai oeaio?a ia
Naaa?iii Eaaeaca. Iiyoiio, iaaa?iia, neiaiee/ii, /oi iuiaoiee
ianoiyoaeue iiianou?y aue iino?eaeai a iaeoth noeio n eiaiai Ia?oe?ee.
I?aaeaea anaai, oneeey iiiaoia e eo ianoiyoaey iai?aaeaiu ia
ainnoaiiaeaiea o?aia, aaea n ia?auo aea aeiae i?iaiaeyony aiaineoaeaiey.
Ia?aoaao iaeoaeue e iiaua nayouie. Noa?aieyie ianoiyoaey ea?iiiiaoa
Ia?oe?ey iaeiei aeaai/anoeaui ea?iaeueyeiiii iiianou?th auee ia?aaeaiu
/anoeoeu AEeaioai?yuaai E?anoa Ainiiaeiy e /anoeoeu iiuae nayouo
oaiaeieeia Aiaeeeo – na. ia?aiio/aieea a?oeaeueyeiia Noaoaia, na.
?aaiiaiinoieueiie Ia?ee – Iaaaeaeeiu, na. aaeeeiio/aieea Aai?aey
Iiaaaeiiinoea, na. aaeeeiio/aieea Iaioaeaeiiia Oeaeeoaey, i?aiiaeiaiie
Ao?ineiee Iieioeeie, i?aiiaeiaiiai Aa?aneia Ei?aeaineiai, na. io/aieeia
Aioiiey, Eiaiia e Aanoaoey Eeoianeeo, i?aiiaeiaiiai Aa?iaia
Nieiaaoeeiai, E?eia?oa Nieiaaoeeiai, /anoeoeu a?iaa Nayoaeoaai Iao?ea?oa
Oeoiia e i?aiiaeiaiiai Aeaeiaoa. Oaea naaiaeiy iaeiiieee iiaoo
iieeiieoueny /anoeoeai iiuae nayouo oaiaeieeia Aiaeeeo e /anoeoea
AEeaioai?yuaai E?anoa, eioi?ua o?aiyony a iiianou?neii o?aia a
niaoeeaeueiuo eia/aaao. Iniaia aieiaiea iiiaoe oaeaeytho ?an/enoea
iiaecaiiiai o?aia-/aniaie, eioi?ue aue i?eaaaeai a ninoiyiea iieiie
?ac?ooe ca aiaeu niaaoneie aeanoe. Iiiaia oaea naeaeaii: ?acia?aiu
caaaeu a ia?aoiaeao, inaiaiaeaeaiu io ioni?a eaeuee, aaea a oaaeeiaiee
iieeeenue i?aaeiea iaeoaoaee iiianou?y. Eiia/ii, ?aaiou aua – iaii/aoue
e?ae, ii ioaoe Ia?oe?ee oaa?aei oaa?ai – iiaecaiiue o?ai-/aniaith iiiaoe
ainnoaiiayo, oai aoaeoo iai?anoaiii ai?aoue eaiiaaeee, e naa?oaoueny
iaonuiaaiay inaeoe?ue.

Eaey ii noiiai naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, iuiaoiee ianoiyoaeue ieaie?oao
aiiaue iaono?ieoue ia oa??eoi?ee iiianou?y aieueieoeo, aeey ia/aea ia 10
eiae. A?a/aaaoue oece/aneea ?aiu aoaeao iiiao Iaioaeaeiii, a i?ioeii
aeeieiie?iaaiiue niaoeeaeeno, eaiaeeaeao iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe.
Iaia?aaaaony ioaoe Ia?oe?ee ioe?uoue e oea?eiaiii?eoiaeneoth oeieo aeey
aeaoae ec aeeceaaeauaai iinaeea. E aua anoue caaeoiea – nicaeaoue iocae,
eioi?ue au ?anneacuaae ia enoi?ee Ieoaeei – Aoiineie ionouie, i aiaeao
aa ?anoeaaoa e o?aae/aneii ia?eiaea caionoaiey. Ia?aua yeniiiaou aeey
iocay oaea nia?aiu.

Ia ai?a, eioi?ay iineo iiianou?neia iacaaiea Oaai?, iaoiaeeoueny nayoie
enoi/iee a /anoue aaeeeiio/aieea e Oeaeeoaey Iaioaeaeiiia. O?oaeaie
iiiaoia ia n?aaenoaa aeaai/anoeauo ethaeae caeanue oaea aicaaaeaia
eoiaeue aeey iiiaaiey iaeiiieeia, ieaie?oaony nii?oaeaiea
iiaeeieiaeaciie /aniaie.

“Naa/a ca ie?!” – oae aaee/anoaaiii iacuaaee iaeoaeue iaoe i?aaeee. E
naaiaeiy ai aiiaue aic?iaeaeathuaeny iaeoaee aeaiue e ii/ue aiciinyony e
Aiao iieeoau i ie?a e i?ioeaaoaiee iaoae caiee.

4. Enoi?ey o?aia na. aaeeeiio/aieea Aai?aey (a. E?aniiaea?)

891 aiae. No?aoiay ao?y ?acua?aeanue ia ii?a ?yaeii n thai-caiaaeiui
iiaa?aaeueai E?uia, auaoaai a oo ii?o iaeiianae?iiie a?a/aneie eieiieae.
Ooi?i aue ianoieueei nee?i, /oi iaieioaiay aeaaeue a?iceea
ii?aieaaaoaeyi, noaeii eioi?uo iaoiaeeeinue oaea a naieaeanyoe naaeaiyo
(eae ienae iicaea aacuiyiiue iiianou?neee eaoiienaoe) io ino?uo
i?ea?aaeiuo neae.

“E aiciieee oiaaea a?aee ia ecaaaeaiee io no?anoae ei Nayoiio
Aaeeeiio/aieeo e Iiaaaeiiinoeo Aai?aeth, e ii, oneuoaa na?aea/iue eo
aiieue, iaiiaaiii yaeeny ia aieueoii eaiia, e ao?y a oio aea /an
ooeoea.”

Nian?iiua io aeaeeiie aeaaee a?aee a aeaaiaea?iinoue *oaeioai?oeo
iniiaaee aeec oiai ianoa, aaea iiaeaaee e auee /oaeaniui ia?acii
nianaiu, iiianou?ue ai eiy Nayoaai Aai?aey, ia?aaeeaoee iiae io?aiie
Aaeeeiio/aieea a oa/aiea aeieaeo aaeia iiiaea enoi?e/aneea niauoey
E?uineiai iieoino?iaa e Aaeeeie ?onneie Eiia?ee.

Iiianou?ue ia?ai?n caieao?ynaiey, iaaaae ei/aaieeia, iiiaiei-oaoa?neia
eai, iiiaeo iieeoe/aneeo e enoi?e/aneeo aeayoaeae, ?onnei-oo?aoeeea
aieiu, inaaeo a eaiiaieth 1854 a., Aaeeeoth Ioa/anoaaiioth aieio.

A iyoe aa?noao io iiianou?y auei ?aniieiaeaii naeaiea Aaeaeeaaa, iiyoiio
iiianou?ue aiineaaenoaee noae eiaiiaaoueny Oaa?e/aneei Aaeaeeaaneei
Ia?aieeanniui iiianou??i ai eiy Nayoaai Aaeeeiio/aieea e Iiaaaeiiinoea
Aai?aey.

Ai a?aiy E?uineie eaiiaiee 1854 a., a aeaiue o?aiiaiai i?acaeieea
Aai?aeaaneee iiianou?ue aue acyo nithciuie aieneaie e a i?iaeieaeaiea 11
ianyoeaa niaea?aeaeny a ieaio. Iaeiaei i?e yoii o?aioeocu no?iai
io?aiyee iiianou?ue io aoi?aeaiey oo?ie e ineaa?iaiey nayouie, e, eiaaea
Iia?-iaoa ni naiae naeoith oioae aieoe a o?ai aeey iaic?aiey, iie ia
aionoeee eo aei oao ii?, iiea ii e aai ioeoea?u ia niyee i?oaeey e
aieiaiua oai?u.

Aeaaiaea?y naiaio ?aniieiaeaieth a aeeaiieniii ianoa iiianou?ue ioioii
iinauaeny iooaoanoaaiieeaie, eioi?ua n/eoaee naiath iai?aiaiiith
iaycaiiinoueth iiethaiaaoueny ia ii?a e aaeeeieaiiua i?ea?aaeiua neaeu.
Caeanue auaaee Ainoaea?e anay ?one — a 1818-1825 aa. Aeaenaiae? I
Aeaaineiaaiiue, a a 1835 a. — Ieeieae I n noi?oaith Aeaenaiae?ie
Oaaei?iaiie.

I?e i?acaeiiaaiee ouny/aeaoey nouanoaiaaiey iaeoaee ia oii eaiia, aaea
yaeeny na. Aai?aee, aue aiae?oaeai e?ano n iaaeienueth i a?aiaie
/oaeaniiai yaeaiey, a aeey ainoiaeaeaiey ia eaiaiue auna/aiu nooiaiueee.

A Aai?aeaaneii iiianou?a o?e o?aia n o?aiy i?eaeaeaie. Ec ieo
ae?aaiaeoee ii iino?ieea — iaua?iue, ioiinyueeny e IV aaeo e
aiciaiiae?iiue a i?aaeiai noeea. Aoi?ie o?ai — E?anoi-aicaeaeaeaineee e,
iaeiiaoe, o?aoee — Aai?aeaaneee, ?aniieiaeaiiue o iiaeiiaeey ae?aaiae
iaua?iie oea?eae e nii?oaeaiiue a 1814 a.

A 1891 aiaeo iiianou?ue ioiaoee nai? ouny/aeaoea, iciaiaiiaaiiia
/anoueth iinauaiey aai Eiia?aoi?neei Auni/anoaii Ainoaea?ai Ieeieaai
Aeaenaiae?iae/ai.

Ec Eeaaneie e Iineianeie ?one a oa/aiea yoie ouny/e eao au?inei aieueoia
e iiao/aa I?aaineaaiia ainoaea?noai — ?inneeneay Eiia?ey, thaeiua
a?aieoeu eioi?iai aeinoeaee Naaa?iiai Eaaeaca.

A 1793 aiaeo ia?anaeaioeaie ec Iaei?innee, eacaeaie aue iniiaai ai?iae
Aeaoa?eiiaea?. Anei?a ia naaa?iie ie?aeia ai?iaea iaaeaeo oeeoeaie
Eioey?aaneie (iuia Naaeeia), Ieanooiianeie (ssieianeiai), ss?ia?i/iie
(Aieiaaoiai) e Naaa?iie iooaoanoaothueie e iaeiiie/athueie ai Nayooth
caieth iiiaoaie auee ono?iaiu neeo e iieaeueiy, eae iiaeai?uea eee,
au?aaeaynue nia?aiaiiui ycueii – oeeeae Aaeaeeaaneiai iiianou?y.

THaeiay /anoue iiianou?neiai iiaeai?uey ia?eiaea ia/aea no?ieoaeuenoaa
O?aia.

E na?aaeeia aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai aaea a iiaeai?uea auee iino?iaiu
iieeoaaiiue aeii, a?aiaiiay /aniaiy, aeaa ee?ie/iuo aeiia aeey a?aoee
(nio?aieaoeany e iiiuia iie iaoiaeyony ai aeai?a iuiaoiaai oaoieeoia n
ainoi/iie e thaeiie noi?ii), ianoiyoaeueneee aeii e ianeieueei
oicyenoaaiiuo iino?iae.

Iiaeai?uea caieiaei oeaeue eaa?oae, eiaiiaaaoeeny ii ai?iaeneiio
a?aaeino?ieoaeueiiio ieaio eiioea aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai aaea eae ?315. Ia
oa??eoi?ee iiaeai?uey iineooieeaie aue ?acaeo aieueoie o?oeoiaue naae,
ono?iaiu iai?iaeu e aaeinue ia?acoeiaia iiianou?neia oicyenoai.

E eiioeo aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai aaea ?oeiaiaenoai Aai?aeaaneiai Aaeaeeaaneiai
iiianou?y Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee a eeoea eaoiaia Ieeaiae?a ia?aoeeinue a
Ai?iaeneoth aeoio Aeaoa?eiiaea?a n i?inueaie i iiiiue a no?ieoaeuenoaa
ia oa??eoi?ee iiaeai?uey eaiaiiie oea?eae ai eiy Nayouy e
AEeaiia/aeueiuy O?ieoeu n /aniaiae ai eiy Nayoaai Aaeeeiio/aieea Aai?aey
Iiaaaeiiinoea.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi e oiio a?aiaie aeaaineiaaiea ?oeiaiaenoaa
Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee ia iino?ieeo yoie oea?eae oaea eiaeinue, iaeiaei
iiianou?ue ia aue aeinoaoi/ii aiaao, a aieueoia ?annoiyiea io Aaeaeeaau
aei Aeaoa?eiiaea?a aiineei iiiaea o?oaeiinoe a aeaei no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Caeeaaeea O?aia, ii niiauaieth aine?aniiai auionea “Eoaaineeo
Aaaeiiinoae” io 4 ethiy 1895 aiaea, auea iaia/aia ia neaaeothuaa
aine?anaiea, 11 ethiy, ii ec-ca iaiiaiaeu auea ioeiaeaia e i?iecioea au?
/a?ac iaeio iaaeaeth, a aine?anaiea 18 ethiy iinea anaiiuiiai aaeaiey n
aa/a?a noaaiou e Eeoo?aee, ia/aaoaeny a 9 /ania oo?a.

Ia caeeaaeea i?enoonoaiaaee i?aaenoaaeoaee ai?iaeneeo aeanoae,
Ai?iaeneie Aeoiu e ianoiyoaeue Aai?aeaaneiai Aaeaeeaaneiai iiianou?y
Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee eaoiai Ieeaiae?, eioi?ue a oi?aeanoaaiiii neiaa,
neacaiiii ii yoiio iiaiaeo, oiiiyioe oaeaea, /oi ia iiaeai?uea aoaeao
ono?iaia oeiea a?aiioiinoe aeey aeaoae aaaeiuo ?iaeeoaeae,
iaiaoiaeeiinoue a eioi?ie aeaaii iac?aea.

Iiaeai?uea a oo ii?o iaoiaeeeinue ia ie?aeia ai?iaea e ianaeaiea,
aeeaoaa iiaeecinoe e ca /a?oie ai?iaea, ia oooi?ao, iieo/aei
aiciiaeiinoue iao/aoue aeaoae a?aiioa e iiiieeoueny a o?aia aac
iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiae?aoueny a oeaio?aeueioth /anoue ai?iaea.

Ia/aei no?ieoaeuenoaa o?aia

Iino?ieea o?aia ia/aeanue. Enoi?ey ia nio?aieea eiaie a?oeoaeoi?a e
aaoi?a i?iaeoa o?aia. Aeinoiaa?ii ecaanoii eeoue oi, /oi no?ieoaeuenoai
aaeinue ia aac o/anoey ciaiaieoiai a?oeoaeoi?a Iaeueaa?aa — nicaeaoaey
eaoaae?aeueiiai Niai?a ai eiy Nayoie Aaeeeiio/aieoeu Aeaoa?eiu a oeaio?a
Aeaoa?eiiaea?a.

Ca 10 eao aei yoiai niauoey, a 1885 aiaeo, Eaaeacneay aia?oey auea
?acaeaeaia ia Noaa?iiieueneoth, Aeaaeeeaaeacneoth e Noooineoth.
Aeaoa?eiiaea? aio?e a Noaa?iiieueneoth aia?oeth.

Aieneiiii Noaa?iiieueneei noae I?ainayuaiiue Aeaaeeie? (Iao?ia)
(1886-1889 aa.). Aeaaeuea Aeaaeeie? inoaaee cia/eoaeueiue neaae naiaai
i?aauaaiey ai aeaaa Noaa?iiieueneie e Aeaoa?eiiaea?neie aia?oee. Ii
i?aaei?eieiae yeniaaeeoeee ii eco/aieth o?enoeaineeo iaiyoieeia ia
Eaaeaca, caeiaeee i?aaeeueioth iniiao ienneiia?neiai aeaea, iniiaaa
Aeaaeeie?neia A?aonoai, iicaea i?aia?aciaaiiia a
Aiae?aaai-Aeaaeeie?neia, noaaoaa aaoi?eoaoiaeoei ienneiia?neei
iauanoaii.

Aai i?aaiieeii, canooieaoei ia Noaa?iiieuenei-Aeaoa?eiiaea?neoth
eaoaae?o, noae I?ainayuaiiue Aaaaiee (Oa?aoeeia) (1889-1893), caaioaie
eioi?iai auee i?aaieciaaiu ia?aua aine?aniua ia?iaeiua /oaiey e ioe?uou
/eoaeueie n o?enoeaineie eeoa?aoo?ie.

Naiia i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia neoaeaiea ia Eaaeacneie eaoaae?a auiaei ia
aeieth I?ainayuaiiaeoaai Aaaoaaei?a (I?aia?aaeaineiai) (1893-1919 aa.).
Ia nai?i iinoo ii i?iaue 26 eao. Ia?eiae aai i?aaeaiey aue iciaiaiiaai
ao?iui ?anoeaaoii oea?eiaiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa ia Eoaaie e Noaa?iiieuea.
Aieueoeinoai nio?aieaoeony aei iaoeo aeiae o?aiia, eae e iao
Nayoi-Aai?aeaaneee, auee iino?iaiu eiaiii a yoi a?aiy.

11 ia?oa 1900 aiaea “Eoaaineea Aaaeiiinoe” ienaee: “…aia?oeaeueiia
ia/aeuenoai Oaa?e/aneie Aoaa?iee iieo/eei iaaeeaaeauaa ?ac?aoaiea
ia?aaeaoue ii acaeiiiio niaeaoaieth a aaaeaiea Noaa?iiieueneiai
aia?oeaeueiiai ia/aeuenoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeauaa Aaeaeeaaneiio Aai?aeaaneiio
iiianou?th Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee a a. Aeaoa?eiiaea?a, iiaeai?uea. Ii yoiio
iiaiaeo ni noi?iiu iaaeo aia?oee auea ia?aciaaia eiienney aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa ioeaiee eiouanoaa iiaeai?uey e au?aaioee oneiaee, ia
eioi?uo yoi eiouanoai iiaeao auoue i?eiyoi a aaaeaiea Noaa?iiieueneiai
aia?oeaeueiiai ia/aeuenoaa.

Ec ninoaaeaiiie yoie eiienneae ioeaii/iie iiene e aeoa aeaeii, /oi /eaiu
eiiennee Oaa?e/aneie aia?oee ioeaieee an? eiouanoai iiaeai?uey a 37 480
?oaeae, a /eaiu eiiennee io Noaa?iiieueneie aia?oee — a 25 627 ?oaeae.
Oaeoth caieaeaiioth ioeaieo /eaiu Noaa?iiieueneie eiiennee iauyniytho
oai, /oi Aaeaeeaaneia iiaeai?uea ?aniieiaeaii a naiii eiioea
Aeaoa?eiiaea?a, a iioiio caiey, iaoiaeyuayny iiae iiaeai?ueai, aeieaeia
oeaieoueny ieaea, /ai a oeaio?a ai?iaea; /oi caeaiea oea?eae iiaeai?uey
ia/aoi iino?ieeith a 1895 aiaeo e aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie noieo ie/ai ia
iie?uoia, io/aai a na?aaeeia iino?ieee ia?aciaaeanue aiaea, aeioiaeyuay
aeaaea ai a?aiy eaoa o iaia?oe aei 1 a?oeia. Oaa?e/aneay aea aia?oey
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeanue ioeaieie ai?iaeneiai a?oeoaeoi?a.

Noaa?iiieueneia aia?oeaeueiia ia/aeuenoai, ia?aae ieii/aoaeueiui
?aoaieai aii?ina i i?eia?aoaiee iacaaiiiai Aaeaeeaaneiai iiaeai?uey a
naith nianoaaiiinoue, aioei a niioaiea, eae auoa iauyniaii, n Eoaaineei
iaeanoiui ia/aeuenoaii i i?eia?aoaiee caeaiee iiaeai?uey ia aieneiaua
n?aaenoaa aeey aieneiauo iaaeiaiinoae.

E oiio iiiaioo, ecaanoiue iuia, O?ieoeeee o?ai au? ia aue iino?iai
(inayuai a 1913 a.) e aieneiaia eaca/uea ia/aeuenoai eiaei ii?aaeae?iiua
aeaeu ia aoaeouee Nayoi-Aai?aeaaneee o?ai.

Eaeei ia?acii ?ac?aoeeny aii?in i ia?aaea/a iiaeai?uey a aaaeaiea
Noaa?iiieueneie aia?oee iaecaanoii, ii n 1900 aiaea iino?ieea o?aia
i?iaeieaeaeanue oaea n iiiiuueth eae ai?iaeneeo, oae e aieneiauo aeanoae
Aeaoa?eiiaea?a, a oaeaea ia iiaea?oaiaaiey i?eoiaeai e ianoiuo
ai?iaeneeo iaoeaiaoia. A oo ii?o iiaeiaiua iiaea?oaiaaiey n/eoaeenue
ii?iaeueiui aiaioaiaeiui aeaeii e /anoueth aeey ethaiai i?aoniaaathuaai
i?iiuoeaiieea e eiiia?naioa.

30 iiya?y 1903 aiaea, a aine?anaiea, ia iiaeai?uea Aaeaeeaaneiai
Aai?aeaaneiai iiianou?y a Aeaoa?eiiaea?a aue inayuai o?ai ai eiy Nayoaai
Aaeeeiio/aieea e Iiaaaeiiinoea Aai?aey.

O?ai auno?iai a aecaioeeneii noeea — oeaio?aeueiay /anoue e aeaa
i?eaeaea. Naaa?iue — a /anoue i?aiiaeiaiiai Ia?eaeea e Ia?ee Aaeiaoneie,
thaeiue — a /anoue Oaiaei?ianeie eeiiu Aiaeueae Iaoa?e.

Iaae oeaio?aeueiie /anoueth iyoue eeanne/aneeo eoiieia a aeaea eoeiaeoe,
iaae i?eoai?ii – eieieieueiy, anaai iaae o?aiii 11 eoiieia. Aeeeia
o?aiiaie e aeoa?iie /anoe 26 iao?ia, oe?eia 20 iao?ia. ?acia? ia?aiai
y?ona eieieieueie 5,5 i. Oanaaeu ?aoaiu a iaeeiaeiauo
a?oeoaeoo?ii-ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?e?iao e ?ane?aiiaaiu ieeyno?aie n
oe?eieaie ia ia?aii y?ona, o??o/aoaa?oiuie io/eaie eieiii ia aoi?ii e
o?aoueai y?onao. Ieiiiua i?i?iu eiatho o??ooeaio?iaua ia?aiu/ee ia
aaea?aa, aeaieiua iieooee?eoeueiua — ia aoi?ii y?ona e i?yiioaieueiua n
eiio?iaee/ieeaie e naiae?eeaie a aeaea eieioieeia ia o?aoueai. Oeaaoiaia
?aoaiea oanaaea auiieiaii ec eeoeaaiai ee?ie/a ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
oeaaoiuo ec?acoeia i?eaeiaeueiui e eioa?aniui niiniaii.

E 1919 aiaeo ia?aciaaeanue naiinoiyoaeueiay Eoaaineay Aia?oey,
auaeaeeaoayny ec iiae/eiaiey Noaa?iiieueneie eaoaae?u. Iiaay Eoaaineay
Aia?oey ian/eouaaea a nai?i ninoaaa 500 i?eoiaeia.

Iinea ecaanoiuo enoi?e/aneeo niauoee ieoya?y 1917 aiaea ianooieee
iai?inoua acaeiiioiioaiey iaaeaeo I?aaineaaiie Oea?eiaueth e
ainoaea?noaii, io eioi?iai Oea?eiaue auea ioaeaeaia. Neiaeiay aeeciue
ia/aeanue e aeey anao aa?othueo. A ia?eiae n 1922 aiaea ii 1939 aiae
aieueoeinoai o?aiia a ai?iaeao e ?aeiiiuo noaieoeao aia?oee oaeoe/anee
auei cae?uoi, iiiaea ec ieo auee ?ac?ooaiu aei iniiaaiey. Iineaaeiae a
E?aniiaea?a auea cae?uoa Ananayoneay oea?eiaue ia ai?iaeneii eeaaeaeua.
Aeaenoaothuei inoaeny oieueei Nayoi-Aai?aeaaneee o?ai. A n 1937 aiaea ii
1943 aiae ia Eoaaie ia auei a?oea?ay e aia?oey oi?aaeyeanue
iaiin?aaenoaaiii Iineianeei Iao?ea?oaoii.

O?ai ia?aaeee o?oaeiua a?aiaia. A aeaaaeoeaoua aiaeu, ai a?aiy oae
iacuaaaiie iaoeeiiaeecaoeee e yeni?ii?eaoeee, a eiaiii 25 iay 1921
aiaea, ii ?anii?yaeaieth eeeaeaeaoeeiiiiai iiaeioaeaea ai?iaeneiai
Eniieeiia ea?iiiiaoo Aoaianeth, caaaaeiaaaoaio a oi a?aiy iiaeai?ueai,
auei aeaii oeacaiea ninoaaeoue iiae?iaioth iienue eiouanoaa,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoaai oea?eae e iiaeai?ueth. O?ai e no?iaiey,
i?eiaaeeaaeaaoea iiaeai?ueth, a oaeaea caiey, ia eioi?ie aue ?acaeo
naae, caieiaee a oo ii?o oeaeue eaa?oae iaaeaeo oeeoeaie Naaa?iie e
ss?ia?i/iie, Eioey?aaneie e Ieanooiianeie. Ia n/eoay caeaiey naiie
oea?eae ia oa??eoi?ee iiaeai?uey auei ainaiue eaieoaeueiuo no?iaiee. E
nae/an a thai-ainoi/iie /anoe yoiai eaa?oaea, ca aioo?aiiei aeai?eeii
oaoieeoia, iiaeii aeaeaoue aeaa aeaooyoaaeiuo, i?ae?anii nio?aieaoeony
ee?ie/iuo caeaiey n eaiaiiuie e?anoaie ia o?iioiiao e iaaeaeo ieiaie. A
ieo aeeee ianaeueieee. Nae/an oa??eoi?ey o?aia ninoaaeyao anaai eeoue
aeanyooth /anoue auaoeo aeaaeaiee.

Ianiio?y ia iieiua i?ioeai?a/ee ao?iua niauoey XX aaea, oea?eiaue
ieeiaaea ia cae?uaaeanue, neoaeaa oea aaeaaeiaaii, aeaa?e o?aia
inoaaaeenue ioe?uouie aeey i?eoiaeai aieioue aei iiaiai ia?eiaea enoi?ee
?onneie I?aaineaaiie Oea?eae, eioi?ue ia/aeny n i?acaeiiaaiey 1000-eaoey
e?auaiey ?one.

E niaeaeaieth, enoi?ey nio?aieea eiaia oieueei iaeioi?uo ianoiyoaeae
Nayoi-Aai?aeaaneiai o?aia a XX aaea.

A 1925-1927 aa. ianoiyoaeai aue nayuaiiee Aeaenaiae? Iaeia. A aiaiiua
aiaeu aei ai?aey 1943 — i?ioiea?ae Ieeieae Oa?iianeee, o eioi?iai,
aoaeo/e io?ieii neoaeee eiiaeeaeiiii iuia cae?aanoaothuee eacia/ae
Aia?oee Aeaenaiae? Eeuee/ Noneee. A 1945-1946 aa. nayuaiiee Iaaae
O?ieii.

N 1946 ii 1949 aa. — nayuaiiee Aaneeee Na?aa?yeia, a 1949-1950 aa.
ianoiyoaeai aue i?ioiea?ae Aai?aee Nei?iaeoiia. A 1950-1951 aa.
nayuaiiee Aai?aee Eyoaiei, n 1951 ii 1966 aa. -i?ioiea?ae Ai?en
Aeaauaeia. A 1966-1972aa. a?oeiaiae?eo Ieeii (Iicaiaie). I?ioiea?ae
Aaaaiee Ieieio aue ianoiyoaeai n 1972 ii 1983 aa., n 1983 ii 1985aa.
i?ioiea?ae Iao? Aoaecue.

A naiii eiioea XX aaea a o?aia neoaeee iaeei ec ii/?oiuo ieo?ioi?iuo
i?ioiea?aaa, eiathuee iiiaea aieineea e oea?eiaiua iaa?aaeu Iao? *aeue.
Ii/oe iieaaea i. Iao? ioaeae neoaeaieth Oea?eae, aue ethaei e ii/eoaai.

N 15 aaaonoa 1985 aiaea e iiiuia — ianoiyoaeue o?aia ieo?ioi?iue
i?ioiea?ae Aeeoi? Iiaeai?iue, noa?aieyie eioi?iai naeaeaiu
iiiai/eneaiiua oeo/oaiey e i?aia?aciaaiey eae a o?aia, oae e ia
i?eeaaathuae e iaio oa??eoi?ee.

Ii aeaaineiaaieth Aeaaeuee Eneaei?a aianoi aaooiai iiaeniaiiai
iiiauaiey, iioiaeaai ia aa?ae, iino?iai aeaooyoaaeiue aeii, aaea
?acianoeeanue aine?aniay oeiea, eioi?ie ?oeiaiaeeo i?ioiea?ae Oeiioae
Aa?aiia e ian?o iineooaiea aai iaoooea Aeaia. ?yaeii iaoiaeeony
iocueaeueiue eeann n aeaoneei oea?eiaiui oi?ii.

E?iia yoiai, iiaia caeaiea aianoeei a naay i?inoi?ith, eaioeaey?eth,
o?aiacioth, iaaacei oea?eiaiie ooaa?e e oea?eiaioth aeaeeioaeo, aaea
caieiathony eco/aieai Caeiia Aiaeey ac?ineua. Caiyoey n ieie i?iaiaeeo
iiiaoeiy Eiaiia (A?oiaa) e Eiaii Iae?ueia, eiathuee aeaaeaie/aneia
aeooiaiia ia?aciaaiea.

I?iaaaeaii oeaio?aeueiia ioiieaiea. Naeaeai eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio a
oeieieueiii yoaaea o?aia, aaea iaoiaeeony e?anoeeueiia iiiauaiea. Oai
aea ono?iyaony aeoa?ue n I?anoieii, inayuaiiui a /anoue I?aaaaeiuo
Aiaiioaoe Eiaeeia e Aiiu.

Ai aeai?a o?aia ?acaeou oeaaoieee, ono?iaiu iaaanu iaae aieiauie
aoiaeaie, io?anoaa?e?iaaiu iiiaea eeiiu, iiyaeeenue ianoaiiua ?iniene a
aeoa?a. A noeea a?oeoaeoo?iiai ainaiaey o?aia ?aeiino?oe?iaaia iaia?oue.
Aeaaiono?ienoai i?iaeieaeaaony.

A 1995 aiaeo Nayoi-Aai?aeaaneee o?ai iinaoee Iao?ea?o Iineianeee e anay
?one Aeaenee II. Aiai?y n aiaiia i?eaaonoaaiiia neiai Iao?ea?o
iiae/a?eioe, /oi o?ai Na. Aai?aey Iiaaaeiiinoea ai?iaea Aeaoa?eiiaea?a
ia i?ae?auae neoaeao ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai XX aaea.

A 1996 aiaeo ii aeaaineiaaieth A?oeaieneiia Aeaoa?eiiaea?neiai e
Iiai?inneeneiai Eneaei?a e iiae ?aaeaeoeeae ianoiyoaey o?aia i. Aeeoi?a,
auoae a naao ia?aue iiia? aaeaiany/iie oea?eiaiie aacaou “Aai?aeaaneee
Eenoie”.

5. Ia?a/aiue o?aiia e oea?eaae a. E?aniiaea?a

Anao nei?ayueo ?aaeinoue

O?ai

O?ai a /anoue eeiiu aiaeueae iaoa?e “Anao nei?ayueo ?aaeinoue”

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. E?aniay, 103

(861) 2597396

Aeecaaaoeineay

Oea?eiaue

Aeecaaaoeineay oea?eiaue o?enoeaineiai ienneiia?neiai nithca.

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Oe?ieay, 8

(861) 2291933

Aia?oeaeueiia E?aniiaea?neia oi?aaeaiea

Oea?eiaue

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Eaieia, 60

(861) 2622081, (861) 2620941

Aia?oey thaa ?innee

Oea?eiaue

Aia?oey thaa ?innee A?iyineie aiinoieueneie oea?eae.

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, i?iacae Oo?aaiaaa, 165

(861) 215-42-02, 215-42-00

Eia/aa

Oea?eiaue

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Eaeeieia, 352

(861) 255-42-67

Nayoi-Aai?aeaaneee

O?ai

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Naaeeia, 170

(861) 2555427

Nayoi-Aeooia o?ai

O?ai

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Ni?iianeay, 126

(8612) 230-27-07, 236-95-25

Nayoi-Aeaoa?eieineee eaoaae?aeueiue Niai?

Niai?

Iinaoeoaeyi Eoaaie aoaeao eioa?anii iinauaiea Nayoi-Aeaoa?eieineiai
eaoaae?aeueiiai Niai?a, a eioi?ii iaoiaeeony /oaeioai?iue ia?ac
Eacaineie eeiiu Aiaeeae Iaoa?e.

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Eiiioia?ia, 52

(861) 262-56-36

Nayoi-Eeueeineay

Oea?eiaue

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Ieoya?ueneay, 149

(861) 2596045, (861) 2590315

Nayoi-Iie?ianeee

O?ai

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, oe. Noaniaa, 180

(861) 2313556, (861) 2344220

O?ai ?iaeaeanoaa O?enoiaa

O?ai

E?aniiaea?neee e?ae, a. E?aniiaea?, iaa. ?iaeaeanoaaineay, 1

(861) 2611458

6. Caeeth/aiea

Iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue nia?aiaiiue ?onneee ai?iae eee naei aac o?aia.
Yoe iniaaiiua iaiiaoi?eiua a?oeoaeoo?iua nii?oaeaiey anaaaea auee
aeaaiui oe?aoaieai ai?iaeneeo e naeueneeo iaecaaeae ?innee. E ia
oaeeaeoaeueii. ?onneea ethaee noa?athony iinayuaoue Aiao anaaaea naiia
eo/oaa, ia /oi iie niiniaiu.

Ieeoi ieeiai ia iaycuaaao oiaeeoue a o?ai.

Auaaao, oiaeeo /aeiaae iiiai eao ieii o?aia. Iiaeao ia caia/aoue aai
aiana, ii ianooiaao iiiaio (iau/ii a naiua o?oaeiua ieioou aeecie),
eiaaea e aio i?eoiaeeony i Aiaa, i niunea nianoaaiiie aeecie. I
aa/iinoe. E iai?aaeyaony ii a o?ai, e noaiiaeony aio aeii Aiaeee naiui
aeaaiui e ?iaeiui aeiiii.

7. Nienie eniieuecoaiuo enoi/ieeia

1. A.A. Aa?aiaoe, eaoiai Eineo (Ia?ueyi), A.A. Naaaei NOAeUeAA ?INNEE A
AEECIE ANO?AOAINEEO NAssOEOAEAE (IEO?IIIEEO EINEO ANO?AOAINEEE E
A?OEAIENEII IEO?IOAI /E?ANIIIIEUeNEEE/)

2. Aaeeeay I.I. (a. A?iaae?) IOEOeEAEUeIIA I?AAINEAAEA E A?AAAINEEA
EACAEE A XVIII -IA*AEA XX AA.

3. Ioaoe Aeaaeeie? (Oa?-A?aeaeueyioe) E AII?INO IA ECO*AIEE ENOI?EE
I?AAINEAAIIE OeA?EAE IA AeIINEIE CAIEA

4. Ai?iioeia N.A. (a. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio) ?AEEAEss E I?AAI A EIIOAENOA
NIA?AIAIIIE IIEEOE*ANEIE NEOOAOeEE A ?INNEE

5. Aieiaaiiaa N.A. (a. Neaayine-ia-Eoaaie) ?AEEAEICIAss NEOOAOeEss A
EACA*UeEO ?AAEIIAO OA?AEA E EOAAIE (EIIAOe XVIII – XIX AA.)

6. Aeaieeiaa I.E. (a. E?aniiaea?) NIOeEAEUeIAss AeIEO?EIA I?AAINEAAEss

7. Aeiaaaaa E.I. (a. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio) AIAINEOAEAAII-IAA*ANEAss EOEUeOO?A
?ONNEIE I?AAINEAAIIE OeA?EAE: O?AAeEOeEE E NIA?AIAIIINOUe

8. Eaca A.Ae. (a. Iyoeai?ne) IIUO IENNEIIA?NEIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE ?ONNEIE
I?AAINEAAIIE OeA?EAE IA EAAIEIAIAeAO A EIIOeA XIX -IA*AEA XX AA.

9. Eyooaaa N.A. ENOI?Ess I?AAINEAAEss AAeUAIA

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