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Французское барокко – особенности развития стиля

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Aoi?oth iieiaeio OVII aaea eiaiotho “noeeai Ethaeiaeea OIV” – yoi naiue
iuoiue, ?ai?acaioaoeaiue “aieueoie noeeue”, aa?ieei ia o?aioeocneee
eaae, aieaa oii?yaei/aiiia, aeaaeaie/aneia, ia noieue oea?eiaiia, neieue
naaoneia; aa?ieei a neioaca n eeanneoeeciii.

A OVII aaea Aa?naeueneee aeai? a?aiae, aue yoaeiiii ?ineioe e aeona ai
naae Aa?iia. Caeanue caaeaaaeenue i?acaeianoaa e aaeu ianeuoaiiiai
aaeeeieaiey. N yoiai a?aiaie o?aioeocneee ycue, o?aioeocneea iiaeu e
iaia?u ia/aee noaiiaeoueny i?aaeiaoii iiae?aaeaiey ai anao aa?iiaeneeo
noieeoeao.

E eiioeo OVII aaea o?aioeocneay i?eaeai?iay aeeaiienue e aa
i?aaenoaaeoaee oaeaea iieo/eee i?eciaiea ai iiiaeo no?aiao Aa?iiu.
Nicaeaiiue eie noeeue aioae a iiaeo i?e aeai?ao aa?iiaeneeo iiia?oia. Ii
e oiio a?aiaie, eiaaea o?aioeocneee “aieueoie noeeue” auoae ia
aa?iiaeneoth a?aio, ii?iaeeaoea aai aiaeu ?anoeaaoa aaniethoecia auee
oaea iicaaee.

A eiioea 1680-o aiaeia a no?aia ?ac?aceeny oeiainiaue e?ecen. Enoiuaiiua
iaeiaaie ai?iaea, i?eoaaeoaa a iieiue oiaaeie naeueneia oicyenoai,
ionoay ainoaea?noaaiiay eacia – oaeei auei e eiioeo aaea ninoiyiea aua
iaaeaaii naiie aeanoyuae a Aa?iia iiia?oee. Ii naeaeaoaeuenoao
i/aaeaeoeaa, O?aioeey iaiiieiaea a yoi a?aiy ainieoaeue, ia?aiieiaiiue
aieueiuie e oieiathueie io aieiaea. A oaeie ianoaiiaea ?ooeeenue
iaaeiaiiua eaeaaeu ooiaeyuaai a i?ioeia oea?noaiaaiey. Ana ?aaea
aniiieiaee i aueii ananeeee ae?yoeathuaai iiia?oa, i i?ioeuo iiaaaeao e
aueii iiaouanoaa O?aioeee.

A 1715 aiaeo iinea aieaa /ai iieoaaeiaiai oea?noaiaaiey oia? Ethaeiaee
OIV. ?aaaioii i?e iyoeeaoiai ianeaaeieea i?anoiea aue iacia/ai Oeeeii
I?eaaineee. I?ioeann ?aceiaeaiey o?aioeocneie iiia?oee no?aieoaeueii
i?iaeieaeaeny e i?e iiaii i?aaeoaea, n oie oieueei ?acieoeae, /oi
aoiinoa?a oae?o/athuae neiaaiiinoe aa?naeueneiai aeai?a niaieeanue
?acaoeii, i?aeyie e iieiui iaaeaieai i?aaia i?e ia?eaeneii aeai?a
?aaaioa.

Anee Ethaeiaee OIV aiai?ee: “Ainoaea?noai – yoi y”, oi Ethaeiaeeo OV
i?eiaaeeaaeeo ia iaiaa au?aceoaeueiay naioaioeey: “Iinea ian – oioue
iioii”. Oaea iaeii n?aaiaiea yoeo e?ueaouo o?ac iieacuaaao, a eaeoth
noi?iio eciaieeny eiei?eo a?aiaie. I?aau noaee ioe?iaaiii iano?iaeie,
aeonu – i?eoioeeauie, oi?iu – eaaeeie e eai?eciuie.

Yoa n?aaea auea ?annaaeieeii noeey ?ieiei. Ii i?eaeai?iay n?aaea ia naia
noi?ie?iaaea yoio noeeue – iia iiaeoaaoeea e i?eniiniaeea e naiei aeonai
oi, /oi iineeinue a aa/a?athuai aicaeooa Aa?iiu OVIII aaea. Aa?iiaeneee
ie? ecaeeaae naie iineaaeiea nineiaii – iao?ea?oaeueiua eeethcee e
?ieiei cao/aei eae i?iuaeueiay yeaaey.

Ii n?aaiaieth n aa?ieei ?ieiei i?eianei n niaie aeaeaei ia oieueei
aeaiaiiinoue e i?eoioeeainoue. Iii inaiaiaeeeinue io ?eoi?e/aneie
iaiuuaiiinoe e io/anoe ?aaaeeeoe?iaaei anoanoaaiiua /oanoaa, oioy e a
aaeaoii-ianea?aaeiii einothia.

Yoi auei a aeooa a?aiaie. Oaia?ue oaea ia a Aa?naea, a a noiee/iuo
iniaiyeao a?enoie?aoia e e?oiiuo ao?aeoa caaeaaaee oii a naaoneie
aeecie, a eeoa?aoo?a e eneonnoaa. Iaeoaoaeae yoeo iniaiyeia aua
ainoeuaei, ii oaea iaei o?iaaei e eioa?aniaaei iuoiia aaeeeieaiea iieiuo
oaao?aeueiiai aaee/ey e eneonnoaaiiuo no?anoae i?iecaaaeaiee “aieueoiai
noeey”.

Aaeeinoaaiiui a oi a?aiy ooaeiaeieeii, eioi?iio noaeaeaii auei
iiaeiyoueny auoa ia?aciiai ycuea naiae yiioe e aic?iaeeoue o?aioeocneoth
aeeaiienue a aiaeu canoiy, aue Aiooai Aaooi (1584-1721).

Ieiei 1702 aiaea a ianoa?neie aacaea?iiai aeeaiienoea e iioiaiai
oi?aiaoea ?ann/eoaiiuie ia iaacuneaoaeueiue aeon ea?oeiaie iiyaeeny
canoai/eaue e caieiooue naiiaaeoeaoeeaoiee thiioa. Ca ianeieueei a?ioae,
eieeo ia /a?aeaea e ieneo noia ii aianoa n ae?oaeie oaeeie aea ieueie,
eae e ii, o/aieeaie ienae oeaeuie aeiyie aeaoaaua eiiee. A naiaiaeiua io
?aaiou /anu ii auoiaeee ia ai?iaeneea oeeoeu e oai aac onoaee ?eniaae n
iaoo?u.

A 1703 aiaeo, oaea a Ia?eaea, Aaooi ia?aoae e naiaio ia?aiio noiee/iiio
o/eoaeth – Eeiaeo AEeeei. AEeeei ienae yneecu oaao?aeueiuo aeaei?aoeee.
E caeanue aeonu o/eoaey e o/aieea, i/aaeaeii, niaiaee. Aia/aoeaiey io
y?ia?i/iiai oaao?a Aaooi nio?aieo ia aeieaea aiaeu, e iie eyaoo a iniiao
iiiaeo i?iecaaaeaiee ooaeiaeieea. A 1707 aiaeo Aaooi ia?aoiaeeo e iiaiio
o/eoaeth Eeiaeo Iae?aio, aeeaiienoeo aunieie i?ioanneiiaeueiie eoeueoo?u
e oiieiai ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aeona, aaea e ia/aeanue ianoiyuay o/aaa
Aaooi.

Aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi Iae?ai aue o?aieoaeai nia?aiiie a Ethenaiao?aneii
aeai?oea /anoe aiaaoaeoeo ei?ieaaneeo nia?aiee, iieiaeiio Aaooi ioe?ueny
aeinooi e nie?iaeuai eieeaeoeee. Iiiai a?aiaie i?iaiaeee Aaooi a caeao
aeai?oea, eco/ay e o?oaeiethaeai eiie?oy i?iecaaaeaiey auaeathueony
aeeaiienoeaa iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo oeie.

Aaooi ieeiaaea ia aieiiaaei, aoaeoo ee eoieaiu aai ?aaiou. Ii i?aauoa
anaai oeaiee naith oai?/aneoth iacaaeneiinoue e i?ac?eoaeueii ioiineeny
e aeaiueaai. Eae ioia/ae iaeei ec nia?aiaiieeia ooaeiaeieea, “ii anaaaea
ienae, /oi aio acaeoiaaony, e ia ethaee caeaciuo nthaeaoia”.

Aeaeaei ia ana nicaeaiiua ooaeiaeieeii i?iecaaaeaiey ecaanoiu iai. Ii
aeinoaoi/ii iacaaoue ieiei o?aonio ea?oei e ianiaoiia iiiaeanoai
?enoieia, eioi?ua a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?eienuaathony Aaooi, /oiau
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa iaecauaioth oai?/aneoth yia?aeth, ii?aceoaeueioth
o?oaeiniiniaiinoue e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ianoa?a, i?iaeeaoaai noieue
ei?ioeoth aeeciue (Aaooi aieae ooaa?eoeacii).

Ii?aaeaao iiaecia, naiiauoiinoue, oe?ieee aeeaiacii ia?aciuo,
yiioeeiiaeueiuo e aeeaiieniuo ?aoaiee, aieueoia ?aciiia?acea nthaeaoia.
Aaooi iiaeii n/eoaoue iniiaiiieiaeieeii ?ieiei a aeeaiiene, e aai
oai?/anoai eo/oa anaai iieacuaaao, eaeiai ?iaea /aeiaa/aneea ioe?uoey
oaeei a naaa yoi “iioueueeiaia” eneonnoai.

O?oaeii i?aaenoaaeoue ooaeiaeieea aieaa iaayoaeueiiai a naiae
iaiiaeaeaeueiie a?aoeeiciinoe, /ai Aaooi. I?aaeaea anaai – yoi oaaeaa?u
ooii/aiiie aeeaiiene, ianoiyuee i?acaeiee aeey aeaca, ii oaeiai, eioi?ue
ethaeo iaaeiua, iay?eea iooaiee e ni/aoaiey. Aaooi ienae iaeue/aeoeie
aena?iuie iaci/eaie, oeae aieoaaioth naoue n cieioenouie, na?aa?enouie e
iaiaeueiuie ia?aeeaaie.

Iniaie ooii/aiiinoueth ia?aaea/e nie?iaaiiuo aeooaaiuo ninoiyiee ioia/ai
i?eciaiiue oaaeaa? ianoa?a – “AEeeue” (Ia?eae, Eoa?). Ia iaiau/iii aeey
Aaooi aieueoii oienoa (ii/oe aeaa iao?a a aunioo) iaienai a iieiue ?ino
iiioey?iue ia?niiaae eoaeueyineie eiiaaeee ianie – iaeaiue, aeiaa?/eaue
iaoaea/iee AEeeue. Iaeaoue a iaeaiue aaeue aaeaoii, ii canoue a
iioa?yiiie, aacaieueiie iica, aeyaey ia c?eoaey ia/aeueiui, aii?ioathuei
acaeyaeii. AEeeue o Aaooi aaccaueoai e aaneiia/ii iaeeiie. ?yaeii n iei
aai eieeaae aeoa?u, ii ei iao aeaea aei eo oiaa?eua.

Ecaanoiua iai no?aieoeu aeia?aoee Aaooi iicaieytho aeoiaoue, /oi Aaooi,
iiaeiaii aai aa?ith, /oanoaiaae naay iaeeiiei e iai?ethoii a /oaeaeii
aio noaoiii niaeoaeea aeecie. Ia?ac AEeey ia eiaao aiaeiaee a aeeaiiene
OVIII aaea. Aio ia auei a oi a?aiy ?aaiuo ia oieueei ii neiaeiinoe
yiioeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey ia?aca, ii e ii e?aeia iai?aeeia?iiio
aeeaiieniiio ?aoaieth. Iaeue/aeoea, iieoi?ic?a/iua iacee cieioenoiai,
eeeiaiai e na?i-?iciaiai oeaaoa iie?uaatho aaeue aaeaoii AEeey,
neeaaynue, iie nicaeatho i?eaeiaeueiue, i?enouee oieueei iaeeo?a Aaooi,
aeai/oaeii-aaeue oii e i?eaeatho aaeiio oeaaoo iaiau/ioth aeey iaai
aeeaiienioth au?aceoaeueiinoue. Eaaeaony, /oi iaeaaeaeu AEeey eceo/atho
iyaeee, aea?e?othuee, ea?athuee iiiaeie ?aoeaenaie naao.

Ethaeiui aeai?ii Aaooi a c?aeua aiaeu oai?/anoaa auee oae iacuaaaiua
“aaeaioiua i?acaeianoaa”. I?aaenoaaeaiiua a yoii aeai?a aaeaioiua aeaiu,
eaaaea?u e aethaeaiiua ia?u i?iaiaeyo a?aiy a ?ineioiuo, oe?aoaiiuo
oiioaiaie e noaooyie ia?eao, ianeaaeaeathony i?e?iaeie, aaaeoo oeoea
caaeooaaiua aanaaeu, ioceoee?otho, oaioeotho eee iitho iiae caoee aeoa?
e iaiaeieei. Aaooi niiaa, eae e a neo/aa n oaao?aeueiuie nthaeaoaie, ia
aue i?eaeiaeai a auai?a aeai?a. Ecia?aaeaiea ?acaeaeathueony naaoneeo
aeai e eaaaea?ia iiaeii auei ano?aoeoue a ia/aea aaea a ea?oeiao ae?oaeo
ooaeiaeieeia e a iiioey?iuo a oi a?aiy a?aath?ao “iiae e i?aaia”. Ii oi,
/oi ienae Aaooi, ?aoeoaeueii ioee/aeinue io aacaeoiiuo nthaeaoia aai
nia?aiaiieeia. A yoii ian oaaaeaeaao iaeia ec naiuo ecaanoiuo aaeaioiuo
eiiiiceoeee ianoa?a – “Iaeiiie/anoai ia ino?ia Oeeoa?a” (Ia?eae, Eoa?).

A 1717 aiaeo ea?oeia auea i?aaenoaaeaia Aaooi a Aeaaeaieth. Iaienaiiay
ia aua?aiiue naiei ooaeiaeieeii nthaeao, iia ia aienuaaeanue ie a iaeei
ec i?eciaiiuo Aeaaeaieae aeai?ia. Iainii?eiua aeaaea aeey aeaaeaieeia
aunieea aeinoieinoaa i?iecaaaeaiey canoaaeee aeth?e ia?ooeoue
o?aaeeoeeth e aianoi caaiey “ooaeiaeieea enoi?e/aneiai aeai?a”, eioi?ia
i?enaaeaaeinue anai aeeaiienoeai i?e anooieaiee a Aeaaeaieth, aeaoue
Aaooi caaiea “ianoa?a aaeaioiuo i?acaeianoa”. A o?eaeoeaoue o?e aiaea
Aaooi noae ecaanoiaeoei ooaeiaeieeii Ia?eaea.

Ia?niiaaee Aaooi caia/aoeaiu a oio iiiaio, eiaaea iie niae?athony
ioieuoue a oea?noai Aaia?u, ia ca/a?iaaiiue ino?ia, aaea oea?eo aa/iay,
ie/ai ia ii?a/aiiay ethaiaue. A ieaaiii, caiaaeeaiiii ?eoia, aoaeoi ai
nia nioneathony aethaeaiiua ia?u e iaeeaeathuae eo o aa?aaa cieioie
eaaeuea. Ie iaeii ioe?uoi au?aaeathuaa /oanoaa aeaeaeaiea, ie iaeii
y?eia oeaaoiaia iyoii ia ia?ooatho auaea?aeaiioth a iieooiiao
yiioeeiiaeueioth e aeeaiienioth a iieooiiao eaiao ea?oeiu. Aaeaa
oeiaeiua iooaiee iano?iaiee, caaeoi/eaay ia/oaoaeueiinoue e caaaaei/iay
iaeaioieey, eioi?uie Aaooi iaaeaeee ieeea?eiia ethaae, i?eaiinyo a
ea?oeio iioee yeaae/aneie a?onoe. A oaeie aea ia/oaoaeueii-yeaae/aneie
oiiaeueiinoe iaienai iaecaae – ieooaiiua cuaeei naaoii aeaee,
iaiiaeaeaeiua aea?aauey n nieia/iuie aeeeaie ia aaeo?iie eenoaa,
niieieiay aiaeiay aeaaeue.

A c?aeie e caeii/aiiie ia?aciie oi?ia i?iyaeeny niaa?oaiiue
ooaeiaeanoaaiiue aeon Aaooi, aai eneeth/eoaeueiay niiniaiinoue
i?eaeaaaoue oii/aeooth yiioeeiiaeueioth ie?aneo oeaaoo. Iineaaeiaa auei
aaaeiui, iaiiaeaoei ycue o?aioeocneie aeeaiiene ioe?uoeai.

Oaia “aaeaioiuo i?acaeianoa” iaoea io?aaeaiea ai iiiaeo ?aaioao Aaooi.
*aua ae?oaeo aniiieiathony “Iauanoai a ia?ea” e “I?acaeiee ethaae” ec
Ae?acaeaineie ea?oeiiie aaea?ae, y?ieoaaeiua “Iaecaae n aiaeiiaaeii” e
“Cao?oaeieoaeueiia i?aaeeiaeaiea”, “Aeenaeneea iiey” ec eiiaeiineie
eieeaeoeee Oieean. Aianoa n ooaeiaeieeii niiaa e niiaa aica?auaynue a
nicaeaiiue a yoeo i?iecaaaeaieyo eaeie-oi iniaue ie? iiyoe/aneie ia/ou,
iaeuecy ia ii/oanoaiaaoue, /oi ie? yoio n eaaeaeui ?acii noaiiaeony ana
aieaa ia/aeueiui e iaeaioiee/iui.

Nicaeaaay naie auiuoeaiiue ie? ia/ou, Aaooi, iaeiaei, ieeiaaea ia oa?ye
nayce n ?aaeueiinoueth. Eia/a e ia iiaei auoue o ooaeiaeieea, eioi?ue,
ii aai nianoaaiiiio au?aaeaieth, “o/eoaeai anao o/eoaeae” n/eoae
i?e?iaeo. Iiaeaeoe, iaei eoi ec auaeathueony ianoa?ia inoaaee a
ianeaaeea oaeia ia?iiiia eiee/anoai, eae Aaooi, naeaeaiiuo n iaoo?u
ca?eniaie iaecaaeiuo iioeaia, auoiauo noeai, naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo oeiia.
N oaeeaeoaeueiie naiaiaeie, ia i?eaaaay e iiaeaioiaeoaeueiui yneecai,
Aaooi eiiiiiiaae i?yii ia oienoa ec yoeo iaoo?iuo ca?eniaie naie
aeeaiieniua eiiiiceoeee.

Ana eo/oaa, /ai aue ioia/ai ?aaeenoe/aneee oaeaio Aaooi, niaaeeieeinue a
aai iineaaeiae ea?oeia “Auaanea AEa?naia”. Anaai ca ianeieueei aeiae
nicaeae nia?oaeueii aieueiie ooaeiaeiee yoio aannii?iue oaaeaa?
?aaeenoe/aneie aeeaiiene OVIII aaea. Aieueoay ii ?acia?ai ea?oeia auea
caaeoiaia eae auaanea aeey aioeeaa?iie eaaee aeeceiai ae?oaa ooaeiaeieea
O?ainoa AEa?naia.

Anaai aeaaiaaeoeaoue eao aeeeeny oai?/aneee iooue Aaooi, ii ca yoi
i?aaeaeueii ei?ioeia a?aiy ooaeiaeiee oniae i?iaeeoue aieueooth e
ianuuaiioth oai?/aneoth aeeciue.

A noeea ?ieiei ?aaioaee iiiaea ecaanoiua aeeaiienoeu – Ea?e Aaieii,
ii?o?aoeno AEai Ia?e Iaoouea, Oa?eue Iaooa?. Ii iaeaieaa oaeaioeeaui e
i?eciaiiui n?aaee ieo aue O?ainoa Aooa (1703-1770). Aooa, eae ieeoi
ae?oaie ec aai nia?aiaiieeia, noiae oaiaeeoue naiae aeeaiienueth
i?anuuaiiui aeonai a?enoie?aoia. Ii noae caeiiiaeaoaeai iiaeu e naiui
i?anoeaeiui ooaeiaeieeii na?aaeeiu aaea. I?e iiaeaea?aeea aeeyoaeueiie
oaai?eoee Ethaeiaeea OV ia?eecu aea Iiiiaaeo? Aooa naeaeae aeanoyuoth
i?eaeai?ioth ea?uea?o.

I?e?iaea aiiaua ia eioa?aniaaea Aooa. Ii aai nianoaaiiiio i?eciaieth,
iia eacaeanue aio iai?eyoiie, neeoeii caeaiie e ieioi inaauaiiie.
Aaeeinoaaiiui ianoaaieeii ooaeiaeieea inoaaaeinue aai aiaaoia
aiia?aaeaiea.

A aanaaea n Aeeae?i Aooa eae-oi neacae, /oi ii aa?ao e?anee ec aieiau e
ieoao eenoueth aiia?aaeaaiua nthaeaou. A ieo oeao?e?iaaee a aeaea
aaeaioiuo ianoooeia e aeaiaiiuo ianoooae a?enoie?aou e a?enoie?aoee,
oaea/aiiua aio?iuie aeaeaie aioe/iua aiae, aiaeie e ieiou (“Ianoooaneay
noeaia”, “Aa?aee e Iioaea”, “Eoiaiea Aeeaiu”).Aooa oaeaea ethaee ienaoue
iaiaaeaiiuo aeaiuei n aaei-?iciauie oaeaie. Ii iaoeiio au?aaeaieth
Aeeae?i, yoi auee nei?aa aeaiueiu e y?ioe/aneeo niia, /an oa, eioi?uo iu
ano?a/aai a ?aaeueiie aeecie.

A ea?oeiao Aooa caieiaeenue oaeiaeeauie i?iaeaeeaie aio?u, eoiaeenue,
niaa?oaee ooaeao e oaeaeaeenue aio?iuie aeaeaie Aaia?u e Aeeaiu, ieaee
aaiee, ea?aee ia nae?aee e oaiuaeenue aeiii iaeaoua a aaeueiua ieaouey
ianoooe e ianoooee.

Aeaiueth iiaui aeonai aue e oneiaiue, ii oaeeaeoaeueii eaaeee e naaoeue
eiei?eo ooaeiaeieea. Ec iaaeiuo, na?iaaouo e oeaaoa i?eayaeoeo ?ic oiiia
Aooa ae?ooicii ninoaaeye oa?aeoa?iua aeey ?ieiei oeaaoiaua nicao/ey,
eioi?ua iaicia/aeenue oaeeie yeno?aaaaaioiuie oa?ieiaie, eae “aieoaeiay
oaeea”, “?acaay ianoooea”, “”oeaao aaae?a acaieiiaaiiie ieiou”.

Aooa oiae ni/aoaoue ?acaea/aiey n iai?yaeaiiui o?oaeii. ?aaioay ii
aeanyoue /ania a aeaiue, ii ia oieueei oniaaae ienaoue ea?oeiu e
iiiai/eneaiiua aeeaiieniua eiiiiceoeee aeey ieaoiiia e iaiii, ii e
?anienuaaoue aeaee eeaaaneiia, ii?ooacu, ea?aou, ye?aiu aeey eaieiia,
iiaeaee?iaaoue noaooyoee aeey naa?neiai oa?oi?a. Ii iaae eaeeie au
i?iecaaaeaieyie ie ?aaioae O?ainoa Aooa, iie anaaaea auee eeoaiu
enoeiiuo /aeiaa/aneeo /oanoa, e eo niaea?aeaiea ioee/aeinue
iiaa?oiinoiui ooaeiaeanoaaiiui caiuneii.

N ?aaiui oniaoii ii iia aa?uee?iaaoue iaeei e oio aea naeiiiue nthaeao,
aaneiia/ii iiaoi?youe iaeei e oio aea i?aa?aoeaoeeny a ooaii ia?ac.
Aeaaiui aeey Aooa auei no?aieaiea i?eaianoe a naie ?aaiou aeaei?aoeaioth
e?ani/iinoue, i?acaeie/ioth ia?yaeiinoue, aania/ioth eaaeinoue e
?acaeaeaoaeueiinoue. Eiaiii yoe /a?ou niioaaonoaiaaee oai o?aaiaaieyi,
eioi?ua i?aaeuyaeyee aeeaiiene au/o?iue e ea?eaue ?ieiei e
a?enoie?aoe/aneea caeac/eee. N eo o?aaiaaieyie Aooa ni?aaeeny aeanoyua.

A niioaaonoaee n caeiiaie noeey ?ieiei ea?oeiu Aooa noaee ia?yaeo n
?aciui aeaei?ii e ca?eaeaie iaeiei ec yeaiaioia oe?aoaiey eioa?uea?a. A
oaeii neo/aa ?a/ue oaea oea ia i niuneiaie e ooaeiaeanoaaiiie oeaiiinoe
aeeaiieniiai i?iecaaaeaiey, eae yoi auei a noaieiaie aeeaiiene, a
oieueei i aeaei?aoeaiuo yooaeoao e e?ani/iinoe. E caeanue Aooa ii/oe ia
auei ?aaiuo. Aeaaeay aei oiieinoae i?eaiaie noeey, ooaeiaeiee n
oaeeaeoaeueiie naiaiaeie e iai?aeeia?iie eiiiiceoeeiiiie e
eiei?enoe/aneie ecia?aoaoaeueiinoueth oaycuaae naie ?anieniua iaiii n
iauei aeaei?ii, ?annoaaeye ecyuiua eaaeea aeoeaiou a ecuneaiiii
?ieaeeueiii eioa?uea?a.

Oai?/anoai “aeeaiienoea a?aoeee”, eae iacuaaee a naia a?aiy Aooa,
aucaaei, ii aiieia iiiyoiui i?e/eiai, io?eoeaoaeueioth ?aaeoeeth a
aiaeu, eiaaea nic?aaaea ii/aa aeey ?aaiethoeee e aai ?aaiou oeaieeenue
ieaea noieiinoe oeaiu oienoa.

A na?aaeeia OVIII aaea a iauanoaaiiie e aeooiaiie aeecie O?aioeee
i?ienoiaeeee na?ueaciua naeaeae. Iaaeiaieuenoai noa?ui ?aaeeiii ioaaoeei
?aoeoaeueii ana neie iauanoaa. Aioaaeoea a enoi?eth iiae eiaiai
i?inaaoeoaeae auaeathueany o/aiua, oeeiniou, yeiiiienou e ienaoaee a
naieo o?oaeao e ciaiaieoie Yioeeeeiiaaeee Yioeeeeiiaaeey – oieeiaue
neiaa?ue iaoe, eneonnoa e ?aianae. Ninoaaeoaee e ?aaeaeoi?u – Aeeae?i,
Aeaeaiaa?, ?onni, Aieueoa?, i?icaaiiue “ee/iui a?aaii aiaa”, oeeinio
Aieueaao e ae?. iiaeaa?aaee aaniiuaaeiie e?eoeea i?aanoaaiiua e
iauanoaaiiua onoie onoa?aaoaai no?iy e aioiaeee ii/ao aeey ?aaiethoeee.
Aeaaiuie ii?ieaie yoiai no?iy i?inaaoeoaee n/eoaee nioeeaeueiia
ia?aaainoai, aeooiaioth ionoaeinoue, ii?aaiuaiea ee/iinoe, i?aaeaeueii
ia?aie/aiiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ciaiee. E iie iinoaaeee ia?aae niaie
caaea/o niinianoaiaaoue i?inaauaieth o?aioeocneiai ia?iaea,
ainnoaiiaeoue a i?aaao /aeiaa/aneoth ee/iinoue, ainieoaoue a /aeiaaea
aunieea i?aanoaaiiua ea/anoaa, iacaaeneiinoue e niaeinoue iunee.

Aaaeouay ?ieue a ai?ueaa ca iiaia eneonnoai i?eiaaeeaaeaea
auaeathuaiony o?aioeocneiio iuneeoaeth, o/aiiio, ooaeiaeanoaaiiiio
e?eoeeo Aeaie Aeeae?i. Neeueiia aicaeaenoaea ia oi?ie?iaaiea
ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo acaeyaeia iauanoaa ieacae oeeinio e ienaoaeue AEai AEae
?onni. Iiae aeeyieai eaeae i?inaaoeoaeae oi?ie?iaaeanue iacaaeneiay a
ioeaiea ethaeae e yaeaiee oai?/aneay ee/iinoue.

Iaeiei ec naiuo y?eeo i?eia?ia oaeie ee/iinoe aue auaeathueeny
aeeaiienaoe aaea AEai Aaoeno Neiaii Oa?aeai (1699-1779).

Iieiaeie Oa?aeai iiyaeeny a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie n?aaea Ia?eaea a 1720-a
aiaeu, anei?a iinea nia?oe Aaooi. Oaea ia?aay, ia?aoeaoay ia naay
aieiaiea ?aaioa Oa?aeaia aiai?eo i oii, /oi ia/eiathuee aeeaiienaoe
i?iyaeyao iacaaeneiinoue e euao nianoaaiioth oaio a eneonnoaa. Ioiuia
no?aieaiea eaeoe io ?aaeueiiai aeeciaiiiai iioeaa, io eiie?aoiie
aeeciaiiie neooaoeee ieeiaaea ia inoaaeo ooaeiaeieea.

A 1728 aiaeo ia “Aunoaaea iieiaeuo” n?aaee iiiaeanoaa aunoaaeaiiuo
aeeaiieniuo ?aaio ?acei auaeaeyeenue aeaa iaienaiiuo iai?eau/ii i?inoi e
iaoa?eaeueii iaoth?ii?oa Oa?aeaia – “Neao” (Ia?eae, Eoa? ) e “Aooao
(Ia?eae, Eoa?). “Neao” aue ianoieueei auniei ioeaiai nia?aiaiieeaie, /oi
aai aaoi?a iacaaee “o?aioeocneei ?aia?aiaeoii”. Iaa iaoth?ii?oa auee
caia/aiu a aeaaeaie/aneeo e?oaao. Iieiaeiio aeeaiienoeo anei?a auea
i?aaeinoaaeaia aiciiaeiinoue i?aaieciaaoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iieac ?aaio
aeey /eaiia Ei?ieaaneie Aeaaeaiee. Iinea i?iniio?a aeth?e i?eciaei aai
aeinoieiui caaiey /eaia Aeaaeaiee.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi naiae ?aiiae neaaie Oa?aeai aue iaycai iaoth?ii?oo,
ii aeiaieueii ?aii ia?aoae e aeai?iaui eiiiiceoeeyi. Nthaeaou aeey ieo
Oa?aeai iaoiaeee a ne?iiiii, iianaaeiaaiii naiaeiii auoo iaaiaaouo
ai?iaeai, a e?oao ethaeae i?inouo, aanoeo?inoiuo e o?oaeiethaeauo, – a
oii, nianoaaiii, ie?a, n eioi?ui ooaeiaeiee aue naycai ii ?iaeaeaieth e
ia?aco aeecie e eioi?ue oi?ie?iaae aai eae /aeiaaea e ooaeiaeieea.

AEeciue ia?niiaaeae Oa?aeaia ?acia?aia, niieieia, iaaiaaoa niauoeyie.
Iia i?ioiaeeo a iianaaeiaaiii o?oaea, caaioao i aeiia e naiuo
i?icae/aneeo caiyoeyo (“I?a/ea”, Eaieia?aae, Y?ieoaae; “Iieeoaa ia?aae
iaaaeii”, Eaieia?aae, Y?ieoaae).

Aeiiiaeouo e caaioeeauo oicyae a ea?oeiao Neiaiia Oa?aeaia iaeciaiii
ie?oaeatho aea?aayiiua aaaeuee, iaaeiua eioeu e oacu, iaoeu, neiai?iaeu,
a?oaua aeeiyiua ienee e oa?aeee.

Ni a?aiai a?aoueaa Eaiai ai o?aioeocneie aeeaiiene ia auei ie iaeiiai
ooaeiaeieea, eioi?ue noieue i?aaaeeai e oaeei aeoaieei iiieiaieai, eae
Oa?aeai, ecia?aaeae auo ne?iiiuo i?aaenoaaeoaeae “o?aoueaai nineiaey”.

Ia inoaeny iacaia/aiiui nia?aiaiieeaie e ?aaeeee, ecuneaiiaeoee eiei?eo
ne?iiiuo ii oeiaaeo e niaea?aeaieth iieioai ianoa?a. Oa?aeai e a iaoe
aeie ii/eoaaony eae iaeei ec auaeathueony eiei?enoia a aa?iiaeneie
aeeaiiene.

I?aaeainoeuay aeeaiienoeaa OIO aaea, Oa?aeai eniieueciaae naienoai
iieiaeaiiuo ia oieno ?acaeaeueiuo iaceia /enoiai oeaaoa neeaaoueny ia
?annoiyiee a aeaco c?eoaey e nicaeaaaoue eaaeee aicaeooiue, aiaaoue
oii/aeoeie oeaaoiauie ithainaie oii. Ia niaoeaay e?anee ia iaeeo?a,
ianoa? iaiinee eo iaeeeie iaceaie ia aeeaiienioth iiaa?oiinoue. I?e yoii
aeaaiaea?y ioa?anuaaaiui ?aoeaenai, eaaeaeue oeaao iaeeaae ?yaeii n
ninaaeiei, i?eia?aoay iniaoth eioaineaiinoue e naaaeanoue.

?aciiia?aciie e aiaaoie auea aeeaiieniay oaeoo?a ea?oei Oa?aeaia Eaaeay
eenoue oi iie?uaaea oieno aonouie e ni/iuie iaceaie, oi inoaaeyea ia iai
eaaeee e i?ic?a/iue neaae. *oiau e?anee cao/aee a iieioth neeo, Oa?aeai
nia/aea ienae inaauaiiua ianoa e eeoue caoai ?aoae a oeaaoa inoaeueiua
/anoe eiiiiceoeee. A caaa?oaiea ii i?iienuaae oieno oii/aeoeie
eanne?iaeaie, iauaaeeiythueie ecia?aaeaiea a aaeeiii aa?iiie/iii
eiei?eoa.

Oa?aeai iinoiyiii niaa?oainoaiaae naia ianoa?noai, ie ia iaiiaaiea ia
inoaiaaeeaaynue ia aeinoeaiooii. Ii ?aaioae iaaeeaiii e aaeoi/eai,
ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiuaay e iooa/eaay eaaeaeoth, aeaaea naioth iaeeoth
aeaoaeue. ss?eee oaeaio aaeeeiai ianoa?a ia oieueei ia iiia?e ia neeiia
eao, ii, iaiai?io, aeinoea ea/anoaaiii iiaiai o?iaiy. Eiaaea noa?ue
ooaeiaeiee ec-ca aieacie auioaeaeai aue inoaaeoue aeeaiienue ianeii, ii
acyeny ca ianoaeue e nicaeae a yoie oaoieea aannia?oiua i?iecaaaeaiey
ii?o?aoiie aeeaiiene.

Oa iiaua /a?ou, eioi?ua ooaeiaeiee i?eaian a ii?o?aoioth aeeaiienue a
neiioeaio?e?iaaiiii aeaea, ?ane?ueenue a aeaoo eo/oeo ii?o?aoao ianoa?a
– “Ii?o?ao aeaiu ooaeiaeieea” (1775, ianoaeue, Ia?eae, Eoa?) e a
“Aaoiii?o?aoa n caeaiui eicu?ueeii” (1775, ianoaeue, Ia?eae, Eoa?). Eae
e ana ?aaiou Oa?aeaia, iie iiaeeoiatho eaeie – oi iniaie ene?aiiinoueth
e aiaoiae i?inoioie.

A 1750-a aiaeu, eiaaea Oa?aeai aeinoea oaea aa?oeiu ianoa?noaa, ia/eiae
naie iooue e i?eciaieth AEai Aaoeno A?ac (1725-1805).

I?eaoaa a Ia?eae a 1750 aiaeo, A?ac /a?ac iyoue eao noae oaea ecaanoiui
ooaeiaeieeii. Ia?aoth ecaanoiinoue i?eianea aio ea?oeia “*oaiea Aeaeee”.
A yoie ea?oeia ia?niiaaee A?aca aoaeoi ?acua?uaatho i?aaio/eoaeueiue
niaeoaeeue ec aeecie o?aoueaai nineiaey. Caaioeeaue ioaoe iauyniyao
aeaoyi oieueei /oi i?i/eoaiioth no?aieoeo ec Aeaeee.

“*oaiea Aeaeee” i?eianei ooaeiaeieeo nainaoeeiiiue oniao, e aai eiy
n?aco noaei ecaanoiui ca i?aaeaeaie O?aioeee. A?aath?u i?iecaaaeaiey
?aneoiaeenue ia?anoaao.

Aua iiiai o?iaaoaeueiuo e iio/eoaeueiuo enoi?ee ?anneaaeao iai A?ac, e a
eaaeaeie ec ieo ii aoaeao no?aieoueny i?aiiaeaoue o?ie i?aaio/eoaeueiie
ii?aee.

Oaeay i?aoaiaeothuay ia ainieoaiea aeia?iaeaoaeueiuo /oanoa o?aeoiaea
ia?acia iiaea au iicaieeoue oaeaeaoue a i?iecaaaeaieyo A?aca ia?acaoe
eni?aaeythuae i?aau aeeaiiene, i eioi?ie aiai?eee i?inaaoeoaee. Iaeiaei
naioeiaioaeueiue, oaeueoeai-iaceaeaoaeueiue oii e oi?iuaiiay oi?ia,
i?enouea ea?oeiai A?aca, ?acei nieceee ainieoaoaeueiia cia/aiea
eneonnoaa ooaeiaeieea e aeaee iiaiae aeey e?eoe/aneeo caia/aiee aeaaea
aa?iiio iieeiiieeo A?aca Aeaie Aeeae?i.

I/aiue /anoi A?ac, ia iieaaaynue ia iiiyoeeainoue e aiia?aaeaiea
c?eoaey, aeiiieiye naie ea?oeiu iiiaineiaiuie aeaoaeueiuie iauyniaieyie.
Ei anaio ii?aeeno iiaeaaeye a A?aca aeeaiienoea. AEeaiieniay iaia?a
ooaeiaeieea auea aeanoeie e oieiaeiie, e?ani/iay oaeoo?a – caaeaaeaiiie
e neo/iie, oeaaoa auee iay?eeie, aieueoae /anoueth eieaeueiuie. A
iaeeo?a i?aiaeaaeaee na?ua, caeaiiaaoi-eeeiaua e ei?e/iaaua oiia.

Cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a oai?/anoaa A?aca caieiaee aeeceea e aeai?iaiio
ii?o?aoo iia?oaeiua ecia?aaeaiey e aieiaee ieeiaeaeiuo, ecyuiuo,
o?iaaoaeueii-iaeaiuo aeaaooae. Iie ai?ththo ec-ca ?acaeoiai eoaoeia,
iieaeeaatho oia?ooth ioe/eo eee iieyony, aicaeaa e iaao caooiaiaiiue
neacie aci? (“Aeaai/ea n aea?aayiiie eoeeie”, “?acaeoue eoaoei”,
“Ia?oaay ioe/ea”, ” Oo?aiiyy iieeoaa”). Iacaaeneiue io oa?aeoa?a aeeaie
iiaeaee, nicaeaiiue iaeiaaeaeu eaeaaeece?iaaiiue naioeiaioaeueiue ia?ac
ia?aoiaeee ec ea?oeiu a ea?oeio e iniaaiii /anoi iiaoi?yeny ia/eiay n
1770-o aiaeia.

O?iaaoaeueiua e eaaeiaeinooiiua aeey iiieiaiey ea?oeiu A?aca aei oaeie
noaiaie oieeyee c?eoaeae, /oi iie oieiaie niae?aeenue o i?iecaaaeaiee
ooaeiaeieea, e iaeioi?ua ec ieo aeaaea ieaeaee. Eiaiii oaeea ea?oeiu
aieueoa anaai niioaaonoaiaaee aeonai oe?ieeo iauaineeo neiaa.

Iiioey?iinoue A?aca auea ianoieueii aaeeea, /oi n iath i?eoeinue
n/eoaoueny Ei?ieaaneie Aeaaeaiee, eoaea ii aue i?eiyo a 1769 aiaeo.

A iai?yaeaiiue i?aae?aaiethoeeiiiue ia?eiae e oai aieaa a ao?iua aiaeu
Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee ii?aeecothuaa, neauaaia
eneonnoai A?aca ia iiaei ioaaoeoue ia cai?inu ianuuaiiiai yiioaeueiuie
niauoeyie a?aiaie. A?ac aue caauo e oia? a iieiie ieuaoa e iaeeii/anoaa.

ss?eee neaae a aeeaiiene O?aioeee aoi?ie iieiaeiu OVIII aaea inoaaee
ooaeiaeiee iaiau/aeii ?aciinoi?iiiaai aea?iaaiey Iii?a O?aaiia?
(1732-1806). Ii aue o/aieeii Aooa e Oa?aeaia e a naiai oai?/anoaa
inouanoaee aeueyin yoeo ?aciuo oa/aiee.

Eae o Aooa, o O?aaiia?a oea?eo eaaeay ea?iaay y?ioeea, anaaiciiaeiua
aa?eaoeee oie “ea?u a ethaiaue”, eioi?oth aeai? Ethaeiaeea OV aicaae a
?aia aaeeeinaaoneie iiaeu. THiioa oi?iieeai iioeuaao iioeaeoe o
i?aeanoiie aeaaeoeu. O ae?oaie aeaaeoeu, ?aciaoaaoaeny ia eiaea,
i?ieaciee Aio? iioeuaao aa ?oaaoeo. O?aouey e?anaaeoea ea/aaony a ia?ea
ia ea/aeyo, aaoa? ?acaeoaaao aa thai/ee, a ainoeuaiiue iieeiiiee
ethaoaony ath nieco.

Iaeiaei a yoeo noeaieao o O?aaiia?a ai?acaei aieueoa aeeciaiiinoe, /an o
Aooa: anoue a ieo eaeay-oi iaiiaeaeaeueiay ?acainoue, thii?, aeeaay
iaaethaeaoaeueiinoue, iacaiaoii ia?aaiaeyuea oneiaiue ?ieaeeueiue aeai?
a ieai i?inoi auoiaiai aeai?a.

O?aaiia? – caia/aoaeueii iaea?aiiue e i/aiue a?oenoe/iue aeeaiienaoe e
a?aoee, i?e?iaeo ii ii-ianoiyuaio /oanoaiaae e aeaeae, oaea?u aai eenoe
iieiu yia?aee, ianoiyuea naao e aicaeoo o?aiauoo a aai ea?oeiao.

Eiaaea ?acaeaeenue ?aneaou ?aaiethoeeiiiie a?icu 1789 aiaea, noa?iio
O?aaiia?o, iineaaeiaio ooaeiaeieeo ?ieiei, auiae ae?aaee nianaoue
i?ioeia io ianoiyuaai aeey aoaeouaai. Ii ia?anoae ienaoue, caoi noae
o?aieoaeai Eoa?a.

Yiioa Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie ?aaiethoeee auea a?aiaiai aeanoieie ?anieaou
a?enoie?aoee ca aa ia?aceoe/aneoth “neaaeeoth aeeciue”: iia
?aniea/eaaeanue ca iaa naieie aieiaaie ia aeeueioeia. Ana, iaiiieiathuaa
i aa ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo aeonao, noaei iaeeiciui: Aooa i?ace?aee, O?aaiia?a
eia-eae oa?iaee, e A?aco n aai i?iiiaaaeueth naiaeiuo aeia?iaeaoaeae
ioiineeenue a eo/oai neo/aa nienoiaeeoaeueii, caoi n iiaie y?einoueth
aniuoioea caacaea Ionnaia e aioea?eeny iiaue eeanneoeeci ?aaiethoeeiiiie
ao?aeoacee, acyaoae iai?ieao oiae e eioo?iu aioe/iuo aa?iaa.

Ciaiaiinoeai eneonnoaa ?aaiethoeee noae Eoe Aeaaeae (1758-1825).
Oai?/aneay aeia?aoey e?oiiaeoaai aeeaiienoea niaiaea n iaeiei ec naiuo
ianuuaiiue e iai?yaeaiiuo yoaiia a enoi?ee O?aioeee.

Aeaaeae ?aaioae i?e ei?ieaaneii ?aaeeia, ai a?aiaia Aaeeeie o?aioeocneie
ao?aeoaciie ?aaiethoeee, i?e Aee?aeoi?ee e Eiinoeuenoaa, a ia?eiae
iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee e ?anoaa?aoeee aeanoe Ao?aiiia.

Ia aeieaii aeeciaiiii iooe ooaeiaeieea auee eeethcee e caaeoaeaeaiey,
oai?/aneea o?eoiou e iaoaea/e, aiaeu i?aneaaeiaaiee e ecaiaiey. Ii?ie
iaeaunoaai oai?/aneiai ?anoeaaoa ia yoii aeieaii iooe auei aeey Aeaaeaea
ao?iia ?aaiethoeeiiiia a?aiy. Eiaiii a yoi a?aiy auaeathueiny ianoa?ii
auee naeaeaiu iiaeeeiii aaeeeea e iiaeeeiii iiaua ioe?uoey, eioi?ua
aiieioeee no?iaue aa?ie/aneee iaoin ?aaiethoeee e i?ieiaeeee aei?iao
naiui ieiaeioai?iui eneaieyi eneonnoaa OIO aaea.

Oaiaoe/aneee i?eaa?aeaiaoe aioe/iuo o?aaeeoeee, ii aeaeae a ieo iooue e
ii?aeueiiio ia?aaii?oaeaieth eneonnoaa. ?anneaaeaiiiio aaaeiiecio ?ieiei
Aeaaeae i?ioeaiiinoaaee eoeueo aioe/iiai aa?iy, iaoin a?aaeaeaineiai
iiaeaeaa – oi, /oi auei iaiaoiaeeii “aeaaeeaoi?ai ao?aeoaciiai
iauanoaa”.

Oaea a ia?aii e?oiiii i?iecaaaeaiee Aeaaeae caaiai?ee i aeieaa ia?aae
?iaeeiie, i oao aea?oaao, eioi?uo /anoi o?aaoao eniieiaiea yoiai aeieaa
( “Aaeeca?ee”, Eeeeue, Iocae ecia?aceoaeueiiai eneonnoaa). Ia ia?iiiii
o?aoiao?iaii iieioia anaai /aou?a ia?niiaaea: iaeaoue a ?oaeua e noa?ua
eaou Aaeeca?ee, iaeue/ee-iiaiaeu?ue, iiaeathuay ieeinouith aeaiueia e
noa?ue nieaeao, ii?aaeaiiue ninoiyieai e ieuaineei aeaeii naiaai
i?aaeaea noieue ciaiaieoiai, aiaia/aeueieea. Aunoaaeaiiay a Naeiia a
1781 aiaeo ea?oeia i?iecaaea ia?iiiia aia/aoeaiea ia ioaeeeo.

Ii?aaeaeeaoea oaio e niaea?aeaiea “Aaeeca?ey” /a?ou iieo/eee ?acaeoea a
ciaiaieoie “Eeyoaa Ai?aoeeaa” (1784, Ia?eae, Eoa?). Caeii/ea
iiaeaioiaeoaeueioth ?aaioo, ooaeiaeiee cae?ueny a ianoa?neie e ca
iaeeiiaaeoeaoue ianyoeaa iaienae ia?iiiia iieioii – 330-425 ni.
Iai?a?uaiui iioieii oee ethaee e aeiio ooaeiaeieeo, /oiau oaeaeaoue
oaaeaa? iiaie aeeaiiene.

A?yae ee iiaeii iaeoe aieaa iaaeyaeioth eeethno?aoeeth e eeanne/aneiio
oaceno: iiaaaea a?aaeaeaineiai aeieaa iaae ee/iui /oanoaii. Ea?oeia aei
e?aeiinoe ?eoi?e/ia, aei iaeaiinoe iiae/eiaia i?aaeacyoie noaia,
aeeaiienue aa aeiaieueii nooa e aane?iaia, e ana aea anoue a iae ia/oi
eneoiathuaa neeoeii i/aaeaeioth aeaaeaie/aneoth oiaeoeueiinoue:
ene?aiiee iue, ene?aiiaa aiiaeooaaeaiea eaeaae.

*a?ac ianeieueei eao, eiaaea Aeaaeae, eae /eai Eiiaaioa, niiaeaeaeiee
?iaaniuea?a e Ia?aoa, ieacaeny a naiie aoua ?aaiethoeeiiiuo niauoee, aai
eaeae iieo/eee ieioue e oiic?eoaeueiua noaiu iaeeee.

Oaia?ue ii ii ai?y/ei neaaeai niauoee iaienae aeaenoaeoaeueii
aieiothuoth “Eeyoao a caea aeey ea?u a iy/”, a aeaaiia – “Nia?oue
Ia?aoa”, naie oaaeaa?.

?aaeeay enoi?e/aneay ea?oeia nicaeaaaeanue a iiaeiaiuo oneiaeyo: oieueei
iaeaioia aeaaee Ia?aoa Aeaaeae aeaeae aai neaeyuei a aaiia e caiyoui
ioaaoii ia ienueia; ia ae?oaie aeaiue, eae oieueei ?acianeanue aanoue ia
oaeenoaa “ae?oaa ia?iaea”, Aeaaeae ii ii?o/aieth Eiiaaioa i?enooiee e
oaaeiaa/aieth aai iaiyoe.

A ea?oeia iao ie/aai iaaeoiaiiiai – ana iiaeeeiiia, aiooaiiia oai
o?aae/aneei niae?iaaieai, eioi?ia eniuouaatho ia?aae eeoeii oieueei /oi
niaa?oeaoaainy oaeaniiai niauoey. Oieueei ia iiaeuaia iainouaoaai
/oanoaa ooaeiaeieeo iiaea i?eeoe aaieaeueiay a naae i?inoioa e niaeinoe
eaeay – nio?aieoue ?aaeueioth neooaoeeth, ia?ac, aua noiyaoee ia?aae aai
aeacaie: Ia?ao a aaiia, ioaa/athuee ia ienueii Oa?eioou Ei?aea (iii o
iaai a ?oeao) e i?aaeaoaeuenee ath oaeoue.

E na?aaeeia 1789 aiaea Ia?eae iaiiieiae aiaiiue eaaa?ue. A yoe aeie
Aeaaeae caeai/eaae a?aiaeeiciaeoaa, aaeaa oianoeaoaany a aai ianoa?neie
iieioii “Eeeoi?u i?eiinyo A?ooo oaea aai eaciaiiuo nuiiaae” (1789,
Ia?eae, Eoa?). Ii i?aaeaieth, iaeei ec ia?auo ?eineeo eiinoeia Iooeee
THiee A?oo i?eeacae eacieoue nianoaaiiuo nuiiaae ca eciaio ?anioaeeea.
Aeaaeaea i?eaeae ii?aeueiue aniaeo yoiai i?aaeaiey.

Ia?eaeneay ioaeeea oaeaeaea “A?ooa” /a?ac ianyoe iinea acyoey Aanoeeee.
Aeaaeaea ano?a/aee eae aeeaiai aa?iy. “A?oo” noae naiui aieueoei
niauoeai a eoeueoo?iie aeecie ioaa/aiiiai ?aaiethoeeiiiui ieaiaiai
Ia?eaea.

I?aaeoanoaothuea ?aaiethoeee aiaeu auee aeey Aeaaeaea a?aiaiai aieueoeo
oai?/aneeo ioe?uoee e a ii?o?aoiii aeai?a. ?acaiaaoaaoea ao?aeoa e
a?enoie?aou, o?eaoiu ?aaiethoeee e ?iaeiaeoua ineieee noa?iai ?aaeeia,
auoaaeoea ec iecia iieeiaiaeoeu, iieeoeee e /eiiaieee ?aaiethoeeiiiie
O?aioeee e iaiieaiiianeie eiia?ee e i?inoi aacuiyiiua iieiaeua ethaee,
noa?eee e noa?ooe – oaeia iienoeia aia/aoeythuee aeeaiacii ii?o?aoiuo
ia?acia Aeaaeaea.

Ana iie iaienaiu n ?aaeeei oiaieai auyaeoue aeeaoth
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue iiaeaee e a oi aea a?aiy aeaoue iaiauaiiue,
oa?aeoa?ecothuee ii?aaeaeaiioth nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo ia?ac. I?inoioa e
anoanoaaiiinoue noaee ioee/eoaeueiie iaia?ie ianoa?a (“Ii?o?ao noi?oaia
Eaaoacuea”, 1788, Iueth-Ei?e, Iao?iiieeoai iocae; “Ii?o?ao ainiiaee
Iaeoeue”, 1784; “Ii?o?ao Eaca?y Aioa”, 1793, Eeaaneee iocae caiaaeiiai e
ainoi/iiai eneonnoaa; “Caeaiueoea”, 1795).

Aeaaeae aeaeae aa?iaa a ?iaaniuea?a e Ia?aoa, ii anei?a iinea iaaeaiey
yeiaeineie aeeeoaoo?u ii oae aea ene?aiii i?aaeaeny aeooie Iaiieaiio. E
yoi auea ia oieueei /a?oa ee/iie aeia?aoee Aeaaeaea, ii e anaai
iai?aaeaiey eeanneoeecia, noieue y?ei ei i?aaenoaaeaiiiai.

Eneonnoai ao?aeoaciiai eeanneoeecia ia i?ioyaeaiee eaeeo-ieaoaeue
iyoiaaeoeaoe eao iiaoi?eei a ieieaoth?a yaiethoeeth ii/eoaaiiai ei
Ae?aaiaai ?eia – io ?anioaeeee e eiia?ee, nio?aiea noeeaaua oi?iu e
aeaei?aoeaioth nenoaio, neiaeeaoeany i?e ?anioaeeea.

A i?ioeaiiieiaeiinoue ?ieiei, eeanneoeeci, iaieoaaoenue eaeayie ?onni,
i?iaicaeaoae i?inoioo e aeecinoue e i?e?iaea. A iaeioi?uo aea ioiioaieyo
eeanneoeeci ionooiae io “i?e?iaeu” aeaaea ii n?aaiaieth n ?ieiei oioy au
a oii, /oi ioaa?a aeeaiieniia aeaeaiea, a aianoa n iei e aiaaooth
eoeueoo?o oeaaoa a aeeaiiene, caiaiea aa ?ane?aneie.

A iaeanoe aeaei?a eeanneoeeci aui?aaee eoae?yaua, aiooua eeiee,
aica?aoee i?aaa a?aaeaeainoaa /aoeei neiiao?e/iui oi?iai, oi?inoee
nenoaio oe?aoaiee, caiaiee i?aaeiea, eciaaeaiii-aeainoaaiiua
aeaei?aoeaiua iioeau ioaeanoaaiiuie yiaeaiaie ne?auaiiuo oiaa, ciaiai,
eueaeiuie ianeaie e a?eoiiaie, caeinoaiaaiiuie ec ?eineeo ae?aaiinoae.
Oaia?ue iiaeieoeu oioaee iioiaeeoue ia ae?aaithth noaooth. Ieeaeeo
e?eiieeiia, oeaei, iooae, ia?eeia.

Yoio noeeue ?ani?ino?aiyeny e a ae?oaeo no?aiao, i?eaueoeo neaaeiaaoue
o?aioeocneei iiaeai. Eaeiau au iie ie auee.

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