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Факторы эффективности межкультурного общения

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Oaeoi?u yooaeoeaiinoe iaaeeoeueoo?iiai iauaiey

Ai anao ie?iauo eoeueoo?ao i?enoonoaotho iaeie e oa aea oieaa?naeee,
eioi?ua i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iaai? iaua/aeiaa/aneeo, iauaaoiaieoa?iuo
aaciauo oeaiiinoae e i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneeo ii?i. Oeacaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee, enoiaeii oi?ie?othuea iauiinoue eoeueoo?, iiaoo
?anniao?eaaoueny eae ooiaeaiaio acaeiiiiieiaiey e acaeiiaeaenoaey
i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo iaoeee, iniiaa aeey onoaiiaeaiey eiioaeoia.
Aianoa n oai, ia?yaeo ni naeeaeathueie iaoeee oieaa?naeeyie, eiaaony e
oeaeue ?yae niaoeeoe/iuo aeey eaaeaeie ioaeaeueiie eoeueoo?u
oa?aeoa?enoee. E oaeei oa?aeoa?enoeeai, eioi?ua eiaiothony no?oeoo?iuie
i?eciaeaie e “a naiae no?oeoo?e?iaaiiie iauiinoe ia?acotho
niaoeeoe/aneee i?ioeeue iaeiie ioaeaeueii acyoie eoeueoo?u” [9, n.10]
ioiinyony, a /anoiinoe, e iniaaiiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ?aciuie ia?iaeaie
naiae o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Iaiouaieaiie /anoueth yoie
aeayoaeueiinoe eae eiiiiiaioa ii?aaeaeaiiiai aniaeoa ia?aca aeecie oie
eee eiie iaoeee, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie neiaeiia e iiiaiia?aciia
yaeaiea, yaeyaony aeaeiaia iauaiea. Inouanoaeyaiia a iaeanoe
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa, yoi iauaiea iiin?aaeoao niaianoioth
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue ethaeae a oie eee eiie
i?ioanneiiaeueiie noa?a. O?oaeiaay aeayoaeueiinoue e nii?iaiaeaeathuaa
aa aeaeiaia iauaiea ia?oia?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acaa?ouaathueeny ai
a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa i?ioeann. ?acaeoea yoiai i?ioeanna e,
niioaaonoaaiii, iauaiea iaaeaeo ia?oia?aie – i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aciuo
iaoeee, inouanoaeythueie aeaeiaua eiioaeou, i?ienoiaeeo ia i?ioyaeaiee
?yaea oac. A niioaaonoaee n iniiaiuie iieiaeaieyie oai?ee
aeayoaeueiinoe, oaeeie oacaie, /a?ac eioi?ua i?ienoiaeeo ?acaeoea
aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, yaeythony neaaeothuea: 1) iiaeaioiaea aeaeiaiai
eiioaeoa; 2) i?ia?aiie?iaaiea aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa; 3) ?aaeecaoeey
aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa; 4) i?eiyoea ?aoaiee, iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia aeaeiaiai
eiioaeoa. Ia yooaeoeaiinoue aeaeiaiai iauaiey, a cia/eo e ia oniaoiinoue
iieo/aiey aeaeaaiuo ?acoeueoaoia ia eaaeaeie ec oeacaiiuo oac, o.a. ia
yooaeoeaiinoue naiiai eiioaeoa a oeaeii, aeeytho, eae iieacuaatho
enneaaeiaaiey, aeaa a?oiiu oaeoi?ia, ?anniio?aiea eioi?uo
i?aaenoaaeyaony ?aeaaaioiuie i?e aeaeueiaeoai niiinoaaeaiee eoeueoo?.
Ia?aoth a?oiio oaeeo oaeoi?ia ninoaaeytho yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneea, iiae
eioi?uie iiae?acoiaaaaony nenoaia i?eiyouo ii?i, i?aaee, oi?i,
i?eaioaoeee, onoaiiaie e ioiioaiee e o?oaeiaie/i?iecaiaenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe; ia?a/eneaiiua yeno?aeeiaaenoe/aneea oaeoi?u eiatho ianoi
ia eaaeaeie ec oeacaiiuo auoa oac. Aoi?oth a?oiio yoeo oaeoi?ia
ninoaaeytho ?a/aaua, eioi?ua oaeaea eiatho ianoi ia eaaeaeie ec
oeacaiiuo oac e io?aaeathony a eiiioieeaoeaiii iiaaaeaiee ia?oia?ia ii
iauaieth a i?ioeanna eae iiaeaioiaee, oae e ?aaeecaoeee niaianoiie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. ?anniio?ei eaaeaeoth a?oiio oaeoi?ia,
aeeythueo ia ?acaeoea aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa ia eaaeaeie ec oeacaiiuo oac
aai ?acaeoey. Iniiaiie caaea/ae ia?aie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa
yaeyaony nai? niioaaonoaothuae eioi?iaoeee, eanathuaeny oa?aeoa?enoeee
eae i?aaiecaoeee (eiiiaiee/oe?iu/i?aaei?eyoey e ae?.), n eioi?ie
i?aaenoieo inouanoaeyoue aeaeiaia iauaiea, oae e aa i?aaenoaaeoaey/eae
(a ieaia noaoona, iaoeeiiaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae oa?aeoa?a e ae?.). Yoa
eioi?iaoeey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiie aeey iineaaeothuaai ieaie?iaaiey
aeayoaeueiinoe aeaeiaiai iauaiey. Nai? iiaeiaiie eioi?iaoeee iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny iin?aaenoaii a)eniieueciaaiey ?aciiia?aciuo ioaeeeaoeee,
aeeth/ay oi?iaeeciaaiiua aacu aeaiiuo, ni?aai/ioth eeoa?aoo?o e ae?.,
a)iai?aaeaiey cai?inia a niioaaonoaothuoth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth no?oeoo?o,
a)inouanoaeaiey aanaae n eiiiaoaioiuie niaoeeaeenoaie, a oaeaea
a)i?iaaaeaiey ii?inia, aieaoe?iaaiey e ae?.. Auai? a iieueco oiai eee
eiiai, eeai ianeieueeeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo eaiaeia inouanoaeyaony ia iniiaa
neiaeeaoaeny nenoaiu i?aaeii/oaiee, o?aaeeoeeiiii eniieuecoaiie
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eiie?aoiuo iaoeee. Iniiaiie caaea/ae aoi?ie oacu
?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa yaeyaony ieaie?iaaiea aoaeouae niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Eae iieacuaatho iaaethaeaiey, yoi ieaie?iaaiea iiaeao
inouanoaeyoueny ii-?aciiio. Iii iiaeao oa?aeoa?eciaaoueny no?iaie
eeiaeiinoueth e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoueth, auai?i/iie aeayoaeueiinoueth,
eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao ia?aii/a?aaeiia auiieiaiea iaeaieaa aaaeiuo e
iaioeiaeiuo aeae (aiciiaeii, a oua?a oaea ia/aoui ia?ii?eyoeyi), eeai
ia/aoeinoueth e iaa?aaeiinoueth a ninoaaeaiee a?aoeeia e ?anienaiee,
ianiaethaeaieai aeiaiai?aiiinoae, a oaeaea eaaeinoueth a eciaiaiee
eiathueony e ninoaaeaiee iiauo ieaiia, o.a. ii?aaeaeaiiie naiaiaeie a
ieaie?iaaiee aoaeoueo aeaeiauo eiioaeoia. Eae iieacuaatho enneaaeiaaiey,
a ?aciuo eoeueoo?ao nouanoaoao neiaeeaoayny nenoaia ieaie?iaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie/o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?e yoii aeaiiay nenoaia
ieacuaaao ii?aaeaeaiiia aicaeaenoaea ia iineaaeothuaa ?acaeoea aeaeiaiai
eiioaeoa iaaeaeo aecian-ia?oia?aie. Iniiaiie caaea/ae o?aoueae oacu
?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiay aai ?aaeecaoeey
aeey aeinoeaeaiey eiie?aoiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie oeaee ia iniiaa
neiaeeaoeony ii?i, i?aaee, onoaiiaie e i?eaioaoeee a nenoaia aeaeiauo
eiioaeoia e no?aieaiee oi?aaeyoue eo oiaeii a i?ioeanna aeaeiaiai
iauaiey. I?e yoii aeey iaeioi?uo iaoeee aeiieie?othuae yaeyaony
i?eaioaoeey ia?niiaea ia aeinoeaeaiea eiie?aoiie oeaee a oeaeinoiii
i?ioeanna aeaiiie oacu i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A ae?oaeo
iaoeeyo aeaaiie i?eaioaoeeae yaeyaony nicaeaiea aa?iiie/iuo
iaaeee/iinoiuo acaeiiioiioaiee. A ?yaea neo/aaa iaaethaeaaony no?aieaiea
aeaeiauo ia?oia?ia nicaeaaaoue iniaua ea?a?oe/aneea ioiioaiey n /aoeei
aioo?aiiei ?ani?aaeaeaieai e niaethaeaieai i?aa e iaycaiiinoae
?aaioieeia. Io o?aaeeoeeiiii neiaeeaoeony ii?i e ae?. a nenoaia aeaeiauo
eiioaeoia caaeneo oniaoiinoue aeinoeaeaiey oeaeae aeaeiaiai iauaiey ia
neaaeothuae, /aoaa?oie oaca aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa. Iniiaiie caaea/ae
/aoaa?oie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa yaeyaony iiaeaaaeaiea eoiaia
eae ?acoeueoaoa yoiai eiioaeoa e i?eiyoea ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey iinea
iaai. Aa?eaioaie iiaeiaiiai i?eiyoey ?aoaiee iiaeao auoue i?eiyoea aai
eeai aeaiie?aoe/aneei iooai, o.a. ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aianoa n eieeaeoeaiie
?aaioie iiae/eiaiiuo, eeai aaoie?aoe/aneei, o.a. ?oeiaiaeeoaeai aac
o/aoa iiaiee ae?oaeo ?aaioieeia, eeai iaoa?iaeenoneei, o.a. aaeeiiee/ii
?oeiaiaeeoaeai n o/aoii eioa?ania oe?iu e caaiou i aa nio?oaeieeao.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniaaiiinoe iaaeeoeueoo?iiai iauaiey ninoiyo a oii, /oi
eaaeaeay eoeueoo?a eiaao naith neiaeeaoothny nenoaio ieaie?iaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie/o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea ii?iu
eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?ua ioaeii o/eouaaoue i?e i?iaaaeaiee aeaeiauo
ia?aaiai?ia eeai ee/iii iauaiee.

Iniaaiiinoe oeiieiaee iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiie eiiioieeaoeee

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo, iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa niiinoaaeaiey e aiaeeca
eoeueoo? n iiceoeee ?anniio?aiiuo (ia?aie e aoi?ie) a?oii oaeoi?ia, a
oaeaea oeaeaiai?aaeaiiuo iaaethaeaiee i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui
auaeaeeoue o?e oeia eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey, ooieoeeiie?othueo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy a i?ioeanna iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo eiioaeoia. Yoe oeiu
eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey ei??aee?otho n ?acoeueoaoaie enneaaeiaaiey,
i?iaaaeaiiiai ?. Euethenii. A yoii enneaaeiaaiee auaeaeythony o?e oeia
eoeueoo?u – iiiiaeoeaiue, iieeaeoeaiue e ?aaeoeaiue, eioi?ua o?aeoothony
aeaiiui aaoi?ii eae oeiu iaoeee/ia?iaeia. I?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi anee
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoue eaaeaeue ec oeacaiiuo oeiia eoeueoo?u/iaoeee n
iiceoeee ?anniio?aiiuo aeaoo a?oii oaeoi?ia, oi yoi iicaieeo i?aaeeueii
iiiyoue nouiinoue e iniaaiiinoe eae aeaeiaiai iauaiey a oeaeii, oae e
niaoeeoeeo yoiai iauaiey, ?aaeecoaiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeai ii?aaeaeaiiie
eoeueoo?u. Niaoeeoeea aeaeiaiai iauaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiiiaeoeaiiai
oeia eoeueoo?u Aeaiiue oei eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey oa?aeoa?ai aeey
aiaeinaeniineeo, aa?iaineeo e neaiaeeiaaneeo ia?iaeia, eioi?ua
i?iyaeytho ii?aaeaeaiiua iniaaiiinoe a i?ioeanna aeaeiaiai iauaiey ia
eaaeaeie ec oeacaiiuo oac ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa. Oae, ?aaeecoy
iniiaioth caaea/o ia?aie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, ia?iaeu,
ioiinyueany e yoiio oeio eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey, ioee/athony
i?aeiouanoaaiiui eniieueciaaieai enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee,
i?aaenoaaeythueo iauaeoeaiua aeaiiua, i?eaioaoeee ia ieo. E oaeei
enoi/ieeai ioiinyony eiiioieeaoeeiiiua naoe, oi?iaeeciaaiiua aacu
aeaiiuo, ?aciiia?aciay ni?aai/iay eeoa?aoo?a, iicaieythuea iieo/eoue
aeinoiaa?ioth, i?aeiouanoaaiii oaeoe/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth, eneeth/athuoth
eneaaeaiea eee aiciiaeiinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie ee/iinoiie o?aeoiaee
ioaeaeueiuo oaeoia. Ia aoi?ie oaca ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa
i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiiaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u i?iyaeytho no?iaoth
eeiaeiinoue e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue a ieaie?iaaiee e i?iaaaeaiee naieo
aeae.

Ia?iaeu, eae ioia/atho enneaaeiaaoaee, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e yoiio oeio
eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey, i?eaea?aeeaathony, a iniiaiii, “eeiaeiiai
ia?aca aeaenoaee, icaai/aiu aeaeiaie ianuuaiiinoueth a?aiaie e ia iiaoo
caieiaoueny ianeieueeeie aeaeaie ia?aeeaeueii”. A naiai ioiioaiee e
a?aiaiiie i?aaiecaoeee naiae aeayoaeueiinoe ia?iaeu, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e
yoiio oeio eoeueoo?u, i?eaioe?othony ia iieiaeaiey io?aaeaiiie a
eiioeaioeeyo i?ioanoaioneie ?aeeaee o?oaeiaie yoeee, eioi?ay
i?aaeienuaaao nin?aaeioi/eaaoueny ia iaeiii aeaea a iaeii ii?aaeaeaiiia
a?aiy e auiieieoue aai a ca?aiaa caieaie?iaaiiua n?iee. O?aouey oaca
?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa o i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiiiaeoeaiiai oeia
eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey ioee/aaony eo i?eaioaoeeae ia auiieiaiea
eiie?aoiie i?iecaiaenoaaiiie caaea/e. I?e yoii iie /aoei
i?eaea?aeeaathony iaia/aiiiai ieaia/a?aoeea/noaiu aeaenoaee, iinooiatho
a niioaaonoaee n eino?oeoeeyie e o?aaotho oaeiai aea ioiioaiey e aeaeo
io eieeaa, e io ieo o?aaoaony oiaiea iia?e?iaaoue oaeoaie e oi/iuie
aeaiiuie, iie?aoueny ia eiaeeo, a ia ia /oanoaa e yiioeee. A ioee/ea io
ia?auo aeaoo oac, ia eioi?uo ia eiatho ianoi iaiin?aaenoaaiiua eiioaeou
n o/anoieeaie aeaeiaiai iauaiey, ia aeaiiie oaca iniiaiui niiniaii
eiiioieeaoeee (a ?aieao aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey)
yaeyaony aeeaeia, eeiaeii ?acai?a/eaathueeny a ?aieao eiiioieeaoeaiiai
aeoa, aioo?e eioi?iai eiatho ianoi aeeaeiae/aneea aaeeinoaa ?aciiai
iauaia (aii?in – ioaao, aii?in – ioaao -eiio?aii?in, aii?in – ?aieeea –
iee?iauneacuaaiea – ?aieeea e ae?.). Aeaeiaie aeeaeia /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony eiiiaioa?eyie, i?a?uaathueie “iiiieia” ia?oia?a ii
iauaieth (iiyoiio ia?aaeei iiiieiae/aneea ii iauaio auneacuaaiey
ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth, iniaaiii aeaeiaiio, iacuaatho “?acaa?ioouie
?aieeeaie aeeaeiaa”), a oaeaea aii?inaie, aeaiiino?e?othueie eioa?an e
i?aaeiaoo aanaaeu. Iaocu a ?acaiai?a iaeo?aeecothony “caiieieoaeyie
iie/aiey”, iicaieythueie aiai?yuei iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aieiaiea
niaanaaeieeia. A enneaaeiaaieyo oaeaea ioia/aaony, /oi i?aaenoaaeoaee
aeaiiiai oeiu eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey i?iyaeytho aanno?anoiia
iiaaaeaiea a ?acaiai?a, ?aaeei ia?aaeaatho niaanaaeieea e ioee/athony
naea?aeaiiie aeanoeeoeyoeeae e ieieeie, o.a. a?naiae eo iaaa?aaeueiuo
n?aaenoa iauaiey ieieiaeai. Noaeeeaaynue n oaao?aeueiuie aeanoaie e
aicaoaeaeaiiui iiaaaeaieai iineoaeae ae?oaeo oeiia eoeueoo?u,
i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiiaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u, /oanoaotho naay iaoaeiaii.
Iioeiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai eiioi?oiiai iauaiey aeey ieo a ioeoeeaeueiuo
neooaoeeyo aeieaeii auoue a i?aaeaeao 1,2 i eae oa??eoi?ey, eioi?ay ia
aeieaeia ieeai ia?ooaoueny. I?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u
iineaaeiaaoaeueii e iaaeaioe/ii ?acai?a/eaatho aanaaeo, iie aieeatho a
aeiaiaeu i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iiu e ioaa/atho ia ieo. Iaoeeiiaeueiua
ioee/ey i?iyaeythony i?e yoii a oii, /oi, iai?eia?, aiaee/aia iiaoo
i?eaaaiooue e thii?o eee i?aoiaiueoaieth ino?iou eiioeeeoa, iaioeu
aeaiiino?e?otho iieioth oaa?aiiinoue a naaa, aia?eeaioeu aaaeoo naay
aa?anneaii e ?anniao?eaatho ia?aaiai?u eae iaeee i?ioeann acaeiiuo
onooiie. Ia/eiay ia?aaiai?u, iaioeu caaeaaeoo ana o?oaeiua aii?inu n
naiiai ia/aea. Iie, eae e oaaaeu, aeaeoo io ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth
yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou e iiauo eaeae. I?aaenoaaeoaee ?anniao?eaaaiiai oeia
eoeueoo?u i?aaeii/eoatho a aeaeiaii iauaiee n?aco ia?aoiaeeoue e
ianoaeaeaieth nouiinoe aii?ina, auianaiiiai a iiaanoeo aeiy. I?e yoii
iaioeai e neaiaeeiaaai naienoaaiii oi?iaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea o/anoieeia
aanaaeu, ?annaaeeaaiea anao ii naiei ianoai, ca eioi?ui neaaeoao ia/aei
ianoaeaeaiey. Aia?eeaioeu i?aaeii/eoatho iaoi?iaeueiia i?aaenoaaeaiea
o/anoaothueo a ?acaiai?a ethaeae, iaiai oooeaie, oaiuaiea /aai eee eioa,
iinea /aai ia/eiaaony ?aaioa.

Aiaee/aia, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u,
cao?a/eaatho ianeieueei aieueoa a?aiaie ia nianoaaiii ia/aei aanaaeu: ca
oi?iaeueiui i?eaaonoaeai neaaeoao eioa n ia/aiueai, a caoai
aeanyoeieiooiay naaoneay aanaaea (i iiaiaea, eiioi?oa, nii?oa), iinea
eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeo ieaaiue ia?aoiae e ianoaeaeaieth nooe aeaea.
I?aaenoaaeoaeae aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae
aeoeaiuo e aeiaieueii oa?iaeeauo neooaoaeae, eioi?ua no?aiyony ia
oieueei aieeiooue a nooue aii?ina, ii e iiiyoue iauee eiioaeno
neooaoeee. I?e yoii aiaee/aia iaeeaeatho thii?a, aia?eeaioeu oioyo,
/oiau eo ?acaeaeaee, iaioeu ?anniao?eaatho i?ioeann neooaiey eae nai?
eioi?iaoeee, a oaaaeu aaniieiyony i oii, /oiau i?ieiinoeueoe?iaaoueny n
eieeaaaie. I?e yoii iauai i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae
aeaiiuo iaoeee eae eiiioieeaioia ninoaaeyao io 30 aei 60 ieioo. ?aoay
iniiaioth caaea/o /aoaa?oie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa,
i?aaenoaaeoaee iiiiaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey eaeoo ii
aeaiie?aoe/aneiio iooe. A no?aiao, ioiinyueony e aeaiiiio oeio
eoeueoo?u, i?eiyoea ?aoaiee inouanoaeyaony /aua anaai ?oeiaiaeeoaeai,
eioi?ue a naieo aeaenoaeyo iie?aaony ia eieeaeoeaioth ?aaioo
iiae/eiaiiuo. I?e yoii aeayoaeueiinoue naiiai ia?niiaea iiaeao auoue
i?aaieciaaia ii-?aciiio, io?aaeay iniaaiiinoe iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
oiai eee eiiai ia?iaea. Oae, a Aa?iaiee eiaao ianoi i?eaioaoeey ia
niaethaeaiea i?aaee e /aoeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae iaaeaeo
?aaioieeaie. “Iaiaoeeea iaiaaeaea?u, ioaeaaay i?eeacu, iiaoo
noeioee?iaaoue eo auiieiaiea, aeaiiino?e?oy nieeaea?iinoue ni naiei
ia?niiaeii a niaethaeaiee i?ioeaaeo?”. A Aaeeeia?eoaiee ii?yaeie
iiae/eiaiey iaaeaeo neoaeaueie e eo ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie niaethaeaaony iaiaa
no?iai. Aia?eeaineea iaiaaeaea?u, a ioee/ea io naieo aa?iiaeneeo eieeaa,
iaaeaeaiu aieueoeie iieiiii/eyie a i?ioeanna i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, iaeiaei
yoe ?aoaiey aeieaeiu niioaaonoaiaaoue ei?ii?aoeaiui i?aaeeai,
iiae/eiyoueny ei. Niaoeeoeea aeaeiaiai iauaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iieeaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u Aeaiiue oei eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey
oa?aeoa?ai aeey ?iiaineeo, eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo, a?aaneeo e ao?eeaineeo
ia?iaeia. ?aaeecoy iniiaioth caaea/o ia?aie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai
eiioaeoa, i?aaenoaaeoaee iieeaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u i?eaioe?othony ia
iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee a oiaea ee/iuo ano?a/ e aanaae n ethaeueie.
Ia?iaeu, i?aaenoaaeythuea yoio oei eoeueoo?u, a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie,
iieaaathony ia onoiua naaaeaiey, iieo/aaiua eie a oiaea iiiai/eneaiiuo
eioa?aueth, ia?aaiai?ia, aeaeiauo aanaae e ae?. A naiae i?aeoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe nio?oaeieee eiiiaiee i?eaioe?othony a iniiaiii ia
iaoi?iaeueiue aeeaeia, no?aiynue eniieueciaaoue ee/iua ioiioaiey aeey
?aoaiey oie eee eiie i?iaeaiu. Eae oieueei iaaeaeo o/anoieeaie aeaeiaiai
iauaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony eiioaeo, eo ee/iua ano?a/e e canaaeaiey
noaiiayony eceeoieie. A i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiie caaea/e aoi?ie
oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u
aeaiiino?e?otho ee/iinoiia ioiioaiea e ieaie?iaaieth e i?aaiecaoeee
aeae. Ia?iaeu yoiai oeia eoeueoo?u ioee/aao i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiia
ioiioaiea e ?anienaieyi e eino?oeoeeyi, a oaeaea ia?aoeeiiaeueiue
iiaeoiae e ?ani?aaeaeaieth a?aiaie. I?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia
eoeueoo?u ?anniao?eaatho a?aiy, niioiiny aai n ethaeueie e niauoeyie,
iii yaeyaony iaeiae noauaeoeaiie aaee/eiie, eioi?ie iiaeii
?anii?yaeaoueny a niioaaonoaee n nianoaaiiuie ieaiaie e iaia?aieyie. I?e
yoii i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u n/eoatho, /oi /ai aieueoa
aeae iie auiieiytho a iaeii e oi aea a?aiy, oai aieaa iaiieiaiiie aoaeao
eo aeeciue. A i?ioeanna ?ani?aaeaeaiey naieo aeae iie, i?aaeaea anaai,
i?eieiatho ai aieiaiea ioiineoaeueioth cia/eiinoue eaaeaeie ano?a/e, a a
oiaea aeaeiauo eiioaeoia iie ia neaaeyo ca eiee/anoaii ioaaaeaiiiai ia
yoi a?aiaie – aieaa aaaeiui aeey ieo yaeyaony ee/iinoiue ?acoeueoao
aeaeiaie aanaaeu e oi, eae iia auea caeii/aia, iineieueeo iaeeo/oae
oi?iie eiaanoe?iaaiey a?aiaie aeey i?aaenoaaeoaeae yoie eoeueoo?u
yaeyaony iaaeee/iinoiia acaeiiaeaenoaea. Ia o?aoueae oaca ?acaeoey
aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, i?aaenoaaeoaee iieeaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u
aeaeiaiai iauaiey no?aiyony e onoaiiaeaieth iaaeee/iinoiuo
acaeiiioiioaiee, ?aaeecaoeee naiaenoaaiiinoe e iaoi?iaeueiuo naycae.
Iieeaeoeaiua iaiaaeaea?u ioee/athony e?anii?a/eai e oiaieai oaaaeaeaoue,
iie “/anoi yiioeeiiaeueiu ai acaeiiaeaenoaee n ethaeueie e oaeaeytho aio
noieueei a?aiaie, neieueei iii iiaeao caiyoue, ?acaeaay eiioaeo aei
i?aaeaea” [10, n.120]. A ea/anoaa oeie/iiai ia?acoea aeaeiaiai iauaiey
aunooiaao o?aioeocneee iaiaaeaeiaio, aaea aeanoue ca/anooth
nin?aaeioi/aia a ?oeao eniieieoaeueiiai aee?aeoi?a, e no?oeoo?a
i?aaiecaoeee ia?aaeei caaeneo io oaieeee eee ee/iuo naycae: “nuiiauey,
ieaiyiieee, aeaith?iaeiua a?aouey e aeeceea ae?ocuey naiuee caieiatho
eeth/aaua iinou”. Oa?aeoa?iui niiniaii eiiioieeaoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae
iieeaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u yaeyaony aeeaeia, eioi?ue, a ioee/ea io
“iiiiaeoeaiiai aeeaeiaa” ?acai?a/eaaaony n ioeeiiaieyie io
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiae/aneeo noai, i?iaiaeeony yiioeeiiaeueii e ao?ii.
I?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u aeaaeatho anai ?aciiia?aceai
aeanoia e ieieee, eioi?ua i?aeoe/anee ia eniieuecothony e ca/anooth
iai?aaeeueii enoieeiauaathony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ae?oaeo oeiia eoeueoo?u.

Iioeiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai eiioi?oiiai iauaiey a ioeoeeaeueiuo neooaoeeyo
aeey iineoaeae aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u ninoaaeyao 0,5 i. Iineoaee
iieeaeoeaiie eoeueoo?u aaaeoo aanaaeo e?anii?a/eai, i?eaaaay e ?acee/iui
oaeoeeai. Iie iiiaineiaiu, oe?iei eniieuecotho ia?aciua n?aaenoaa e
iiiaie?aoii ia?aoi?ioee?otho naie auneacuaaiey. A i?ioeanna ia?aaiai?ia
o?aioeocu no?aiyony oi?ne?iaaoue naeaeeo, ii iiaoo e auno?i e iae
inououe.

Eniaioeu aieiaoaeueii eco/atho naieo ia?oia?ia ii iauaieth e aoaeoo
eiaoue n ieie aeaei, oieueei anee ni/ooo eo aeaai?iaeiuie ethaeueie.
Ii?ooaaeueoeu eae iaoeey n iiiaiaaeiauie oi?aiauie o?aaeeoeeyie iau/ii
ae?oaeaethaii aaaeoo ia?aaiai?u, eaaei aaeaioe?oynue e iiaui neooaoeeyi.
A?aceeueoeu, eae i?aaeei, enoiaeyo ec oiai, /oi ia?aay iacaaiiay oeaia
a?yae ee yaeyaony ianoiyuae, e iaeeaeatho neeaeie a oiaea aeaeueiaeoaai
ia?aaiai?iiai i?ioeanna. A ?aieao ?anniao?eaaaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u
n/eoaaony iaoeeaeeeciaaiiui n?aco i?enooiaoue e ianoaeaeaieth i?aaeiaoa
?acaiai?a. Ca oi?iaeueiui i?aaenoaaeaieai o/anoieeia neaaeoao
15-ieiooiay (o o?aioeocia) eee aeaaea 20-30-ieiooiay (o eniaioeaa e
eoaeueyioeaa) naaoneay aanaaea i iieeoeea e neaiaeaeao (o o?aioeocia), i
oooaiea e naiaeiuo aeaeao (o eniaioeaa/eoaeueyioeaa).

O?aaeeoeeiiiua aeey aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u iiicaeaiey ia ano?a/e
auioaeaeatho aa o/anoieeia ioeeaaeuaaoue aa ia/aei, aeiaeeaeaynue
inoaeueiuo. AEeoaee n?aaeecaiiiii?neeo e a?aaneeo no?ai neooatho n
oeaeueth iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee e aieiaoaeueii ioiinyony e oaeoai. I?e
yoii eo aieiaiea iiaeao eaaei ia?aeeth/eoueny n i?aaeiaoa ianoaeaeaiey
ia ae?oaea oaiu, anee ia i?eaaaiooue e au?aaeaieyi ia?aciinoe (a iauaiee
ni n?aaeecaiiiii?neeie ia?iaeaie) eee eanoe (a iauaiee n a?aaaie). Iie
i?iyaeytho iaoa?iaeeainoue e iiaoo i?a?aaoue e aeaaea ia?aaeoue
niaanaaeieea, caaeaa aio aii?in. Iauai eo i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey
yaeyaony ei?ioeei, ia i?aauoathuei 30 ieioo.

?aaeecoy iniiaioth caaea/o /aoaa?oie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa,
i?aaenoaaeoaee iieeaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u eaeoo ii iooe
aaoie?aoe/aneiai aa?eaioa i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. I?e yoii aaaeioth ?ieue
ea?atho iieiaeaiea, noaoon, a oaeaea aic?ano, ?aiooaoeey e ia?aaeei
iaoa?eaeueiue aeinoaoie o/anoieea aeaeiaiai iauaiey. I?eiyoea
ieii/aoaeueiiai ?aoaiey ii?aaeaeyaony aa?oiei iaiaaeaeiaioii
(aaeieieno?aoeaiie aa?oooeie, aunoei oi?aaeai/aneei ia?niiaeii), enoiaey
ec iaueo ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey eiiiaiee, /anoiuo eiie?aoiuo caaea/, a
oaeaea caaeneo, n iaeiie noi?iiu, io naycae a iauanoaa e
niioaaonoaothueo aeanoiuo no?oeoo?ao (ieienoa?noaao e aaaeiinoaao), e, n
ae?oaie noi?iiu, io acaeiiauaiaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo
aeanoaothueie naiueyie. A ?iiaineeo no?aiao, eae a a?aaneeo e ainoi/iuo,
aieueoia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony ciaeiinoao n ioaeiuie ethaeueie. A yoeo
no?aiao (iauanoaao) iii eiaao iniaaiii aieueoia cia/aiea, iineieueeo
“i?aaiaoe/iiio, auno?iio caeeth/aieth naeaeie, iniiaaiiiio oieueei ia
iiiyoeyo aeaaii?eyoiie aiciiaeiinoe, oaoie/aneie auiieieiinoe e auaiaeu,
i?aaeii/eoaaony niaeaoaiea, iino?iaiiia ia iaaeee/iinoiuo ioiioaieyo”
[10]. Niaoeeoeea aeaeiaiai iauaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aaeoeaiiai oeia
eoeueoo?u Aeaiiue oei eoeueoo?u aeaeiaiai iauaiey oa?aeoa?ai aeey no?ai
Ainoi/iie e THai-Ainoi/iie Acee, aeeth/ay ssiiieth, Eeoae, Oaeaaiue e
Neiaaio?, a oaeaea Oo?oeeth e Oeieyiaeeth. ?aaeecoy iniiaioth caaea/o
ia?aie oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaeoeaiiai oeia
eoeueoo?u no?aiyony e eniieueciaaieth aac aeaiiuo e ia/aoiie
i?iaeoeoeee, /oi ni/aoaaony n anoanoaaiiie neeiiiinoueth aeeoaeae
ainoi/iuo no?ai aieiaoaeueii neooaoue e anooiaoue a ae?oaeaethaiue
aeeaeia. Iaeioi?ua i?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u (a /anoiinoe,
yiiioeu e eeoaeoeu) aioiau aiai?eoue i/aiue aeieai, anee yoi iiiiaeao
aeinoe/ue i?aaeaeueiie aa?iiiee. Ae?oaea ia?iaeu (iai?eia?, oeiiu)
yaeythony aieaa iaiiiaineiaiuie, iaeiaei e iie ouaoaeueii o/eouaatho a
naiai aeeaeiaa iiaeaeaiey ae?oaie noi?iiu. Iniiaiay caaea/a aoi?ie oacu
?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa inouanoaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aaeoeaiiai
oeia eoeueoo?u iooai ieaie?iaaiey naiae aeayoaeueiinoe a niioaaonoaee n
i?eioeeiii oeeeee/aneiai ?acaeoey a?aiaie, i?e yoii aaeaioaoeey e
a?aiaie (a ia ?anii?yaeaiea ei) i?eciaaony a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiii
aiciiaeiiai ioiioaiey e iaio. A aeaiiii neo/aa a?aiy ?anniao?eaaaony eae
a?auathuaany ii e?oao, i?e yoii eaaeaeue aai aeoie (iai?io aai a?auaiey)
nii?iaiaeaeaaony iaeieie e oaie aiciiaeiinoyie, ?eneii e iianiinoyie,
iaeiaei i?e yoii ethaee ?acaeaathony, iaeaieeaatho iiuo e noaiiayony
ioae?aa. A naiai ioiioaiee e ieaie?iaaieth e i?aaiecaoeee naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe aeeoaee ainoi/iuo no?ai i?eaioe?othony ia
iniiaiiieaaathuea iieiaeaiey aoaeaeenoneie ?aeeaee, a niioaaonoaee n
eioi?uie oeeeee/aneee oa?aeoa? eiaao ia oieueei a?aiy, ii e
iaiin?aaenoaaiii ?acaeoea naiie aeecie. I?e ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiie caaea/e
o?aoueae oacu ?acaeoey aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaeoeaiiai
oeia eoeueoo?u i?eaioe?othony iiaeiaii iieeaeoeaiiio oeio ia ethaeae. A
yoii iauaiee eiaao ianoi oae iacuaaaiay “ainoi/iay iiaeaeue” – nenoaia
ea?a?oe/aneeo acaeiiioiioaiee aioo?e ethaie i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u,
a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iaiiieiathuay no?oeoo?o naiuee. Yoa iiaeaeue
ia?aciaaeanue ia iniiaa ?aeeaeiciuo e oeeinioneeo oaaaeaeaiee,
aace?othueony ia eiioooeeaineeo i?aanoaaiii-yoe/aneeo oeaiiinoyo. A
ea/anoaa i?eia?ia, eeethno?e?othueo iiaeiaiua ea?a?oe/aneea ioiioaiey,
iiaoo neoaeeoue eiathuea /anoi ianoi a naiuea ioiioaiey ia?aaainoaa
iaaeaeo aa /eaiaie, iai?eia?, iooea e nuia, noa?oaai e ieaaeoaai
a?aoueaa, ioae/eiu e aeaiuei. I?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u
ne?iiiu e aaaeeeau, ianiio?y ia aunieee o?iaaiue i?ioanneiiaeecia e
eiiiaoaioiinoe. Ioee/ii ciay naith eiiiaieth, i?iaaaey a iae aeieaea
aiaeu, iie ioee/athony naiei oiaieai nicaeaaaoue aa?iiie/ioth aoiinoa?o
aeey ?aaiou a eiiaiaea.

Oa?aeoa?iui niiniaii eiiioieeaoeee a aeaeiaii iauaiee a ?aieao
?anniao?eaaaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u yaeyaony neaaeothuay neiaeeaoayny noaia:
iiiieia – iaoca – ?aciuoeaiea – iiiieia. Anee yoi aiciiaeii, iaeia ec
iauathueony noi?ii iicaieyao ae?oaie i?iecianoe naie iiiieia ia?aie.

I?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u ?anniao?eaatho iaocu a
?acaiai?a eae i/aiue cia/eioth, eciu?aiiaeooth aai /anoue. N/eoaaony,
/oi e iiaieyi i?ioeaiiieiaeiie noi?iiu iaeuecy ioianoenue iana?ueacii,
ioaeaeaaoenue eeoue oooeeaui ioaaoii. Oi?ioi noi?ioee?iaaiiua a?aoiaiou
ia?oia?a ii iauaieth o?aaotho iie/aeeaiai ?anniio?aiey e iineaaeothuaai
aeeeoaeueiiai aiaeeca. I?aaenoaaeoaee aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u au?aaeatho
naie iunee n iiiiuueth oiieiai ycuea oaeiaeaeaeaiee, ia eiathueo ie/aai
iauaai n ao?iie aeanoeeoeyoeeae iineoaeae iieeaeoeaiiai oeia.

AEeoaee ainoi/iuo ainoaea?noa e Oeieyiaeee n/eoatho, /oi a ?acaiai?a
neaaeoao ecaaaaoue aeanoeeoee?iaaiey e y?ei au?aaeaiiie ieieee, a oaeaea
neeoeii ioe?iaaiiie aeaiiino?aoeee oaeeo /oanoa, eae aanaeuea, ia/aeue,
ethaiaue, iaiaaenoue, ?aci/a?iaaiea eee eeeiaaiea ii neo/ath iiaaaeu. A
yoeo no?aiao eiio?iee?oaiia e aeenoeeieeie?iaaiiia oi?aaeaiea naieie
/oanoaaie i?eaiaeeo e oi?ie?iaaieth iaiiiai aieaa ia?aie/aiiiai ycuea
oaeiaeaeaeaiee, eioi?ue noaiiaeony ianoieueei iaoeiaeiui, /oi inoaaony
iacaiaoiui aeey aeaca eiino?aioea. I?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaeoeaiiai oeia
eoeueoo?u a aanaaea ecaaaatho i?yiuo acaeyaeia ia niaanaaeieea.
Iioeiaeueiia i?ino?ainoai eiioi?oiiai iauaiey a ioeoeeaeueiuo neooaoeeyo
ninoaaeyao 1,2 i.

Anooiay a aanaaeo, i?aaenoaaeoaeue aeaiiiai oeia eoeueoo?u enoiaeeo ec
oiai, /oi ia?oia? ii iauaieth oi?ioi eioi?ie?iaai i oaia ?acaiai?a, /oi
iicaieyao aio au?aaeaoue naie iunee n iaaeiiieaeaie, eniieueciaaoue
iniaua au?aaeaiey e iieoiaiaee. Oai naiui ii aeaao iiiyoue neooaoaeth,
/oi inoaeueiia oio niiniaai aeiiieieoue nai. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeei ec
niaanaaeieeia aeaeaao naiaia?aciue eiiieeiaio ia?oia?o ii iauaieth.
Iineoaee ?aaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u no?aiyony a ?a/e ?aaea
eniieueciaaoue eiaia, /oi aeaeaao aeeneonneth aacee/iie. Ae?oaay /anoi
eniieuecoaiay oaeoeea i?iaaaeaiey aanaaeu caeeth/aaony a oiaeaiee naieo
aeinoieinoa. Iia eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue eaeei-eeai ia?acii caaeaoue
naiiethaea iiiiiaioa e, iaeiia?aiaiii, iiaeao auioaeeoue aai e iioaaea
iiaaaeaiey eee ?aoaiee ainoi/iiai /aeiaaea. AEeoaeyi ainoi/iuo no?ai
naienoaaiia ?eooaeueiinoue a i?iaaaeaiee aanaaeu. A /anoiinoe, a
ssiiiee, aaea iaycaoaeueiui yaeyaony iaiai iaeeie o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
oi?iaeueiinoyie, nouanoaoao ii/oe oeene?iaaiiue i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie, ii
enoa/aiee eioi?iai noa?oee ii ia?aaiai?ai iauyaeyao i ia?aoiaea e
ianoaeaeaieth aeaea. Ca oi?iaeueiui i?eaaonoaeai neaaeoao ?annaaeeaaiea
o/anoieeia ?acaiai?a ii ianoai niaeanii i?ioieieo, iinea /aai
i?aaeeaaaaony caeaiue /ae e ia/eiaaony 15-20-ieiooiay naaoneay aanaaea,
eioi?ay i?aaeiieaaaao ie?iue iaiai ethaaciinoyie. Iineoaee ?aaeoeaiie
eoeueoo?u yaeythony i/aiue aieiaoaeueiuie neooaoaeyie, iineieueeo iie
eiioeaio?e?othony ia oii, /oi ei aiai?yo, ia iicaieyy naiei iuneyi
ioaea/ueny a noi?iio. Iie no?aiyony ?acia?aoueny a iiceoeee ia?oia?a ii
iauaieth e iiyoiio i?eaaonoaotho iiaoi?iua iauyniaiey e eiiiaioa?ee.

Iie i?iyaeytho aaaeeeainoue e oa?iaeeainoue a aanaaea, ia iicaieyy naaa
i?a?uaaoue niaanaaeieea. Iauai i?iecaieueiiai aieiaiey ninoaaeyao io 45
aei 60 ieioo. ?aaeecoy iniiaioth caaea/o /aoaa?oie oacu ?acaeoey
aeaeiaiai eiioaeoa, i?aaenoaaeoaee ?aaeoeaiiai oeia eoeueoo?u
eniieuecotho iaoa?iaeenoneee iaoiae i?eiyoey ?aoaiee. A ainoi/iuo
niiauanoaao iaaethaeaaony iaoa?iaeenoneia ioiioaiea e iiae/eiaiiui,
?oeiaiaenoao aiaiyaony a iaycaiiinoue caaioeoueny i ia?niiaea,
eoeueoeae?oaony e iiiu?yaony eiyeueiinoue iecia ii ioiioaieth e aa?oai.
?oeiaiaeeoaeyie noaiiayony oa, eoi iaeaaeaao aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeeae,
eiaao oi?ioea oieaa?neoaoneea e i?ioanneiiaeueiua nayce e a i?ioeanna
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ?oeiaiaenoaoaony i?aaeeii eiinainona. A ?aaioa
i?ei?eoaoiuie yaeythony aeieain?i/iua niia?aaeaiey, eioi?ua, ia?yaeo n
iaaeeaiiui ?acaeoeai ioiioaiee eae aioo?e oe?iu, oae e n aa eeeaioaie
ia?aaeei aoaee?otho oaeoe/aneea oeaee e iaia?aiey ?oeiaiaenoaa. [11,
n.76]

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ?acee/ea a iaoeeiiaeueiuo eoeueoo?ao e iiaaaeaiee aa?ao
naia ia/aei ec enoi?ee oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie iauiinoe e
o?aaeeoeee, neiaeeaoeony a oa/aiea aaeia o ?acee/iuo ia?iaeia. Yoi
io?aaeaaony a iau/ayo e iaaueao eiiioieeaoeaiiai iiaaaeaiey, a oaeaea a
ii?aaeaeaiiie eiaeea e noa?aioeia iiaaaeaiey o i?aaenoaaeoaeae oie eee
eiie eoeueoo?u. Yoe/aneea e ii?aeueiua ?acee/ey au?aaeathony a i?ioeanna
eiiioieeaoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae ?aciuo eoeueoo?. Oaeei ia?acii, i?e
aeaeiauo e ee/iinoiuo eiioaeoao ea?aao aieueoia cia/aiea
inaaaeiieaiiinoue eiiioieeaioia ioiineoaeueii iaueo iaoeeiiaeueiuo
iniaaiiinoae eoeueoo?u, n i?aaenoaaeoaeai eioi?ie i?aaenoieo eiioaeo.

Caeeth/aiea

Iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ?acee/ey ia yaeythony iai?aiaeieeiui i?aiyonoaeai a
aeaeiauo e ee/iuo ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo i?aaenoaaeoaeyie ?aciuo ia?iaeia.
Ioaeii iinoa?aoueny eae iiaeii a?aiioiaa iiaeieoe e iauaieth n
i?aaenoaaeoaeyie eiuo eoeueoo?, ca?aiaa iciaeiieaoenue n iniaaiiinoyie
eo iaoeeiiaeueiuo /a?o, oieueei a yoii neo/aa iiaeii ecaaaeaoue
iaiiieiaiey e iaaieueiie a?aaeaeaaiinoe.

Iu iiaeai naeaeaoue naith aeeciue aieaa iieiioeaiiie, anee aini?eiai
iaeioi?ua /a?ou ae?oaeo eoeueoo?, eciaieoue eo iu ia a neeao. A enoi?ee
eiaaony iiiaeanoai eoeueoo?, eioi?ua ?anoeaaoatho, auaeeaatho, oaanatho
eee i?eoiaeyo a oiaaeie, E o eaaeaeie ec ieo naie oaii ?acaeoey eee
oaanaiey. Aua i?aaenoieo auynieoue, i?eaaaeoo ee iiaua oaeoi?u,
iaoneiaeaiiua ao?iui ?inoii eioi?iaoeeiiiie oaoiieiaee, auno?ie
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeeae aeciana e aeanoeie eiieo?aioeeae iaaeaeo
aeaaioneeie no?aiaie e yeiiiieeaie, e ?aci?aieth iaeuo eee neaauo
eoeueoo?, ia noiaaoeo i?eniiniaeoueny e iienoeia aeeiaie/iui ia?aiaiai,
a?yaeouei a XXI a.

Eeoa?aoo?a

1. E. Aao Aoeea ae?eiaiai ni?eeoaaiiy. E.: OeIE, 2005 – 160n

2. Ii/aioeia Oai?ey eiiioieeaoeee-I.: ?aei?-aoe, E.: Aaeea? – 2001 –
656n.,

3. Oaeaaaa E.E. Eioa?eoeueoo?a – o?aouea ecia?aiea iaaeeoeueoo?iiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey? (Ec iiuoa iiaeaioiaee ia?aaiae/eeia). – I., IAEO, 1999.
Na. iao/.o?. ? 444 “Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu iaaeeoeueoo?iie eiiioieeaoeee”.

4. Euethen ?.Ae. Aeaeiaua eoeueoo?u a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii aeciana. Io
noieeiiaaiey e iiieiaieth. – I., Aeaei, 1999.. N. 105

5. Eocei O.A. Eoeueoo?a aeaeiaiai iauaiey. I?aeoe/aneia iiniaea. I.:
Inue-89, 1998

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